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Securing the North: building the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Northern Service.

I. INTRODUCTION
   Year by year, more of the riches of the Northland are exploited for
   the benefit of Canadians. More and more, the silence of the
   wilderness is being filled with the drone of helicopters searching
   with magnetometers for ore beneath the earth, the pounding of
   oil-drilling rigs, and the roar of construction machinery clearing
   new townsites. People are moving in. Civilization is coming to the
   North. And with it comes the CBC's Northern Service, cutting
   through the solitude and making the Northland a more pleasant place
   to live.

   --spoken by the narrator of a commemorative shortwave broadcast in
   1962 (2)


The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) Northern Service did not make the first radio broadcasts heard in the provincial northlands, the Yukon, or the Northwest Territories. At the time of its founding in 1958, it relied upon existing infrastructure, taking over stations set up during the preceding decades to support the exploitation of natural resources and the building of defensive works in partnership with the United States. In the process, the Northern Service preserved the economic, political, social, and cultural geographies of mid-twentieth-century northern development. They were not merely physical, but belonged also to the realm of "national-cultural imaginaries," which cultural anthropologist Lisa Cooke argued were responsible for imbuing meaning, assigning value, and thus determining uses of the natural environment in the Canadian North. (3) Even invisible spaces, like airwaves, assumed new significance to the nationalist project when harnessed for the benefit of mining towns that promised wealth by wrestling minerals from the earth and when employed in the service of military installations that were stages for the performance of sovereignty. These specialized uses simultaneously challenged and affirmed the uniqueness of the untamed wilds. "The frontier is a bastion of freedom, and the North is a permanent frontier," said Hugh Keenleyside in 1949, leaving historian Shelagh Grant wondering if there was some desire to safeguard the symbolic exceptionalism of the northern wilderness, even while reimagining it as a modern landscape. (4) Radio proved that these ambitions were compatible. Through the invention of regional boundaries that "spoke to the identification of shortwave radio with the northern territory," if only by encompassing listeners who shared in common the lack of local radio, the Northern Service was "defining the geographic region in technological terms," according to historian Edward JonesImhotep. (5)

The building of the Northern Service has been neglected by scholars, given only the briefest treatment to lend context to broader studies of the region and the military. (6) Even works interpreting the later cultural significance of radio take the northward expansion of the public broadcaster for granted. (7) It seemed almost inevitable that the Northern Service would function as a "cultural imperialist" because, as Anne F. MacLennan argued, "the CBC's purpose as a national unifying force likely took precedence over the special needs of Canada's diverse regions." (8) In the pages that follow, this article documents its genesis in the inheritances and invitations that lured a reluctant CBC northward, while analyzing how the peculiarities of northern geographies at mid-century became imprinted upon the form, function, and founding of the Northern Service. Though these radio stations were never enough of a priority to receive the support they needed to most effectively serve their small, isolated audiences, they still held symbolic significance for the CBC, representing a means by which to establish its claim to the country's northernmost airwaves and thereby secure control over broadcasting in Canada. How better to fulfill its most essential role of fostering "a sense of neighborliness and community interest throughout the whole country"? (9)

II. RADIO CONFRONTS THE NORTHERN FRONTIER

Frontier settlements in the territories had few ties with the "outside" when, in 1923, the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals set up its first radio-telegraph stations in the mining town of Mayo and in Dawson City, the capital of Yukon Territory. More followed, laying the foundations of the Northwest Territories and Yukon (NWT&Y) Radio System, through which the army supported the federal government's ambitions to develop the region's resources. That system provided a vital link with the rest of Canada. Originally, the southern terminal station in Edmonton, Alberta, relayed signals from mining camps and fur traders to Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Telegraphs. Privately owned stations soon joined, adding to the thirteen operated by the army in 1934. The NWT&Y Radio System also played an important role in opening the North by maintaining contact with aircraft from Mackenzie Air Service and Canadian Airways, and by conveying local stories for publication in southern newspapers. (10) Before long, they were also making occasional broadcasts of noteworthy news and weather reports. The Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission followed with the Northern Messenger Service, which the CBC continued. It could be heard on several stations in western Canada. Transmitters in Sackville, New Brunswick, also beamed the messages to the eastern Arctic in the 1940s. (11) A call for contributions, published in the prairie edition of CBC Program Schedule in October 1945, promised that, "[t]hrough the Northern Messenger, traders, trappers, miners, missionaries, government officials, and other inhabitants of the Northwest Territories and the Canadian Arctic will hear messages from their families and friends at home." (12) Anyone residing beyond the reach of telephonic or telegraphic networks could use this service, although Canadians of European descent--whose numbers in the District of Mackenzie more than tripled during the 1930s--were the most likely to own a radio receiver. (13)

The construction of defensive works and related infrastructure during World War II placed new demands on communications infrastructure, which necessitated the expansion of the NWT&Y Radio System and drew roughly 43,000 Americans to the Canadian North by 1943. (14) The US Army tried to boost the morale of workers on the Alaska Highway by setting up sports competitions, movie screenings, and radio stations. (15) The pattern repeated in Newfoundland, where the arrival of the US Armed Forces Radio Service transformed the cultural landscape, fostering a "taste for American mass media" among local residents, according to Jeff A. Webb. (16) The CBC did much the same, bringing radio to Prince Rupert, British Columbia, for the benefit of roughly 20,000 Canadian and American service personnel. (17) It also shipped recordings across the Atlantic for use by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), the Allied Expeditionary Forces Program, and the Canadian Forces Radio Service, established in 1944 by the CBC Overseas Unit for the troops in England. The CBC International Service, inaugurated in 1945, beamed even more Canadian content to distant shores by shortwave. (18)

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Meanwhile, back in Canada, the CBC was telling tales about the northern frontier. The White Empire (1945-1946), a thirteen-part northern history series on the Trans-Canada network, celebrated fearless explorers, virtuous mounties, and daring bush pilots. It promised to be "a living panorama of the adventurous spirits who are crowded into the fabled story of Canada's 'frozen north,'" according to one advertisement. (19) Arctic Adventures (1952) similarly taught children the merits of audacity in the face of adversity, using the unforgiving northern wilderness as a setting for heroic feats of endurance, performed in this case by a fictional teenaged air cadet, stranded after a plane crash. (20) There were also mystical stories about a young Inuit boy on The Magic Kayak (1953) and a haunting docudrama, Death in the Barrens (1954), about an ill-fated expedition. (21) Considered together, these programs represented the timely revival of a narrative tradition, which rejoiced in taming the harsh and otherworldly northern frontier through bold displays of masculine vigour. As explained by Renee Huian, some writers went so far as to argue that the northern experience, so conceived, might fortify Canada with the spirit of the exceptional few, praised in Romantic literature for being "rugged and individualistic." (22) Similar "narratives of conquest" persisted well into the late twentieth century in scholarship that considered technologies, like shortwave transmission, to be tools to overcome the vastness of Canadian geography. (23) These ways of thinking were particularly relevant in the mid-twentieth century, as the federal government fortified northern defences and fostered economic growth, thereby hurrying the arrival of southern migrants and ushering in the technological trappings of modernity, including improved communications infrastructure. One result was the creation of a few islands of southern society, set adrift in harsh environs, where they survived only with support from public institutions. (24)

III. TROOP BROADCASTING WITHIN CANADA'S BORDERS

"They did not come north to make a home or to improve the region," wrote historian Ken Coates about the successive waves of migration. "Instead, each group has viewed the environment as an obstacle interfering with the productive harvesting of natural resources." (25) Believing in the possibility of transformation through the exercise of technological might, if only to foster further development through the improvement of transportation and communication networks, created new ways of responding to the environment. Radar stations and airfields, for example, functioned as delineating features in the politicized geography of the early Cold War, identified by Matthew Farish and P. Whitney Lackenbauer. (26) There was an increased American presence in Greenland and northern Canada, as the allied nations strengthened their defences against a possible airborne attack by the Soviet Union. Newly built military installations, such as the Thule Air Base, became self-contained communities of transplanted Americans, with their own shops, recreational facilities, and radio services. (27) Lackenbauer described similar places in the Canadian northlands as "beachheads of modernism" because they were "sites of wage employment, modern housing, and Western technologies." (28) They selectively appropriated fragments of American culture, a process continued by radio stations operated by the Canadian military, which played music and radio shows from the United States.

