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Section VI: philosophy and history of Science Bailey Science Center, room 2020 E.T. McMullen, presiding.

9:00 QUANTUM STATES ARE NEITHER REAL NOR NON-REAL, BUT SEMI-REAL. Dennis W. Marks. Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Philosophical theories about the existence of reality can be tested experimentally. One critical experiment is a four-stage sequential Stern-Gerlach experiment measuring the x-, then the y-, then the x-, then the y-components of the spin of a particle. Based on the idea that there is something definite "out there" prior to its being measured, realists expect measurements to be repeatable. They therefore would predict that the product of the four measurements should be +1. Based on the idea that any conceivable possibility is possible, non-realists would predict that the product should be [+ or -]1. In fact, the product is always-1, refuting both realism and non-realism. The minus sign is a consequence of the anticommutativity of the spin operators, which requires the use of quantum logic, rather than classical logic. The wave function, being a superposition, represents possibilities, not actualities. Since the square of the wave function is the probability of a particle being some-where, the wave function represents the (square) root of being. The product of two possibilities is an actuality. Possibilities thus have an ontological status more fundamental than actualities. It makes philosophical and mathematical sense to ascribe an ontological status of "semi-real" to possibilities. The author is sincerely grateful to Dr. Jim Hill, VSU Professor of Philosophy, for wonderful discussions over the decades on this and many other topics.

9:30 EMERGENT BEHAVIOR, Ronald E. Mickens, Clark Atlanta University. Atlanta, GA 30314. Major debates have taken place over the significance of fundamental physical theories and their roles in analyzing, understanding, and predicting the properties of the "less-fundamental" sciences. The corresponding set of both methodological and philosophical issues is directly tied to the apparent hierarchical structure of science and attempts to explain this feature of nature by means of the "reductionist hypothesis". (A good presentation of one viewpoint on this matter is the article: P.W. Anderson, "More is Different". SCIENCE, Vol. 177 (#4047, 4 August 1972), pps.393-396.) Our major goal is to introduce into this discussion on examination of the concept of "emergent behavior" and how its use impacts the above indicated issues. In particular, we show the inter-relationships among fundamental theories, pure and applied mathematics, and computation.

10:00 Section business meeting

10:30 LYELL AND WHERE THE PAST IS NOT EXPLAINED BY THE PRESENT. Tom McMullen, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. The subtitle to Charles Lyell's famous Principles of Geology' (1830-1833) is "being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth's surface, by reference to causes now in operation.--In other words, the present is the key to the past. But what things in Charles Lyell's present could not explain what he knew of the past? For one example, by 1810 an integrated bibliography about polystrate fossils existed and in 1819, enough were known for Jakob Noggenrath to publish a monograph on them. The best-known polystrate fossil was a fossil tree stem at least 37 feet long that was found in Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh in 1830. It lay at about a forty-five-degree angle and penetrated ten to twelve layers of sandstone. Underneath the tree was a coal bed. To George Fairholme (1789-1846), the forty-five-degree angle meant that the Craigleith tree had to have been rapidly deposited, or else it would have fallen, due to gravitational force, to a horizontal position. Therefore he concluded the sandstone layers as well as the underlying coal deposit were likely to have formed during a rapid cataclysmal event. It appears he is right. No one has observed the formation of polystrate fossils from Lyell's time up to our present. The Craigleith tree in particular, and polystrate fossils in general, falsify the idea that geological processes in the past can be explained by those operating in the present.

11:00 THE HISTORY OF DREDGING IN THE ST. MARYS RIVER. KINGS BAY NAVIGATION IMPROVEMENTS, AND AMELIA ISLAND BEACH RE-NOURISHMENT, Elliott O. Edwards, Jr., Chatham County School System, Savannah, GA 31401. Dolostone rock was discovered scattered along the ocean-side beach of Amelia Island. The identification of this rock led the author to look into the history of dredging in this area. This paper will review the design and construction of nine miles of navigation channel improvements at Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base to accommodate the Ohio class submarines; dredging and disposal of material St. Mary's River Project; the Amelia Island Island-Wide Beach Monitoring Project; a chronology of historical shoreline protection efforts, and shore stabilization of Amelia Island. The dolostone rock was easily spotted resting on the beach surface in various sizes and colors. The Amelia Island beach has been a source of fossil identification and the relative importance to the geology of the Florida Coast for many years. The identification of this rock was found to be dolostone (a fossiliferous sandy dolomite and fossiliferous sandy limestone) the rocks that form the upper confining unit for the Floridan Aquifer System. The rock's presence is the result of beach re-nourishment and dredging of the St. Mary's River.
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Title Annotation:SATURDAY PAPER PRESENTATIONS
Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Article Type:Conference notes
Geographic Code:1U5GA
Date:Mar 22, 2013
Words:846
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