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Selection procedure of measurement most objective methods of level jumping ability in sportsmen.

INTRODUCTION

A high level of jumping ability is a prerequisite of success in many sports, e.g. track and field jumps, volleyball, basketball, handball, ice figure skating, rhythmic gymnastics. Thus, determining jumping ability is of paramount importance for assessing the athlete's motor potential. The height of vertical jump is associated with a large number of degrees of freedom, due to the involvement of many joints, thus being a task of a complex coordination (3). The height of a vertical jump depends on its performance (1,4,8,9), as well as on the knee flexion angle and swing range (2,7).

The methods used for measuring of jumping ability vary regarding their objectiveness and reliability as reported by many authors (2,6,9,10) who pointed out weak points in some of them which resulted in a decreased reliability (table 1). The reports comparing various methods of measuring of the jumping ability are rather scarce. Fidelus and Gradowska (6) studied the displacements of the centre of body mass in the jump tests of Sargent and Abalakov (9, 10) and found the results to diverge considerably, differences between both methods ranging from--5 to 6 cm. Those methods were compared with a modified test of Starosta (9, 10) and the latter was found to be more precise than the other two tests.

No published, comparative study has been found in the available literature, concerning the jumping ability. The aim of this work was thus to compare the results of measuring the jumping ability by two methods--a simple, direct method--Starosta's test (9, 10) and another one employing the Kistler's tensometric platform.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

A total of 39 athletes--34 male and female ones, engaged in various sports (track and field jumps, volleyball, soccer, rowing and ice hockey), volunteered to participate in the study. Their training experience ranged from 3 to 14 years and their sport class--from the national (Class 2) to international elite. Basic characteristics of the subjects studied are presented in

Table 2.

Every subject performed 3 jumps on a recording device mounted on Kistler's tensometric platform. This enabled simultaneous recording of results by both methods. The mode of the jumping abilities test: wooden square platform (the jumping-meter) with each side 1m long, a leather belt with a centimetre tape placed on the cord. In the middle of the platform there was an opening with a tape passed through it. The tape was connected by a thin cord with a belt which was put on round the hips of the individual examined. A slack connection of the tape with the belt made impossible overstating of measurement results because of hips motion forward or back during the jump.

The test and the measurements: after mounting the belt with the tape, the individual examined stood barefoot on the jumping-meter with their ankles in a line with the opening for the tape. Then jumped upwards with a swing of arms, pulling out the tape from the opening. The result of the jump was the remainder between the numerical value of the tape after and before the jump. The place of landing was limited by two concentric circles (larger with 62cm in diameter for the youths and adults, smaller with 42cm in diameter for children). Crossing the limit of the appropriate circle made impossible to recognition of the test. In the opening for the tape there was the tape transport limiter fitted to eliminate pulling it out by force of inertia. Measurements were repeated three times and the best result was taken into consideration

RESULTS

The results of jump tests obtained by the direct method--Starosta's test and from the tensometric platform are presented in Table 3. Individual results obtained by those 2 methods were highly correlated (r=0.93 ; P<0.001) although the direct method rendered systematical higher results (by 15.8% on the average; P<0.001). Individual differences ranged from 3.8 to 16.4 cm, mean values for groups--from 7.7 to 11.1 cm (x = 8.8+2.3 cm). The following interrelationship was observed: the higher was result of jumping ability, the greater was difference of both methods results.

DISCUSSION

A high correlation (r=0.93) between the measurements of jumping ability obtained from tensometric platform and by a direct method evidences that both methods provide measures of the same trait. However, all individual results obtained by the direct method were considerably higher than those obtained from the tensometric platform due, probably, to different execution of the measurements. Namely, in the tensometric method, the moment of full take-off was recorded and thus the rise of heels and metatarsal support before the take-off did not affect the final result. That latter phase considerably improved the jump height (by 15.8%) measured by the direct method. The length of foot is probably another contributing factor. This rises the question whether the tensometric platform method, not taking into account the displacement of the center of gravity until the take-off adequately reflects the jumping ability.

There is also a question of applying jumping ability measurements in practice in view of the differences between tensometric measurements and those obtained by simpler techniques, e.g. that of Sargent or of Starosta (9,10). Tensometric platform produces accurate results but difficult to employ due to its high cost (cf. Table 1). For that reason, the test of Starosta (9,10) may be easily adopted, especially for screening purposes, monitoring the sport training, at schools, etc, owing to its simplicity, accuracy and low cost of the device.

REFERENCES

AURA, O. VIITASALO, J.T. 1989, Biomechanical characteristics of jumping. Int. J. Sport Biomech. 5:89-98.

BARTOSIEWICZ, G., DANIELEWICZ, E. GAJEWSKI, J. TRZASKOMA, Z. WIT, A., 1990, Evaluation of strength-velocity characteristic in athletes. In: N.Berme, A.Capozzo (eds.) Proc. Study Inst. Conf. Biomechanics of Human Movement. Formia, Italy. Bertec Corp., Worthing ton OH, pp.426-430.

BOBBERT M.F., SCHENAU J.I. 1988, Coordination in vertical jumping. J .Biomech. 3:249-262.