The Armed Forces Broadcasting Committee, established by the Department of National Defence in 1948, was responsible for procuring such recordings, although it was Minister of National Defence Brooke Claxon who asked the CBC to share some of its programs. Management was reluctant to oblige, fearing that demand for discs would strain already overstretched resources. (29) Charles R. Delafield, assistant general supervisor of the CBC International Service, joined the debate after meeting Private Foster Rhude, who ran a northern radio station, set up in May 1948 by the American and Canadian forces at Fort Churchill, Manitoba. It relied heavily on recordings from the US Armed Forces Radio Service. Rhude made several failed appeals for Canadian content before meeting with Delafield, who proved receptive. "It would seem most advisable that we have the opportunity through these stations of presenting Canadian shows," Delafield urged. (30) Perhaps, but let the army do it, for the project would surely "snowball tremendously," warned Director General of Programs E.L. Bushnell. (31)

"We would derive a good deal of prestige and good will if we were responsible for that work," countered Dr. Augustin Frigon, an electrical engineer by training, who began his career in broadcasting with an appointment to the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting (Aird Commission) in 1928. (32) As Frank Peers explained, the Commission characterized radio broadcasting as a "public service" to be employed for the good of the nation and the betterment of its citizenry. (33) As general manager two decades later, Frigon sensed that there might be an opportunity to expand the reach of radio by following the military into the northlands, while also placing the CBC "in full control of broadcasting over whole of Canadian territory.'" (34) American influence within Canada's borders in the early years of the Cold War concerned the federal government, which employed the armed forces as unmistakable sentinels, advertising its claim to the northernmost reaches of the country. There had been no comparable assertion of sovereignty over the airwaves. (35) At Frigon's urging, Bushnell investigated the military's needs. Fie was glad to learn that "what they really want is not a pretentious or costly scheme," just a lot of recordings. (36)

Ten members of the CBC Montreal staff travelled to Whitehorse in July, in part to evaluate existing radio services. (37) The NWT&Y Radio System had grown to include twenty-two stations. Five doubled as volunteer-run broadcasters: Whitehorse (CFWH) and Dawson City (CFYT) in Yukon Territory, along with Aklavik (CHAK), Hay River (CFHR), and Norman Wells (CFNW) in the Northwest Territories. (38) The army began operations at CHAK in May 1947, after Sergeant-Major R.A. MacLeod spent six months tinkering with amateur radio, or ham radio, equipment. (39) The armed forces encouraged the pastime, considered ideal training for work on the NWT&Y Radio System. (40) The navy demonstrated its support for one amateur radio club, with just nine members, by supplying the equipment and facilities they needed to operate a station at the Communication and Electrical Schools of HMCS Stadacona in Halifax, Nova Scotia. (41) In the United States, the public image of the ham radio fraternity benefitted from association with the military, whether through the enlistment of its members or by participating in civil defence planning, if only because it "proved the value of hams' technical mastery," explained American historian Kristen Haring. (42) However, operators of amateur radio stations had more to offer the armed forces than just their skills. When first proposed in 1950, the Royal Canadian Navy Amateur Radio Association asked hams in the service to register their stations with naval headquarters, so that they might relay vital information in the event of an emergency. There would be no "attempt to control the activities of members under normal conditions," The Crowsnest promised. (43) Four years later, the club at HMCS Cornwallis was learning to build transmitters used to send signals to the distant shores of Eastern Europe, where it maintained "numerous contacts," suggesting the further usefulness of hams in countering Soviet propaganda. (44) Given this enthusiasm for the skills and the resources associated with amateur radio, it was not surprising that the armed forces permitted the building of stations by servicemen stationed in the North.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

The initial impulse of CBC staff, willing to support troop broadcasters within Canada's borders, was to undertake the nationwide collection of unwanted discs from its studios. (45) Included among the recordings were episodes of the Milton Berle Show, which promised to perpetuate American cultural influence. (46) Poor transportation infrastructure made shipping costly and sporadic. One alternative was shortwave. Once linked with the local CBC studios, the army's transmitter in Edmonton could relay broadcasts to the North, where residents might either pick up the signals on their own receivers or hear them rebroadcast by the NWT&Y Radio System. This would be a real "morale-booster," argued Dan E. Cameron, CBC manager for Alberta. (47) He was teaching at small rural schools in his home province of Saskatchewan when he joined the CBC in 1940. "I don't think I have given up teaching," he said years later, reflecting on the public broadcaster's duty to inform. (48) The army endorsed the plan and promised to take responsibility for its implementation, giving the CBC little reason to object. (49) Bushnell insisted upon defining the terms of engagement with the Department of National Defence, if only to have written documentation absolving the CBC of any financial responsibility. He also wanted assurances that transmissions would be of reasonably good quality, or else they might do "more harm than good." (50) A coordinating committee sorted out the details, deciding on a program schedule and organizing tours of the northern radio stations. (51) Prairie Regional Engineer Roy D. Cahoon, who previously oversaw the expansion of the Trans-Canada network in western Canada, visited the army's facilities in February 1949. (52) Satisfied with the five, low-power relay transmitters in the Northwest Territories and the Yukon, he determined that "the weakest link in this chain" was the terminal station in Edmonton, which was "definitely not of broadcast quality," though he believed that "inferior quality is better than no service at all." (53) Thus, in April 1949, the shortwave relay began. (54) He was soon proved wrong in Dawson City, where reception was so poor that the local radio station made no use of the relayed broadcasts during the summer of 1950. Instead, it relied on recordings. (55)

In the early 1950s, the CBC International Service was making recordings, producing programs, and transmitting material overseas by shortwave for the benefit of Canadians stationed in Germany or fighting in the Korean War. (56) Its main task, however, was to share Canadian perspectives on world affairs with the civilian populations of other nations. Chairman of the Board of Governors, A. Davidson Dunton, considered the positive responses of Czechoslovakian listeners to be an indication that "we have maintained one quite useful slit in the iron curtain." (57) Increasingly, stations in northern Canada were making demands that strained even the most modern of facilities at the new Radio Canada Building in Montreal, which boasted twenty recording machines. (58) Pleas for help came from the Hay River Community Society, which desperately needed the recordings sent by the CBC to replace the worn-out supply of second-hand discs, donated to CFHR by neighbouring stations and charitable residents. (59) When Aklavik made a similar request, Dunton responded with assurances that "the problem of how to provide a full network service to your station and others like it in the far north has been much in our minds for some time." (60) Dunton travelled widely, studied at venerable institutions, practised journalism, and worked at the Wartime Information Board before 1945, when he assumed the chairmanship at age thirty-three. (61) Radio programming flourished under his watch, producing what Knowlton Nash characterized as "a golden age of CBC radio broadcasting," seemingly untouched by entrenched disputes within management and waning support among Conservatives. (62) Striving to unite Canadians from every region as a national listening audience, the public broadcaster also made modest attempts to enlarge its three radio networks, already comprised of more than a hundred stations, through the addition of new low-power relay transmitters. (63) More than 90 percent of the population was within earshot by 1951, when the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences commended the "ingenious improvisation" that made the CBC National Service possible. (64)

The CBC found an unlikely partner in Harry R. Low, as it worked to grow its domestic service by making regular offerings of programs to radio stations in far-flung, sparsely populated northern settlements. The Scottish immigrant had a chance to visit a few of these communities to study the state of schooling for the Northwest Territories Council, shortly before he became the first director of the Bureau of Current Affairs at National Defence Headquarters in 1951. Its task was to impart Western values, so as to guard the armed forces against psychological warfare waged by the Soviet Union; as Claxton told the press, it gave servicemen "a basic understanding of that which he has enlisted to support and that which he must be prepared to oppose." (65) Exposure to familiar fare on the radio was one way to reaffirm a Canadian worldview. So Harry Low collaborated with Charles Delafield, who was already bringing CBC radio programming to the armed forces overseas. Informing their discussions was a survey of northern broadcasting facilities, undertaken by Roy Cahoon in March 1952. (66)

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Though distinguished by its association with the military, northern broadcasting represented another means to reach Canadian listeners within the country's borders. "The CBC has been interested only in its effort to provide service to all Canadians," reported Cahoon. (67) His northern tour included a stop in Whitehorse. Only about 4,000 people--less than 10 percent of the wartime population--still resided at this junction on the Northwest Highway System in the late 1940s. (68) Although the local radio station joined the Canadian Army Signal System in 1951, it still conveyed signals from the NWT&Y Radio System. (69) It also continued to function as a community broadcaster, run by volunteers, and reliant on discs supplied by the US Armed Forces Radio Service to entertain Americans. (70) By contrast, like most other amenities in Fort Churchill, the American and Canadian forces shared CHFC, which existed beyond the reach of the NWT&Y Radio System. (71) While the transmitter was still functioning reasonably well, its studio was in a state of disrepair by the time Cahoon visited. Only the airmen who ran CFGB in Goose Bay, Labrador, had "broadcast type studio equipment" at their disposal. Cahoon's recommendations included new equipment, regular maintenance, and more Canadian content to correct the "definite U.S. flavour which must surely give the wrong impression to personnel of all ranks and also to neighbouring civilians and natives." (72)

IV. THE NORTHWARD EXPANSION OF THE CBC

In December 1952, the CBC announced that its Troop Broadcast Service, as it was sometimes known, would be distributing recordings, previously shared only with Canadians stationed in Europe and the Far East, to radio stations in Whitehorse, Fort Churchill, and Goose Bay. (73) Len Cosh oversaw the effort, which began in January 1953. The thirty-three-year-old was a long-time member of the ham radio fraternity and a veteran of World War II. (74) Eight years after joining the CBC, he was working in Montreal as producer of Troop Broadcasts. Religious material, musical performances, and dramas could be found in the first shipment of fifty-three recordings on discs, to be used by Goose Bay and then taken by Air Transport Command to Fort Churchill, from whence they travelled to Whitehorse. Before long, Cosh was receiving requests to extend this service. (75)

