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Section V: special report.

The Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001: A Compilation of Data

Like every other organization and individual in the United States, the FBI has struggled to comprehend the events of September 11, 2001. Apart from investigating the crime scenes in New York City (the World Trade Center); Somerset County, Pennsylvania; and Arlington County, Virginia (the Pentagon); following leads, and addressing a myriad of concerns resulting from these attacks, the FBI through its Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program has struggled with how to report the data to the public. Begun in 1929, the UCR Program captures criminal offenses, which include murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, aggravated assault, robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft, reported to local or state law enforcement agencies. In its original design, the creators of the Program probably could not conceive of heinous attacks of domestic or international terrorism being committed within the confines of this Nation. Theirs was a national crime data collection system based on the cooperation of city, county, and state law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting crimes that were a product of the society of the time. However, that society has evolved into a more complex, global society of the twenty-first century that is faced with fighting crimes that previously had been unimaginable. The FBI recognizes that the UCR Program must evolve to be able to capture the crimes of this modern era. As it currently exists, the UCR Program is limited in its ability to report the offenses committed at the World Trade Center, in the airways above Pennsylvania, and at the Pentagon. Recognizing the limitations of the Program, yet also recognizing that many agencies and researchers will have a specific, nontraditional application for the statistical data associated with these offenses, the FBI has compiled this special report.

There will be disagreement and debate among academicians, governmental officials, law enforcement, the media, and the general public regarding the perspective from which one should view the events of September 11. Some will argue that they were an act of war; others will say they are a local crime, an international conspiracy, terrorism in its classical meaning, or a myriad of other possibilities. This special report does not attempt to join the debate nor bring any resolution to the disagreement; it merely presents the data within the limited context of UCR.

Methodology

This report uses a simple statistical approach to categorize (analyze) the victims and the offenders (terrorists) of this incident. The statistics are organized based on attributes such as age, gender, and race. It must be clearly understood that these attributes are used simply to describe those victims who were killed on September 11, 2001. Since the crimes were carried out indiscriminately to inflict the maximum pain on the greatest number of people, these attributes must not be seen as factors that have contributed to these incidents.

The statistics of September 11 are not a part of the traditional Crime in the United States publication because they are different from the day-to-day crimes committed in this country. Additionally, combining these statistics with our regular crime report would create many difficulties in defining and analyzing crime as we know it.

* Even though in many minds the deaths resulting from the September 11 attacks may not meet UCR's traditional definition of a criminal homicide, the UCR Program has classified those deaths for the purpose of presenting these data as murder and nonnegligent manslaughter.

* The murder count of September 11 is so high that combining it with the traditional crime statistics will have an outlier effect that skews all types of measurements in the Program's analysis. (An outlier is any extreme value, either large or small, that substantially deviates from the rest of the distribution.) However, because these tables reflect volume only, Table 8 contains the numbers of deaths in New York City, including those at the World Trade Center, and Table 10 contains the number of deaths in Somerset County, including those from the offense of September 11. These locations are appropriately footnoted.

* Data for the Pentagon will appear only in this report. To be published in Tables 8-11, Offenses Known to Law Enforcement, an agency must submit complete data for 12 months. For the Pentagon, the UCR Program has only one day of data--September 11, 2001.

* The Program does not collect occupation, and so it was unable to make a distinction and separately classify victim data for the deaths of the firefighters at the World Trade Center from the deaths of the civilians.

As explained in the introduction of this study, the limitations of the UCR Program were clearly realized in the wake of the September 11 tragedies. Like many agencies and programs, UCR is not equipped to fully capture the events of September 11 in its data collection and dissemination formats. For example, in addition to the deaths of over three thousand people, there are thousands more who were victimized that were not reported in other crime classifications such as aggravated assault. Because of the limitations of UCR summary reporting and the application of its guidelines, especially the Hierarchy Rule, agencies do not report and thus we are unable to collect and publish in this study any offense data except murder and nonnegligent manslaughter. The Hierarchy Rule requires reporting/counting only the highest offense in the Program's ordered crime listing (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, aggravated assault, robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft). However, the rule applies only to crime reporting and does not affect the number of charges for which the defendant(s) may be prosecuted in the courts. Finally, the age and gender breakdowns in the tables are consistent with standard UCR methodology.

