Shielded and energetic brass tacks transposal for cluster based wireless sensor network.
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network system where the devices are spatially distributed using wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are used to monitor environmental or physical conditions, such as pressure, motion, sound, temperature etc. The individual nodes are capable of sensing their environmental conditions, process the information data, and sending data to one or more points in a WSN Secure data transmission is one of the most important issues for WSNs. At the same time, many WSNs are deployed in rough, disregarded, and often adversarial physical environments for certain applications, such as military domains and sensing tasks with trustless. surroundings. Secure data transmission is especially necessary and is demanded in many such practical WSNs. their own dynamic attributes for soldiers in their deployed regions or echelons and architecture.
II. Background And Motivation:
Several cluster based protocols were introduced. In cluster based WSN every cluster has a leader sensor node. This is termed as cluster head (CH).The data collected by the leaf nodes in the cluster are aggregated by the cluster head. The cluster head sends the aggregation to the Base Station (BS).
The LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) protocol is a widely known hierarchical protocol. It is very effectively used to reduce and balance the total energy consumption for CWSNs. LEACH achieves improvements in terms of network lifetime. Based on the idea of LEACH, a number of protocols have been introduced such as APTEEN and PEACH. They used similar concepts of LEACH. These sort of cluster-based protocols are called as LEACH-like protocols. In the last decade CWSNs have been widely studied by the researchers. However, the implementation of the architecture based on clusters in the real world is rather complicated. LEACH-like protocols periodically, dynamically and randomly rearrange the datalinks and clusters in the network. Hence adding security to LEACH-like protocols is a challenge. Therefore in LEACH like protocols, providing common key distributions and steady long lasting node-to- node trust relationships are inadequate. Sec LEACH, GS- LEACH and RLEACH are some secure data transmission protocols based on LEACH. These protocols however, apply the symmetric key management for security. They suffer from the orphan node problem. The node does not share a pairwise key with the other nodes in its key ring preloaded. Hence in a network the key ring is not sufficient for the node to share symmetric keys with all of the nodes. Such nodes cannot participate in any cluster. Therefore it has to elect itself as the Cluster Head (CH). When there are more number of CHs elected by themselves the overall energy consumed is more. This results in the increase in the overhead of transmission and energy consumption of system. certificates. Recently the concept of IBS and IBOOS has been developed for secure and efficient transmission of data ... IBS has been developed as a key management in WSNs for security In order to reduce the storage costs and computation of signature processing the IBOOS scheme has been developed. A general technique for online/offline schemes for signature was introduced. The offline phase executes on a sensor node or at the BS before communication. The online phase executes during communication
III. Related Work:
In , sensors have been a research area for various applications. Clustering is a technique to enhance the performance of wireless sensor networks. The various issues related to the design and implementation of clustering in wireless networks is discussed.
In , various clustering algorithms have been surveyed. An improved approach in clustering algorithm for load balancing was developed. This minimizes energy consumption.
In , different hierarchical routing algorithms are studied. These algorithms are analysed and compared based on various criteria. This evaluation is very useful for researchers to implement security in hierarchy protocol.
In , the problem of authentication has been discussed. A secure and efficient framework has been proposed for authentication. Online/offline signature scheme authentication scheme was found to a solution.
In , the notion of online/offline ID-based signcryption" was redefined and provided a scheme that realizes it. The construction is very efficient. This means that it does not require any pairing operation in the stages of online and online signcryption. Furthermore, the receiver's information is not required in the online signcryption stage. It is the first in the literature to remove such requirement. Without this restriction, this scheme is more flexible and practical. The scheme is particularly suitable to provide authentication and confidentiality to power constrained communication devices. A practical solution is needed to provide secure and authenticated transaction for smart cards or mobile devices such as smart phone.
In , a survey of security issues in wireless sensor networks WSN's is done. WSN suffers from many constraints like small memory, low computation capability, limited energy resources and use of insecure wireless communication channel. There are 5 security issues: Key management, cryptography, secure data aggregation, secure routing and intrusion detection. The various advantages and disadvantages of protocols in WSNs are discussed. The security services discussed add more computation, storage overhead and communication.
In , survey of various clustering schemes has been done. The clustering schemes are classified based on their objectives, characteristics, properties, processes. The strengths and limitations of the clustering schemes are also discussed. The clustering schemes are compared based on metrics like rate of convergence, stability, overlapping such types of parameters can be happended by applying the required protocols on this specific paper, by gothroughing these we can easily the concept regarding the protocol.
