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Serological status of IBR, BVD, leucosis, Leptospira and Neospora caninum in bovine females of the department of Santander, Colombia/Estado serologico a IBR, DVB, Leucosis, Leptospira y Neospora caninum en hembras bovinas del Departamento de Santander, Colombia.

INTRODUCTION

Reproductive infectious diseases represent a serious limitation of bovine production. The etiology of these disease is diverse and comprises a variety of viral, bacterial, protozoan, chlamydial and fungal agents, some of which are zoonotic (1). Brucellosis, neosporosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis are the most well-known diseases and cause the greatest economic losses for the livestock industry (2). The main alterations caused by these agents are abortions and infertility. These alterations make diagnosis difficult, as more than 50% of abortions have an indeterminate etiology (3). Regardless of the individual losses caused by each agent, the association between them generates different co-infections that can be subclinical and can increase economic losses (4,5).

In contrast to the prevalence of these agents in some European countries, where they are being eradicated (6-8), their prevalence in Colombia continues to be high in some regions, and no short-term strategies are available for effective control measures.

This situation may affect the competitiveness of the livestock sector in the future, since disease-free countries can impose health and commercial barriers to meat and other products originating from countries that are not disease-free.

Colombia has a cattle population of 22.689.420, of which 1.412.313 are located in the department of Santander, which makes this department the sixth largest cattle-producing department (9). Although isolated serological studies have been performed in other regions of cattle importance (10-12), no studies have been conducted for the department of Santander.

The objective of this study was to determine the serological status of bovine females against IBR, BVD, leucosis, Leptospira and Neospora caninum in the department of Santander, Colombia.

INTRODUCCION

Las enfermedades infecciosas de tipo reproductivo representan un serio limitante de la produccion bovina, la etiologia es diversa y comprende una variedad de agentes virales, bacterianos, protozoarios, chlamydia y hongos, algunos de los cuales tienen caracter zoonotico (1). La Brucelosis, neosporosis, leptospirosis, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina son las enfermedades mas conocidas y las que mayores perdidas economicas ocasionan a la industria ganadera (2). Las principales alteraciones ocasionada por estos agentes son los abortos y la infertilidad, siendo dificil el diagnostico ya que mas del 50% de los abortos tiene una etiologia indeterminada (3). Independientemente de las perdidas indivuales que pueda ocasionar cada agente, la asociacion entre ellos genera diferentes coinfecciones que pueden cursar de forma subclinica aumentando las perdidas economicas (4,5).

A diferencia de lo que ocurre en algunos paises Europeos, en donde los mencionados agentes se encuentran en proceso de erradicacion (6-8), en Colombia la prevalencia continua siendo alta en algunas regiones estudiadas y no se vislumbra en el corto plazo estrategias efectivas de control.

Esta situacion podria afectar la competitividad del sector ganadero en un futuro, puesto que los paises que logran obtener el estatus libre para estas enfermedades, podrian imponer barreras sanitarias y comerciales a la carne y otros productos, frente a aquellos que no lo logran.

Colombia cuenta con una poblacion bovina de 22'689.420 de cabezas de ganado de las cuales 1.412.313 se ubican en el Departamento de Santander ocupando el sexto puesto frente a los otros departamentos ganaderos (9) si bien se conocen estudios aislados sobre el estado serologico de otras regiones de importancia ganadera (10-12), no ha ocurrido lo mismo para el departamento de Santander.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Location. The work was conducted in 460 cattle farms of 23 municipalities of Santander. Santander is located in the northeastern region of the country and is composed of 87 municipalities grouped into six provinces: Comunera, Garcia Rovira, Guanenta, Mares, Soto and Velez.

A total of 440 blood samples from 460 farms with no vaccination history were collected during the second half of 2015 and assessed by ELISA. The municipalities included in the study were Piedecuesta, Mesa de los Santos, San Gil, Betulia, Guadalupe, San Vicente de Chucuri, Charala, Puerto Wilches, Barbosa, Cerrito, Malaga, Suaita, Guapota, Barrancabermeja, Puerto Parra, Simacota, Sabana de Torres, Matanza, Miranda, Mogotes, Rio Negro, Velez and Cimitarra.

Obtaining blood samples. A total of 5.0 ml of blood was obtained from the coccygeal vein of each animal using an 18-gauge needle and collected in Vacutainer[R] tubes without anticoagulant. The samples were duly identified, transported at 4[degrees]C to the Clinical Veterinary Laboratory of the Cooperative University of Colombia (UCC) and centrifuged at 2,500 revolutions per minute (rpm) for 10 minutes. The resulting sera was fractioned into 2.0 ml vials and stored at -20[degrees]C prior to analysis.

