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Seed germination and early seedling growth of corn (Zea Mays L.) as affected by different seed pyridoxine-priming duration.

Introduction

Corn (Zea mays L.) is an important cereal in many developed and developing countries of the world. It is widely used for animal feed and industrial raw material in the developed countries where as the developing countries use it in general for feed. As regards to area and production corn ranks third in world production following wheat and rice. World corn production must increase by approximately 1.5% annually to meet the growing demand for food that will result from population growth and economic development [25]. Rapid and uniform field emergence is an important factor to achieve high yield with respect to both quantity and quality in annual crops [23,34]. Seed priming has been found a double technology to enhance rapid and uniform emergence, and to achieve high vigor and better yields in field crops [13,11]. Many studies have been carried out on the effect of seed priming on germination and growth rate of crops. Subedi and Ma [34] reported that seed soaked with 2.5% KCl for 16 h reduced both coleoptile and radicle length of corn. Chiu et al., [8] observed enhanced germination in sweet corn when primed using polyethylene glycol. Misra and Dwibedi [20] found that seed soaking in 2.5% potassium chloride (KCl) for 12 h before sowing increased wheat yield by 15%. Furthermore, Paul and Choudhury [24] observed that seed soaking with 0.5 to 1% solution of KCl or potassium sulfate ([K.sub.2]S[O.sub.4]) significantly increased plant height, yield attributes, and grain yield in wheat. Earlier studies showed that the success of seed priming is affected by the complex interaction of factors including priming agent, plant species, priming duration, temperature, seed vigor and dehydration, and also storage conditions of the primed seed [23]. It has been established that pyridoxine (vitamin [B.sub.6]) enhances the growth of root system [26,27,7] which helps in better seedling establishment, and higher nutrient and water uptake [28,2]. The work with regard to seed soaking treatment with pyridoxine has been proved promising in mustard [15], lentil and mung [29] and wheat [17]. Khan et al. [16] reported that application of 0.02% pyridoxine for both mustard and wheat gave maximum value for growth and yield parameters. Pre-sowing seed treatment of mung bean cultivar of K-851 in pyridoxine solution significantly enhanced leaf nitrogen, phosphor and potassium concentrations at different growth stages, and seed protein concentration at harvest [2]. In our knowledge, responses to seed pyridoxine-priming treatment on seed germination and early seedling growth of corn have not been investigated to date. Hence, the specific objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different seed pyridoxine-priming duration on seed germination and early seedling growth of corn genotypes.

Materials and methods

The experiments were laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with two corn (Zea mays L.) genotypes included inbred lines of B73 and MO17 and five seed priming treatments in three replications. The seed priming treatments included three pyridoxine-priming duration treatments consist of 6, 12 and 24 h were compare with the unsoaked seed control and a hydro-priming with distilled water for 12 h. The pyridoxine concentration of 200 mg [l.sup.-1] prepared in distilled water was used as pyridoxine-priming media. Approximately 500 g of seed of genotypes were placed in individual nylon net bags and immersed in priming agent at 20 [degrees]C. After soaking seeds were redried to original weight with forced air under shade. Thirty seeds from each of the treatments were placed on 90 mm [phi] Petri dishes on Whatman No. 2 filter paper moistened with 15 ml distilled water. Seeds were kept in germinator at 25 [degrees]C in darkness. Germination was counted in 24 h intervals and continued until fixed state. A seed was considered as germinated when radicle had emerged more than 2 mm. Final germination percentage, seedling length, coleoptiles and radicle length and also seedling dry weight were recorded at 11th day of planting on filter paper. The vigor index (VI) was calculated as the product of seedling length by germination percentage. Germination percentage, mean germination time (MGT) [9] germination index (GI) [32] and time to 50% germination (T50) [6] were calculated using the following equations:

Germination percentage = Number of germinated seeds / Total number of planted seeds x 100

MGT = [summation]Dn/[summation]n

Where, n is the number of seeds were germinated on day D, and D is the number of days counted from the beginning of the germination.

GI = [summation][T.sub.i][N.sub.i]/S

Where, [T.sub.i] is the number of days after planting, Ni is the number of seeds germinated on day i, and S is the total number of planted seeds.

[T.sub.50] = [t.sub.i] + (N/2 - [n.sub.i])([t.sub.i] - [t.sub.j])/[n.sub.i] - [n.sub.j]

Where, N is the final number of germination, [n.sub.i] and [n.sub.j] cumulative number of seeds germinated by adjacent counts at times [t.sub.i] and [t.sub.j] when [n.sub.i] < N/2 < [n.sub.j].

