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Service life of finishes on smooth-planed and saw-textured western redcedar bevel siding.

The performance of 35 finishes (clear water-repellent preservatives; lightly pigmented, water-repellent preservatives; semitransparent stains; solid-color stains; and paints) applied to newly planed, vertical-grained; factory-planed, flat-grained; or saw-textured, vertical-grained western redcedar bevel siding was evaluated for cracking, erosion, and general appearance over 14 years of outdoor exposure at two sites (Madison, WI, and Gulfport, MS). Service life was dependent on the wood surface and increased in the following order: clear water-repellent preservatives; lightly pigmented, water-repellent preservatives; semitransparent stains; solid-color stains; and paints. The performance was about the same for both the flat-grained and vertical-grained smooth-planed bevel siding but was greatly improved for almost all finish systems on the saw-textured western redcedar bevel siding.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

INTRODUCTION

Previous information on the service life of finishes on western redcedar was obtained from studies of vertical-grained lumber from old-growth forests using finishes that are no longer available. From previous studies at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (Madison, WI), the performance of finishes formulated prior to 1990 on saw-textured and planed western redcedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), Southern Pine (Pinus sp), (1,2) and aspen (Populus tremuloides) (3) were reported. Others have compared the performance of paint systems on smooth and saw-textured plywood. (4-6)

All architectural finishes for use in the United States were reformulated in the early 1990s to lower their volatile organic compound (VOC) content to meet air quality legislation. At the time this study was started, little information was available on the long-term performance of these low-VOC finishes. Nor had any work been done to compare the performance of these new low-VOC finishes on flat-grained bevel siding from second- and third-growth forests.

We report here the performance of 35 finishes used in 49 finish systems on newly planed vertical-grained; factory-planed flat-grained; or saw-textured vertical-grained western red-cedar bevel siding. Finishes included clear water-repellent preservatives, lightly pigmented water-repellent preservatives, semitransparent stains, solid-color stains (also called full-bodied stains or opaque stains), and acrylic and alkyd paints. All finishes were readily available commercial finishes and were applied under laboratory conditions. It is not the intent of the study to compare the performance of the various brands of finish, but rather to obtain general performance information for various types of finish on the different substrates (for example, to determine the expected service life of a typical semitransparent stain on saw-textured and smooth-planed bevel siding). The effect of a water-repellent preservative (WRP) pretreatment on the performance of several paint and solid-color stains is also evaluated.

EXPERIMENTAL

Materials

Western redcedar bevel siding was obtained from lumber dealers in Madison, WI. Bevel siding was nominal 6 in. (150 mm) and was obtained in 12-ft (3.66 m) lengths. The vertical-grained siding was an all-heartwood clear grade having growth rates in the range of 26-28 growth rings per inch (10-11 per cm). As received, the siding had one side smooth-planed and one side saw-textured. The factory-planed surface was planed again in our laboratory several days prior to finishing and stored in one of our controlled-humidity rooms (65% relative humidity (RH) and 27[degrees]C) until it was finished. Approximately 1 mm was removed from the surface. The flat-grained bevel siding was all heartwood select-knotty grade with small tight knots having approximately two to three growth rings per cm. This siding was also stored in our controlled-humidity room prior to being finished. Siding was cut to 47.75 in. (1.21 m) lengths (henceforth referred to as 4-ft boards) and each board was marked with a pencil with seven 6-in. (150 mm) sections for the various finishes, with approximately 3 in. (76 mm) on each end to remain unfinished.

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[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

All finishes were purchased from paint stores in Madison, WI. Their description and general characteristics are given in Table 1. The description includes the type of color, binder, solids content, volatile content, water content, VOCs, and preservatives/mildewcides. Solids content was determined using the ASTM D 2832-83 procedure. Finishes are grouped in six general categories: clear and lightly pigmented water-repellent preservatives (Group A), semitransparent stains (Group B), solid-color stains (Group C), paints (Group D), solid-color stains with a WRP pretreatment (Group E), and paints with a WRP pretreatment (Group F). Within each group are seven finishes except in Group A, which has 14 finishes. Hereafter, when the finish groups are mentioned, the reader can refer to Table 1. Seven Group A (1 to 7) finishes were laboratory-applied at the beginning of the study. These finishes lasted less than two years and were subsequently reapplied in the field (first refinish). Note that finish A-2 is the same as A-9 and A-7 is the same as A-14. For all other Group A finishes (Al, A3, A4, A5, and A6), a different finish was used in subsequent years for the second and third refinish. Some of the original seven finishes were no longer manufactured.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Cleaning solution was one part household bleach (5% sodium hypochlorite), three parts water, and a small amount of powdered detergent.

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Methods

FINISHING -- Within each type of bevel siding (factory-planed flat-grained; newly planed vertical-grained; and saw-textured vertical-grained), the 4-ft boards were randomized, and three boards were used for each finish system. Six general categories of finish were applied to each of these three-board sets. Each category of finish had seven finishes-one for each section within each of the 4-ft boards. This gave a total of 54 4-ft boards for each outdoor exposure site. One site is located approximately 5 km west of Madison, WI, and the other site is located approximately 15 km north of Gulfport, MS. These sites have distinctly different climates. The Madison site has four seasons with rather severe winters, and the Gulfport site is a maritime climate with hot humid summers and mild winters.

All 4-ft boards were initially finished under ambient laboratory conditions; the spread rates are given in Table 2. Finishes in Group A were reapplied in the field and field-applied spread rates were not determined. Prior to field application (refinishing) of the boards in Group A, the boards were cleaned with a mild household bleach and detergent mixture. Bleach solution was applied using a soft-bristle brush and thoroughly rinsed with water after 15 min. Boards were refinished after they dried, usually the next day. All other finishes (Groups B to F) were applied only once at the beginning of the study. All finishes were brush applied.

The 4-ft boards were attached to a vertical test fence facing south with a single screw at each end and there was a 1/4-in. (6 mm) gap between each board. Nine boards were placed in each section of the fence (Figure 1).

EVALUATION -- With the exception of Group A each of the finish systems was evaluated once a year over 12 to 14 years. The finishes in Group A were evaluated more often (approximately every six months). The service life of the clear and lightly pigmented finishes (Group A) was determined from the general appearance evaluations (listed as "General" in the tables and figures). Semitransparent stains were evaluated for "erosion," and the solid-color stains and paints were evaluated for "cracking" and "general appearance." Evaluations for erosion, cracking, and general appearance were in accordance with ASTM D 662-93, D 661-93, and D 3274-88, respectively. (7) A rating of "10" indicates no degradation, and "1" indicates total failure of the coating system. A rating of "5" indicates a condition at which the coating should be refinished without having to do excessive surface preparation (in other words, the approximate service life).

DATA REDUCTION -- The data for each of the finish systems were plotted to show performance over the 14-year exposure on each of the three different surfaces (newly planed vertical-grained (NP VG); factory-planed flat grained (FP FG); and saw-textured vertical-grained (ST VG)). The plots showed the average and standard deviation of the three observations for each of the finish systems on each of the surfaces. For example, the general-appearance ratings over 14 years for a red 55% solids oil-based solid-color stain (Group C, finish C-5) exposed near Madison is shown in Figure 2. The standard deviations are the bars at each average point in the plots.