ELISA test. Samples were processed using commercial indirect ELISA kits for the detection of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), enzootic bovine leukosis and Neospora caninum (Svanova Biotech[R]). Indirect ELISAs use immobilized antigens on microplates and detect antibodies in bovine sera.

For the diagnosis of Leptospira, a double antibody sandwich assay (DAS-ELISA) (Linnodee bovine Leptospira Elisa kit) was used to detect antibodies in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo (hardjp bovis) and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo (lPS) hardjo pratjino. In all tests, the procedures used in the laboratory followed the manufacturer's instructions.

Ethical aspects. The authors state that respectful treatment was given to the animals during the execution of the project proper and that the blood collections were always performed by professionals in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry with the consent of the owners.

Statistical analysis. The information obtained was recorded in a database in Excel and analyzed using descriptive statistics.

El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el estado serologico de hembras bovinas frente a IBR, DVB, leucosis, leptospira y Neospora caninum procedentes del departamento de Santander, Colombia.

MATERIALES Y METODOS

Ubicacion. El trabajo se llevo a cabo en 460 fincas ganaderas de 23 municipios de Santander, el cual se ubica en la region nororiental del pais y esta conformado por 87 municipios, agrupados en seis provincias: Comunera, Garcia Rovira, Guanenta, Mares, Soto y Velez.

Se colectaron en total 440 muestras sanguineas procedentes de 460 fincas sin antecedentes de vacunacion, durante el segundo semestre del ano 2015, las cuales fueron corridas por ELISA. Los municipios de estudio fueron Piedecuesta, Mesa de los Santos, San Gil, Betulia, Guadalupe, San Vicente de Chucuri, Charala, Puerto Wilches, Barbosa, Cerrito, Malaga, Suaita, Guapota, Barrancabermeja, Puerto Parra, Simacota, Sabana de Torres, Matanza, Miranda, Mogotes, Rio Negro, Velez y Cimitarra.

Obtencion de muestras sanguineas. De cada animal se obtuvo de la vena coccigea, 5.0 ml de sangre con aguja calibre 18 en tubos Vacutainer[R] sin anticoagulante. Las muestras fueron debidamente identificadas, transportadas a 4[grados]C, hasta el Laboratorio Clinico Veterinario de la Universidad cooperativa de Colombia (UCC), centrifugadas a 2.500 revoluciones por minuto (rpm) durante 10 minutos y el suero obtenido fraccionados en viales de 2.0 ml y almacenados a -20[grados]C hasta su analisis.

Prueba de ELISA. Las muestras fueron procesadas utilizando kits comerciales de ELISA indirecto para la deteccion de anticuerpos contra: Diarrea viral bovina (DVB), Rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina (IBR), Leucosis enzootica bovina, Neospora caninum (Svanova biotech[R]). El ELISA indirecto usa antigenos inmovilizados en las microplacas y detecta anticuerpos en los sueros de los bovinos.

En el diagnostico de Leptospira se utilizo un ensayo Sandwich de doble anticuerpo (DAS-ELISA) (Linnodee bovine Leptospira Elisa kit) que detecta anticuerpos en respuesta al lipopolisacarido (LPS) de Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo (hardjp bovis) y Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo (hardjo pratjino). En todas las pruebas los procedimientos utilizados en el laboratorio siguieron las instrucciones del fabricante.

RESULTS

Animals exhibited seroreactivity to all diseases studied, with general prevalence rates as follows: leucosis, 21.8%; Leptospira, 26.1%; BVD, 29.7%; IBR, 48.2%; and Neospora, 63% (Figure 1).

Province-wide, Neospora caninum had the highest seroprevalence, with the highest values in the provinces of Velez (82.2%), Soto (78.6%), Garcia-Rovira (70.8%), Guanenta (59%), Comunera (57.8%) and Mares %). Regarding IBR, the highest prevalence values corresponded to Comunera (76.6%), Guanenta (59%) and Velez (50%). The highest prevalence of BVD was observed in Garcia-Rovira (47.9%), and the lowest was found in Mares (15.6%), whereas for bovine leucosis, the highest prevalence was detected in Comunera (46.9%), and no reactors were present in Garcia-Rovira (0%). Finally, the highest values for Leptospira were found in Mares (40%), and the lowest values were observed in Comunera (14.1%) (Figure 2).