Dawson City was particularly desperate for inclusion. The US Armed Forces Radio Service had discontinued its deliveries and demanded the return of whatever discs remained in the possession of CFYT, "Voice of the Yukon." Station manager Dennis Mackie, who led its volunteer staff, assured Cosh that "any programmes which you may send us will be well received." (76) There were similar appeals from Flying Officer H.G. Hamilton, president of the committee responsible for CHFN in Fort Nelson, British Columbia. Until the US Armed Forces Radio Service stopped deliveries in November 1952, its recordings filled nearly seventy hours of airtime every week. (77) Whitehorse also lost its supply of American content, which increased dissatisfaction with the lengthy wait for CBC discs at CFWH. (78) None had yet arrived when Squadron Leader R.B. Wallace added his voice to the chorus, pleading with the CBC to attend to the needs of his community. "As a counter to the long period of American influence," he wrote, evoking those fears and obligations that defined domestic broadcasting as a public service, "there would be merit in releasing programmes of your transcription sources which, I understand, are used abroad to provide information on the Canadian way of life." (79) Sensitive to their needs, Cosh added new stops on the delivery circuit and planned experiments with shortwave transmission to the Northwest Territories. (80) He was soon able to promise Dawson City, Fort Nelson, and Aklavik a steady supply of discs. (81) "I feel that we are well on the way towards having a truly Canadian radio station," Group Captain R.J. Gray, commanding officer at Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Station Goose Bay, wrote in praise of Cosh's efforts, though he was among the fortunate few still receiving recordings from the US Armed Forces Radio Service in 1953. (82)

The northern circuit was imperfect, plagued by unreliable deliveries that left northern radio stations unable to plan and advertise programs, often peppered with commercials that the overstretched staff in Montreal failed to remove. (83) Shortwave was also problematic. Broadcasts from other nations were drowning out transmissions from Sackville. That revelation appeared in the minutes of a tri-service meeting attended by Cosh in January 1953. The minutes also recorded plans to replace fragile, single-use discs with reusable tapes and desires to shorten transit time by shipping from Winnipeg, rather than Montreal. (84) Increasingly, Cosh defended requests for resources on the grounds that these broadcasters served Canadians within the country's borders. "Inasmuch as the civilian population in the North is fairly high," he told management, "I feel that we should at least try to standardize the operation and consider it an extension of the National Service, employing the tried and proved methods of programming and scheduling." (85) In the meantime, he improvised. He even asked that the army collect a paper copy of a newscast, issued daily by the International Service. The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals would share it with northern radio stations, where announcers could read the news live. Harry Low made the necessary arrangements. (86) The switchover to tapes in April 1953, which came with the promise of six hours of programming each day, was more than just a technical milestone, requiring the acquisition of new equipment at northern radio stations. It also marked the expansion of domestic broadcasting into the North: whereas the International Service supplied discs, the National Service would be producing these tape recordings. (87)

Parcels travelled slowly. Often more than three months passed before all points on the northern circuit had a chance to play the tapes for their listeners. (88) Delays along the way sometimes left radio stations near the end of the circuit without anything to broadcast for long periods, "which does little to enhance CBC stock with our listeners and gives station managers and program directors ulcers," complained Major J.G. Mumford, manager of CFWH. (89) Adding to his burdens, the CBC joined the Bureau of Current Affairs in refusing to pay shipping costs, leaving stations to either absorb the expenses or make their own arrangements for free transport by airplane, boat, or truck. (90) Likewise, while Cosh might help to select or source much-needed broadcasting equipment, payment was the responsibility of each individual broadcaster. (91) As a result, technical standards were uneven. While others were building libraries of tapes by copying tape recordings from the CBC, equipment failures forced the temporary shutdown of CHFN, Fort Nelson. (92) And although roughly fifty percent of summertime shortwave transmissions in 1953 were clear enough for rebroadcast elsewhere in the North, nothing from Sackville was audible in Whitehorse. (93) As a partial countermeasure, the CBC offered intensive training in the basics of station operation and sent engineer Lloyd Moore to tackle unresolved problems. (94) He had prior experience working closely with the military, having spent more than a year recording the sounds of battle in Europe for the Overseas Unit during World War II. (95) Since "everything conceivable has gone wrong with the equipment," Major Mumford eagerly awaited his arrival in Whitehorse. (96)

While it might be wary of financial commitments, by expanding the northern circuit and offering modest technical support, the CBC increasingly regarded northern broadcasters as a means of expanding the National Service, if only by serving as cultural ambassadors, advertising its wares in a region beyond its reach. Rarely was that clearer than in the decision to send popular satirist Max Ferguson of The Rawhide Show to headline a fundraiser, which generated enough money to cover costs at CFWH for more than two years. (97)

V. THE ROLE OF RADIO IN NORTHERN SOCIETY

The social calendar in Aklavik, population estimated at 1,500, featured sporting events, movie nights, and dances. (98) Understandably, technical troubles and delays in the tape circuit received more attention from broadcasters than did the growing role of radio in northern life. Cosh realized its significance first-hand when he visited Whitehorse during a polio epidemic in 1953. At the urging of local officials, he broadcast three interviews with a physician, who answered questions to calm fears--"a fairly simple task," hardly befitting the effusive praise he received, he told Harry Low. (99) Radio also gave northerners access to what sociologists Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz called "media events," creating shared experiences upon which to build a sense of community with southerners, while reducing the alienation of isolation. (100) For example, when the bbc transmitted live coverage of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II by shortwave, the broadcast could be heard clearly in some parts of northern Canada. Elsewhere, stations rebroadcast recordings or used temporary landline connections to relay a direct feed from the National Service. (101) In the weeks before the federal election in August, stations also played programs detailing the political scene in southern Canada, since there was no northern alternative on offer. The CBC exercised its authority as the industry regulator and strictly enforced compliance with the policy of "no discrimination," as prescribed by section 22 of the Broadcasting Act, which granted each political party a chance to be heard. There was no exemption for military-run stations, increasingly regarded by the CBC as domestic broadcasters. (102)

School broadcasts further tested the medium's ability to transform listeners into an imagined community. (103) By the 1940s, teachers in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom were supplementing their lessons with educational radio programs. There were even occasional exchanges that brought Canadian fare to American School of the Air, heard on the Columbia Broadcasting System. (104) However, the youth of other nations were not the target audience. Nearly half of English-language schools were using the programs, produced by the CBC in partnership with educational authorities to give "students a stronger consciousness of Canada and her achievements." (105) National and provincial content had fairly equal representation: of the 452 programs heard by prairie children in 1952-1953, half originated in the western provinces. (106) Some of their northern counterparts heard these programs, either on the radio or over the public announcement system at their schools. (107) The chance to learn the same lessons as other Canadian children was particularly significant for the dependents of service personnel stationed in Goose Bay. "The Americans and Canadians both have their own school bus systems," noted Cosh, "but when the children finally get into school, they are mixed up completely. From time to time, there is a problem of holidays, whether to celebrate the American or Canadian or both. However, it is not too serious and both flags fly side by side." (108) Because they followed the British Columbia curriculum, Whitehorse classrooms played school broadcasts from Vancouver. Following this logic, teachers in Fort Churchill used material produced in Winnipeg, while students in Goose Bay listened to programs from Ontario. (109) This further reinforced the defiantly southern character of these communities, while also signalling the expanding social responsibility of the CBC.

VI. CIVILIANIZATION

Delays that slowed the costly shipment of tapes through the northern circuit caused endless frustration, distracting from the growing social significance of radio. The station in Dawson City was particularly unfortunate. CFYT had to purchase its own blank tapes to be filled with recordings by CFWH. It then paid all transportation costs. Parcels destined for other stations made the journey to Whitehorse--through which all parcels from the CBC in Montreal now passed--free of charge, aboard regular flights of Air Transport Command. It did not fly to Dawson City, where the station manager struggled with the expense of shipping. (110) Poor communication made things worse. "I am quite at a loss to know what goes on in Dawson City as I rarely get answers to letters or wires--just collect shipments of CBC tapes, which I refused to accept," Major Mumford complained. (111) He was under pressure, trying to fulfill his obligations with just two tape recorders and a failing transmitter, not meant for broadcasting. What is more, his station lost the free landline link to Edmonton, used to relay news and sports broadcasts. (112) Reception was still too poor for a replacement service by shortwave and without a "standard system" of documentation, the CBC International Service had no way of monitoring and improving transmission quality. (113) Shortly before its three-year reign ended with the creation of the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources in 1953--at a time when the federal government was endeavouring to assert sovereignty without antagonizing an electorate opposed to further "militarization"--the Department of Resources and Development wondered whether the CBC ought to take over or, at the very least, send staff to relieve the overburdened volunteers at CFWH. (114)