Most finishes had four plots ("General Appearance" and "Cracking" for Madison and Gulfport), which to-tailed almost 200 plots for all the finish wood combinations. Only a few representative plots are included. The service life was determined as the time it took for the average rating to reach "5" on the evaluation scale. The service life (time on the abscissa) of each finish is the intersection of the performance line with the five-year line (ordinate). For example, the service life of finish C-5 (solid-color oil stain, Figure 2) was about nine years on newly planed vertical-grained, 13 years on factory-planed flat-grained boards, and more than 14 years on saw-textured vertical-grained lumber. The service life for each finish is tabulated in the various tables. The performance line often intersected the five-year line between years. The closest year was listed in the tables: clear penetrating finishes (Table 3A,B), semitransparent finishes (Table 4), solid-color stains (Table 5 and 7), and paints (Table 6 and 8). Tables include the service life for both the Madison and Gulfport field sites.

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[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The performance of the various finish systems on the three different substrates varied greatly. Many of the clear and lightly pigmented finishes (Group A) lasted less than six months, whereas some of the solid color stains and paints were in excellent condition after 14 years. The most important factor in determining the service life was the type of finish. In general, the ranking in decreasing order of service life was as follows: paints, solid color-stains, oil-based semitransparent stains, water-based semitransparent stains, lightly pigmented WRPs, and clear WRPs.

After the type of finish, next in importance is the wood surface. In general, each of the finish systems had longer service life on the saw-textured vertical-grained bevel siding. The vertical grain surface is primarily comprised of early wood, which absorbs the finish better than latewood. The saw-textured surface has no planer-induced surface stresses, which can place stress on subsequently applied coatings. (8) The saw-textured surface accepts more finish, which gives a greater film thickness than smooth-planed surfaces. In general, we found little difference between the newly planed vertical-grained surface and the factory-planed flat-grained surface with some exceptions noted in the following subsections. The service lives for finishes within each of the six finish systems (Group A to F) are given in the following subsections.

Clear and Lightly Pigmented WRPs (Group A)

General appearance ratings for finish system A-7 (A-14) show considerable difference over the 14 years (Figure 3). The initial finish application lasted less than 18 months, and the boards were refinished after two, four, and six years. The finish was not evaluated after refinishing at two years. Not evaluating the finish systems immediately after they were refinished was an oversight because in many cases the ratings fell below "5" within six months of refinishing. To compare the ratings among the various finish systems, the information on the various plots (such as shown in Figure 3) is tabulated for each of the finishes on each of the substrates. The times (years) that it took for the rating to drop below "5" are tabulated (Table 3A (Madison) and 3B (Gulfport)). The values extracted from Figure 3 are shown in bold type in Table 3A. These tables are not the raw data from the evaluations; they contain the finished analysis of data taken from numerous evaluations over many years. The values in the tables are the service life determined from the "General Appearance" evaluation.

The general appearance rating for the clear and lightly pigmented finishes (Group A-1 to A-7) varied from less than half a year to two years during the first two years of exposure in both Madison and Gulfport (Tables 3A and 3B). The "2[7]" for A-7 on the saw-textured bevel siding (ST VG) indicates that the rating was "7" after two years, the time at which it was refinished. Surprisingly, we observed little difference between the smooth-planed and saw-textured bevel siding. After two years, the siding was cleaned with dilute household bleach and detergent solution, allowed to dry, and refinished with Group A-1 to A-7. The ratings over the next two years (years 2-4, Tables 3A and 3B) were lower than for the first two years. Figure 3 is typical of other figures for these finishes. It appears from the plot that the boards were refinished only twice (prior to year 4 and year 8). The boards were refinished after two years using finishes 1-7, but the appearance of the refinished boards was not improved as shown by the evaluation at two years. The general performance ratings during the first four years were low because of considerable mildew growth. Mildew is also the reason that we saw little apparent difference for the different types of bevel siding. Almost all finishes failed within six months. Table 1 lists the ingredients for the various finishes that we could determine from the product labels and data sheets and gives minimal data on formulation. Note, however, that some of the finishes in Group A apparently did not contain a mildewcide. Those finishes that contained a mildewcide seemed to perform better than those that did not (1.5-2 years service versus 0.5 years) after the initial finish application. Performance was about the same for all finishes after the first refinish (about 0.5 years).

Four years after the study started (two years after first refinish), the bevel siding was cleaned again and refinished (Group A-8 to A-14). This group of finishes gave much better service life on all three types of bevel siding for years four to six and after refinishing in year 6 (years 6 to 14). We attribute this improved performance to the efforts by the finishing industry to obtain longer service life for these clear and lightly pigmented finishes. All finishes in this group contained mildewcides. The performance of finishes A-8 to A-14 were vastly superior to A-1 to A-7. This better performance can be attributed to several factors: in general, the solids content of the finishes were higher; the board surfaces became more porous and thus absorbed more finish as they weathered; and the weather was likely different and possibly less conducive to mildew growth--the major factor causing decrease in appearance evaluations. Some of the lightly pigmented finishes performed well for more than three years. Note, however, that the ratings were lower for the Gulfport site because of more mildew growth in the warm, moist climate. One of the finishes (A-11) showed poorer performance on the saw-textured bevel siding. However, in general, the type of surface (smooth-planed or saw-textured, vertical-grained or flat-grained) had little overall effect on the general appearance ratings of these finishes (Group A-1 to A-14), primarily because of mildew growth. It was difficult to differentiate among the various finish-substrate combinations because many of the finishes failed within one year.

Semitransparent Stains (Group B)

A typical example of the plots of finish general appearance ratings compared with time for the three types of substrate is shown in Figure 4. The bars indicate the standard deviation for the three replicates for each type of substrate. As with the Group A finishes, the service life was extracted from these plots and tabulated (Table 4). For example, values extracted from Figure 4 are shown in bold type in Table 4. Twenty-seven additional plots were used to obtain performance data on these seven finishes and are summarized in Table 4. Erosion and general appearance are shown in Table 4. It is interesting that finish B-3 (oil-based solventborne semitransparent stain having 76% solids) had excellent performance for both erosion and general appearance in Madison, but performed poorly in Gulfport because of mildew growth.

All finishes performed better on the saw-textured bevel siding. Some of the finishes lasted more than 10 years (Table 4). The general appearance ratings were generally lower for the Gulfport site, particularly for two of the oil-based formulations (B-3 and B-4). In some cases, finishes on the factory-planed flat-grained siding gave better performance than on the newly planed vertical-grained siding, but this was not universal. No general trends were apparent other than the superior performance of all finishes on the saw-textured surfaces. In evaluating finish performance (Table 4) on the basis of formulation (Table 1), several observations can be made. These finishes perform poorly on smooth wood. They generally fail in appearance because of mildew growth prior to failing by erosion. There seems to no correlation between the solids content and performance.

Solid-Color Stains, No WRP Pretreatment (Group C)

A typical example of the plots (Figure 5) and the service life (Table 5) for this group of finishes shows that the performance is excellent on the saw-textured bevel siding. Many of the finishes lasted more than 12 years at both sites. The cracking ratings were "8" to "9" for many of the finishes. The general appearance ratings were also high for the Madison site (ratings of "5" to "7" after 12 years), but were slightly lower for some of the finishes (C-1, C-2, C-3, and C-4) at Gulfport because of mildew. Those finishes with red iron oxide pigments (C-5, C-6, and C-7) had higher ratings than the white-pigmented finishes. In general, the service life was slightly less on the newly planed bevel siding. The two-coat oil/latex finish system (C-7) gave excellent performance on all substrates at both sites. Finishes C-5, C-6, and C-7 containing red pigment had higher appearance ratings at the Gulfport site, even on the smooth-planed siding. The dark color may have obscured the mildew growth.

