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Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Among Commercial Layers in Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Byline: Muhammad Mukhtar, Mian Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Irfan Anwar, Zahid Hussain, Nadeem Bhatti and Saima Ali

Abstract: Mycoplamosis is one of the most important health hazards being faced by the poultry industry of Pakistan. This study was designed to rule out the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in layer flocks of District Faisalabad of Pakistan during a period of one year from January to December, 2010. A total of 640 sera samples were collected from 81 commercial layer flocks with complaint of respiratory distress. On the basis of serum plate agglutination test, 40 flocks were found positive for MG indicating a share of 49.01% among the respiratory diseases. Among 40 positive flocks for MG the highest prevalence (54.84 %) was found in pullets, followed by 46.34 %, and 44.44 % in adult and old laying flocks, respectively. Similarly, seroprevalence was also higher (49.01%) in pullets as compared to old layers (28.71%).

The disease was more prevalent in winter season (45.13 %) in comparison with the summer season (36.30 %). With respect to flocking density, the higher prevalence rate (48.11%) was recorded in flocks having high bird density as compared to those with lower one (27.27 %).

Keywords: Seroprevalence, Mycoplasmosis, Layers, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

INTRODUCTION

Poultry industry has made remarkable progress in Pakistan during the last few decades from a backyard venture to a considerably sophisticated commercial industry. In spite of the rapid growth of poultry industry, it is still prone to certain infectious threats which may cause great economic losses. Inadequate measures adopted by the stakeholders for the control of diseases in addition to certain management problems have rendered the poultry farming a risky business. A number of viral and bacterial diseases are the major health hazards being faced by poultry industry, among which mycoplasmosis is the most important. Mycoplasmosis is caused by four major pathogens viz. M. gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), M. meleagrides (MM) and M. iowae (MI) [1]. MG is the major cause of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) and economically causes more losses as compared to other Mycoplasma species [2].

Birds of all age groups are susceptible to this disease but young birds are more prone to infection than adults [3]. The clinical signs with MG infection in chicken include respiratory rales, nasal discharge, coughing, and occasionally conjunctivitis [4]. In broiler breeders and commercial layers, it causes a marked drop in egg production and an increase in embryo mortality [5].

Serological evidence of avian mycoplasmosis in Pakistan had been reported as early as in 1964 [6]. Later on, the 12.69% incidence of mycoplasmosis was reported in Faisalabad District among the 430 flocks with respiratory problems [7]. An upward trend was noted during the year 1991 to 1995 in seroprevalence of MG (35.8%) and MS (28.30 %) infection in Faisalabad and northern areas of Pakistan [8] followed by the 37.40 % by Mukhtar [9] who reported a higher prevalence (90.20%) of MG in mycoplasmosis than MS infection (15.70 %) in the local field conditions. However, no work was made after these early investigations to know the incidence of Mycoplasmosis in the Faisalabad area. Keeping in view the economic importance of disease, an intense need arises for designing the prevalence surveys to define and quantify the disease burden in poultry layers.

This will help the policy makers and practitioners to devise new ways for strategic and tactical control of disease; and poultry farmers to adopt in time improved chemo- or immuno-prophylactic approaches to prevent the disease and subsequent production losses associated with the mycoplasmosis.

The present study reports the current status of M. gallisepticum infection in commercial layers of District Faisalabad, Pakistan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Eighty one open shed commercial layer flocks suffering from respiratory distress were selected in and around District Faisalabad, Pakistan. Blood samples (2mL) were collected from ten ailing birds from each flock. Serum from each blood sample was separated and stored at -21oC till further analysis.

All the Sera samples were subjected to serum plate agglutination (SPA) test against Mycoplasma gallisepticum antigen (Intervet International). Agglutination was assigned score from +1 to +3. Only the sera samples having agglutination score +2 or greater were recorded as positive and were included for calculation of percent prevalence [8].

RESULTS

The present study was conducted on 81 randomly selected poultry farms with respiratory problems during a period of one year from January 2010 to December 2010. The results showed that out of eighty one layer flocks, 40 flocks were found positive against M.