Data for various indices were subjected to analysis of variance using SAS/STAT software version 8 [30]. Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) [10] at the 0.01 level of probability was used to evaluate the difference among treatment means.

Results:

Table 1 indicates the effect of different seed priming treatments on various seed germination and early seedling growth characteristics of B73 corn genotype. Pyridoxine-priming duration was significantly affected germination and early seedling growth traits of B73. The maximum level of germination percentage was observed at pyridoxine-priming of 24 h which significantly improved germination percentage as compared pyridoxine-priming duration of 6 and 12, and also control and hydro-priming treatments. The coleoptile length was positively responded to pyridoxine-priming duration treatments of 6, 12 and 24 h (p<0.01). The highest amount of coleoptile length was observed in pyridoxine-priming duration of 24 h, which significantly improved coleoptile length with an increase of 112.34% and 38.35% as compare with control and hydro-priming treatment, respectively.

The pyridoxine-priming of 12 h produced the maximum amount of radicle length with an increase of 52.16% and 35.54% as compared unsoaked control and hydro-priming treatments, respectively. However, variation in the set of accessions was not possible to discern at pyridoxine-priming of 12 and 24 h for both aforementioned traits included coleoptile and radicle length (p<0.01). The seedling dry weight was also positively correlated to pyridoxine-priming duration. Pyridoxine-priming duration of 6, 12 and 24 h promoted seedling dry weight with an increase of 15.00%, 55.00% and 57.50%, respectively. However, difference in the set of accessions was not possible to discern at pyridoxine-priming duration of 6 h, control and hydro-priming treatments. The mean germination time inversely correlated to the pyridoxine-priming duration. Hence, the minimum level of MGT was observed at pyridoxine-priming of 24 h with no significant difference with pyridoxine-priming duration of 12 h and hydro-priming treatments. A significant positive response of both germination index and vigor index to pyridoxine-priming duration treatments relative to the both control and hydro-priming treatments was observed in all levels (p<0.01). Pyridoxine-priming duration of 12 h produced the maximum level of germination index and vigor index with an increase of 35.42% and 24.49% in germination index, and with an increase of 91.58%, 38.51% in vigor index, as compared unsoaked control and hydro-priming treatment, respectively. The time to 50% germination ([T.sub.50]), negatively influenced by pyridoxine-priming treatments. Pyridoxine-priming duration of 12 h produced the minimum level of T50 with a reduction of 29.67% and 13.99% as compare with control and hydro-priming treatments, respectively.

Table 2 demonstrates the seed germination and early seedling growth traits of MO17 corn genotype as influenced by different seed pyridoxine-priming duration treatments. Seed germination and early seedling growth of MO17 genotype was significantly affected by varying levels of seed pyridoxine-priming duration. A positive reaction of germination percentage to pyridoxine-priming duration treatments was observed in all levels. Hence, the maximum level of germination percentage was observed at pyridoxine-priming duration of 24 h which significantly improved germination percentage as compared pyridoxine-priming duration of 6 and 12, and also control and hydro-priming treatments. According to coleoptile and radicle length, the highest amount was observed in pyridoxine-priming duration of 12 h, which significantly improved coleoptile length with an increase of 187.19% and 44.82%, and promoted radicle length with an increase of 64.50% and 20.37% as compare with control and hydro-priming treatment, respectively. The seedling dry weight was positively affected due to pyridoxine-priming duration treatments. Pyridoxine-priming duration of 6, 12 and 24 h promoted seedling dry weight with an increase of 30.95%, 57.14% and 16.66%, respectively. However, variation in the set of accessions was not possible to discern at pyridoxine-priming duration of 6 and 24 h, along with hydro-priming treatment.

The mean germination time (MGT) inversely correlated to the pyridoxine-priming duration. Hence, the minimum level of MGT was observed at pyridoxine-priming duration of 24 h with no significant difference with pyridoxine-priming duration of 6 and 12 h, and hydro-priming treatments. Pyridoxine-priming duration of 12 h produced the maximum level of both germination index and vigor index with an increase of 47.14% and 26.94% in germination index, and with an increase of 82.47%, 22.81% in vigor index, as compared unsoaked control and hydro-priming treatment, respectively.