Paints, No WRP Pretreatment (Group D)

Although Group D is labelled paints, D-1 and D-2 were solid-color stains. They were two-coat systems and thus had application rates similar to the paint systems (D-4-D-6) (Table 2). Figure 6 shows the paint cracking ratings for an alkyd primer/acrylic topcoat paint system exposed near Madison. Almost all finishes lasted more than 14 years on all substrates at both sites (Table 6). However, the ratings were higher for finishes on the saw-textured bevel siding. Note that three ratings are marked with a superscript "d" [general appearance ratings for saw-textured surface for D-1, D-2, D-3, and D-6 exposed near Gulfport (Table 6)]. For these finish systems, the rating dropped below "5" during the first few years, then was above "5" for several years until the finish failed. The service life was determined from the second drop below "5." This type of inconsistent performance was caused by mildew. The mildew growth was severe during the early exposure period, probably because of the weather. As with the other finish systems, the general appearance ratings were less for the Gulfport site. The "cracking" evaluations for finishes D-3 and D-4 were rather surprising. Note that the service life was higher at Gulfport and Madison for the factory-planed flat-grained siding than for the newly planed vertical-grained siding. We have no explanation for this result and it is not consistent with the evaluation of the other five finish systems.

Solid-Color Stains, with WRP Pretreatment (Group E)

The solid-color stains used in Group E were the same as those used in Group C, except that a WRP was applied to all 4-ft boards prior to applying the solid-color stain. For example, the performance of an oil-based solventborne solid-color stain with the WRP pretreatment (E-1, Figure 7) can be compared with the same solid-color stain without the pretreatmant (C-1, Figure 5). The service life for all finish systems obtained from the "cracking" and "general appearance" ratings show that the performance of all finishes on the saw-textured bevel siding was about the same for Group C (no WRP, Table 5) and Group E (with WRP, Table 7). The results for the smooth-planed siding were quite different. In general, the service life was less for the Group E finish systems than for the Group C finish systems. This was quite surprising, as we expected better performance with the WRP pretreatment. The only explanation we can offer is that the amount of finish accepted by the planed surface following the WRP pretreatment was considerably less for many of the solid-color stains (Table 2). Little apparent difference was evident between the WRP-treated and untreated for the newly planed vertical-grained siding and the factory-planed flat-grained siding.

Paints, with WRP Pretreatment (Group F)

The finishes used in Group F were the same as those used in Group D, except that a WRP was applied to all 4-ft boards prior to applying the finishes. This is illustrated by comparing the WRP/alkyd primer/acrylic topcoat (F-6, Figure 8) with the same primer and topcoat without the WRP (D-6, Figure 6). In general, the performance of all finishes on all substrates was about the same for those 4-ft boards treated with the WRP pretreatment (Group F, Table 8) and those without the WRP pretreatment (Group F, Table 6) for both sites. This is in agreement with a previous study that showed little benefit from a WRP pretreatment on western redcedar, but did show considerable benefit for difficult-to-paint species, such as southern pine. (9)

CONCLUSIONS

In general, the performance of finish systems was far superior on the saw-textured bevel siding than on the smooth-planed siding. The exception to this was the multi-coat solid-color stains and paint systems. These paint systems performed well on all substrates. There was little difference between the factory-planed flat-grained siding and the newly planed vertical-grained siding after 14 years of outdoor exposure near Madison and Gulfport. The clear and lightly pigmented water repellent preservatives used to refinish the bevel siding the second and third times performed better than the original formulations. It appears that those more modern formulations (those developed after 1995) were better than those developed in the late 1980s. On the basis of data obtained from this study, it appears that the WRP had no positive effect on the performance of finishes on the three different western redcedar substrates.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank Peter Sotos for preparing the siding for testing, laboratory, and field painting, preparing some of the tables, and the many years of field evaluations; and John Gangstad for preparing the plots of the data.

References

(1) Feist, W.C., Mraz, E.A., and Black, J.M., "Durability of Exterior Wood Stains," Forest Prod. J., 27 (1), 13-16 (1977).

(2) Feist, W.C., "Weathering Performance of Finished Southern Pine Plywood Siding," Forest Prod. J., 38 (3), 22-28 (1988).

(3) Feist, W.C., "Weathering Performance of Finished Aspen Siding," Forest Prod. J., 44 (6), 15-23 (1994).

(4) Jorgensen, H.D., "Surface and Finish Performance of Wood Based Siding," Res. Rept. 150, American Plywood Association, Tacoma, WA, 1986.

(5) Jorgensen, H.D. and Carlson, R.A., "Outdoor Performance of Various Paint Systems on Sanded and Roughsawn Softwood Plywood," Rept, No. PT83-37, American Plywood Association, Tacoma, WA, 1983.

(6) McMillin, C.W., "Performance Evaluation of Stained, Rough-Sawn Southern Pine Siding," Forest Prod. J., 19 (2), 51-52 (1969).

(7) Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 06.01, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1991.

Test Method D 2832-83, Determining volatile and nonvolatile content of paint and related coatings.

Test Method D 662-93, Evaluating degree of erosion of exterior paints.

Test Method D 661-93, Evaluating degree of cracking of exterior paints.

Test Method D 3274-88, Evaluating degree of surface disfigurement of paint films by microbial (fungal or algal) growth or soil and dirt accumulation.

(8) Minuitti, V.P., "Microscale Changes in Cell Structure at Softwood Surfaces During Weathering, "Forest Prod. J., 14 (12), 571-576 (1964).

(9) Feist, W.C., "Weathering Performance of Painted Wood Pretreated with Water-Repellent Preservatives," Forest Prod. J., 40 (7/8), 21-26 (1990).

by R. Sam Williams ([dagger])--USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory* and William C. Feist--Retired

*One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53726.

([dagger]) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: rswilliams@fs.fed.us.
Table 1 -- Description of Finishes Used in Study 4-92 VOC

 Product Description

A 1 Thompson Water Seal Clear solventborne WR
 2 Thompson Wd. Prot. Clear mineral oil WRP
 3 X-100 Clear natural oil-based WRP
 4 Carver Tripp S Poly Clear 30% solids WB WRP
 5 Lifetime Sealant Clear 5% solids WB WRP
 6 Masterguard Wd. Sealer Clear 20% solids WB WRP
 7 Wolman WRP Clear 67% solids oil-based SB WRP
 (New WRPs used May/96)

A 8 Woodlife VOC Waterborne Clear 4% solids WB WRP
 9 Thompson Wd. Prot. Clear mineral oil WRP
 10 X-100 Cedartone Tinted 45% solids WB WRP
 11 Amteco TWP 100 Clear Clear 14% solids SB WRP
 12 Cuprinol CWP Clear 10% solids WB WRP
 13 Cuprinol Copper Naphth. Tinted 55% solids SB WRP
 14 Wolman WRP Clear 67% solids oil-based SB WRP

