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Seminar on conservation of power.

WAPDA in collaboration with Institute of Electrical Engineers (LEEP) Organised a Seminar on Power Conservation at Lahore on March 24, 1990. The Seminars was inaugurated by Begum Nusrat Bhutto. In her inaugural speech Begum Nusrat Bhutto under scored the need for strengthening electricity conservation measures in the country because even after augmenting production there would still be power shortage.

Begun Nusrat Bhutto pointed out that despite limited resources, 30 per cent of the national budget is set aside for electricity generation. That is why, she explained, the government has invited the private sector to help supplement power generation efforts. In this connection, she made particular mention of the oil-based 1200 megawatts Hub project in Balochistan. The project, showing the confidence of the private sector in the people's government. It will cost Rs. 23 billion and will be completed in 46 months.

Begun Nusrat Bhutto disclosed that in order to spread the message of conservation, the Prime Minister has ordered that all advertisements on television for saving electricity will be free. The minister emphasised the need for motivating the people.

Earlier welcoming the chief guest, Lt. Gen (Retd) Zahid Ali Akbar Khan, said that the per capita consumption of power in the country is around 24B kilowatt hour per annum. This present a dismal picture when compared with the United States of 10,000 KWH per capita, European countries on an average of 6,000 KWH and of developing-countries like Philippines, 530 KWH, Iran 700 KWH and South Korea 1272 KWH.

However, he added, Pakistan may, find some consolation in the fact that it has the highest per capita consumption of electricity among the SAARC countries.

Giving the example of finland, he said though its population is barely 5 million, i.e., just about the size of Lahore, the country generates a total of 12,000 megawatts of electricity, about one-and-a-half times that of the whole of Pakistan. The WAPDA chairman said that the biggest problem today is the lack of financial resources. During the past decade, WAPDA has been receiving from the government only 50 to 60 per cent of what it actually requires to execute its generation projects.

Though hydel generation is the cheaper source of energy and its total potential in the country has been estimated around 50,000 megawatts, the WAPDA chairman lamented, "in this area we have run into political and environmental difficulties". He expressed the hope that the Government would soon be able to overcome the objections raised by various quarters and give WAPDA the go-head for the construction of one of our important hydel projects.

The WAPDA chairman said that a nuclear power plant of 900 megawatts capacity was to come on the stream in the early eighties. It was unfortunately delayed due to international political pressures. "We are now very greatly relieved by the success of the People's Government in negotiating a deal with the French which has cleared the way for the nuclear power plant. Nuclear projects take six to eight years for completion of which seems far away when seen in the context of the present situation of shortage of power. Nuclear power due to environmental problem, capital cost of construction and decommissioning cost is expensive."

Keeping in view the above serious limitations he explained the country seems to have no other option today but to resort to power conservation.

"I am a strong believer of the saying 'a kilowatt saved is a kilowatt produced'. We want to make this as our motto and to put the concept into practice, with the support of the People's Government". The speakers of the seminar presented the following proposals:

Load Management

The following short time load management measures can result in the conservation of considerable amount of electrical power:

* closure of shops before sunset.

* staggering of holidays.

* staggering of industry's weekly off-days.

* shifting of office working days from 6 to 5.

* compete ban on all types of illuminations.

* restrictions on air-conditioners and heaters.

Public Awareness

No progress of energy conservation can succeed without the active participation of public. Mass media, i.e. Radio, Television and the newspapers may not be able to educate the public in Pakistan as majority of the population is illiterate and/or not covered by that. Hence some novel methods should be adopted for educating the masses about energy conservation. There may be:

i) Ulemas and Immam Masjids should ask the people at Friday prayers to conserve energy.

ii) Public meeting organized by various political parties are well attended. These meetings may be addressed by competent and distinguished engineers who may dwell on the virtues of energy conservation.

iii) Schools should develop habits of energy saving in the young children.

Domestic and Commercial Sector

The demand for electrical power in the domestic sector is growing at an alarming rate of 19 per cent and presently 41 per cent of country's total generation is required to cater for this sector. All out efforts must be made to reduce the demand of this sector. It must be realized that the major component of domestic load in Pakistan is lighting. Almost the entire load consists of incandescent lamps because of their convenience and cheapness. More experience but energy efficient fluorescent tubes are restricted to the commercial or industrial sector only. Use of air-conditioners during summer is also on the increase. This load has further strained the already meagre resources.