In , the advances in technology have made it possible to have small sensor devices with low power. They are equipped with multiple parameter sensing, wireless communication capability and programmable computing. But, because of their built-in limitations, the protocols designed for such sensor networks must efficiently use both battery energy and limited bandwidth.
In , various routing problems in WSNs have been studied. It has been found that the novel energy routing algorithm performs better in terms of network lifetime.
Wireless sensor networks and mobile ad hoc networks have a wide variety of applications.
In  the wireless sensor networks and mobile ad hoc networks and their security concerns have been addressed. The intrusion detection capabilities were also focused. The malicious activities can be effectively identified by intrusion detection systems. They offer good protection also.
IV. System Architecture:
This system consists of three clusters. The first cluster is source Cluster, second Cluster is routing cluster, and third cluster is destination cluster. The System Architecture is shown in the Figure.1. Each cluster must have one cluster head; all the communications are sent through the cluster head only.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
This system has one base station. The purpose of the base station is to provide common key parameters to all the nodes in the system. Every node in the system can form their encryption key by following notations.
Node ID + Common Parameter
For each transaction base station creates new common parameter,so that for every transaction new key is generated. This system has two routing protocols.
1.) Enhanced SET-IBS
2.) Enhanced SET-IBOOS
Base station has the option to select which protocol to be applied during transmitting the data
V. System Modules:
ESDT model is used to enhance the security in CWSN's. The system is divided into four major modules:
1. Initialization of SET-IBS protocol.
2. Operation of SET-IBS protocol.
3. Initialization of SET-IBOOS protocol.
4. Operation of SET-IBOOS protocol.
5. Enhanced Secure Data Transmission
1. Initialization of SET-IBS protocol:
In the protocol initialization the Base Station generates a master key msk and public parameter param for the generation of private key and sends them all to the sensor nodes.
Node j first obtains its private key as from msk and where is its IDj, and is the time stamp of node j's time interval in the current round that is generated by its CH i from the TDMA control.
The sensor node j picks a random number and computes. The sensor node further computes
[c.sub.j] = h([C.sub.j][parallel][t.sub.j][parallel][[theta].sub.j]).
Where is the digital signature of node j on the encrypted message. The broadcast message is now concatenated in the form of [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]).
Upon receiving the message, each sensor node verifies the authenticity in the following way. It checks the time stamp of current time interval and determines whether the received message is fresh. Then, if the time stamp is correct, the sensor node further computes using the time stamp of current time interval. For authentication, which is equal to that in the received message, the sensor node considers the received message authentic, and propagates the message to the next hop or user. If the verification above fails, the sensor node considers the message as either bogus ora replaced one, even a mistaken one, and ignores it.
Through this we can easily identity the applying concepts over the exisiting system, each and every parameters having an unique identication regarding each and every statement of the nodes by the concept of enhanced set ibs and enhanced set iboos protocols we can easily clarify concept according to accessiabilty nodes through the base station in the CWSN.
2. Operation of SET-IBS protocol:
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
After the protocol initialization, SET-IBS operates in rounds during communication. Each round consists of a setup phase and a steady-state phase. we suppose that all sensor nodes know the starting and ending time of each round because of the time synchronization. Each round includes a setup phase for constructing clusters from CHs, and a steady-state phase for transmitting data from sensor nodes to the BS. In each round, the timeline is divided into consecutive time slots by the TDMA control. Sensor nodes transmit the sensed data to the CHs in each frame of the steady-state phase. For fair energy consumption, nodes are randomly elected as CHs in each round, and other non-CH sensor nodes join clusters using one-hop transmission, depending on highest received signal strength of CHs. In these tup phase, the time stamp and node IDs are used for the signature generation. Whereas in the steady state phase, the time stamp is used for the signature generation securing the inner cluster communications, and is used for the signature generation securing the CHs to- BS data transmission.
3. Initialization of SET-IBOOS protocol: Setup phase:
In the protocol initialization the Base Station generates a master key msk and public parameter param forthe generation of private key and sends them all to the sensor nodes.
Before the signature process, node j first extracts the private key from the msk and its identity ID, as where = sj = rj + H Rj, IDj [tau]mod. q
At the offline stage, node j generates the offline value < Rj = grj> with the time stamp of its time slot tj for transmission, and store the knowledge for signing online signature when it sends the message. Notice that, this offline signature can be done by the sensor node itself or by the trustful third party, for example, the CH sensor node. Let then
At this stage, node j computes the online signature based on the encrypted data and the offline signature.
hj = H(Cj, IDj)
zj = [sigma] j + hj sj mod q
[sigma]j = g[sigma] j
Then, node j sends the message to its destination with and the online signature.