Aspectos eticos. Los autores declaran que durante la ejecucion del proyecto se dio adecuado y respetuoso trato a los animales y que las colectas de sangre fueron siempre ejecutadas por profesionales en medicina veterinaria y zootecnia con el consentimiento de los propietarios.

Analisis estadistico. La informacion obtenida fue consignada en una base de datos en Excell, y analizada mediante estadistica descriptiva.

RESULTADOS

Para todas las enfermedades estudiadas se encontraron animales seroreactores, correspondiendo la prevalencia general a Leucosis 21.8%, Leptospira 26.1%, DVB 29.7, IBR 48.2% y Neospora 63 % (Figura 1).

La mayor seroprevalencia por provincia correspondio a Neospora caninum, encontrando los mayores valores en Velez (82.2%), Soto (78.6%) y Garcia-Rovira (70.8%), Guanenta (59%), comunera (57.8%) y mares (36.5%). En cuanto a IBR las mayores prevalencia correspondio a comunera (76.6%) Guanenta (59%) y Velez (50%). Se resalta en DVB la mayor prevalencia en Garcia-Rovira (47.9%) y la menor en Mares (15.6%), mientras a Leucosis Bovina la mayor prevalencia fue comunera (46.9%) sin presencia de reactores en Garcia-Rovira (0%). Finalmente los mayores valores a Leptopira se encontraron en Mares (40%) y los menores en comunera (14.1%) (Figura 2).

Respecto a los municipios el mayor numero de reactores a Neospora caninum se encontraron en Guapota y Simacota, a IBR en Guapota, la mesa de los Santos y Betualia, sin prresencia de reactores en Miranda. En DVB la distribucion de los seropositivos fue homogenea entre los municipios, mientras en leucosis la prevalencia de algunos municipios fue de media a baja sin presencia de reactores, en Cerrito, Malaga, Miranda, Mogotes, Piede cuesta y Puerto Wilches. Frente a Leptospira los menores valores se vieron en Sabana de torres, Suaita, Guapota, Matanzas y Mesa de los Santos, sin presencia de reactores en Miranda (Tabla 1).

DISCUSION

El estudio de las enfermedades reproductivas en las principales regiones ganaderas de Colombia es una actividad que debe ser prioritaria con el objeto de establecer planes de control y de ser posibles programas de erradicacion zonal que permitan mejorar el estatus sanitario del hato nacional.

Regarding the municipalities, the largest numbers of reactors to Neospora caninum were found in Guapota and Simacota and to IBR in Guapota, Mesa de los Santos and Betualia; no reactors were found in Miranda. The distribution of BVD seropositive sera was homogeneous among the municipalities, whereas in some municipalities the prevalence of leucosis was medium to low, and no reactors were present in Cerrito, Malaga, Miranda, Mogotes, Piede Cuesta and Puerto Wilchesin. The lowest values for Leptospira were observed in Sabana de Torres, Suaita, Guapota, Matanzas and Mesa de los Santos, and no reactors were found in Miranda (Table 1).

DISCUSSION

The study of reproductive diseases in the main cattle regions of Colombia must be prioritized to establish control plans and enable zonal eradication programs for the improvement of the health status of the country's herd.

The results of this study show a high presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum (63%) that coincides with studies in several countries (13), indicating that this disease is the major cause of economic losses in dairy and beef cattle worldwide (14). A similar prevalence (57.5%) has been reported in the Sugamuxi Valley (Boyaca) (15), and a higher prevalence has been reported in bulls of Middle Magdalena Valley (79.3%) (16), which is in contrast with the low seropositivity (10.2%) in animals from Monteria with reproductive problems (17). The high prevalence in bovine females in this study should be a cause for concern, since this infection has been associated with epidemic abortion in dairy cattle (18), and vertical transmission of the infection can infect the entire herd.

Los resultados de este estudio evidencian una alta presencia de anticuerpos contra Neospora caninum (63%) que coinciden con estudios de diversos paises (13) que senalan esta enfermedad como la mayor causa de perdidas economicas en ganado de leche y carne a nivel mundial (14). Una prevalencia similar (57.5%) ha sido reportada en estudios en el Valle de Sugamuxi (Boyaca) (15) y mayor en toros del Magdalena medio (79.3%) (16), que contrastan con una baja seropositividad (10.2%) en animales de Monteria con problemas reproductivos (17). La alta prevalencia en hembras bovinas provenientes este estudio, debe ser motivo de preocupacion, puesto que esta infeccion ha sido asociada con el aborto epidemico en ganado de leche (18), ademas la forma de transmision vertical hace que la infeccion se perpetue en los hatos.