Time to 50% germination (T50) negatively influenced by pyridoxine-priming treatments. Pyridoxine-priming duration of 24 h produced the minimum level of [T.sub.50] with a reduction of 43.34% and 33.34% as compare with control and hydropriming treatment, respectively. However, variation in the set of accessions was not possible to discern at pyridoxine-priming duration of 12 and 24 h (p<0.01).

Discussion:

Seed priming is an important factor influenced germination and early seedling growth of annual crops. The effects of seed priming on crops are dependent on the complex interaction of factors such as priming substance, plant genotype, and priming duration. Germination and seedling establishment are influential stages which affected both quality and quantity of crop yields [23].

We have investigated that how seed pyridoxine-priming duration influenced seed germination and early seedling growth characteristics of two corn genotypes. Seed pyridoxine-priming treatments improved seed germination and early seedling growth traits of both genotypes.

The increment in seed germination and early seedling growth due to seed priming treatment is in conformity with the findings of other researchers [21,4,18]. Basra et al. [3] found that priming of corn seed using polyethylene glycol or potassium salts ([K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4] or KN[O.sub.3]) resulted in accelerated seed germination. A significant enhancement in seed germination and seedling growth characteristics of corn was achieved through the hydro-priming of seeds for 24 h [22]. The three early phases in seed germination are (i) imbibition, (ii) lag phase and (iii) protrusion of the radicle through the testa [33].

Generally, priming affects the lag phase and causes early DNA replication [5] increased RNA and protein synthesis [12] and greater ATP availability [19]. Furthermore, pyridoxine is a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions, especially those involved in amino acid metabolism [31]. It has been also established that pyridoxine is required for root development [7] which can positively influence the early seedling growth. Ansari and Khan [1] reported that seed soaking application of graded aqueous pyridoxine solutions increased the dry matter accumulation of mung bean. The findings of Samiullah and Khan [28] showed pyridoxine requirement for optimum performance of mustard cultivars of RK-8203 and Varuna were 0.05% and 0.0125%, respectively. Seed pyridoxine-priming duration of 12 h produced maximum value for most of the germination and early seedling growth characteristics of corn inbred lines of B73 and MO17. In conclusion, these results have practical implications in that pre-sowing seed treatment with pyridoxine solution could enhance the seed germination and early seedling growth characteristics of crops. Seed pyridoxine-priming is a simple economical way to improve the seedling establishment of corn plant.

References

[1.] Ansari, S.A., F.A. Khan, 1986. Effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with pyridoxine on growth and yield performance of summer mung. Journal of Indian Botanical Society 65: 316-322.

[2.] Ansari, S.A., Samiullah, M.M.R.K. Afridi, 1990. Enhancement of leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and seed protein in Vigna radiata by pyridoxine application. Plant and Soil, 125: 296-298.

[3.] Basra, A.S., R. Dhillon, C.P. Malik, 1989. Influence of seed pre-treatment with plant growth regulators on metabolic alterations of germinating maize embryos under stressing temperature regimes. Ann. Bot. 64: 37-41.

[4.] Basra, A.S., M. Farooq, I. Afzal, M. Hussain, 2006. Influence of osmopriming on the germination and early seedling growth of coarse and fine rice. Int. J. Agr. Biol., 8: 19-21.

[5.] Bray, C.M., P.A. Davison, M. Ashraf, M.R. Taylor, 1989. Biochemical events during osmopriming of leek seed. Ann. Appl. Biol., 102: 185-193.

[6.] Coolbear, P., A. Francis, D. Grierson, 1984. The effect of low temperature pre-sowing treatment under the germination performance and membrane integrity of artificially aged tomato seeds. J. Experimen. Botan. 35: 1609-1617.

[7.] Chen, H., L. Xiong, 2005. Pyridoxine is required for post-embryonic root development and tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Plant J., 44(3): 396-408.

[8.] Chiu, K.Y., C.L. Chen, J.M. Sung, 2002. Effect of priming temperature on storability of primed sh2 sweet corn seed. Crop Sci., 42: 1996-2003.

[9.] Ellis, R.A. and E.H. Roberts, 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Sci. Technol., 9: 373-409.

[10.] Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.

[11.] Farooq, M., S.M.A. Basra, M.B. Khan, 2007. Seed priming improves growth of nursery seedling and yield of transplanted rice. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci., 53: 311-322.