Table 1:Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Among Various Age Group Flocks Suffering from Respiratory Problems in District Faisalabad, Pakistan

###No. of flocks with###Myco plasma gallisepticum

###Percentage###X2

Age Group###No. of Birds###respiratory problems###Positive flocks

Pullets###152000###31###17###54.84%

Adults###179200###41###19###46.34%###10.23

Olds###34500###09###04###44.44 %

Table 2: Season Wise Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Among Commercial Layers in District Faisalabad, Pakistan

Season###No. of flocks###No. of serum

###observed###samples tested###Seropositive (+ve)###Seronegative

###(-ye)###X

Summer

###35###270###98 (36.30%)###172

(April to September)

Winter###17.90

(October to March)###46###370###167(45.13%)###203

gallisepticum with an overall prevalence rate of 49.38%. In age wise prevalence, results showed a maximum prevalence (54.84%) in pullets followed by adult and old layers with 46.34% and 44.44% prevalence rates, respectively (Table 1).

In season-wise prevalence analysis, a higher prevalence rate (45.13%) was recorded in winter season as compared to summer (36.30%) (Table 2). Results showed a positive correlation between the flocking density and percent prevalence of MG and the maximum infection of MG was recorded in large size flocks having a bird density of 5000 or more as compared to small ones (Table 3).

DISCUSSION

In the present study, overall prevalence of M. gallisepticum was 49.38% and this was significantly higher than the previously reported value (43.80%) in

Table 3: Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in layer with respect to flocking density

Sr. No.###Flock Size (No. of Birds! flock)###No. of flocks###Total samples tested###Seropositive (%)###x2

###1###500-1000###6###33###9(27.27

###2###1001-2000###15###106###33 (31.13%)

###3###2001-3000###18###128###50 (39.06%)

###4###3001-4000###10###83###34(40.96%)###111.24

###5###4001-5000###9###78###37 (47.43

###6###5001-Above###23###212###102(48.11%)

###81###640###265 (41.41)

the same area [9]. Findings of this study showed the increasing trend in prevalence rate of MG. This might be due to more and extensive poultry farming in the area. These findings were in line with some other previous reports [10-13], who reported 57.15%,54.90%, 52% and 53% seroprevalence of MG infection in chickens in thickly populated poultry farming areas. Similarly, Sarkar and his coworkers [14] reported 58.9% seropositive layer chickens for MG infection on some model poultry farms in Feni District of Bangladesh. Further, Hossain [15], Heleili [16] and their coworkers also recorded high seroprevalence rates 45.10 % and 81.15 % of MG in laying hens of Rajshahi and Batna Districts of Estern Algeria and its surroundings, respectively.

Results showed the maximum prevalence in pullets followed by adult and old layers, respectively. Previously, Mukhtar [9] recorded 31.60 %, 17.90 %,11.20 % and 10.00 % seroprevalence of MG in pullets,chicks, adults and old layer, respectively at the same study area. Similarly, the highest MG infection (71.42%) at 18 weeks of age and lowest (55.17%) at 63 weeks of age in layers had also been reported [17]. The findings of Hossain and coworkers [15, 18] also support our results who recorded a higher prevalence of MG infection in younger birds as compared to older ones. Higher infection in the young chickens might be due to the vertical transmission of the organisms from parent flock or lesser immunity level and it can be speculated that, until and unless parent flocks are not free from Mycoplasmosis, the disease cannot be control from commercial flocks.

Results showed a higher prevalence of M. gallisepticum in winter as compared to the summer season and similar report was published earlier [14] that reported 62.4% prevalence of MG infection in addition to horizontal transmission of the organisms from one bird to the other. During this study it was found that most of the open shed poultry farm (n=34) had poor management conditions and lesser farms had satisfactory (n=31) or good conditions (n=16). Excellent management was not observed on any of the farm surveyed. A direct correlation was found between management and prevalence of MG infection as41.97% flocks were MG positive under poor management. Earlier, it has also been reported that the MG infection was more prevalent in the flocks kept under poor management conditions [9].

The other contributing factors of high prevalence in Faisalabad District might include the construction of poultry farms in closes vicinity and opportunity for recycling of the pathogens to persist longer in the area. The other factors that may contribute in MG infection include poor ventilation, contamination of litter and no restriction on the movement of technical staff and visitors from one farm to the other as well as lack of basic bio-security measures.