Concomitantemente, se ha observado que los animales seropositivos tienen una mayor probabilidad (12-19 veces) de sufrir un aborto frente a los animales seronegativos (19). Aunque esta seropositividad debe ser contrastada con los hallazgos clinicos a nivel de campo, especialmente con los problemas de aborto. De encontrarse esta relacion, dificilmente podria aumentar la poblacion ganadera de la region, para dar cumplimiento con la mayor demanda por carne y leche de los mercados internos y externos.

Concomitantly, seropositive animals are more likely (12-19 times) to abort than seronegative animals (19), but this outcome should be contrasted with clinical findings in the field. If this relationship exists, increasing the region's livestock population in response to the increased demand for meat and milk by domestic and foreign markets will be difficult.

However, this information should be carefully analyzed, since cross-reactions have been found with other cyst-forming parasites of the family Sarcocystidae, including Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp., Hammondia spp. and Besnoitia besnoiti (20), which have not been studied in the country and should be investigated.

The prevalence of IBR (48.2%), which had the second highest prevalence in this study, was similar to that reported in different countries (21). However, within the country, IBR is much more prevalent in other regions, including Antioquia (85.5%), Valle (69.8%) (10), Monteria, Cordoba (74.7%) (22), Colombian Altillanura (84%) (23) and Caqueta (90%) (11). In another study, the prevalence in bulls from Middle Magdalena was 92.5% (24). However, bovine herpesvirus 5 (HVB-5), which is a recently detected agent in the country (23), presents a cross-reaction with bovine herpes virus 1 (HVB-1), which is the etiological agent of IBR, and may interfere with these results; this possibility warrants further research. In addition, the latent nature of both herpesviruses suggests that they will continue to circulate indefinitely on farms with seropositive animals with subsequent new infections and reinfections.

Regarding BVD, studies in the country have found a high prevalence in the Bogota savannah (89%) (25) but a progressively lower prevalence in other regions, such as Caqueta (58%) (11), Valle del Cesar (46%) (26) and Monteria, Cordoba (29.4%) (12). Notably, this antibody response possibly corresponded to genotype I of the BVD virus, since at the time of the study, genotype 2 did not exist in Colombia (27). The persistence of this virus on the farms studied will depend on the presence of persistently infected (PI) animals, which can affect the entire herd. Thus, further investigation is warranted to detect these individuals.

No obstante, esta informacion debe ser analizada con cuidado, por cuanto se han encontrado reacciones cruzadas con otros parasitos formadores de quistes de la familia Sarcocystidae entre ellos Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp., Hammondia spp. y Besnoitia besnoiti (20) los cuales no han sido estudiados en el pais y que deben ser objeto de nuevas investigaciones.

Respecto a IBR presento la segunda mas alta prevalencia (48.2%), la cual coincide con reportes de distintos paises (21) y es menor a la encontrada en Antioquia (85.5%) y Valle (69.8%) (10), Monteria Cordoba (74.7%) (22), Altillanura Colombiana (84%) (23) y Caqueta (90%) (11). En otro estudio, la prevalencia en toros reproductores del Magdalena medio fue de 92.5% (24). Sin embargo es probable que un nuevo agente el Herpesvirus bovino tipo 5 (HVB-5) de reciente presencia en el pais (23) quien presenta reaccion cruzada con el herpes virus bovino 1 (HVB-1) el agente etiologico del IBR, puede estar interfiriendo con estos resultados, lo que amerita nuevas investigaciones. Ademas el caracter latente de ambos herpesvirus, hace presumir que se mantendran circulando de forma indefinida en las fincas con animales seropositivos con subsecuentes nuevas infecciones y reinfecciones.

En cuanto a DVB los estudios en el pais han encontrado prevalencias altas en la Sabana de Bogota (89%) (25) pero progresivamente menores en otras regiones como Caqueta (58%) (11) Valle del Cesar (46%) (26) y Monteria, Cordoba (29.4%) (12), llama la atencion que esta respuesta de anticuerpos corresponda posiblemente al genotipo I del virus de DVB, ya que para la fecha de realizacion del estudio no se tenia conocimiento de la existencia del genotipo 2 en Colombia (27). Ademas el mantenimiento de este virus en las fincas estudiadas dependera de la presencia de los animales persistentemente infectados (PI), los cuales son los mayores eliminadores del virus, hecho que amerita nuevas investigaciones para su deteccion.