Conservation Measure

(i) To encourage the use of low wattage bulbs by:

(a) imposing heavy takes on bulbs with rating of more than 60 Watts.

(b) providing subsidy on bulbs with ratings of 60 Watts or less.

(c) ensuring the availability of the low wattage bulb at all times.

(ii) Fluorescent lamps should be exempted from all Government duties. Local manufacturing of these lamps should be encouraged.

(iii) Publicity campaign should edu-cate the air-conditioner users regarding the efficient use of their appliances.

(iv) Capacitors should be installed in parallel to fluorescent tubes to increase the power factor.

(v) All subsidies to domestic consumers should be eliminated.

(vi) Higher connection fee should be charged from consumers with higher demands.

(vii) Seasonal tariffs for domestic consumers may be introduced.

(viii) Energy efficient buildings only be designed and built.

(ix) The service connections wast considerable amount of energy. The use of bigger size cable alongwith the protection devices which have low internal resistance can save about 300 million units annually on WAPDA and KESC systems.

(x) Losses due to theft and improper billings should be minimized through the following measures:

* The meters should be installed at convenient heights and enclosed in dust and water proof boxes, to enable meter reader take correct and adequate readings.

* The billing of consumers should be tied with the respective distribution transformers and/or LV feeders. With computerized billings, this should not be a problem.

* Consumption of consumers should continously be monitored, variations identified, followed by surveillance through task force.

* Reliable and accurate meters be installed.

* Meters should be periodically checked for decalibration and tampering as continuous on-going programme. On site meter-testing equipments should be employed to calibrate consumer's meters. The testing involves disconnecting the meters from consumer's loads and connecting it to load set. This has the advantage that the test can be carried out in front of the consumers.

Industrial and Agriculture Sector

The major component of industrial and agriculture sector is motor load. Use of poorly designed and oversized motors is the major cause of wastage of electrical power in these sectors. Further, poor power factor of cheap motors available on the market causes the line currents to be heavier, resulting in significantly large losses and voltages drops on the distribution network. A recent study has shown that 20 MVA of system capacity can be released on WAPDA's system if only 50 major industrial consumers improved their monthly average power factor to 100 per cent. It is, therefore, recommended that:

(i) Energy audits of all major industrialunits of the country be carried out with the following perceptions:

(a) Information on the current awareness about energy conservation.

(b) Studies of energy management knowledge in part of industry.

(c) Current energy technology used and its potential towards energy conservation.

(d) Finding ways and means to increase energy efficiency.

(ii) A nation-wide power factor improvement project with the objective to raise the p.f. to 95 per cent be implemented with the financial and technical assistance of ENERCON/WAPDA/ICESC to the Customers.

(iii) Industry be encouraged to develop cogeneration and it be given the option to sell the power to any consumer. Cogeneration be designated as industry.

(iv) Standard for efficient electrical equipment be established.

(v) Duties on instrumentations/energy efficient equipment not produced locally be reduced.

(vi) Twin Conductor 11 kV lines may be used to improve the voltage profile. Improved voltage profile would result in:

(a) reduction in power losses.

(b) reduction in reactive powe demand.

(c) improved efficiency of the system.

WAPDA's Commitment to

Power Conservation

It is heartening to note that WAPDA is proceeding to energy efficient improvements to its own system and influence. The customers to reduce the waster of electrical energy. The measures being adopted by WAPDA in this regard are:-

(a) Installations of statistical metering which will be used as a load forecasting tool. Load characteristic data, accumulated from these mters will lead to more efficient planning of new facilities.

(b) Establishment of an organized programme to provide energy conservation and load management advice to its customers.

WAPDA Engineers in this programme will provide their customers with expert energy conservation and load management advice by:-

* Recommending energy efficient lighting systems.

* Performing electrical energy audits of industrial plants and other major electrical consumers.

* Promoting Time to Use tariff applications (when approved).

* Conducting EC/LM seminars.

* Developing EC/LM public awareness campaigns.

* Recommending designs to reduce building envelope heat loss/gain.

* Recommending capacitor installations for tariff power factor correction. It is strongly recommended that WAPDA's Customer should take advantage of the opportunities that will be available to them through this organized energy conservation/Load Management programme.
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Publication:Economic Review
Date:Mar 1, 1990
Previous Article:30 years of WAPDA.
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