From results of the current study, it was concluded that MG was highly prevalent in the flocks of layer chickens located in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Keeping in view, efforts should be made towards educating the poultry farmers for the effective control of MG in layer farms through good management practices and adoption of appropriate prophylactic or therapeutic remedies. Moreover, detailed studies on the country wide prevalence of MG should be designed to know the current status of disease in the Pakistan.

REFERENCES

[1] Bradbury JM. Avian mycoplasmosis. In: Poultry Diseases, 5th edition, W. B. Saunders Company, Iowa, USA 2001; pp.178-193.

[2] Ley DH, Yoder HW Jr. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. In: Disease of Poultry, 10 ed. Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM, Eds. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. USA 1997; pp. 194-207.

[3] Nunoya TT, et al. Occurrence of keratoconjunctivitis apparently caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum inlayer chickens. Vet Pathol 1995; 32: 11-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030098589503200102

[4] Saif YM, Barnes HJ, Glisson JR, Fadly AM, McDougald LR, Swayne DE. Diseases of Poultry; 11th ed. Iowa State Press, Ames, USA 2003: pp. 722-43.

[5] Ley DH. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. In: Diseases of Poultry. 11t h ed. Saif YM, Barnes HJ, Fadly AM, Glisson JR, Mc Dougald LR, Swayne DE, Eds. Ames: Iowa State University Press 2003: pp. 122-44.

[6] Shah AH. Occurrence of chronic respiratory disease of domestic fowls in West Pakistan. M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan 1984.

[7] Tariq N, Siddique M, Irfan M. Incidence of Mycoplasmosis in chicken in Punjab, Pakistan. J Anim Health Prod 1987; 7: 12-24.

[8] Ahmad I. Diagnosis and control of Mycoplasman gallisepticum infection in poultry. Final Technical Report, Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, Pakistan 1998; pp. 10-61.

[9] Mukhtar M. Seroprevalence and characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2000.

[10] Godoy A, Andrade LF, Colmenares O, Bermudez V, Herrera A, Munoz N. Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in egg-laying hens. Vet Tropic 2001; 6: 25-33.

[11] Pradhan MAM. Studies on Avian mycoplasmosis: Prevalence, Isolation, Characterization and Antigenic properties. PhD Thesis Submitted to the Departmen of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh 2002.

[12] Biswas PK, Rahman MA, Biswas D, Ahmed S. A longitudinal study on the prevalence ofendemic diseases affecting semi- scavenging poultry reared under PLDP area. 9th BSVER Ann Sci Conf 2003; pp. 24-25.

[13] Dulali RS. Seroprevalence and pathology of mycoplasmosis in sonali chickens. MS Thesis Submitted to the Department of Pathology. Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh 2003; pp.41-65.

[14] Sarkar SK, Rahman MB, Rahman M, Amin KMR, Khan MFR, Rahman MM. Sero-prevalence of Mycoplasma galliseplicum infection in chickens in model breeder poultry farms of Bangladesh. Int J Poult Sci 2005; 4: 32-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2005.32.35

[15] Hossain KMM, Hossain MDT, Yamato I. Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infection in Chickens in Rajshahi and Surrounding Districts of Bangladesh. Int J Biol 2010; 2: 74-80.

[16] Heleili N, Mamache BI, Chelihi A. Incidence of Avian Mycoplasmosis in theregion of Batna, Eastern Algeria. Vet World 2011; 4: 101-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2011.101-105

[17] Sikder AJ, Islam MA, Rahman MM, Rahman MB.Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisetpticum infection in the six model breeder poultry farms at Patuakhili district in Bangladesh. Int J Poult Sci 2005; 4:905-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2005.905.910

[18] Hossain KMM, Godoy A, Andrade LF, Colmenares O, li MY, Haque MI. Seroprevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chicken in the greater rajshahi district of bangladesh. Bangl Res Work J Vet Med 2007; 5: 9-14.
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Article Details
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Author:Mukhtar, Muhammad; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan; Hussain, Zahid; Bhatti, Nadeem; Ali,
Publication:Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2012
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