Civilianization was already underway. The NWT&Y Radio System ceded several isolated stations to the Department of Transport in the early 1950s and entrusted the running of others to civilians, hired to replace servicemen called to fight in the Korean War. (115) There was also a prevailing presumption that the CBC had already taken charge of northern broadcasting. "I doubt if the Bureau of Current Affairs gets either credit or blame for the armed forces recording service," a current affairs advisor reported from Fort Churchill. Harry Low must have found little comfort in the knowledge that even publicity efforts had failed. Complaining that topical programming was outdated by the time it finally arrived, Dr. L.A. Glinz also questioned why the CBC did not produce a separate set of recordings for each northern radio station. (116) He did not realize the work involved in recording more than 180 hours of programming each week for the benefit of fifteen troop broadcasters. And they wanted more. "The Montreal recording room cannot take on the additional load," Cosh responded to requests for more than one set of tapes. All that he could do was to shorten the northern circuit. (117) This meant denying tapes to several stations, leaving the dwindling civilian population in Dawson City without Canadian content for several months. Until a more limited disc service filled this gap, residents relied on whatever signals could be picked up from neighbouring Alaska. (118) Shortly thereafter, Major Mumford resigned as manager at CFWH, citing his inability to balance the needs of the station with his regular duties as an ordnance officer. (119)

In October 1954, the new supervisor of broadcasts for the armed forces at the CBC, Andrew Gillespie Cowan, toured Labrador and Yukon Territory, though the forty-three-year-old was already well acquainted with rural life and the military. His family left Ontario for the prairies when he was just a child. "I learned what hard winters meant and enjoyed the doubtful benefits of a rural school," he remembered. His education was sufficient to earn him a place at the University of Glasgow. He stayed in Scotland after graduation to partake in a government study of the northern countryside. When he finally returned to Canada, he found employment at the CBC, preparing talks for prairie listeners, reporting from Europe on the progress of World War II, and producing programs, like The Soldier's Return, about the reintegration of veterans into Canadian society after 1945. He was the European representative for the CBC in London, England, when he assumed responsibility for troop broadcasting in 1954.120 His northern tour convinced him that delivery times should be shortened through the creation of three new circuits, each with its own set of recordings. Only CFGB, Goose Bay, with its audience of 20,000 service personnel, already enjoyed this privilege: it purchased tapes to be refilled regularly in Montreal. Engineers from the CBC also provided technical support for the station, plagued with malfunctioning equipment. "A little money and some professional assistance would certainly do wonders for this isolated base," reported James Doherty, a maintenance technician. (121)

Cowan tried to convince colleagues to rethink radio in the North as a fundamental extension of their existing responsibilities. To his colleagues in the National Service, he requested funds to cover the cost of shipping to stations not served by the rcaf, if only to ensure the delivery of recordings it paid to produce. After all, most listeners in these neglected communities were civilians. "The burden would therefore fall on CBC as part of its responsibility as the national broadcasting service to provide for the needs of the expanding population," he reasoned. Cowan similarly invoked the responsibilities of the International Service, then trying to counter Soviet propaganda overseas, to justify investment to improve domestic shortwave coverage, so that Canadian transmissions could be heard as clearly as Radio Moscow in Yukon Territory. "It's ironical that we should be trying to convert political souls in Europe by broadcasting through the front door while leaving the back door open for heretical voices," he argued. (122) Engineers studying the particular challenges of high latitude, hoping to devise some remedy, eventually concluded that Vancouver would be a better site than Sackville from which to originate shortwave broadcasts destined for the Yukon and Northwest Territories. (123) The Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources further encouraged the civilianization of radio, even partnering with the CBC to plan the northward expansion of its National Service. (124)

Cowan revisited the territories in 1955. "The town proper, the historic gold rush Whitehorse," he wrote in a report that detailed his travels, "is on the dusty river flat, an intriguing mixture of unpaved roads, wooden sidewalks, false fronts, fine new government building, stem wheeled behemoths of the river rotting on the beach and the log station of the White Pass & Yukon Railway that suggests wood burning engines with cowcatchers." There were now 5,000 residents, many employed by the government departments that relocated to Whitehorse when it replaced Dawson City as the territorial capital. Servicemen unsatisfied with the work of civilian volunteers had taken control of the only radio station in town. "This is unfortunate as Whitehorse needs a good station to serve the whole community," wrote Cowan. His recommendations included the founding of two shortwave stations in western Canada to improve coverage for all northerners. He also proposed the establishment of a "Northern Broadcasting Service," granting the Troop Broadcasting Department authority to help equip, fund, and administer low-power community stations in partnership with the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources. (125) It would not entirely replace the military, which was slowly starving stations of resources needed to effectively serve civilian audiences. Put simply, there would be no takeover of the daily operations, no expansion of the National Service. "If the system were ran by the CBC as part of its normal operations," Cowan warned, "communities might tend to assume that CBC should operate the stations, and minority groups in other parts of Canada, which in numbers are greater than the entire population of the territories, might consider that they had a greater claim to subsidies than the people of the Yukon and Northwest Territories." Instead, radio for northerners would be considered a "special service," distinguished from other forms of domestic broadcasting, in part, by a separate budget, prescribed by the federal government. (126)

VII. THE NORTHERN SERVICE

"The Canadian way of life makes it mandatory that any community of a permanent status be provided with such facilities as radio broadcasting," a serviceman argued on behalf of residents in Whitehorse. (127) The population of the Yukon and Northwest Territories--roughly 32,000 people--were largely disenfranchised, denied the particular cultural citizenship afforded to nearly 95 percent of southerners within reach of the CBC, which boasted a growing television network that soon reached from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In its 1957 report, the Royal Commission on Broadcasting endorsed plans to provide low-power community stations with additional support, equipment, and shortwave broadcasts, if only to give northerners greater access to the Canadian content that defined that particular dreamscape conveyed by the CBC's southern radio networks. (128)

However, no one wanted to take over daily operations at the northern radio stations. The CBC was only willing to provide a limited quantity of programs and some technical help, as Cowan reminded a committee concerned with improving northern broadcasting that convened in January 1958. He learned from fellow delegates that the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources was willing to oversee the governance and financing of radio stations, afforded new licenses by the Department of Transport that recognized their transfer from the Department of National Defence, which reiterated its intention to abandon northern broadcasters. (129) A few months earlier, the army began the slow process of surrendering the NWT&Y Radio System, arguing that the Department of Transport, as the principal user, should take responsibility for its operation. (130) The armed forces were also ceding airfields and other assets to civilian authorities, as defence priorities changed in response to the threat of intercontinental ballistic missiles, predicted by the successful launch of the satellite Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957. (131)

At the same time, the federal government had a new mandate to pursue "developments in the Northern frontier," sanctioned by the "northern vision" laid out by Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker during his successful campaign for re-election in 1958. (132) That year, the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources proposed an interim policy, whereby it would support low-power, non-commercial stations "within its jurisdiction," unless the Department of National Defence retained control, or until private alternatives became available. (133) It further urged the production of shortwave broadcasts to counter transmissions from Greenland, favoured by Inuit listeners, "which will make them feel they have more in common with their fellow Canadians in other parts of Canada than with other Eskimos in a foreign country." There were also demands from company towns that envied Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited of Saskatchewan, which played CBC recordings over a closed-circuit system. And then there were the radio stations abandoned by the armed forces, which defiantly refused to make necessary repairs, forcing the indefinite closure of CFHR, Hay River. This in turn disrupted the relay of tapes to Yellowknife and Aklavik. Others shutdown when the air force left town. Reflecting on these developments, earlier plans to bolster northern radio services no longer seemed sufficient. "[C]onditions have changed to the point that CBC feels obliged to reconsider the whole situation," declared a memorandum, drafted in 1958. (134)

The CBC now proposed to ferry recordings on commercial flights, build at least one shortwave station in western Canada and--most significantly--"assume full responsibility for the equipping, staffing and operating" of eleven radio stations, serving these communities: Aklavik, Dawson City, Fort Churchill, Fort Nelson, Fort Simpson, Fort Smith, Goose Bay, Hay River, Watson Lake, Whitehorse, and Yellowknife. (135) The Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources endorsed the plan, which was presented to Parliament in June. (136) It was "anxious to give 'local residents' of the North a greater share in the economic and cultural life of Canada," wrote Cowan. He travelled some 10,000 miles with engineers Lloyd Moore and William Roxburgh to revisit broadcasting facilities in British Columbia, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories. Their task was to decide what was needed to set up a network with low-power relay transmitters and a few radio stations, staffed by northerners under the direction of the CBC. (137) "The area of northern Canada which is the responsibility of the Northern Service consists of the Yukon and Northwest Territories, as far north as the Pole, and those northern areas of the Western provinces and of Quebec and Newfoundland [and] Labrador which do not receive a consistent and adequate broadcasting service from the CBC or Canadian private stations," the Industrial Relations Department reported. (138) Edward Jones-Imhotep interpreted similar statements, issued almost a decade later, as evidence that the public broadcaster was contributing to the reinvention of the northern region as a space defined by technology. (139) They were also exercises in pragmatism by bureaucrats, struggling to place all 1,512,000 square miles of the new Northern Service, which "cannot be accurately defined," onto a map dividing the administration of Canada's airwaves between the regional authorities within the CBC. (140) This meant applying to the field of broadcasting the particular geographies imprinted onto the northern landscape by nearly four decades of military presence and resource development.