Discussion of the Data

Victims

According to reports (current to the UCR's publication deadline), the number of victims from the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and the Pennsylvania crash site totaled 3,047. The gender of 5 victims and the race of 139 victims were unknown. Males constituted 2,303 victims (75.6 percent) and females made up the remaining 739 (24.3 percent). (See Table 5.1.) Of the total victims, 2,435 (79.9 percent) were white, 286 (9.4 percent) were black, and 187 (6.1 percent) were of other races. (See Table 5.1.)

An analysis of all victims by gender and race showed that the highest percentage of all victims of the events of September 11 were white males (62.6 percent), followed by white females (17.3 percent), black males (5.6 percent), and black females (3.8 percent). In the race category other, 4.2 percent were males and 2.0 percent were females. Race was unknown for 4.6 percent of the victims.

Further, a breakdown by race and gender shows that white males made up the majority of the victims at each of the three locations. The majority of black victims at the World Trade Center were male, but the majority of black victims at the Pentagon and the Pennsylvania crash sites were female. (See Table 5.1.)

Victims: Age, Gender, and Race

Nine victims of the events of September 11 were under the age of 18. Of this total, 5 were under 5 years old. All 5 of these juveniles were victims at the World Trade Center: 3 were male and 2 were female; 2 were white and 3 were of unknown race. The remaining 4 juvenile victims were at the Pentagon: a white female aged 5 to 8; 2 black males and 1 black female aged 9 to 12. (See Tables 5.2-5.4.)

The vast majority, 98.6 percent (3,004), of all the victims where age was known were over age 18. The modal age category for all victims was 35 to 39. However, when broken down by gender, the female victims were slightly younger. The modal age category for females was 30 to 34. The modal age category by race was again 35 to 39, excluding the other race category, which had a slightly younger modal age category of 30 to 34. (See Table 5.2.)

The same general statistics for age remain true for the victims at the World Trade Center, mainly because they constitute the majority of the victims--92.6 percent (2,823). (See Table 5.3.) For the Pentagon, the modal age category is again 35 to 39. However, the most frequent age category for females was 45 to 49, reflecting a slightly older set of victims at the Pentagon. (See Table 5.4.) The most frequent age category of the Pennsylvania crash site was 35 to 39. (See Table 5.5.)

Offenders: Age, Gender, and Race

Nineteen offenders were directly involved in the events of September 11--10 at the World Trade Center, 5 at the Pentagon, and 4 in Pennsylvania. All the offenders were white males. Four of the 19 were under the age of 22. Twelve of the offenders were aged 20 to 24, and the remaining 7 were aged 25 to 34. The oldest offender (aged 30 to 34) was involved with the events at the World Trade Center. (See Table 5.6.)

Law Enforcement Officers Killed in the Line of Duty

The UCR Program through its Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted Program separately collects information on law enforcement officers killed and assaulted in the line of duty. The 71 law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty as a result of the attacks on the World Trade Center include 37 officers with the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department, 23 with the New York Police Department, 5 with the New York Office of Tax Enforcement, 3 with the State of New York Unified Court System, 1 fire marshal with the New York City Fire Department, 1 agent with the U. S. Secret Service, and 1 agent with the FBI. One refuge law enforcement officer with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service was killed in the crash in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. These data are included in the tables of this study. A more complete breakdown of these data appears in Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted 2001.

Summary and Conclusion

It is important to note that data for this publication were provided by law enforcement agencies. The 3,047 victims were those for whom law enforcement agencies involved in these incidents were able to supply supplemental homicide data, identifying age, gender, and race information on 2,303 males and 739 females. Of the total victims, the Pentagon was unable to provide supplemental homicide reports on 5. Readers of this report are cautioned not to confuse identifying a victim's age, gender, and race with being able to identify an individual through fingerprints, dental records, or DNA. It may be months or years before some victims of this tragedy will be positively identified. Again, the purpose of this special report is to provide statistical data to those who for their specific reasons will find these numbers useful. Finally, for reasons stated earlier, readers are cautioned about combining these data with the other statistics presented in the book to perform any meaningful analyses.
Table 5.1

Murder Victims of 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
by Race, Sex, and Location

 Sex

Race Total Male Female Unknown

All Locations

Total 3,047 2,303 739 5

White 2,435 1,908 527 0
Black 286 170 116 0
Other 187 127 60 0
Unknown 139 98 36 5