[12.] Fu, J.R., X.H. Lu, R.Z. Chen, B.Z. Zhang, Z.S. Liu, Z.S. Li , D.Y. Cai, 1988. Osmoconditioning of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds with PEG to improve vigour and some biochemical activities. Seed Sci. Technol., 16: 197-212.

[13.] Giri, S.G., W.F. Schillinger, 2005. Seed priming winter wheat for germination, emergence and yield. Crop Sci., 43: 2135-2141.

[14.] Hartz, T.K., J. Caprile, 1995. Germination of sh2 sweet corn following seed disinfestations, soilmatrix priming and microbial seed treatment. Hort. Sci., 30: 1400-1402.

[15.] Khan, M., 1995. Studies on the effect of calcium and pyridoxine application on the performance of Vigna radiate L. Wilczek, Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss. And Triticum aestivum L. Ph.D. Thesis. Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

[16.] Khan, M., N.A. Khan Samiullah, 2001. Response of mustard and wheat to pre-sowing seed treatment with pyridoxine and basal level of calcium. Indian J Plant Physiol., 6(3): 300-305.

[17.] Khan, N.A., T. Khan, S. Hayat, M. Khan, 1996. Pyridoxine improves growth, nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activity in wheat. Sci Cult., 62: 160-161.

[18.] Kaur, S., A.K. Gupta, N. Kaur, 2005. Seed priming increases crop yield possibly by modulating enzymes of sucrose metabolism in chickpea. J. Agron. and Crop Sci., 191: 81-87.

[19.] Mazor, L., M. Perl, M. Negbi, 1984. Changes in some ATP-dependent activities in seed during treatment with polyethylene glycol and during redrying process. J. Exp. Bot., 35: 1119-1127.

[20.] Misra, N.M., D.P. Dwibedi, 1980. Effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on growth and dry matter accumulation of high yielding wheats under rainfed conditions. Indian J. Agron. 25: 230-234.

[21.] Murungu, F.S., C. Chiduza, P. Nyamugafata, L.J. Lark, W.R. Whalley, W.E. Finch-Savage, 2004. Effects of on- farm seed priming on consecutive daily sowing occasions on the emergence and growth of maize in semi-arid Zimbabwe. Field Crops Res., 89: 49-57.

[22.] Nagar, R.P., M. Dadlani, S.P. Sharama, 1998. Effect of hydropriming on field emergence and crop growth of maize genotypes. Seed. Res., 26: 1-5.

[23.] Parera, C.A., D.J. Cantliffe, 1994. Pre-sowing seed priming. Hortic. Rev., 16: 109-141. In: Subedi KD, Ma BL (2005). Seed Priming Does Not Improve Corn Yield in a Humid Temperate Environment. Agron. J., 97: 211-218.

[24.] Paul., S.R., A.K. Choudhury, 1991. Effects of seed priming with potassium salts on growth and yield of wheat under rain fed condition. Ann. Agric. Res., 12: 415-418.

[25.] Rosegrant, M.W., M. Agcaoili-Sombilla, N.D. Perez, 1995. Food, agriculture and the environment discussion paper 5. Global food projections to 2020: Implications for investment. IFPRI, D.C. Washington, USA.

[26.] Samiullah, S.A. Ansari, M.M.R.K. Afridi, 1988. B-vitamin in relation to crop productivity. Indian Rev Life Sci., 8: 51-74.

[27.] Samiullah, N.A. Khan, S.A. Ansari, M.M.R.K. Afridi, 1991. Pyridoxine augments growth, yield and quality of mustard through efficient utilization of soil applied NP fertilizers. Acta Agron Hung., 40: 111-116.

[28.] Samiullah, N.A. Khan, 1997. Improving performance of Brassica juncea cultivars by seed treatment with pyridoxine. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 25(1): 43-47.

[29.] Samiullah, F.A. Khan, N.A. Khan, S.A. Ansari, 1992. Improvement of productivity and quality of Lens cultinaris by pyridoxine and phosphorus application. Acta Agron Hung., 41: 93-100.

[30.] SAS, Institute, 1999. SAS system version 8. SAS Inst., N.C. Cary, USA.

[31.] Schneider, G., H. Kack, Y. Lindqvist, 2000. The manifold of vitamin [B.sub.6] dependent enzymes. Structure Fold. Des. 8: R1-R6. In: H. Chen, L. Xiong, 2005. Pyridoxine is required for post-embryonic root development and tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Plant J., 44(3): 396-408.

[32.] Scott, S.J., R.A. Jones, W.A. Willams, 1984. Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop Science, 24: 1192-1199.