Cowan was the director of the Northern Service, overseeing the takeover of CFWH, Whitehorse, in November 1958. CFYT, Dawson City, was next, followed by CFYK, Yellowknife, and CFGB, Goose Bay. (141) They formally joined the Trans-Canada network in 1959 and were soon producing a few programs about northern life, such as Yukon Neiuscast and Yukon Party Line. (142) As the Northern Service grew, with the addition of more stations and low-power relay transmitters, it encountered some resistance. For example, residents in Fort Churchill worried that, as the "CBC Voice of the Tundra," their radio station would be an "impersonal entity, no longer providing a 'Town Crier' and a polar bear warning service," reported Captain A.H. Rosson. (143) There was also reluctance to cut ties with the US Armed Forces Radio Service, which only served troop stations, despite promises from the CBC to offset the loss with nearly seventy hours of tape recordings each week. (144) There were other sources of American radio. "Minneapolis is quite strong," reported John Thornton Craine during a visit to the community. The newly appointed supervisor of programs for the Northern Service had only recently returned to Canada after three years in Germany, where he had helped to establish radio services for the Canadian army: "On shortwave the North American Service of BBC, the U.S. Armed Forces Radio Service and the North American Service of Radio Moscow can all be heard quite well." (145)

It was not enough to improve broadcasting standards at community stations that served a few privileged towns, but there were still serious questions about the viability of shortwave broadcasting as a means of communicating with all northerners, even just for a few hours each day. In 1959, there was no uniform system for tracking reception quality. There were no reserved times for staggered relays to each of the six time zones. And there were no purpose-built facilities that could meet the particular environmental challenges, including "the auroral zone and its associated disturbing effects on the ionized reflecting layers on which distant communications depend," wrote J. Murillo Laporte, supervisor of engineering services for the CBC International Service. He endorsed plans for two shortwave stations in western Canada to supplement the relay of network programming from Sackville. (146) But the federal government was reluctant to fund more than one shortwave station. It proposed, as an alternative, the use of landlines to permanently link seven of the northern radio stations to CBC studios in Edmonton, enabling the direct relay of network programming. (147)

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

No longer satisfied with the aging antenna array, the CBC International Service also sought government support for the construction of at least four new transmitters in Sackville, two for overseas transmission and two for northern broadcasting. In the meantime, the CBC laid claim to shortwave frequencies that could be used in the North at an international conference in Geneva, while also undertaking tests of the existing facilities in Sackville. (148) "It will not be good enough for the CBC to provide a fair signal in the area," Craine warned his colleagues. "We must offer a competitive signal." (149) Weeks earlier, the Ionospheric Sounding Laboratory reported occasions of "severe jamming, most likely done by Moscow Molly," which stopped its staff in Resolute from hearing sportscasts beamed from Sackville. (150) The problem was not merely technical. Arguments for improved shortwave coverage continued to exploit fears about the possible disruptive influence of foreign broadcasts, whether from Radio Moscow or the Voice of America. (151) It was not enough to convince CBC President J. Alphonse Ouimet, who privately confided that the International Service was his priority. He rejected any proposal that might hinder its chances for funding or might infringe upon overseas transmission, including a budget enlarged by mention of transmitters for the Northern Service, resulting in figures that were (as a frustrated Craine paraphrased) "so huge that it would be political suicide even to show it to the Government." (152) The Department of External Affairs further urged against any reduction of service to Latin America or Europe. (153) Thus, at the time of its inauguration in September 1960, the Northern Shortwave Service only had use of the existing Sackville transmitters from 5:00 to 5:45 pm and then again from 8:00 pm to 2:00 am in the Eastern time zone. (154) They carried Canadian voices and views over vast distances at a relatively low cost, signalling "Canada's sovereignty in the area," or so the Northern Service argued in defence of its shortwave broadcasts. (155)

Important questions about the special status of the Northern Service arose during this contest for resources. The geographical borders that defined the territory where the Northern Service operated did not fit neatly onto the broadcasting map. There were questions about whether radio stations in places like Goose Bay and Fort Churchill should have been administered by other regional authorities within the CBC, which were responsible for radio in the Maritimes and on the Prairies, for example. (156) Instead, the Northern Service reaffirmed its exceptionalism, justifying these encroachments, while functioning as if the northlands of its imaginings were an equally distinctive region. In the early 1960s, when it used landlines and microwave technology to reorganize low-power relay transmitters and community stations in British Columbia, the Yukon, and the Northwest Territories into two radio networks, its stated objective was to foster "a regional outlook and to help consolidate in time and space the scattered northern communities of the North." (157) However, Andrew Cowan opposed any attempt to recast his dominion as the "Northern Region," fearing not only the sacrificing of terrain and stations but also the loss of those positive connotations suggested by radio that functioned as a "public service" for northerners. (158) It was a region, he conceded, but its boundaries were little more than an "imaginary line" encircling listeners with similar needs. (159)

VIII. CONCLUSION

The origins of the Northern Service lay in mid-century state expansionism for the purpose of developing the resources and defences of the provincial northlands and the territories, pursued at a time when radio adventures were popularizing the idea of taming this hostile and otherworldly frontier. A few of the technological trappings of modernity were available to civilians and service personnel, who populated the islands of southern society that prospered with government support. Radio-telegraph stations operated by the army employed amateur radio enthusiasts, who shared the bonds of fraternity with fellow hams employed by the CBC. They were responsible for some of the earliest local broadcasts in communities, where radio ownership was a privilege largely associated with the growing white population and where programming, consequently, neglected Aboriginal listeners, often reducing them to "bystanders, rubbernecks of the white man's parade," Andrew Cowan later complained. (160) Even the Northern Messenger Service focused its efforts on affording newcomers a chance to stay in touch with southern relations. Complicating the conveyance of goods and ideas were atmospheric disturbances that hindered shortwave reception and the high cost of shipping parcels filled with recordings that travelled a long and circuitous route to only a few stations.

The CBC persevered because northward expansion supported its broader ambitions, which included the limiting of foreign influences and asserting its dominance over domestic airwaves. Radio also represented a means by which to encourage the growth of a common broadcasting culture, which held the potential of fostering a sense of community with southerners. After all, it facilitated the consumption of the same diversions, permitted the collective experience of media events, and made available school broadcasts, designed to complement the provincial curricula followed by the children of service personnel stationed in the Canadian North. In short, northern broadcasters effectively functioned as cultural ambassadors for the CBC, which in return offered modest technical support and recordings. Over the course of the 1950s, the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources campaigned for civilianization, in the hopes that, by assuming increased authority over radio, the CBC would further the enculturation of northerners and correct neglect by the military. The result- ing Northern Service built upon a framework of closed-circuit broadcasting systems operated by mining companies, radio stations with historic ties to the armed forces, and shortwave facilities that had been primarily used for overseas transmission. "The Northern Service was given its name by accident and retained it by design," wrote Andrew Cowan in 1963. With that remark, he eloquently summarized the history of northern broadcasting. (161)

doi:10.3138/CJH.ACH.51.1.004

(1) The author would like to thank the Canadian War Museum and Library and Archives Canada for the photographs used in this article.

(2) Library and Archives Canada (LAC), Andrew Cowan fonds (MG30 E298), vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, 1960-1970," John C. Ward for the Policy Coordination Department of the International Service, script, "The C.B.C. Northern Service," 20 August 1962.

(3) Lisa Cooke, "North Takes Place in Dawson City, Yukon, Canada," in Northscapes: History, Technology, and the Making of Northern Environments, eds. Dolly Jorgensen and Sverker Sorlin (Vancouver, 2013), 223-46, 242.

(4) Quoted in Shelagh D. Grant, Sovereignty or Security? Government Policy in the Canadian North, 1936-11)50 (Vancouver, 1988), 245.

(5) Edward Jones-Imhotep, "Nature, Technology, and Nation," Journal of Canadian Studies 38.3 (2004): 27-29.

(6) For example, Ken S. Coates and William R. Morrison, Land of the Midnight Sun: A History of the Yukon (Edmonton, 1988), 282; John S. Moir (ed.) History of the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals, 1903-1961 (Ottawa, 1962), 286.

(7) Consider Heather E. Hudson, "The Role of Radio in the Canadian North," Journal of Communication 27.4 (1977): 131; Bruce L. Smith and Jerry C. Brigham, "Native Radio Broadcasting in North America: An Overview of Systems in the United States and Canada," Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 36.2 (1992): 185; Loma Roth, Something New in the Air: The Story of First Peoples Television Broadcasting in Canada (Montreal and Kingston, 2005), 64-74.

(8) Anne F. MacLennan, "Cultural Imperialism of the North? The Expansion of the CBC Northern Service and Community Radio," The Radio Journal--International Studies in Broadcast and Audio Media 9.1 (2011): 64.