DOWLING, J.J., VAMOS, L., 1993, Identification of kinetics and temporal factors related to vertical jump performance. J. Appl. Biomech. 9:95-110.

DWORAK, L.B., 1991, Niektore metody badawcze biomechaniki i ich zastosowanie w sporcie, medycynie i ergonomii. (Some biomechanical research methods and its application in sport, medicine and ergonomics). Skrypty AWF Poznah 91:51-54.

FIDELUS, K., GRADOWSKA, T., 1965, Porownawcza ocena danych o wyskoku dosiqznym. (Comparative evaluation of results in vertical reach jump). Materialy Szkoleniowe PKOI 5:56-62.

HARLEY, R.A., DOUST, J.H., 1994, Effects of different degrees of knee flexion during continuous vertical jumping on power output using the Bosco formula. J. Sports Sci. 12:139-140.

KOMI, P.V., BOSCO, C., 1978, Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women. Med. Sci. Sports. 10:261-265.

RADZINSKA, M., STAROSTA, W., 2002, The importance, kinds and structures of the jumping ability and its determining factors. International Association of Sport Kinetics, University School of Physical Education in Poznah--Institute of Physical Culture in Gorzow.

STAROSTA, W., 1978, Nowy sposob pomiaru tzw. skocznosci. (New method of measurement of jumping ability). Monografie AWF Poznah 96:351-355.

(1) WLODZIMIERZ STAROSTA, (2) MARIOLA RADZINSKA

(1) University School of Physical Education in Bialystok, Institute of Physical Culture in Gorzow, POLAND

(2) University School of Physical Education in Poznah , POLAND
Table 1: Methods of measuring jumping ability--an overview

Sargent           Abalakov           Starosta          Tensometric
                                                       platform
                  Disadvantages

--Imprecision     --Subject's feet   --Frequent re-    --Unavailable
of  initial       set in position    placement of      for screening
measurement       relative to the    the tap           purpose
(rising the       tape
shoulder                             --Frequent        --Expensive
worsens the       --Indeterminate    control of tie    equipment
jump results      jump--down         tape fastening
(6)               point (9,10)       point and         --Heat--and
                                     fastening belt    moisture-
--Fear of         --Raised                             sensitive
hitting the       shoulder at        --Subject has
wall              jump may           to be             --Erroneous
                  increase the       instructed in     results after
--Touching the    result             detail as to      prolonged use
board too late                       the jump          (5)
or too early      --Pelvic           technique
(increases        motions            (9,10)            --Not simple in
measurement       forwards or                          use
error (6)         backwards may
                  improve the
--Fixed board     result (9,10)
is of some
disadvantage

                  Advantages

--Simple and      --Simple and       --Simple and      --High
easy in use       easy in use        easy in use        reliability

--Inexpensive     --Inexpensive      --Equipment       --Universal
equipment         equipment          inexpensive and   power supply
                                     easy to set up    and amplifiers
--Enables         --Enables
screening         screening          --Enables         --Optional
measurements      measurements       screening         remote control
                                     measurements in
                                     diverse, even     --Simultaneous
                                     primitive         recording of
                                     conditions        many variables
                                                       (5)
                                     --Fixed place
                                     and position of
                                     feet before and
                                     after jump

                                     --Fixed
                                     orientation of
                                     feet to one
                                     another

                                     --Belt arid
                                     tape fixed to
                                     subject s hips

                                     --Tape
                                     protected
                                     against pulling
                                     out by hip
                                     motions (9,10)

Table 1: The basic characteristics of the studies subjects (n = 39)

n    Discipline of sport   Sport Class        Training
                                              experience
                                              (years)

15   Track arid Field      First and second   6-10

5    Volleyball            First              7-13

5    Rowing                Master             8-14
                           (National
                           Team)

6    Soccer                Second             4-10

8    Ice hockey            First (Junior      3-5
                           National Team)

Table 3: Mean values (SD) of basic characteristics of jump tests
recorded in male (M) and female (F) athletes

      Variable                       Track & Field

                             M(n=10)               F(n=5)

Age (years)             23,2 [+ or -] 3,3    22,8 [+ or -] 3,4

Body height (cm)       181,1 [+ or -] 3,4   171,0 [+ or -] 5,2

Body mass (kg)          72,5 [+ or -] 4,0    59,6 [+ or -] 6,4

Athletes experience      6,1 [+ or -] 2,4     8,4 [+ or -] 1,1
(years)

Direct test--           60,2 [+ or -] 9,4    51,0 [+ or -] 4,2
Starasta's test (cm)

Kistlers's platform     50,5 [+ or -] 9,1    42,9 [+ or -] 3,4
(cm)

Difference (cm) *        9,7 [+ or -] 2,0    8,1 [+ or  -] 2,3

Correlation                   1,944                0,921
significant

                                   Track & Field

Variable
                             M(n=10)              F(n=5)

Age (years)             23,2 [+ or -] 2,3    22,8 [+ or -] 3,4

Body height (cm)       181,1 [+ or -] 3,4   171,0 [+ or -] 5,2

Body mass (kg)          72,5 [+ or -] 4,0    59,6 [+ or -] 6,4

Athletes experience      6,1 [+ or -] 2,4     8,4 [+ or -] 1,1
(years)