B 1 Oly. Marathon Alk./Lat. Redwood 24% solids alkyd mod.
 acrylic WB STS
 2 Oly. Marathon Acrylic Lat. Redwood 27% solids acrylic latex
 WB STS
 3 Lindsey ST Oil Stain Cedar 76% solids oil-based SB STS
 4 Duckback Oil ST Stain Cedar 60% solids oil-based SB STS
 5 Pratt+Lam. ST Lat. Stain Pigmented 27% solids WB STS
 6 Oly. WR ST Lat. Stain Cedar 27% solids WB STS
 7 Lifetime ST Oil Stain Cedar 6% solids SB STS

C 1 Pratt+Lam. SC Alkyd Stain White 78% solids oil-based SB SCS
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Latex Stain White 45% solids acrylic-based WB
 SCS
 3 Mautz SC Oil Stain Tan 54% solids oil-based SB SCS
 4 Mautz SC Latex Stain Tan 39% solids acrylic-based WB
 SCS
 5 Oly. SC Oil Stain Red 55% solids oil-based SB SCS
 6 Oly. SC Latex Stain Red 38% solids acrylic-based WB
 SCS
 7 Oly. SC Oil+SC Lat. Stain Red 55% solids oil-primer + 38%
 solids acrylic SCS

D 1 Oly. SC Oil Stain (2 cts.) Red 55% solids oil-based SCS
 (2 coats)
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Oil/+SC Lat. White 78% solids oil-based SCS +
 45% solids acrylic SCS
 3 Pratt+Lam. Oil pr.+Oil Top. White 80% solids alkyd primer +
 71% solids alkyd TC
 4 Pratt+Lam.Lat.pr.+Lat.Top. White 38% solids latex primer +
 46% solids latex TC
 5 Lucite Lat.pr.+Lat.Topcoat White 48% solids acrylic primer +
 57% solids acrylic TC
 6 Lucite Oil.pr.+Lat.Topcoat White 77% solids alkyd primer +
 57% solids acrylic TC
 7 S/W A-100 Oil pr.+Lat.Top. White 74% solids alkyd primer +
 53% solids acrylic TC

 Woodlife Wood Preserv. +
E 1 Pratt+Lam. SC Alkyd Stain SB WRP + White 78% solids oil-
 based SB SCSn
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Latex Stain SB WRP + White 45% solids acrylic-
 based WB SCS
 3 Mautz SC Oil Stain SB WRP + Tan 54% solids oil-based
 SB SCS
 4 Mautz SC Latex Stain SB WRP + Tan 39% solids acrylic-
 based WB SCS
 5 Oly. SC Oil Stain SB WRP + Red 55% solids oil-based
 SB SCS
 6 Oly. SC Latex Stain SB WRP + Red 38% solids acrylic-
 based WB SCS
 7 Oly. SC Oil+SC Lat. Stain SB WRP + Red 55% solids oil-
 primer + 38% solids acrylic SCS
 WRP+

F 1 Oly. SC Oil Stain (2 cts.) SB WRP + Red 55% solids oil-based
 SCS (2 coats)
 2 Pratt+Lam.SC Oil/+SC Lat. SB WRP + White 78% solids oil-
 based SCS + 45% solids acrylic
 SCS
 3 Pratt+Lam. Oil pr.+Oil Top. SB WRP + White 80% solids alkyd
 primer + 71% solids alkyd TC
 4 Pratt+Lam.Lat.pr.+Lat.Top. SB WRP + White 38% solids latex
 primer + 46% solids latex TC
 5 Lucite Lat.pr.+Lat.Topcoat SB WRP + White 48% solids acrylic
 primer + 57% solids acrylic TC
 6 Lucite Oil.pr.+Lat.Topcoat SB WRP + White 77% solids alkyd
 primer + 57% solids acrylic TC
 7 S/W A-100 Oil pr.+Lat.Top. SB WRP + White 74% solids alkyd
 primer + 53% solids acrylic TC

 Product Pigment Lb/Gal Grams/cc

A 1 Thompson Water Seal Clear 6.66 0.798
 2 Thompson Wd. Prot. Clear 7.10 0.851
 3 X-100 Clear 7.16 0.858
 4 Carver Tripp S Poly Clear 8.64 1.035
 5 Lifetime Sealant Clear 10.58 1.268
 6 Masterguard Wd. Sealer Clear 8.44 1.011
 7 Wolman WRP Clear 7.25 0.869
 (New WRPs used May/96)

A 8 Woodlife VOC Waterborne Clear 8.38 1.004
 9 Thompson Wd. Prot. Clear 7.10 0.851
 10 X-100 Cedartone Cedar 7.99 0.957
 11 Amteco TWP 100 Clear Clear 6.85 0.821
 12 Cuprinol CWP Clear 8.33 0.998
 13 Cuprinol Copper Naphth. Green 7.12 0.853
 14 Wolman WRP Clear 7.25 0.869

B 1 Oly. Marathon Alk./Lat. Redwood 9.09 1.089
 2 Oly. Marathon Acrylic Lat. Redwood 8.98 1.076
 3 Lindsey ST Oil Stain Cedar Br. 7.63 0.914
 4 Duckback Oil ST Stain Cedar 7.17 0.859
 5 Pratt+Lam. ST Lat. Stain Rustic 8.66 1.038
 6 Oly. WR ST Lat. Stain Cedar 9.02 1.081
 7 Lifetime ST Oil Stain Cedar 10.63 1.274

C 1 Pratt+Lam. SC Alkyd Stain White 12.29 1.473
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Latex Stain White 10.43 1.250
 3 Mautz SC Oil Stain Tan 9.27 1.111
 4 Mautz SC Latex Stain Tan 10.01 1.199
 5 Oly. SC Oil Stain Red 8.66 1.038
 6 Oly. SC Latex Stain Red 10.03 1.202
 7 Oly. SC Oil+SC Lat. Stain Red 8.7/10 1.04/1.2

D 1 Oly. SC Oil Stain (2 cts.) Red 8.7/8.7 1.04/1.04
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Oil/+SC Lat. White 12.3/10.4 1.47/1.25
 3 Pratt+Lam. Oil pr.+Oil Top. White 11.8/9.7 1.42/1.16
 4 Pratt+Lam.Lat.pr.+Lat.Top. White 9.76/9.93 1.17/1.19
 5 Lucite Lat.pr.+Lat.Topcoat White 10.0/11.0 1.20/1.31
 6 Lucite Oil.pr.+Lat.Topcoat White 11.6/11.0 1.39/1.31
 7 S/W A-100 Oil pr.+Lat.Top. White 11.0/11.1 1.32/1.33

 Woodlife Wood Preserv. + Clear 6.65 0.797
E 1 Pratt+Lam. SC Alkyd Stain White 12.29 1.473
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Latex Stain White 10.43 1.250
 3 Mautz SC Oil Stain Tan 9.27 1.111
 4 Mautz SC Latex Stain Tan 10.01 1.199
 5 Oly. SC Oil Stain Red 8.66 1.038
 6 Oly. SC Latex Stain Red 10.03 1.202
 7 Oly. SC Oil+SC Lat. Stain Red 8.7/10 1.04/1.2
 WRP+

F 1 Oly. SC Oil Stain (2 cts.) Red 8.7/8.7 1.04/1.04
 2 Pratt+Lam.SC Oil/+SC Lat. White 12.3/10.4 1.47/1.25
 3 Pratt+Lam. Oil pr.+Oil Top. White 11.8/9.7 1.42/1.16
 4 Pratt+Lam.Lat.pr.+Lat.Top. White 9.76/9.93 1.17/1.19
 5 Lucite Lat.pr.+Lat.Topcoat White 10.0/11.0 1.20/1.31
 6 Lucite Oil.pr.+Lat.Topcoat White 11.6/11.0 1.39/1.31
 7 S/W A-100 Oil pr.+Lat.Top. White 11.0/11.1 1.32/1.33