(9) Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), CBC 1946: A Digest of Statements on the Policies, Administration and Programs of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, presented before the House of Commons Special Committee on Radio Broadcasting 1946, by A. Davidson Dunton, Chairman of the Board of Directors; Dr. Augustin Frigon, General Manager; E.L. Bushnell, Director General of Programs; and Jean-Marie Beaudet, Director, CBC French Network (Toronto, 1946), 46.

(10) Moir, History of the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals, 276-86; "Mark 25th Anniversary," The Crowsnest 1.2 (1948): 25.

(11) MacLennan. "Cultural Imperialism of the North?" 67-68: "Yule Greetings on Northern Messenger," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (15 Dec. 1945): 3

(12) "Northern Messenger to Resume November 2," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (13 Oct. 1945): 1.

(13) Ibid.; Morris Zaslow, The Northward Expansion of Canada. 1914-1967 (Toronto, 1988), 186-7.

(14) Jones-Imhotep, "Nature, Technology, and Nation," 13; K.C. Eyre, "The Military and Nation Building in the Arctic, 1945-1964," Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security Historical Perspectives, ed. P. Whitney Lackenbauer, Calgary Papers in Military and Strategic Studies, Occasional Paper No. 4 (Calgary, 2011), 202.

(15) Coates and Morrison, Land of the Midnight Sun, 241-42, 249.

(16) Jeff A. Webb, "VOUS--Voice of the United States: The Armed Forces Radio Service in Newfoundland," Journal of Radio Studies 11.1 (2004): 98.

(17) Dick Halhed, Radio: The Remote Years (Scarborough, 1981), 10-11.

(18) A.E. Powley, Broadcast from the Front: Canadian Radio Overseas in the Second World War (Toronto, 1975), 74; "Wilmot Arranging Troop Broadcasts," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (6 Oct. 1945): 3; A.E. Powley, "CBC Staying With Troops Overseas," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (15 Dec. 1945): 6; "CBC International Service Progresses," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (5 Jan. 1946): 7.

(19) "History of Far North in New CBC Series," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (3 Nov. 1945): 1. Also, "'White Empire' To Tell Story of R.N.W.M.P.," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (22 Dec. 1945): 1; "White Empire (9:30 p m.)," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (12 Jan. 1946): 5; "The White Empire (9:30 p.m.)," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (26 Jan. 1946): 5.

(20) "Arctic Adventures." CBC Times. Prairie Region schedule, 5.20 (11-17 May 1952): 3; "Arctic Adventures," CBC Times, Prairie Region schedule, 5.21 (18-24 May 1952): 3.

(21) "The Magic Kayak," CBC Times, Prairie Region schedule, 6.27 (28 June-4 July 1953) : 6; "Death in the Barrens," CBC Times, Prairie Region schedule, 7.26 (27 June-3 July 1954): 5.

(22) Renee Huian, Northern Experience and the Myths of Canadian Culture (Montreal and Kingston, 2002), 185.

(23) Jones-Imhotep, "Nature, Technology, and Nation," 6-7.

(24) Grant, Sovereignty or Security? 248; Matthew Farish and P. Whitney Lackenbauer, "High Modernism in the Arctic: Planning Frobisher Bay and Inuvik," Journal of Historical Geography 35 (2009): 520, 528.

(25) Kenneth Coates, Canada's Colonies: A History of the Yukon and Northwest Territories (Toronto, 1985), 13.

(26) Matthew Farish, "Frontier Engineering: From the Globe to the Body in the Cold War Arctic," Canadian Geographer 50.2 (2006): 184; Farish and Lackenbauer, "High Modernism in the Arctic," 529.

(27) Shelagh D. Grant, Polar Imperative: A History of Arctic Sovereignty in North America (Toronto, 2010), 285, 315-16.

(28) P. Whitney Lackenbauer, "The Military as Nation Builder: The Case of the Canadian North." Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 15.1 (2013): 3.

(29) LAC, Records of the CBC (RG41), vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, "Northern & Armed Forces Services, Programme Production--Armed Forces, Liaison with Armed Forces--General": A.D. Dunton, memorandum to general manager (Ottawa), "Suggestion re supplying transcriptions of CBC programs to four Defence Forces radio stations in the Northwest," 8 June 1948; general supervisor of programmes, memorandum to general managers in Ottawa and Montreal. "Suggestion re supplying transcriptions of CBC programmes to four Defence Forces radio stations in the Northwest," [c. 1948].

(30) LAC, RG41, vol. 754. file NF 3-4-10. pt. 1, C.R. Delafield, memorandum to E.L. Bushnell and general supervisor of the International Service, "Army Radio Station CHFC, Fort Churchill," 7 Sept. 1948. Also, "New Stations Bring Radio to Northland," CBC Program Schedule. Prairie Region edition (n June 1948): 1.

(31) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, E.L. Bushnell, memorandum to C.R. Delafield, "Recordings for Army Broadcasting Stations," 20 Sept. 1948.

(32) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10. pt. 1, Augustin Frigon, memorandum to E.L. Bushnell, "Supplying Transcriptions of CBC programmes to National Defence Stations in the North-West," 19 Oct. 1948; "Augustin Frigon," CBC Times. Prairie Region schedule, 5.31 (27 July-2 Aug. 1952): 3

(33) Frank W. Peers, The Politics of Canadian Broadcasting, 1920-1951 (Toronto, 1973), 47-48.

(34) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Augustin Frigon, memorandum to E.L. Bushnell, "Supplying Transcriptions of CBC programmes to National Defence Stations in the North-West," 19 Oct. 1948.

(35) P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Peter Kikkert, "Introduction," in The Canadian Forces and Arctic Sovereignty: Debating Roles. Interests, and Requirements, 1968-1974, eds. P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Peter Kikkert, 3-45 (Waterloo, 2010), 8; Roth, Something New in the Air, 66.

(36) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, E.L. Bushnell, memorandum to general manager (Ottawa), "Cooperation with the Department of National Defence in Providing Transcriptions for their Northwest Territory Stations," 1 Nov. 1948.

(37) "CBC Men At Whitehorse Visit Sam McGee's Cabin," CBC Times, Prairie Region schedule, 1.3 (18-24 July 1948): 7.

(38) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, M.H.S. Penhale to Dan Cameron, "Northwest Territories & Yukon Radio: CBC Programme Service," 9 Dec. 1948.

(39) "Soldiers Start Radio Station at Aklavik," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (22 May 1947): 1.

(40) "Voice of the North," The Crowsnest 2.4 (1950): 33.

(41) "Royal Canadian Naval Experimental Radio Station VE1HO, H.M.C. Communication School, Halifax, Nova Scotia," The Crowsnest 2.10 (1950): 29.

(42) Kristen Haring, Ham Radio's Technical Culture (Cambridge, MA, 2007), 96, 103.

(43) "RCN Amateur Radio Association (RCN ARA)," The Crowsnest 3.1 (1950): 11.

(44) "Active Amateur Radio Club at Cornwallis," The Crowsnest 6.3 (1954): 21.

(45) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Roger Daveluy, memorandum to W.K. Moyer, "Co-operation with the Department of National Defence in providing transcriptions for their Northwest Territory Stations," 15 Dec. 1948.

(46) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, E.C. Hebert, memorandum to W.K. Moyer, "Co-operation with the Department of National Defence, Transcriptions for their Northwest Territory Stations," 13 Jan. 1949.

(47) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Dan E. Cameron, confidential report, "The CBC and the NWT & Y," Dec. 1948.

(48) Quoted in "Teaching Not Ended for Dan Cameron," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (17 Nov. 1945): 3.

(49) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Dan E. Cameron, memorandum, "Proposed Expansion of CBC-CBX Northwards," 16 Dec. 1948.

(50) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, E.L. Bushnell, memorandum to general manager (Ottawa), "Proposed Expansion of CBC-CBX Northwards," 24 Jan. 1949.

(51) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Dan E. Cameron, memorandum to J.R. Finlay, "Proposed Expansion on CBC-CBX Northwards," 29 Jan. 1949.

(52) "Cahoon to Direct Technical Activity in CBC Prairie Region," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (11 June 1948): 1, 8; LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Dan E. Cameron, memorandum to J.R. Finlay, "Proposed Expansion of CBC-CBX Northward," 8 Feb. 1949.

(53) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Roy D. Cahoon, memorandum to J.R. Finlay, "Proposed Expansion of CBC Northward," 22 Feb. 1949.

(54) Brig.-Gen. William J. Patterson, Semaphore to Satellite: A Story of Canadian Military Communications 1903-2013 (Canada, 2013), 109.

(55) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, R.E. Santo, memorandum to director of station relations, "Radio Station CFYT Dawson City, Yukon Territory," 12 Sept. 1950.

(56) CBC. Annual Report 1951/52 (Ottawa, 1952), 38; Mallory Schwartz, "How the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Served the Military in Korea, 1951-1956," Canadian Military History 24.2 (2015): 157-82.