La prevalencia a Leptospira hardjo (26.1%) es menor a la reportada en centro America (31 a 83%) (28) y otros paises de America Latina (16.4-100%) (29). Aunque es dificil establecer comparaciones con estudios a nivel internacional y nacional en donde la prueba utilizada es la aglutinacion microscopica (MAT), considerada la prueba de referencia, que se fundamenta en el uso de antigenos vivos, mientras que el Elisa utilizado, detecta anticuerpos frente al LPS de los servares hardjo bovis y harjo pratjino que son antigenicamente similares (30).

The prevalence of Leptospira hardjo (26.1%) was lower than the prevalence reported in Central America (31-83%) (28) and other countries in Latin America (16.4-100%) (29). Although establishing comparisons with international and national studies that use microscopic agglutination tests (MAT), which are considered the standard and are based on the use of live antigens, is difficult, the use of ELISA has the advantage of detecting LPS antibodies to the antigenically similar serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis virus (30).

With this clarification, the results obtained are similar to those found in Monteria, Cordoba (20.8%) (31) and Caqueta (28%) (32) but are in contrast to those obtained in the coffee-growing region (45.7%) (33).

With respect to the bovine leukemia virus, which causes enzootic bovine leukosis, the prevalence was lower than the prevalence reported in Peru (42.3%), Paraguay (50%), Bolivia (30%), Argentina (77.4%) and Chile (29.1%) (34) and was similar to that found in the department of Cordoba (21.5%) by ELISA (35). However, the prevalence was high (83% and 60%) in some breeds (Harton del Valle and Chino Santanderano cattle, respectively), which contrasted with the absence of reactors in Blanco Orejinegro, Sanmartinero and Romosinuano cattle and suggested some degree of resistance to the virus (36).

Another study in the Mesa de los Santos (Santander) showed a high prevalence (73%) in dairy cattle (37). In contrast, a lower prevalence (44%) detected by PCR was reported in dairy cattle in the department of Antioquia (38). The use of molecular techniques will likely increase the detection of seropositive animals compared to the use of traditional immunoenzymatic and agglutination techniques, resulting in an increased prevalence in future studies. Although the prevalence found for this virus is not high and economic losses have not been directly associated with reproductive problems, the impact of this virus should not be ignored, since the infected animals have compromised immune systems, which makes them susceptible to suffering from other secondary diseases (39).

The absence of serological reactors to leucosis in the three municipalities of the province of Garcia-Rovira is noteworthy and can be explained by geographic isolation and the absence of roads, which prevent animals from circulating throughout the province. An exception is Cimitarra (Velez province), where the cattle population is larger and the mobilization of cattle is greater due to a cattle auction that allows greater commercialization of cattle to neighboring farms.

Con esta aclaracion los resultados obtenidos son similares a los hallados en Monteria, Cordoba (20.8%) (31) y Caqueta (28%) (32), que contrasta con los obtenidos en el eje cafetero (45.7%) (33).

Con respecto al virus de Leucosis enzootica bovina, la prevalencia es menor a la reportada mediante tecnicas moleculares en Peru (42.3%), Paraguay (50%), Bolivia (30%), Argentina (77.4%) y Chile (29.1%) (34) y similar a la encontrada en el departamento de Cordoba (21.5%) mediante ELISA (35). No obstante en algunas razas criollas como ganado Harton del Valle y Chino Santanderano fue alta (83% y 60% respectivamente), que contrasta con la ausencia de reactores en ganado Blanco orejinegro, Sanmartinero y Romosinuano, lo que sugiere algun grado de resistencia al virus (36).

En otro estudio en la Mesa de los Santos (Santander), arrojo una alta prevalencia (73%) en ganado de leche (37). Contrariamente, una prevalencia menor (44%) por PCR se reporto en vacas de leche del departamento de Antioquia (38). Es probable que el uso de tecnicas moleculares incremente la deteccion de animales seropositivos frente a las tecnicas tradicionales inmunoenzimaticas y de aglutinacion, lo que podria aumentar la prevalencia en futuros estudios. Si bien la prevalencia encontrada a este virus no es alta y las perdidas economicas no se han asociado directamente con problemas reproductivos, este hecho no se debe ignorar, ya que los animales infectados sufren una disfuncion del sistema inmune, lo cual los hacen susceptibles de padecer otras enfermedades secundarias (39).