[33.] Simon, E.W., 1984. Early events in germination. In: Murray DR (ed) Seed physiology. 2, Germination and reserve mobilization. Academic press, F.L. Orlando, USA.

[34.] Subedi, K.D., B.L. Ma, 2005. Seed priming does not improve corn Yield in a humid temperate environment. Agron. J., 97: 211-218.

Davood Eradatmand Asli and Alireza Houshmandfar

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, Iran.

Corresponding Author

Davood Eradatmand Asli, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, Iran

Email: asli@iau-saveh.ac.ir
Table 1: Overall mean values for the effect of seed priming treatments
on various characteristics of germination and early seedling growth of
B73 corn genotype.

Treatments                Germination            Coleoptile
                          (%)                    length (mm)

Control                   ([dagger]) 75.97 (b)   17.26 (c)
Hydro-priming 12 h        76.01 (b)              26.49 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 6 h    75.76 (b)              21.71 (bc)
Pyridoxine-priming 12 h   76.33 (b)              36.40 (a)
Pyridoxine-priming 24 h   80.01 (a)              36.65 (a)

Treatments                Radicle       Seedling dry   ([double
                          length (mm)   weight (g)     dagger]) MGT
                                                       (day)

Control                   92.75 (c)     0.40 (b)       3.03 (a)
Hydro-priming 12 h        104.12 (bc)   0.46 (b)       2.22 (bc)
Pyridoxine-priming 6 h    114.57 (b)    0.46 (b)       2.58 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 12 h   141.13 (a)    0.62 (a)       2.06 (c)
Pyridoxine-priming 24 h   132.83 (a)    0.63 (a)       2.00 (c)

Treatments                ([section])   ([paragraph])   (#) [T.sub.50]
                          GI            VI              (day)

Control                   16.29 (c)     70.94 (c)       2.36 (a)
Hydro-priming 12 h        17.72 (c)     98.12 (b)       1.93 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 6 h    17.79 (bc)    103.24 (b)      1.91 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 12 h   22.06 (a)     135.91 (a)      1.66 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 24 h   19.60 (b)     135.43 (a)      1.68 (b)

([dagger]) Within a column, means followed by the same letter are not
significantly different at the 0.01 level of probability by Duncan's
multiple range test

([double dagger]) MGT, mean germination time

([section]) GI, germination index

([paragraph]) VI, vigor index

(#) [T.sub.50], time to 50% germination

Table 2: Overall mean values for the effect of seed priming
treatments on various characteristics of germination and early seedling
growth of MO17 corn genotype

Treatments                Germination            Coleoptile
                          (%)                    length (mm)

Control                   ([dagger]) 76.08 (c)   5.31 (d)
Hydro-priming 12 h        81.74 (bc)             10.53 (bc)
Pyridoxine-priming 6 h    80.21 (bc)             9.38 (c)
Pyridoxine-priming 12 h   81.83 (b)              15.25 (a)
Pyridoxine-priming 24 h   85.31 (a)              12.26 (b)

Treatments                Radicle       Seedling dry   ([double
                          length (mm)   weight (g)     dagger]) MGT
                                                       (day)

Control                   92.46 (c)     0.42 (c)       3.33 (a)
Hydro-priming 12 h        126.35 (b)    0.55 (b)       2.72 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 6 h    136.36 (ab)   0.55 (b)       2.73 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 12 h   152.10 (a)    0.66 (a)       2.34 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 24 h   145.98 (ab)   0.59 (b)       2.20 (b)

Treatments                ([section])   ([paragraph])   (#) [T.sub.50]
                          GI            VI              (day)

Control                   18.22 (b)     74.05 (c)       1.80 (a)
Hydro-priming 12 h        21.12 (b)     110.02 (b)      1.53 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 6 h    21.55 (b)     115.81 (b)      1.41 (b)
Pyridoxine-priming 12 h   26.81 (a)     135.12 (a)      1.04 (c)
Pyridoxine-priming 24 h   21.66 (b)     133.92 (a)      1.02 (c)

([dagger]) Within a column, means followed by the same letter are not
significantly different at the 0.01 level of probability by Duncan's
multiple range test

([double dagger]) MGT, mean germination time

([section]) GI, germination index

([paragraph]) VI, vigor index

(#) [T.sub.50], time to 50% germination
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Asli, Davood Eradatmand; Houshmandfar, Alireza
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Apr 1, 2011
Words:3571
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