(57) LAC, RG41, vol. 988, file 1 "Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1947-57," A.D. Dunton to R.J.F. Boyer, 5 Sept. 1950.

(58) "North America's Newest and Busiest Radio Centre," CBC Times, Prairie Region schedule, 4.22 (27 May-2 June 1951): 6.

(59) Documents from LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1: J.M.S. MacLeod to Len Cosh, 3 Jan. 1952; J.M.S. MacLeod to Len Cosh, 21 Jan. 1952.

(60) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, A.D. Dunton to LACO Hunt, 29 Feb. 1952.

(61) "New CBC Chairman Took Office Nov. 15," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (17 Nov. 1945): 1.

(62) Knowlton Nash, The Microphone Wars: A History of Triumph and Betrayal at the CBC (Toronto, 1994), 209-14.

(63) CBC, CBC 1946, 31; "CBC Plans 20 More Relays to Fill Blanks on Radio Map," The Globe and Mail, 13 Sept. 1952.

(64) Canada, Report of the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences, 1949-1951 (Ottawa, 1951), 26-27.

(65) Quoted in Canadian Press, "New Bureau Tells Men in Forces Why They Serve," The Globe and Mail, 9 April 1951.

(66) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Gordon W. Olive, memorandum to R.D. Cahoon, "Service to the Troops," 28 Feb. 1952.

(67) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, R.D. Cahoon, report, "Broadcast Coverage for Northern Outposts of the Armed Services," 10 April 1952.

(68) "CBC Men at Whitehorse Visit Sam McGee's Cabin," 7; "Northern Operations," The Crowsnest 1.4 (Feb. 1949): 29.

(69) Patterson, Semaphore to Satellite, 110.

(70) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1: Dan E. Cameron, memorandum to J.R. Finlay, "Proposed Expansion of CBC-CBX Northwards," 8 April 1949; R.D. Cahoon, report, "Broadcast Coverage for Northern Outposts of the Armed Services," 10 April 1952.

(71) "New Stations Bring Radio to Northland," 1; "Northern Operations," 29; "Northern Radio Station," The Crowsnest 1.5 (March 1949): 26.

(72) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, R.D. Cahoon, report, "Broadcast Coverage for Northern Outposts of the Armed Services," 10 April 1952.

(73) "A Merry Christmas!" CBC Times, Eastern Region schedule, 5.23 (21-27 Dec. 1952): 3.

(74) Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Reference Library (CBCrl), Toronto, biography files, "Cosh, Len," "Biographical Notes--Len Cosh," 9 Aug. 1948.

(75) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1: Len Cosh to Group Captain R.J. Gray, 6 Jan. 1953; Len Cosh, telegram to Dan Cameron, 7 Jan. 1953; Dan E. Cameron, teletype message to Len Cosh, 8 Jan. 1953; Harry R. Low to Len Cosh, "CBC Entertainment Discs, Northern Stations," 9 Jan. 1953.

(76) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Dennis Mackie to Len Cosh, 13 Jan. 1953

(77) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Flying Officer H.G. Hamilton to Len Cosh, 20 Jan. 1953.

(78) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Brig. H.W. Love to Len Cosh, 16 Jan. 1953.

(79) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Squadron Leader R.B. Wallace to Bernard Trotter, 20 Jan. 1953.

(80) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Len Cosh to Brig. H.W. Love, 14 Jan. 1953.

(81) Documents from LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1: Len Cosh to Dennis Mackie, 20 Jan. 1953; Len Cosh to R.B. Urquhart, 23 Jan. 1953; Len Cosh to F/O H.G. Hamilton, 30 Jan. 1953.

(82) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Group Captain R.J. Gray to Len Cosh, 28 Jan. 1953.

(83) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Len Cosh, report, "Extension of the National Service or Expansion of the Existing Radio Service to the Armed Forces through the Medium of tape recordings, North-West Territories, Yukon and Labrador," Jan. 1953.

(84) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Maj. F.C. Blatchford, "Report on a Special Meeting called at the Request of Mr. H. Low, Bureau of Current Affairs, and held in Room 307 Military Stores Building at 1400 hours on Wednesday, January 21, 1953."

(85) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, Len Cosh, memorandum to Charles Jennings, "Extension of National Service into Northwest Territories," 26 Jan. 1953.

(86) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1: Len Cosh to Harry Low, 2 Feb. 1953; Harry R. Low to Lt.-Col. W.O. Peffers, "Daily News Bulletins to Northern Stations," 4 Feb. 1953.

(87) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 1, E.L. Bushnell, memorandum to director of programs, "Service to the Armed Forces Stations in the North," 6 Feb. 1953.

(88) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2, Len Cosh to F/Lt. W. Smalluk, 1 July 1953.

(89) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2, Maj. J.G. Mumford, signal to Len Cosh, 7 July 1953.

(90) Documents from LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2: Harry R. Low to Maj. E.G. Stebbens. 6 March 1953; Len Cosh to J.M.S. MacLeod, 30 March 1953; J.M.S. MacLeod to Len Cosh, 3 April 1953.

(91) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2, Len Cosh to F/Lt. W. Smalluk, 20 April 1953.

(92) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10. pt. 2, Maj. J.G. Mumford to Len Cosh, 23 April 1953.

(93) LAC, RG41, vol. 753, file NF 3-4-3, pt.1, "Northern & Armed Forces Services, Programme Production--Armed Forces News Broadcasts," F.P. Johnson, memorandum to assistant director general of International Service, "Test Transmissions from Sackville to Department of National Defence Stations," 10 June 1953.

(94) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2, Len Cosh to Col. H.A. Millen, 15 June 1953.

(95) "CBC Engineer Back from Overseas Unit," CBC Program Schedule, Prairie Region edition (25 Aug. 1945): 6.

(96) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2, Maj. J.G. Mumford to Len Cosh, 24 June 1953.

(97) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2, Maj. J.G. Mumford to Len Cosh, 30 July 1953; LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," Andrew Cowan, "Report on Radio Broadcasting in the Yukon and Mackenzie District of the Northwest Territories," [c. 1955].

(98) "Dear Mom--Here I am in Churchill," The Crowsnest 6.4 (Feb. 1954): 12; "North of Sixty-Eight: New Barracks Block Houses Sailors in Aklavik," The Crowsnest 6.1 (Nov. 1953): 20.

(99) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2, Len Cosh to Harry Low, 8 June 1953

(100) Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz, Media Events: The Live Broadcasting of History (Cambridge, MA, 1992), 196.

(101) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2: Len Cosh to CHAK, CHFC, CFHR, CFWH, CHFN, CFGB, CFYT and CFYK. 8 May 1953; Len Cosh to Maj. J.G. Mumford, 8 May 1953; Maj. J.G. Mumford to Len Cosh, 8 June 1953.

(102) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 2. Len Cosh to Harry Low, 25 June 1953; CBC, Political and Controversial Broadcasting: Policies and Rulings (rev. ed., 1 May 1948), 3.

(103) Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, rev. ed. (London, 2006), 6-7.

(104) "CBC Programs Form 'Canada Week' in U.S.," CBC Program News. 6.6 (March 1948): 1.

(105) CBC, Annual Report 1951/52,19-20; "School Radios," CBC Times, Prairie Region schedule, 6.46 (8-14 Nov. 1953): 6.

(106) "School Broadcast Organizer Reports," CBC Times, Prairie Region schedule, 6.29 (12-18 July 1953): 7.

(107) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 3, D.G. Davison to Len Cosh, 9 Nov. 1953

(108) LAC, RG41, vol. 753, file NF 3-4-4, Len Cosh, memorandum to R.S. Lambert, "School Broadcasts--Goose Bay, Labrador," 15 Sept. 1953.

(109) LAC, RG41, vol. 753, file NF 3-4-4, Len Cosh, memorandum to Marcel Ouimet, "School Broadcasts--Yukon Territory," 28 Jan. 1954.

(110) LAC, RG41, vol. 754. file NF 3-4-10, pt. 3: Len Cosh to D.A. Mackie, 25 Aug. 1953; Len Cosh to Maj. G.P. Miggins, 26 Aug. 1953.

(111) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 3, Maj. J.G. Mumford to Len Cosh, 8 Sept. 1953.

(112) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10: Squadron Leader R.B. Wallace to Len Cosh, 8 Oct. 1953. pt. 3: Maj. J.G. Mumford to Len Cosh. 21 July 1953, pt. 2; Maj. J.G. Mumford to Len Cosh, 22 July 1953, pt. 2.

(113) LAC, RG41, vol. 753, file NF 3-4-3, pt. 1, F.P. Johnson, memorandum to director of engineering (Ottawa) and acting director general of the International Service. "Summary of Reception of N.S. Service to Northern Stations (July 20th-August 15th. 1953)," 26 Aug. 1953.

(114) Grant, Polar Imperative, 321; LAC, RG41, vol. 754. file NF 3-4-10, pt. 3, Squadron Leader R.B. Wallace to Harry R. Low, 8 Oct. 1953.

(115) Eyre, "The Military and Nation Building in the Arctic," 206.