Llama la atencion la ausencia de reactores serologicos a leucosis en los tres municipios de la provincia de Garcia-Rovira, lo cual puede ser explicado por el aislamiento geografico y ausencia de vias lo que impide una mayor circulacion de animales por la provincia. Contrariamente en Cimitarra (provincia de Velez), la poblacion ganadera es mayor y la movilizacion de ganado mas alta por cuanto alli se ubica la subasta ganadera que permite una mayor comercializacion de ganado a las fincas vecinas.

In conclusion, the prevalence of the diseases analyzed in the department of Santander among the bovine population fluctuates from medium to high and thus requires official control measures.

Conflict of interests. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Se concluye finalmente que en departamento de Santander las enfermedades analizadas se encuentran presentes entre la poblacion bovina con prevalencia que fluctuan entre medio a alto, lo cual requieren de medidas de control oficial.

Conflicto de intereses. Los autores declaran no tener conflicto de intereses.

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Adriana Vargas-Nino (1) MVZ, Jorge Vargas R (1) MVZ, John Armando Parra-Martin (2) Ph.D, Maria Vasquez R (3) M.Sc, Agustin Gongora O (4) Ph.D, Edgar Mogollon-Waltero (1*) Ph.D.

(1) Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Semillero de investigacion en biotecnologias de la reproduccion animal (SIBRA), Grupo de Investigaciones en ciencias animales (GRICA), Calle 30 A No 33-51 Bucaramanga, Colombia. (2) Practica Privada, Zootecnista, Bucaramanga, Colombia. (3) Universidad de Santander, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Programa de Bacteriologia y Laboratorio Clinico, Grupo de Investigaciones CliniUDES, Calle 70 No 55-210 Bucaramanga, Colombia. (4) Universidad de Los Llanos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Grupo de Reproduccion Genetica Animal (GIRGA), Km 12 via Puerto Lopez, Colombia. (*) Correspondencia: edgar.mogollonw@campusucc.edu.co

Received: February 2017; Accepted: June 2017.

DOI: 10.21897/rmvz.1341
Table 1. Seropositivity to the five diseases in the six provinces of
the department of Santander according to municipality.

     Province          Municipality            Seropositivity
                                        Leucosis  Leptospira    BVD

  Comunera (64)           Suaita          2/9        1/9       1/9
                        Guadalupe         9/14       5/14      4/14
                         Simacota         9/21       2/21      4/21
                         Guapota         10/20       1/20      4/20
Garcia-Rovira (48)       Cerrito          0/20       5/20     12/20
                          Malaga          0/13       5/13      7/13
                         Miranda          0/15       0/15      4/15
  Guanenta (39)          San Gil          1/8        2/8       3/8
                         Charala          5/14       3/14      4/14
                         Mogotes          0/17       6/17     10/17
    Soto (56)           Rio negro         2/19      10/19      1/19
                       Piedecuesta        0/8        1/8       6/8
                         Matanzas         1/17       1/17      4/17
                    Mesa de los Santos    1/12       1/12      8/12
   Velez (118)          Cimitarra         6/16       8/16      3/16
                          Velez           1/17       4/17      9/17
                         Barbosa          5/40      10/40     12/40
                       Puerto Parra       8/45       4/45     17/45
   Mares (115)           Betulia          8/13       4/13      1/13
                       San Vicente        1/20       9/20      4/20
                     Barrancabermeja     22/52      22/52      9/52
                     Sabana de Torres     5/15       2/15      1/15
                      Puerto Wilches      0/15       9/15      3/15

     Province        Seropositivity
                     IBR   Neospora

  Comunera (64)      3/9     4/9
                    12/14    1/14
                    15/21   16/21
                    19/20   16/20
Garcia-Rovira (48)   5/20   14/20
                     2/13   10/13
                     0/15   10/15
  Guanenta (39)      6/8     2/8
                     8/14    5/14
                     9/17   16/17
    Soto (56)        3/19   13/19
                     8/8     7/8
                     4/17   12/17
                    11/12   12/12
   Velez (118)       8/16    4/16
                     2/17   11/17
                    17/40   29/40
                    32/45   43/45
   Mares (115)      13/13    0/13
                     3/20    2/20
                    25/52   25/52
                     5/15    5/15
                     2/15   10/15
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Title Annotation:ORIGINAL
Author:Vargas-Nino, Adriana; R., Jorge Vargas; Parra-Martin, John Armando; R., Maria Vasquez; O., Agustin G
Publication:Revista MVZ (Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia)
Date:May 1, 2018
Words:5557
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