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Setting the standards for design documentation.

The IED is working with the BSI to produce a course approval system for training courses, relating to the documentation required to manufacture products. These are mainly drawings, which used to be produced to British Standard 308. This has been superseded by a set of standards covering the broader field referred to as Technical Product Realization (TPR). In carrying out this exercise, it became clear that such courses should be complemented by minimum requirements in the relevant content of initial engineering and product design courses.

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The recommendations are set out in a way intended to be compatible with the ECUK guidelines, known as UK SPEC. These will be passed on to the various course accreditation bodies in engineering and design for their consideration. The IED Education Committee will also consider taking them into account for course accreditation.

The recommendations are reproduced below. Please send any comments to me, Colin Ledsome, at editorial@ engineeringdesigner.co.uk, they will also be reviewed by the BSI committee.

Recommendations for TPR Content of Initial Engineering and Product Design Qualifications

Introduction

There have been two major changes in recent years, which have affected the perception of engineering drawing as part of the initial academic qualifications of professional engineers; CEng, IEng and Eng Tech, and of Product Designers.

The first is the gradual growth in the use of CAD systems, initially as 2D drawing aids and more recently as solid modelling systems able to link with a range of manufacturing and analysis options. As a result, the use of drawing boards has virtually disappeared in both industry and academia, although the traditional orthographic drawing remains the major means of communicating design information to the manufacturer. Students are far less familiar with the details of such communications, being less able to produce or read such drawings.

The second change has been the introduction of the Geometric Product Specification (GPS) system, internationally.This is specified in the UK by BS8888:2008 Technical Product Specification (TPS), covering design documentation. It has now been joined by the closely related BS8887-1:2006 Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly and End-of-Life processing (MADE), and the, soon to be available, BS8889 Technical Product Verification, covering inspection and related documentation. These three are together referred to as covering Technical Product Realization (TPR).

There is currently no specific guidance available from either the ECUK or the appropriate engineering and product design professional bodies on the requirements for accredited course content in this area.

The BSI, in collaboration with the; Institution of Engineering Designers, has been developing training to update engineering employees in the use of TPS at various levels. This has led to an examination of the desirable levels of expertise likely to be held by new entrants to engineering careers. This document is the result of that examination.

The following is a recommendation to the professional bodies for the minimum level of understanding, by a new graduate, of the documentation required to specify a product to be manufactured.

In making these recommendations we have adopted the following definitions, following the current practice in engineering accreditation documentation:

* Knowledge is information that can be recalled.

* Understanding is the capacity to use concepts creatively, for example, in problem solving, in design, in explanations and in diagnosis.

* Skills are acquired and learned attributes which can be applied almost automatically.

* Know-how is the ability to apply learned knowledge and skills to perform operations intuitively, efficiently and correctly.

* Awareness is general familiarity, albeit bounded by the needs of the particular discipline.

Since Chartered Engineers and Product Designers have less need to be aware of the details of TPS, the recommendations for them are the baseline, with enhanced requirements for IEng and EngTech.

Chartered Engineers And Product Designers

In general, these recommendations refer mainly to the scope of BS8888. Courses with a strong manufacturing emphasis may also wish to additionally refer to BS8887 and BS8889, as appropriate.

Chartered Engineers and Product Designers should understand:

* How engineering drawings form the basic language by which the unambiguous detailed specification, resulting from the design process, is communicated to the manufacturer(s).

* The basis of the GPS system and the necessity of proper tolerance specification as they affect manufacturing COSTS.

* Orthographic projection and the way in which the various views of an artefact are generated, including oblique views and sections, with particular reference to 3rd angle projection.

Chartered Engineers and Product Designers should have knowledge of:

* A basic range of tolerance symbols in use in their industrial field and their meaning.

Chartered Engineers and Product Designers should have the skill to:

* Read a set of engineering drawings and correctly interpret their meaning as to the geometry of the artefact they represent, even if they do not fully appreciate all of the detailed tolerance requirements.

Chartered Engineers and Product Designers should have the know-how to:

* Manufacture a simple artefact from the information contained in an engineering drawing.

Chartered Engineers and Product Designers should be aware of:

* The limitations of their expertise in this field (although they may gain familiarity as their career progresses), and the need to defer to more knowledgeable practitioners when the situation requires it.

* Sources of the necessary information to expand their expertise as needed.

Incorporated Engineers

Courses for Incorporated Engineers are likely to be more focused on specific areas of engineering expertise, so these recommendations should be interpreted as they apply to those areas, referring to the three standards as necessary.