(116) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 3, Dr. L.A. Glinz to Harry R. Low, "Armed Forces Recording Service, Fort Churchill, Man.," 4 Nov. 1953.

(117) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 4, Len Cosh to Harry Low, 4 March 1954.

(118) Documents from LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 4: Len Cosh to F/O D.W. Fallis, 30 March 1954; J. Gartside to Len Cosh, 26 April 1954; Len Cosh, memorandum to H.G. Walker, "Transcription Service--Northwest Territories," 1 June 1954; Len Cosh to Col. D. Grant, 11 June 1954; Len Cosh, teletype message to George Young, 6 Aug. 1954.

(119) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 4, Maj. J.G. Mumford to Len Cosh, 16 July 1954.

(120) CBCRL, biography files, "Cowan, Andrew": Andrew Cowan, "Chewed Thumbnail Autobiography--Andrew Gillespie Cowan," undated; press release issued by the CBC, "Your Producer is ... Andrew Cowan," undated; CBC Press Service, release no. 342, 9 Aug. 1954.

(121) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 5, E. Ray Laine, memorandum to Henri Audet, "Station CFGB--Goose Bay," 20 June 1955. Also, LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports on Regions: Frobisher Bay, Churchill. Goose Bay, Great Whale, Montreal, 1954-60," Andrew Cowan, memorandum to Charles Jennings, "Troop Broadcasting Stations in Canada," 10 Nov. 1954.

(122) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports on Regions: Frobisher Bay. Churchill, Goose Bay, Great Whale, Montreal, 1954-60," Andrew Cowan, memorandum to Charles Jennings, "Further to my Report on Visit to Troop Broadcasting Stations in Canada." 10 Nov. 1954. Also, "The First Decade of the CBC International Service." CBC Times, Eastern Region schedule, 7.32 (20-26 Feb. 1955): 2.

(123) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," W.G. Roxburgh, memorandum to transmission and development engineer (Montreal), "Proposed Service--Yukon and Northwest Territories," 24 Feb. 1955.

(124) LAC, RG41, vol. 988, file 3 "Cabinet Committee on Television, 1952-55," report entitled, "Memorandum on Sound Broadcasting," 11 Feb. 1955.

(125) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," Andrew Cowan, "Report on Radio Broadcasting in the Yukon and Mackenzie District of the Northwest Territories," [c. 1955].

(126) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," Andrew Cowan, "Report on Radio Broadcasting in the Yukon and Mackenzie District of the Northwest Territories," 24 Oct. 1955.

(127) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports on Regions: Frobisher Bay, Churchill, Goose Bay, Great Whale, Montreal, 1954-60," report by S/L W. Harris, "Comments on Radio Reception and Broadcasting," [c. April 1956].

(128) CBC, Memorandum to the Royal Commission on Broadcasting (Ottawa, 1956), 55-57; Nash, The Microphone Wars, 263; Royal Commission on Broadcasting, Report (Ottawa, 1957), 212-14.

(129) LAC, MG30 E298. vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," minutes of Northern Broadcasting Committee, transcribed by J.E. Cleland, 15 Jan. 1958.

(130) Eyre, "The Military and Nation Building in the Arctic," 207.

(131) Lackenbauer, "The Military as Nation Builder," 19-20; Ken Coates et al., Arctic Front: Defending Canada in the Far North (Toronto, 2008), 75-76.

(132) Quoted in Ken Coates and William Morrison, Forgotten North: A History of Canada's Provincial Norths (Toronto, 1992), 88.

(133) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, report, "Broadcasting--Yukon and Northwest Territories," 13 May 1958.

(134) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," memorandum issued by the CBC, "On Northern Broadcasting," 15 May 1958.

(135) Ibid.; LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," report by the Parliamentary Committee on Northern Broadcasting, June 1958.

(136) "Northern Service," CBC Times, Eastern Region schedule, 10.50 (22-28 June 1958): 2.

(137) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," Andrew Cowan, "Interim Report on Survey by William Roxburgh, Lloyd Moore and Andrew Cowan on Northern Broadcasting Sites, June/ July 1958," 28 July 1958.

(138) LAC, MG30 E298. vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," report by the Industrial Relations Department, "Memorandum on Northern Broadcasting," 31 Oct. 1958.

(139) Jones-Imhotep, "Nature, Technology, and Nation," 27. (140) Industrial Relations Department, "Memorandum on Northern Broadcasting." 31 Oct. 1958.

(141) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 18, file "Northern Service--mandate, 1962-64," excerpt from the CBC annual report for 1958-9; LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," draft statement by CBC management, "Northern Broadcasting," July 1958.

(142) LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 11, Charles Jennings, memorandum to Andrew Cowan, "Network Status--Northern Stations," 1959; LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, 1960-1970," "Report on Regional Programming--CBC Northern Service," 19 June 1961.

(143) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports on Regions: Frobisher Bay, Churchill, Goose Bay, Great Whale, Montreal, 1954-60," Capt. A.H. Rosson, report, "CHFC Fort Churchill History," 26 Feb. 1960.

(144) Documents from LAC, RG41, vol. 754, file NF 3-4-10, pt. 11: Jack Craine, memorandum to Paul Fortier, "CBC Tapes for CHFC Churchill," 9 Sept. 1959; Margaret Woodard, memorandum to Andrew Cowan, "AFRS," 27 Jan. 1960.

(145) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports on Regions: Frobisher Bay, Churchill, Goose Bay, Great Whale, Montreal, 1954-60," Jack Craine, confidential report on visit to Churchill, 14 Sept. 1959. Also, June Graham, "Jack Craine," CBC Times 20.38 (16-22 March 1968): 5.

(146) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service Shortwave--history, July 1959-March 1962, 1964," J. Murillo Laporte, memorandum to C.R. Delafield, "Proposed Northern Canada S/W Service from Sackville," 7 Aug. 1959.

(147) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service Shortwave--history, July 1959--March 1962, 1964," Andrew Cowan, memorandum to Charles Delafield, "Shortwave Broadcasting to Northern Canada," 13 Aug. 1959; LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports on Regions: Frobisher Bay, Churchill, Goose Bay, Great Whale, Montreal, 1954-60," Andrew Cowan, report, "Shortwave Broadcasting," 12 Aug. 1959.

(148) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service Shortwave--history, July 1959-March 1962, 1964," C.R. Delafield to general manager of regional operations, director of Northern Services and assistant to director of engineering, "Sackville Facilities: Summary of Position," 21 Oct. 1959.

(149) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service Shortwave--history, July 1959-March 1962, 1964," Jack Craine, memorandum to director of engineering, "Proposed Northern test Transmissions from Sackville," 19 Aug. 1959

(150) LAC, RG41, vol. 753, file NF 3-4-3, pt.1, Paul M. St-Onge to CBC Northern Service, 15 Sept. 1959.

(151) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, n.d., 1955-1959," confidential submission by the CBC, "Report to Ad Hoc Committee on Shortwave Broadcasting to Northern Canada," 18 Sept. 1959.

(152) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service Shortwave--history, July 1959-March 1962, 1964," Jack Craine, confidential aide-memoire, "Northern Shortwave--Meeting with President," 5 Nov. 1959.

(153) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service Shortwave--history, July 1959-March 1962, 1964": Jack Craine, aide-memoire, "Northern Shortwave Service," 18 Aug. 1960; Jack Craine, aide-memoire, "Northern Service Shortwave," 19 Aug. 1960; Jack Craine, aide-memoire, "Northern Shortwave Service," 23 Aug. 1960.

(154) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service Shortwave--history, July 1959-March 1962, 1964," release, "CBC Calling the North By Shortwave," 29 Aug. 1960.

(155) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service Shortwave--history, July 1959-March 1962, 1964," CBC Northern Service, report, "Long-Term Shortwave Requirements," 20 Sept. 1960.

(156) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports on Regions: Frobisher Bay, Churchill, Goose Bay, Great Whale, Montreal, 1954-60," Jack Craine, aide-memoire, "Northern Service Situation Report," 15 Feb. 1960.

(157) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, 1960-1970": CBC Northern Service, report, "CBC Radio Service in the North," 29 May 1962; CBC Information Services, release, 3 May 1962.

(158) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 18, file "Northern Service--mandate, 1962-64," Andrew Cowan, memorandum to vice-president of programming, "Northern Service," 28 Oct. 1963.

(159) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 19, file "Northern Service--Reports, 1960-1970," Andrew Cowan, report, "CBC Northern Service," 27 Jan. 1965.

(160) Quoted in Robert G. Mayes, "Mass Communications and Canada's Eskimos," Polar Record 16.104 (1973): 687.

(161) LAC, MG30 E298, vol. 18, file "Northern Service--mandate, 1962-64," Andrew Cowan, memorandum to vice-president of programming, "Northern Service," 28 Oct. 1963.

MALLORY SCHWARTZ received her PhD in history from the University of Ottawa. Her recent publications include contributions to the Canadian Historical Review, the Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Canadian Military History, and the Journal of Canadian Studies.
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