 Product Solids % Volatile % Water %

A 1 Thompson Water Seal 14.6 85.4 0.1
 2 Thompson Wd. Prot. 95.8 4.2 0.1
 3 X-100 92.6 7.4 0.1
 4 Carver Tripp S Poly 30.4 69.6 49.6
 5 Lifetime Sealant 4.8 95.2 0.1
 6 Masterguard Wd. Sealer 19.5 80.5 80.4
 7 Wolman WRP 66.8 33.2 2.9
 (New WRPs used May/96)

A 8 Woodlife VOC Waterborne 3.5 96.5 96.4
 9 Thompson Wd. Prot. 95.8 4.2 0.1
 10 X-100 Cedartone 44.6 55.4 46
 11 Amteco TWP 100 Clear 13.8 86.2 0.6
 12 Cuprinol CWP 10.5 89.5 86.4
 13 Cuprinol Copper Naphth. 55.4 44.6 0.1
 14 Wolman WRP 66.8 33.2 2.9

B 1 Oly. Marathon Alk./Lat. 23.6 76.4 75.6
 2 Oly. Marathon Acrylic Lat. 27.1 72.9 61.0
 3 Lindsey ST Oil Stain 75.9 24.1 0.2
 4 Duckback Oil ST Stain 56.9 43.1 0.1
 5 Pratt+Lam. ST Lat. Stain 26.8 73.2 59.3
 6 Oly. WR ST Lat. Stain 28.6 71.4 65.5
 7 Lifetime ST Oil Stain 6.4 93.6 0.1

C 1 Pratt+Lam. SC Alkyd Stain 77.8 22.2 0.2
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Latex Stain 44.9 55.1 51.4
 3 Mautz SC Oil Stain 54.5 45.5 0.6
 4 Mautz SC Latex Stain 38.7 61.3 56.5
 5 Oly. SC Oil Stain 55.4 44.6 0.1
 6 Oly. SC Latex Stain 37.6 62.4 56.3
 7 Oly. SC Oil+SC Lat. Stain 55/38 45/62 0.1/56.3

D 1 Oly. SC Oil Stain (2 cts.) 55.4/55.4 44.6/44.6 0.1/0.1
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Oil/+SC Lat. 78/45 22/55 0.2/51.4
 3 Pratt+Lam. Oil pr.+Oil Top. 80.5/71.2 19.5/28.8 0.4/0.1
 4 Pratt+Lam.Lat.pr.+Lat.Top. 38.3/46.1 61.7/53.9 42.1/22.1
 5 Lucite Lat.pr.+Lat.Topcoat 48.3/57.0 51.7/43.0 50.9/40.4
 6 Lucite Oil.pr.+Lat.Topcoat 77.1/57.0 22.9/43.0 0.2/40.4
 7 S/W A-100 Oil pr.+Lat.Top. 74.5/52.8 25.5/47.2 0.3/45.2

 Woodlife Wood Preserv. + 6.4 93.6 0.1
E 1 Pratt+Lam. SC Alkyd Stain 77.8 22.2 0.2
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Latex Stain 44.9 55.1 51.4
 3 Mautz SC Oil Stain 54.5 45.5 0.6
 4 Mautz SC Latex Stain 38.7 61.3 56.5
 5 Oly. SC Oil Stain 55.4 44.6 0.1
 6 Oly. SC Latex Stain 37.6 62.4 56.3
 7 Oly. SC Oil+SC Lat. Stain 55/38 45/62 0.1/56.3
 WRP+

F 1 Oly. SC Oil Stain (2 cts.) 55.4/55.4 44.6/44.6 0.1/0.1
 2 Pratt+Lam.SC Oil/+SC Lat. 78/45 22/55 0.2/51.4
 3 Pratt+Lam. Oil pr.+Oil Top. 80.5/71.2 19.5/28.8 0.4/0.1
 4 Pratt+Lam.Lat.pr.+Lat.Top. 38.3/46.1 61.7/53.9 42.1/22.1
 5 Lucite Lat.pr.+Lat.Topcoat 48.3/57.0 51.7/43.0 50.9/40.4
 6 Lucite Oil.pr.+Lat.Topcoat 77.1/57.0 22.9/43.0 0.2/40.4
 7 S/W A-100 Oil pr.+Lat.Top. 74.5/52.8 25.5/47.2 0.3/45.2

 Product VOC %

A 1 Thompson Water Seal 85.3
 2 Thompson Wd. Prot. 4.1
 3 X-100 7.3
 4 Carver Tripp S Poly 41.2
 5 Lifetime Sealant 56.7
 6 Masterguard Wd. Sealer 0.5
 7 Wolman WRP 31.1
 (New WRPs used May/96)

A 8 Woodlife VOC Waterborne 0.5
 9 Thompson Wd. Prot. 4.1
 10 X-100 Cedartone <10
 11 Amteco TWP 100 Clear 6.1
 12 Cuprinol CWP 3.2
 13 Cuprinol Copper Naphth. 44.3
 14 Wolman WRP 31.1

B 1 Oly. Marathon Alk./Lat. 4.6
 2 Oly. Marathon Acrylic Lat. 34.8
 3 Lindsey ST Oil Stain 23.9
 4 Duckback Oil ST Stain 43.0
 5 Pratt+Lam. ST Lat. Stain 36.3
 6 Oly. WR ST Lat. Stain 20.4
 7 Lifetime ST Oil Stain 56.7

C 1 Pratt+Lam. SC Alkyd Stain 22.1
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Latex Stain 10.4
 3 Mautz SC Oil Stain 45.2
 4 Mautz SC Latex Stain 15.0
 5 Oly. SC Oil Stain 44.5
 6 Oly. SC Latex Stain 19.0
 7 Oly. SC Oil+SC Lat. Stain 45/19

D 1 Oly. SC Oil Stain (2 cts.) 44.5/44.5
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Oil/+SC Lat. 22.1/10.4
 3 Pratt+Lam. Oil pr.+Oil Top. 19.2/28.7
 4 Pratt+Lam.Lat.pr.+Lat.Top. 38.8/43.2
 5 Lucite Lat.pr.+Lat.Topcoat 2.0/5.6
 6 Lucite Oil.pr.+Lat.Topcoat 22.7/5.6
 7 S/W A-100 Oil pr.+Lat.Top. 25.3/5.1

 Woodlife Wood Preserv. + 93.6
E 1 Pratt+Lam. SC Alkyd Stain 22.1
 2 Pratt+Lam. SC Latex Stain 10.4
 3 Mautz SC Oil Stain 45.2
 4 Mautz SC Latex Stain 15.0
 5 Oly. SC Oil Stain 44.5
 6 Oly. SC Latex Stain 19.0
 7 Oly. SC Oil+SC Lat. Stain 45/19
 WRP+