Verification process: Upon receiving the message, each sensor node verifies the authenticity in the following way. It checks the current time stamp or freshness. Then, if the time stamp is correct, the sensor node further computes the values of gzj and aj Rj hj Xhj H Rj, IDj mod q, equal from the received message, the node i considers the received message authentic, accepts it, and propagates the message to the next hop or user. If the verification above fails, the sensor node considers the message as either bogus or a replaced one, even a mistaken one, then rejects or ignores it.
4. Operation of SET-IBS protocol:
The proposed SET-IBOOS operates same as that of SET-IBS protocol. SET-IBOOS works in rounds during communication, and the self-elected CHs are decided based on their local decisions, thus it functions without data transmission in the CH rotations. However, the differences is that digital signature are changed from ID- based signature to the online ignature of the IBOOS scheme.
Once the setup phase is over, the system turns into the steady-state phase, in which data are transmitted to the BS.
5. Enhanced secure Data transmission Protocol:
In the proposed system, an innovative technique in introduced which is called Enhanced Secure Data Transmission protocol (ESDT) which is used to improve the SET-IBS and SET- IBOOS protocol. In the improved SETIBS protocol, to enhance the security a new secret key is created by using the master secret key for every identity.
Improved Set-Ibs Protocol:
In the improved SET-IBS protocol, to enhance the security a new secret key is created by using the mastersecret key for ery identity.
The setup algorithm takes as input a security parameter and produces the master public key mpk and the master secret key msk. The master public key defines an identity set ID, and an encapsulated-key set K. All other algorithms KeyGen, Encap, Decap, implicitly include mpk as an input.
For any identity the KeyGen algorithm uses the master secret key msk to sample an identity secret key
The valid encapsulation algorithm creates pairs (C, k) where C is a valid cipher text, and is then encapsulated-key.
The alternative invalid encapsulation algorithm samples an invalid cipher text C for a given id.Decapsulation: The decapsulation algorithm is deterministic, takes a cipher text C and an identity secret key and outputs the encapsulated key k
To improve the efficiency in the SET-IBOOS protocol, the improved SET-IBOOS protocol is proposed which the online/offline attribute based encryption method is used.
The extract algorithm takes as input the master secret key MK and an access structure (resp., set of attributes Ikey and outputs a private key SK associated with the attributes.
Offline. Encrypt (PK):
The offline encryption algorithm takes as input the public parameters PK and outputs an intermediate cipher text IT.
Online. Encrypt (PK, IT,:
The online encryption algorithm takes as input the public parameters PK, an intermediate cipher text IT and a set of attributes (resp., access structure) and outputs a session key and a cipher text CT.
Decrypt (SK; CT) [right arrow] key:
The decryption algorithm takes as input a private key SK for Ikey and a cipher text CT associated with lene and decapsulates cipher text CT to recover a session key.
VI. System Operation:
In the improved SET-IBS protocol, to enhance the security a new secret key is created by using the master secret key for every identity. Also, to confuse the attackers, encapsulation algorithm is used. In the method, by using the corresponding sender's ID, the message will be encrypted which generates the correct cipher text and wrong cipher text. After that, the correct cipher text and wrong cipher text will be encapsulated with the corresponding author's encapsulated key and send to the receiver. In the decapsulation process, receivers it will check whether an encapsulated key is match with the original encapsulated key and retrieve the valid message.
 In order to improve the efficiency in the SET-IBOOS protocol, the improved SET-IBOOS protocol is proposed which the online/offline attribute based encryption method is used.
In this initialization stage, the security parameter will be created randomly by using which the public and secret keys are generated. After that the secret identity will be created based on the secret key of sender and identity of cipher text. In the offline encryption, the public parameter will be taken as input to create the first level cipher text. In the online encryption, the first level cipher text, public parameters and attribute values will be taken as input. It will produce session key and cipher text as output. For the decryption, session key and the private key will be used b y the receiver to decrypt the given cipher text.
The goal of the proposed secure data transmission for CWSNs is to guarantee the secure and efficient data transmissions between leaf nodes and CHs, as well as transmission between CHs and the BS. Also, the computational complexity is an important concern. So, reducing computational complexity with enhancing security in the wireless sensor network is also important concern.
VII. Simulation Results:
In the simulation result, the enhanced secure and efficient data transmission protocol can be compared with the different protocols that can be illustrated in the following steps. For each and every steps the transmission and their energy consumption can be measured along with some preceeding features In this initialization stage, the security parameter will be created randomly by using which the public and secret keys are generated. After that the secret identity will be reated based on the secret key of sender and identity of cipher text. In the offline encryption, the public parameter.