World Trade Center

Total 2,823 2,175 648 0

White 2,279 1,811 468 0
Black 234 148 86 0
Other 184 124 60 0
Unknown 126 92 34 0

Pentagon

Total 184 108 71 5

White 120 79 41 0
Black 49 21 28 0
Other 2 2 0 0
Unknown 13 6 2 5

Somerset County, Pennsylvania

Total 40 20 20 0

White 36 18 18 0
Black 3 1 2 0
Other 1 1 0 0
Unknown 0 0 0 0

Table 5.2

Murder Victims of 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks, Total All Locations
by Age, Sex, and Race

 Sex

Age Total Male Female

Total 3,047 2,303 739
Percent distribution (2) 100.0 75.6 24.3
Under 18 (3) 9 5 4
Under 22 (3) 31 22 9
18 and over (3) 3,004 2,274 730
Infant (under 1) 0 0 0
 1 to 4 5 3 2
 5 to 8 1 0 1
9 to 12 3 2 1
13 to 16 0 0 0
17 to 19 3 3 0
20 to 24 117 78 39
25 to 29 341 241 100
30 to 34 503 388 115
35 to 39 578 467 111
40 to 44 510 402 108
45 to 49 369 277 92
50 to 54 272 200 72
55 to 59 177 128 49
60 to 64 79 54 25
65 to 69 29 20 9
70 to 74 15 10 5
75 and over 11 6 5
Unknown 34 24 5

 Sex Race

Age Unknown White Black

Total 5 2,435 286
Percent distribution (2) 0.2 79.9 9.4
Under 18 (3) 0 3 3
Under 22 (3) 0 19 4
18 and over (3) 0 2,424 281
Infant (under 1) 0 0 0
 1 to 4 0 2 0
 5 to 8 0 1 0
9 to 12 0 0 3
13 to 16 0 0 0
17 to 19 0 1 0
20 to 24 0 95 8
25 to 29 0 273 26
30 to 34 0 401 40
35 to 39 0 469 66
40 to 44 0 420 43
45 to 49 0 299 39
50 to 54 0 218 28
55 to 59 0 139 18
60 to 64 0 62 8
65 to 69 0 25 2
70 to 74 0 13 2
75 and over 0 9 1
Unknown 5 8 2

 Race

Age Other (2) Unknown

Total 187 139
Percent distribution (2) 6.1 4.6
Under 18 (3) 0 3
Under 22 (3) 3 5
18 and over (3) 186 113
Infant (under 1) 0 0
 1 to 4 0 3
 5 to 8 0 0
9 to 12 0 0
13 to 16 0 0
17 to 19 1 1
20 to 24 10 4
25 to 29 30 12
30 to 34 47 15
35 to 39 24 19
40 to 44 28 19
45 to 49 16 15
50 to 54 12 14
55 to 59 12 8
60 to 64 4 5
65 to 69 1 1
70 to 74 0 0
75 and over 1 0
Unknown 1 23

(1) Includes 184 Asian or Pacific Islander and 3 American Indian or
Alaskan Native victims.

(2) Because of rounding, the percentages may not add to total.

(3) Does not include unknown ages.

Table 5.3

Murder Victims of 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks; New York City World
Trade Center
by Age, Sex, and Race

 Sex

Age Total Male Female

Total 2,823 2,175 648
Percent distribution (2) 100 77 23
Under 18 (3) 5 3 2
Under 22 (3) 22 17 5
18 and over (3) 2,789 2,148 641
Infant (under 1) 0 0 0
 1 to 4 5 3 2
 5 to 8 0 0 0
9 to 12 0 0 0
13 to 16 0 0 0
17 to 19 3 3 0
20 to 24 108 72 36
25 to 29 329 233 96
30 to 34 485 373 112
35 to 39 539 444 95
40 to 44 480 383 97
45 to 49 342 267 75
50 to 54 239 181 58
55 to 59 153 114 39
60 to 64 67 48 19
65 to 69 23 17 6
70 to 74 11 7 4
75 and over 10 6 4
Unknown 29 24 5