F 1 Oly. SC Oil Stain (2 cts.) 44.5/44.5
 2 Pratt+Lam.SC Oil/+SC Lat. 22.1/10.4
 3 Pratt+Lam. Oil pr.+Oil Top. 19.2/28.7
 4 Pratt+Lam.Lat.pr.+Lat.Top. 38.8/43.2
 5 Lucite Lat.pr.+Lat.Topcoat 2.0/5.6
 6 Lucite Oil.pr.+Lat.Topcoat 22.7/5.6
 7 S/W A-100 Oil pr.+Lat.Top. 25.3/5.1

Table 2 -- Spreading Rates of Applied Finishes in Square Feet Per Gallon
[Sq ft/gal ([m.sup.2]/l)]

 Madison
 NP VG ST VG
 Sq NP VG Sq ST VG FP FG FP FG
 ft/gal [m.sup.2]/l ft/gal [m.sup.2]/l Sq ft/gal [m.sup.2]/l

A 1 530 13.0 210 5.1 550 13.5
 2 440 10.8 185 4.5 510 12.5
 3 545 13.4 185 4.5 505 12.4
 4 395 9.7 195 4.8 355 8.7
 5 310 7.6 155 3.8 315 7.7
 6 370 9.1 175 4.3 355 8.7
 7 510 12.5 225 5.5 490 12.0

B 1 500 12.3 225 5.5 470 11.5
 2 485 11.9 195 4.8 550 13.5
 3 490 12.0 190 4.7 500 12.3
 4 470 11.5 200 4.9 450 11.0
 5 475 11.6 185 4.5 510 12.5
 6 455 11.2 165 4.0 535 13.1
 7 270 6.6 120 2.9 245 6.0

C 1 460 11.3 250 6.1 460 11.3
 2 395 9.7 230 5.6 485 11.9
 3 480 11.8 220 5.4 465 11.4
 4 420 10.3 215 5.3 445 10.9
 5 520 12.7 215 5.3 520 12.7
 6 395 9.7 175 4.3 415 10.2
 7 575 14.1 250 6.1 620 15.2
 635 15.6 390 9.6 665 16.3

D 1 425 10.4 225 5.5 410 10.0
 660 16.2 595 14.6 660 16.2
 2 410 10.0 235 5.8 465 11.4
 760 18.6 645 15.8 825 20.2
 3 445 10.9 240 5.9 470 11.5
 625 15.3 370 9.1 610 14.9
 4 380 9.3 180 4.4 370 9.1
 840 20.6 445 10.9 1025 25.1
 5 375 9.2 200 4.9 450 11.0
 715 17.5 465 11.4 730 17.9
 6 415 10.2 195 4.8 370 9.1
 800 19.6 515 12.6 740 18.1
 7 425 10.4 225 5.5 395 9.7
 475 11.6 335 8.2 490 12.0

SB
WRP 130 3.2 65 1.6 125 3.1
E 1 460 11.3 250 6.1 500 12.3
 2 595 14.6 340 8.3 570 14.0
 3 595 14.6 315 7.7 605 14.8
 4 550 13.5 320 7.8 555 13.6
 5 660 16.2 280 6.9 645 15.8
 6 490 12.0 290 7.1 510 12.5
 7 950 23.3 335 8.2 870 21.3
 720 17.6 460 11.3 745 18.3

SB
WRP 85 2.1 50 1.2 105 2.6
F 1 535 13.1 270 6.6 595 14.6
 685 16.8 585 14.3 700 17.2
 2 520 12.7 300 7.4 580 14.2
 705 17.3 595 14.6 745 18.3
 3 480 11.8 295 7.2 500 12.3
 465 11.4 435 10.7 510 12.5
 4 420 10.3 265 6.5 420 10.3
 950 23.3 605 14.8 1055 25.8
 5 535 13.1 290 7.1 465 11.4
 670 16.4 660 16.2 650 15.9
 6 420 10.3 240 5.9 400 9.8
 770 18.9 590 14.5 755 18.5
 7 465 11.4 250 6.1 430 10.5
 465 11.4 340 8.3 460 11.3

 Gulfport
 NP VG ST VG
 Sq NP VG Sq ST VG FP FG FP FG
 ft/gal [m.sup.]2/l ft/gal [m.sup.]2/l Sq ft/gal [m.sup.]2/l

A 1 635 15.6 260 6.4 505 12.4
 2 480 11.8 240 5.9 450 11.0
 3 525 12.9 225 5.5 445 10.9
 4 390 9.6 210 5.1 375 9.2
 5 325 8.0 160 3.9 285 7.0
 6 345 8.5 185 4.5 345 8.5
 7 550 13.5 205 5.0 465 11.4

B 1 445 10.9 175 4.3 440 10.8
 2 465 11.4 190 4.7 555 13.6
 3 515 12.6 205 5.0 555 13.6
 4 405 9.9 205 5.0 475 11.6
 5 450 11.0 195 4.8 410 10.0
 6 450 11.0 205 5.0 435 10.7
 7 235 5.8 125 3.1 255 6.3

C 1 435 10.7 230 5.6 430 10.5
 2 420 10.3 230 5.6 460 11.3
 3 515 12.6 240 5.9 480 11.8
 4 395 9.7 215 5.3 465 11.4
 5 610 14.9 240 5.9 450 11.0
 6 360 8.8 205 5.0 375 9.2
 7 630 15.4 280 6.9 700 17.2
 680 16.7 395 9.7 730 17.9

D 1 460 11.3 200 4.9 435 10.7
 645 15.8 595 14.6 585 14.3
 2 460 11.3 230 5.6 430 10.5
 845 20.7 645 15.8 745 20.7
 3 455 11.1 240 5.9 425 10.4
 565 13.8 405 9.9 580 14.2
 4 360 8.8 185 4.5 365 8.9
 950 23.3 450 11.0 950 23.3
 5 405 9.9 205 5.0 425 10.4
 705 17.3 500 12.3 650 15.9
 6 355 8.7 205 5.0 345 8.5
 850 20.8 525 12.9 715 17.5
 7 430 10.5 230 5.6 390 9.6
 510 12.5 340 8.3 465 11.4

SB
WRP 145 3.6 65 1.6 120 2.9
E 1 435 10.7 255 6.2 435 10.7
 2 580 14.2 310 7.6 500 12.3
 3 565 13.8 335 8.2 575 14.1
 4 540 13.2 315 7.7 610 14.9
 5 660 16.2 270 6.6 645 15.8
 6 500 12.3 295 7.2 505 12.4
 7 850 20.8 350 8.6 850 20.8
 690 16.9 465 11.4 780 19.1

SB
WRP 100 2.5 45 1.1 100 2.5
F 1 520 12.7 275 6.7 610 14.9
 660 16.2 585 14.3 750 18.4
 2 545 13.4 280 6.9 570 14.0
 720 17.6 605 14.8 705 17.3
 3 430 10.5 280 6.9 520 12.7
 510 12.5 400 9.8 500 12.3
 4 400 9.8 260 6.4 405 9.9
 925 22.7 595 14.6 900 22.1
 5 435 10.7 275 6.7 425 10.4
 740 18.1 525 12.9 715 17.5
 6 370 9.1 235 5.8 395 9.7
 770 18.9 565 13.8 800 19.6
 7 435 10.7 260 6.4 430 10.5
 525 12.9 330 8.1 440 10.8

Table 3A -- Service Life (Years) of Water-Repellent Preservatives (WRP)
Exposed Near Madison, WI (a)