The node does not share a pairwise key with the other nodes in its key ring preloaded. Hence in a network the key ring is not sufficient for the node to share symmetric keys with all of the nodes. Such nodes cannot participate in any cluster. Therefore it has to elect itself as the Cluster Head (CH). When there are more number of CHs elected by themselves the overall energy consumed is more. This results in the increase in the overhead of transmission and energy consumption of system.
A. Simulation Parameters:
Table 1: Simulation parameters Parameters Values Network area 100 m x100 m Number of nodes 40 Message size 50 bits Signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) -40 db Initial energy of nodes 0.5 Joules MAC layer IEEE 802.11 Base station location 10-50m
 Energy consumption:
Energy consumption in the WSN cluster head is given by equation 1 below
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1)
kc is the number of clusters
[alpha] is the efficiency of radio frequency (RF) power amplifier
Nf is the receiver noise figure
[sigma]2=No/2 is the power density of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel
Pb is the bit error rate (BER) obtained while using phase shift keying
G1 is the gain factor
M1 is the gain margin
B is the bandwidth
Pct is the circuit power consumption of the transmitter
Pcr is the circuit power consumption of the receiver.
 Bit error rate:
Bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream
BER = no of bir error/total no of transferred bits during transmission
Signal to noise ratio (SNR):
The ratio of the strength of electrical or other signal carrying information to that of unwanted interference
The delay of a network specifies how long it takes for a bit of data to travel across the network from one node or endpoint to another. It is typically measured in multiples or fractions of seconds.
To evaluate the security of the proposed protocols, we have to investigate the attack models in WSNs that threaten the proposed protocols and the cases when an adversary exists in the network. We group attacks into three models namely, Passive attack on wireless channel: Passive attackers are able to perform eavesdropping at any point of the network, or even the whole communication of the network.
Solution: In the proposed SET-IBS and SETIBOOS, the sensed data are encrypted by the homomorphic encryption scheme which deals with eavesdropping. Thus, the passive adversaries cannot decrypt the eavesdropped message without the decryption key. Active attack on wireless channel: Active attackers have greater ability than passive adversaries, which can tamper with the wireless channels. Therefore, the attackers can forge, reply, and modify messages such as bogus and replayed routing information attack, sinkhole and wormhole attack, selective forwarding attack.
Solution: SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS are resilient and robust to the sinkhole and selective forwarding attacks because the CHs being attacked are capable to ignore all the communication packets with bogus node IDs or bogus digital signatures
RESULTS AND DISSCUSION
To evaluate the energy consumption of the Computational overhead for security in communication, we consider three metrics for the performance evaluation: Network lifetime, system energy consumption, and the number of alive nodes. For the performance evaluation, we compare the Proposed SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS with LEACH protocol and Sec LEACH protocol. Network lifetime (the time of FND): We use the most general metric in this paper; the time of first node dies (FND), which indicates the duration that the sensor network is fully functional. Therefore, Maximizing the time of FND in a WSN means to prolong the network lifetime. The number of alive nodes: The ability of sensing and collecting information in a WSN depends on the set of alive nodes (nodes that have not failed). Total system energy consumption: It refers to the amount of energy consumed in a WSN. We evaluate the variation of energy consumption in secure data transmission protocols.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Successful data transmission and security can be achieved by using CWSN's. The inadequacy symmetric key management for secure data transmission has been addressed. In previous method, the CWNS's consist of two efficient protocol called SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS protocol. By using SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS provide secure data transmission for CWSN's with concrete ID- based settings, which use ID information and digital signature for authentication.. Thus, both SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS fully solve the orphan node problem from using the symmetric key management for CWSN's. but the disadvantage of this method there is a chance for the leakage of user's public key and secret key in the case of compromised users. So, in the proposed method an enhanced secure data transmission protocol (ESDT) this is used to enhance the security. In this method the valid and invalid cipher texts are created for confusing the attackers. Finally, the comparison in the calculation and simulation results shows that the proposed enhanced secure data transmission protocols obtain more performance and security than the existing secure protocols for CWSN's.
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(1) Seetha. N, (2) Sharavanan. S, (3) Vijai. R, (4) Balajee R. M
(1) P.G Scholar, (2) Head & Professor, (3) Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science Engineering Annapoorana Engineering College Salem, Tamilnadu, INDIA
Received 15 May 2016; Accepted 7 July 2016; Available 22 July 2016
Address For Correspondence:
Seetha. N, P.G Scholar, Head & Professor, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science Engineering Annapoorana Engineering College, Salem, Tamilnadu, INDIA.