Incorporated Engineers should understand:

* The engineering drawing language, including the detailed use of orthographic projection, and be proficient in its use to communicate an unambiguous detailed engineering specification of a product.

* The importance of the GPS system in transmitting engineering information unambiguously, even between designers and manufacturers who do not speak the same language.

Incorporated Engineers should have knowledge of:

* The full range of tolerance symbols in use in their industrial field and their implications on the organisation of the manufacturing processes.

Incorporated Engineers should have the skill to:

* Read a set of engineering drawings and correctly interpret their meaning as to the geometry of the artefact they represent, appreciating the full meaning of the tolerance requirements.

Incorporated Engineers should have the know-how to:

* Manufacture an appropriate artefact from the information contained in an engineering drawing, correctly interpreting the tolerance requirements.

* Advise designers on ways to improve the efficiency of manufacture by using more appropriate tolerance specifications in their documentation.

Incorporated Engineers should be aware of:

* The limitations of the range of application of their expertise, and the need to defer to practitioners in other fields when the situation requires it.

* Sources of the necessary information to expand their expertise as needed.

Engineering Technicians

Engineering Technician courses are likely to concentrate on the requirements of a specific industry or engineering task, so these recommendations should be interpreted as they apply to that industry or task, referring to the three standards as necessary. Two sets of requirements may be identified, for those mainly involved in the design process, and those in manufacturing. Those in design should concentrate more on the scope of BS8888, while those in manufacture should refer more to BS8887 and BS8889 as appropriate.

Engineering Technicians in design should understand:

* The engineering drawing language as it applies in their industry, including the detailed use of orthographic projection, and be proficient in its use to communicate an unambiguous detailed engineering specification of a product.

Engineering Technicians in design should have knowledge of:

* A significant range of tolerance symbols in use in their industrial field, although, at graduation, they may not appreciate the detailed use of some.

Engineering Technicians in design should have the skill to:

* Read a set of engineering drawings and correctly interpret their meaning as to the geometry of the artefact they represent, appreciating the meaning of the tolerance requirements as necessary.

Engineering Technicians in design should have the know-how to:

* Appreciate the manufacturing implications of the tolerance methods in use in their industry.

* Advise the design team on ways to improve the efficiency of manufacture by using more appropriate tolerance specifications in their documentation.

Engineering Technicians in design should be aware of:

* The limitations of the range of application of their expertise, and the need to defer to practitioners in other fields when the situation requires it.

* Sources of the necessary information to expand their expertise as needed.

Engineering Technicians in manufacture should understand:

* The interpretation of the engineering drawing language as it applies in their industry, to communicate an unambiguous detailed engineering specification of a product.

Engineering Technicians in manufacture should have knowledge of:

* A significant range of tolerance symbols in use in their industrial field, although, at graduation, they may not appreciate the detailed use of some.

Engineering Technicians in manufacture should have the skill to:

* Read a set of engineering drawings and correctly interpret their meaning as to the manufacturing processes they imply, appreciating the meaning of the tolerance requirements as necessary.

Engineering Technicians in manufacture should have the know-how to:

* Query the tolerance specifications in the documentation if they seem to unnecessarily constrain the mode of manufacture.

Engineering Technicians in manufacture should be aware of."

* The limitations of the range of application of their expertise, and the need to defer to practitioners in other fields when the situation requires it.

* Sources of the necessary information to expand their expertise as needed.

Suggested Teaching Routes

With the virtual demise of the drawing board and the rise of solid modelling software, new approaches to teaching TPR must be developed. The following are some possible approaches which have been suggested. They are by no means an exhaustive list and are given here purely as a way of provoking new thinking in this area.

* Encourage students to sketch their design ideas by hand before producing a solid model. Basic instruction in sketching will make their solid modelling work more efficient.

* Give students an orthographic drawing of a simple component and ask them to produce an accurate solid model of the object, perhaps finding its weight, centre of mass, or other property as a check on their accuracy.

* For DMT projects early in the course, the design group could pass their design drawings to another group for manufacture. The manufacturing group would be marked on how well they match the drawing, and perhaps on how many genuine errors they spot. The originating group gets the part back for testing, so have to live with the results of any drawing errors.

* Have a range of real engineering drawings of recognisable parts available for students to gain familiarity, perhaps on the walls of the department. If possible, the real product could also be on display.

* For major project work later in the course, engineering drawings should be required and marked. For projects where this is not appropriate, reasonable quality sketches should be required.

By Colin Ledsome, Chair of BSI Committee TDW/4/6: Education and Training Strategy
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Title Annotation:Education
Author:Ledsome, Colin
Publication:Engineering Designer
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jul 1, 2009
Words:1807
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