 Initial Finish First Refinish
Finish Group and Number (b,c) FP NP ST FP NP ST

A-1-Clear SB WR <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
A-2-Clear mineral oil WRP 1.5 1.5 1.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
A-3-Clear natural oil-based 1.5 1.5 1.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
 WRP
A-4-Clear 30% S WB WRP 0.5 0.5 0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
A-5-Clear 5% S WB WRP 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
A-6-Clear 20% S WB WRP 1.5 1.5 2 0.5 0.5 0.5
A-7-Clear 67% S oil-based SB 1.5 1.5 2[7] (e) <0.5 <0.5 <1
 WRP

 Second Refinish Third Refinish
Finish Group and Number (d) FP NP ST FP NP ST

A-8-Clear 4% S WB WRP <0.5 0.5 0.7 1 1 1
A-9-Clear mineral oil WRP 2 1.5 2 1.5 1.5 1.5
A-10-Tinted 45% S WB WRP 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
A-11-Clear 14% S SB WRP 1.2 1.5 1.5 3.5 3 2
A-12-Clear 10% S WB WRP <0.5 0.5 <0.5 3 3.5 3
A-13-Tinted 55% S SB WRP 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.5 3 2
A-14-Clear 67% S oil-based SB 1 1 1 3 3.5 2.5
 WRP

Table 3B -- Service Life (Years) of Water-Repellent Preservatives (WRP)
Exposed Near Gulfport, MS

 Initial Refinish First Refinish
Finish Number FP NP ST FP NP ST

A-1-Clear SB WR <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
A-2-Clear mineral oil WRP 1.5 1.5 1.5 <0.5 2[7] (e) <0.5
A-3-Clear natural oil-based 1 1.5 1.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
 WRP
A-4-Clear 30% S WB WRP <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
A-5-Clear 5% S WB WRP 0.5 1.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
A-6-Clear 20% S WB WRP <0.5 0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
A-7-Clear 67% S oil-based SB 2 1 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
 WRP

 Second Refinish Third Refinish
Finish Number FP NP ST FP NP ST

A-8 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1.5 1.5
A-9 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.4
A-10 0.5 1 0.5 1 1 1
A-11 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 3.5 2 1.5
A-12 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1.5 2 1.4
A-13 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2.5 3 2.5
A-14 <0.5 0.5 0.5 15 15 15

(a) Service life was determined on the basis of the average evaluations
of general appearance.
(b) Each of the A-1 to A-7 finishes were applied to sections of three
replicate boards.
(c) SB: solventborne; WB: waterborne; WR: water repellent; S: solids;
STS: semitransparent stain; WRP: water-repellent preservatives; SCS:
solid-color stain; TC: topcoat; FP: factory-planed flat-grained; NP:
newly planed vertical-grained; ST: saw-textured.
(d) The second and third refinish was done using finishes A-8 to A-14.
(e) Value in brackets indicates that the rating was "7" after 2 years.

Table 4 -- Service Life (Years) of Semitransparent Stains Exposed Near
Madison or Gulfport (a)

 Madison
 Erosion General
Finish Number and Description (b) FP NP ST FP NP ST

B-1-Redwood 24% S (c) alkyd mod. 3 4 6 <1.5 <1.5 6
 acrylic WB STS
B-2-Redwood 27% S acrylic latex 2 2 6 0.5 <1.5 6
 WB STS
B-3-Cedar 76% S oil-based SB STS 6 6 12 6 6 11
B-4-Cedar 60% S oil-based SB STS 1 1.5 2 0.5 1 5
B-5-Pigmented 27% S WB STS 3 3 10 2 3 10
B-6-Cedar 27% S WB STS 5 5 9 0.5 0.5 7
B-7-Cedar 6% S SB STS 6 2.5 7 3 2 7

 Gulfport
 Erosion General
Finish Number and Description (b) FP NP ST FP NP ST

B-1-Redwood 24% S (c) alkyd mod. 3 2 10 3 <1 8
 acrylic WB STS
B-2-Redwood 27% S acrylic latex 0.5 2 7 <0.5 <0.5 6
 WB STS
B-3-Cedar 76% S oil-based SB STS 4 4 11 2 1 9 (d)
B-4-Cedar 60% S oil-based SB STS <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
B-5-Pigmented 27% S WB STS 6 3 10 5 3 10
B-6-Cedar 27% S WB STS 3 0.5 10 <0.5 <0.5 8
B-7-Cedar 6% S SB STS 6 2 9 <0.5 0.5 7

(a) Service life was determined on the basis of the average evaluations
of erosion and general appearance.
(b) Each of the B-1 to B-7 finishes were applied to sections of three
replicate boards.
(c) SB: solventborne; WB: waterborne; WR: water repellent; S: solids;
STS: semitransparent stain; SCS: solid-color stain; TC: topcoat; FP:
factory-planed flat-grained; NP: newly planed vertical-grained; ST:
saw-textured.
(d) The rating was below "5" early in the exposure, then above "5." The
value in the table is for the final drop below a rating of "5."

Table 5 -- Service Life (Years) of Solid-Color Stains Exposed Near
Madison or Gulfport (a)

 Madison
 Cracking General
Finish Number and Description (b,c) FP NP ST FP NP ST

C-1-White 78% S oil-based SB SCS 8 8 14 8 9 14
 [6] (d) [6]
C-2-White 45% S acrylic-based WB SCS 9 8 12 8 8 13
C-3-Tan 54% S oil-based SB SCS 10 10 13 10 9 14
C-4-Tan 39% S acrylic-based WB SCS 8 7 12 8 6 10
C-5-Red 55% S oil-based SB SCS 13 9 14 12 9 12
 [7] [6] [7]
C-6-Red 38% S acrylic-based WB SCS 9 7 14 10 10 12
 [7] [7]
C-7-Red 55% S oil-primer + 38% S 14 14 14 12 12 12
 acrylic SCS [6] [6] [8] [7] [7]

 Gulfport
 Cracking General
Finish Number and Description (b,c) FP NP ST FP NP ST

C-1-White 78% S oil-based SB SCS 10 9 12 5 5 10
C-2-White 45% S acrylic-based WB SCS 11 10 12 3.5 3.5 9
C-3-Tan 54% S oil-based SB SCS 11 10 14 7 6 10
 [9]
C-4-Tan 39% S acrylic-based WB SCS 7 7 14 4.5 3 9
 [9]
C-5-Red 55% S oil-based SB SCS 12 10 14 11 9 12
 [9] [8]
C-6-Red 38% S acrylic-based WB SCS 12 11 14 11 11 12
 [8] [7]
C-7-Red 55% S oil-primer + 38% S 12 11 14 12 12 12
 acrylic SCS [9] [6] [7]

(a) Service life was determined on the basis of the average evaluations
of cracking and general appearance.
(b) SB: solventborne; WB: waterborne; WR: water repellent; S: solids;
STS: semitransparent stain; SCS: solid-color stain; TC: topcoat; FP:
factory-planed flat-grained; NP: newly planed vertical-grained; ST: saw-
textured.
(c) Each of the C-1 to C-7 finishes were applied to sections of three
replicate boards.
(d) Value in brackets indicates that the rating was "6" after 14 years.