Direct test--           60,2 [+ or -] 9,4    51,0 [+ or -] 4,2
Starosta's test (cm)

Kistlers's platform     50,5 [+ or -] 9,1    42,9 [+ or -] 3,4
(cm)

Difference (cm) *

Correlation              9,7 [+ or -] 2,0     8,1 [+ or -] 2,3
significant                   0,944                0,921

      Variable              Volleyball             Rowing

                              M(n=5)               M(n=5)

Age (years)             23,4 [+ or -] 2,2    23,6 [+ or -] 2,7

Body height (cm)       176,8 [+ or -] 8,6   190,2 [+ or -] 4,1

Body mass (kg)          71,8 [+ or -] 10,6   84,6 [+ or -] 1,8

Athletes experience      6,6 [+ or -] 1,3     8,0 [+ or -] 2,6
(years)

Direct test--           57,2 [+ or -] 9,3    58,8 [+ or -] 7,7
Starasta's test (cm)

Kistlers's platform     49,1 [+ or -] 9,3    47,7 [+ or -] 6,0
(cm)

Difference (cm) *        8,1 [+ or -] 2,0    11,1 [+ or -] 2,0

Correlation                   0,921                0,920
significant

                           Volleyball             Rowing
Variable
                             M(n=5)               M(n=5)

Age (years)             23,4 [+ or -] 2,2    23,6 [+ or -] 2,7

Body height (cm)       176,8 [+ or -] 8,6   190,2 [+ or -] 4,1

Body mass (kg)         71,8 [+ or -] 10,6    84,6 [+ or -] 1,8

Athletes experience      6,6 [+ or -] 1,3     8,0 [+ or -] 2,6
(years)

Direct test--           57,2 [+ or -] 9,3    58,8 [+ or -] 7,7
Starosta's test (cm)

Kistlers's platform     49,1 [+ or -] 9,3    47,7 [+ or -] 6,0
(cm)

Difference (cm) *

Correlation              8,1 [+ or -] 2,0    11,1 [+ or -] 2,0
significant                   0,921                0,928

      Variable                Soccer             Ice Hockey

                              M(n=6)               M(n=8)

Age (years)             18,2 [+ or -] 4,2      15 [+ or -] 0,2

Body height (cm)       177,2 [+ or -] 5,2   173,0 [+ or -] 5,5

Body mass (kg)          62,7 [+ or -] 5,9    59,4 [+ or -] 6,5

Athletes experience      4,7 [+ or -] 3,6     4,7 [+ or -] 0,7
(years)

Direct test--           51,7 [+ or -] 4,5    51,5 [+ or -] 4,8
Starasta's test (cm)

Kistlers's platform     43,2 [+ or -] 4,6    43,8 [+ or -] 6,3
(cm)

Difference (cm) *        8,5 [+ or -] 2,9     7,7 [+ or -] 2,2

Correlation                   0,937                0,934
significant

                             Soccer             Ice Hockey
Variable
                             M(n=6)               M(n=8)

Age (years)             18,2 [+ or -] 4,2      15 [+ or -] 0,2

Body height (cm)       177,2 [+ or -] 5,2   173,0 [+ or -] 5,5

Body mass (kg)          62,7 [+ or -] 5,9    59,4 [+ or -] 6,5

Athletes experience      4,7 [+ or -] 3,6     4,7 [+ or -] 0,7
(years)

Direct test--           51,7 [+ or -] 4,5    51,5 [+ or -] 4,8
Starosta's test (cm)

Kistlers's platform     43,2 [+ or -] 4,6    43,8 [+ or -] 6,3
(cm)

Difference (cm) *

Correlation              8,5 [+ or -] 2,9     7,7 [+ or -] 2,2
significant                   0,937                0,934

      Variable             AH athletes
                                X
                              (n=39)

Age (years)             20,7 [+ or -] 4,2

Body height (cm)       178,3 [+ or -] 7,7

Body mass (kg)          68,1 [+ or -] 10,3

Athletes experience      6,2 [+ or -] 2,5
(years)

Direct test--           55,3 [+ or -] 7,8
Starasta's test (cm)

Kistlers's platform     46,5 [+ or -] 7,4
(cm)

Difference (cm) *        8,8 [+ or -] 2,3

Correlation                  0,931 *
significant

                          All athletes
Variable                       X
                             (n=39)

Age (years)             20,7 [+ or -] 4,2

Body height (cm)       178,3 [+ or -] 7,7

Body mass (kg)         68,1 [+ or -] 10,3

Athletes experience      6,2 [+ or -] 2,5
(years)

Direct test--           55,3 [+ or -] 7,8
Starosta's test (cm)

Kistlers's platform     46,5 [+ or -] 7,4
(cm)

Difference (cm) *

Correlation              8,8 [+ or -] 2,3
significant                  0,931 *

* All differences between results of jump tests was
significant (P<0,001)
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Author:Starosta, Wlodzimierz; Radzinska, Mariola
Publication:Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXPO
Date:Jun 1, 2010
Words:2281
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