Table 6 -- Service Life (Years) of Paints Exposed Near Madison or
Gulfport (a)

 Madison
Finish Number and Cracking General
 Description (b,c) FP NP ST FP NP ST

D-1-Red 55% S oil-based SCS 14 14 14 14 14 14
 (2 coats) [9] [10] [7] [7] [8]
D-2-White 78% S oil-based SCS + 12 14 14 10 12 14
 45% S acrylic SCS [7] [8]
D-3-White 80% S alkyd primer + 13 6 13 12 10 12
 71% S alkyd TC
D-4-White 38% S latex primer + 12 7 14 10 10 10
 46% S latex TC [8]
D-5-White 48% S acrylic primer 14 14 14 13 14 14
 + 57% S acrylic TC [6] [9] [9] [7] [8]
D-6-White 77% S alkyd primer + 13 14 14 9 12 12
 57% S acrylic TC [6] [8]
D-7-White 74% S alkyd primer + 14 14 14 14 14 14
 53% S acrylic TC [7] [9] [9] [7] [7] [7]

 Gulfport
Finish Number and Cracking General
 Description (b,c) FP NP ST FP NP ST

D-1-Red 55% S oil-based SCS 14 14 14 14 (d) 14 (d) 14 (d)
 (2 coats) [7] [9] [8] [6] [7] [8]
D-2-White 78% S oil-based SCS + 14 14 14 8 8 10 (d)
 45% S acrylic SCS [8]
D-3-White 80% S alkyd primer + 13 7 14 4 (d) 7 10
 71% S alkyd TC [8]
D-4-White 38% S latex primer + 13 9 14 5 4 10
 46% S latex TC [8]
D-5-White 48% S acrylic 14 14 14 10 10 14
 primer + 57% S acrylic TC [7] [8] [6]
D-6-White 77% S alkyd primer + 14 14 14 7 (d) 7 10
 57% S acrylic TC [8]
D-7-White 74% S alkyd primer + 14 14 14 10 10 14
 53% S acrylic TC [7] [9] [8]

(a) Service life was determined on the basis of the average evaluations
of general appearance.
(b) SB: solventborne; WB: waterborne; WR: water repellent; S: solids;
STS: semitransparent stain; SC: solid-color stain; TC: topcoat; FP:
factory-planed flat-grained; NP: newly planed vertical-graine ST: saw-
textured.
(c) Each of the D-1 to D-7 finishes were applied to sections of three
replicate boards.
(d) The rating was below "5" early in the exposure, then above "5." The
value in the table is for the final drop below a rating of "5."

Table 7 -- Service Life (Years) of Solid-Color Stain (SCS) with a Water
Repellent Preservative (WRP) Pretreatment Exposed Near Madison or
Gulfport (a)

 Madison
 Cracking General
Finish Number and Description (b,c) FP NP ST FP NP ST

E-1-White 78% S oil-based SB SCS 6 7 14 6 7 14
 [8] (d) [7]
E-2-White 45% S acrylic-based WB SCS 5 5 11 2 1 8
E-3-Tan 54% S oil-based SB SCS 6 6 12 8 8 11
E-4-Tan 39% S acrylic-based WB SCS 5 5 12 6 6 9
E-5-Red 55% S oil-based SB SCS 9 8 7 5 5 14
 [8]
E-6-Red 38% S acrylic-based WB SCS 8 7 14 9 9 13
 [6]
E-7-Red 55% S oil-primer + 38% S 12 12 14 14 14 14
 acrylic SCS [9] [6] [6] [8]

 Gulfport
 Cracking General
Finish Number and Description (b,c) FP NP ST FP NP ST

E-1-White 78% S oil-based SB SCS 7 7 12 1 3 9
E-2-White 45% S acrylic-based WB SCS 7 7 11 3 1 8
E-3-Tan 54% S oil-based SB SCS 7 7 12 1 1 9
E-4-Tan 39% S acrylic-based WB SCS 7 7 12 3 3 8
E-5-Red 55% S oil-based SB SCS 10 10 12 1 1 12
 [9] [7]
E-6-Red 38% S acrylic-based WB SCS 8 8 12 9 9 12
 [7]
E-7-Red 55% S oil-primer + 38% S 12 12 12 12 12 12
 acrylic SCS [6] [6] [9] [6] [6] [7]

(a) Service life was determined on the basis of the average evaluations
of general appearance.
(b) SB: solventborne; WB: waterborne; WR: water repellent; S: solids;
STS: semitransparent stain; SCS: solid-color stain; TC: topcoat; FP,
factory-planed flat-grained; NP: newly planed vertical-grained; ST: saw-
textured.
(c) Each of the E-1 to E-7 finishes were applied to sections of three
replicate boards.
(d) Value in brackets indicates that the rating was "8" after 14 years.

Table 8 -- Service Life (Years) of Paint with a Water Repellent
Preservative (WRP) Pretreatment Exposed Near Madison or Gulfport (a)

 Madison
Finish Number and Cracking General
 Description (b,c) FP NP ST FP NP ST

F-1-Red 55% S oil-based SCS 14 14 14 14 14 14
 (2 coats) [7] (d) [9] [10] [7] [7] [8]
F-2-White 78% S oil-based 11 13 14 10 9 14
 SCS + 45% S acrylic SCS [9] [7]
F-3-White 80% S alkyd 9 9 7 11 8 11
 primer + 71% S alkyd TC
F-4-White 38% S latex 14 14 14 11 14 24
 primer + 46% S latex TC [6] [7] [7] [6]
F-5-White 48% S acrylic 14 14 14 14 14 14
 primer + 57% S acrylic TC [9] [9] [10] [7] [9] [8]
F-6-White 77% S alkyd 11 14 14 10 14 14
 primer + 57% S acrylic TC [6] [10] [6] [6]
F-7-White 74% S alkyd 14 14 14 14 14 14
 primer + 53% S acrylic TC [9] [9] [10] [7] [7] [7]

 Gulfport
Finish Number and Cracking General
 Description (b,c) FP NP ST FP NP ST

F-1-Red 55% S oil-based SCS 14 14 14 14 14 14
 (2 coats) [7] [9] [9] [6] (e) [6] (e) [7] (e)
F-2-White 78% S oil-based 13 8 12 10 9 10 (e)
 SCS + 45% S acrylic SCS
F-3-White 80% S alkyd 10 8 7 9 (e) 7 (e) 10 (e)
 primer + 71% S alkyd TC
F-4-White 38% S latex 8 8 8 9 9 10
 primer + 46% S latex TC
F-5-White 48% S acrylic 14 14 14 10 (e) 10 (e) 14 (e)
 primer + 57% S acrylic TC [9] [6] [6]
F-6-White 77% S alkyd 14 10 10 8 8 10
 primer + 57% S acrylic TC
F-7-White 74% S alkyd 14 10 14 9 9 13
 primer + 53% S acrylic TC [9] [6]

(a) Service life was determined on the basis of the average evaluations
of general appearance.
(b) SB: solventborne; WB: waterborne; WR: water repellent; S: solids;
STS: semitransparent stain; SCS; solid-color stain; TC: topcoat; FP:
factory-planed flat-grained; NP: newly planed vertical-grained; ST:
saw-textured.
(c) Each of the F-1 to F-7 finishes were applied to sections of three
replicate boards.
(d) Value in brackets indicates that the rating was "7" after 14 years.
(e) The rating was below "5" early in the exposure, then above "5." The
value in the table is for the final drop below a rating of "5."
COPYRIGHT 2007 Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2007, Gale Group. All rights reserved.

Article Details
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Author:Williams, R. Sam; Feist, William C.
Publication:JCT CoatingsTech
Date:Aug 1, 2007
Words:9892
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