 Sex Race

Age Unknown White Black

Total 0 2,279 234
Percent distribution (2) 0 80.7 8.3
Under 18 (3) 0 2 0
Under 22 (3) 0 14 1
18 and over (3) 0 2,269 232
Infant (under 1) 0 0 0
 1 to 4 0 2 0
 5 to 8 0 0 0
9 to 12 0 0 0
13 to 16 0 0 0
17 to 19 0 1 0
20 to 24 0 89 7
25 to 29 0 264 24
30 to 34 0 388 35
35 to 39 0 443 54
40 to 44 0 399 35
45 to 49 0 281 33
50 to 54 0 194 20
55 to 59 0 120 13
60 to 64 0 53 7
65 to 69 0 20 1
70 to 74 0 9 2
75 and over 0 8 1
Unknown 0 8 2

 Race

Age Other (2) Unknown

Total 184 126
Percent distribution (2) 6.5 4.5
Under 18 (3) 0 3
Under 22 (3) 2 5
18 and over (3) 183 105
Infant (under 1) 0 0
 1 to 4 0 3
 5 to 8 0 0
9 to 12 0 0
13 to 16 0 0
17 to 19 1 1
20 to 24 9 3
25 to 29 29 12
30 to 34 47 15
35 to 39 24 18
40 to 44 28 18
45 to 49 15 13
50 to 54 12 13
55 to 59 12 8
60 to 64 4 3
65 to 69 1 1
70 to 74 0 0
75 and over 1 0
Unknown 1 18

(1) Includes 181 Asian or Pacific Islander and 3 American Indian or
Alaskan Native victims.

(2) Because of rounding, the percentages may not add to total.

(3) Does not include unknown ages.

Table 5.4

Murder Victims of 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks; Pentagon
by Age, Sex, and Race

 Sex

Age Total Male Female Unknown

Total 184 108 71 5
Percent distribution (2) 100.0 58.7 38.6 2.7
Under 18 (3) 4 2 2 0
Under 22 (3) 6 4 2 0
18 and over (3) 175 106 69 0

Infant (under 1) 0 0 0 0
 1 to 4 0 0 0 0
 5 to 8 1 0 1 0
 9 to 12 3 2 1 0
13 to 16 0 0 0 0
17 to 19 0 0 0 0
20 to 24 6 5 1 0
25 to 29 11 8 3 0
30 to 34 13 12 1 0
35 to 39 32 19 13 0
40 to 44 27 16 11 0
45 to 49 23 9 14 0
50 to 54 28 16 12 0
55 to 59 21 14 7 0
60 to 64 10 4 6 0
65 to 69 3 2 1 0
70 to 74 1 1 0 0
75 and over 0 0 0 0
Unknown 5 0 0 5

 Race

Age White Black Other (1) Unknown

Total 120 49 2 13
Percent distribution (2) 65.2 26.6 1.1 7.1
Under 18 (3) 1 3 0 0
Under 22 (3) 3 3 0 0
18 and over (3) 119 46 2 8

Infant (under 1) 0 0 0 0
 1 to 4 0 0 0 0
 5 to 8 1 0 0 0
 9 to 12 0 3 0 0
13 to 16 0 0 0 0
17 to 19 0 0 0 0
20 to 24 4 1 0 1
25 to 29 8 2 1 0
30 to 34 9 4 0 0
35 to 39 20 11 0 1
40 to 44 18 8 0 1
45 to 49 15 5 1 2
50 to 54 19 8 0 1
55 to 59 16 5 0 0
60 to 64 7 1 0 2
65 to 69 2 1 0 0
70 to 74 1 0 0 0
75 and over 0 0 0 0
Unknown 0 0 0 5

(1) Includes 2 Asian or Pacific Islander victims.

(2) Because of rounding, the percentages may not add to total.

(3) Does not include unknown ages.

Table 5.5

Murder Victims of 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks; Sommerset County,
Pennsylvania
by Age, Sex, and Race

 Sex

Age Total Male Female Unknown

Total 40 20 20 0
Percent distribution (2) 100 50 50 0
Under 18 (3) 0 0 0 0
Under 22 (3) 3 1 2 0
18 and over (3) 40 20 20 0

Infant (under 1) 0 0 0 0
 1 to 4 0 0 0 0
 5 to 8 0 0 0 0
 9 to 12 0 0 0 0
13 to 16 0 0 0 0
17 to 19 0 0 0 0
20 to 24 3 1 2 0
25 to 29 1 0 1 0
30 to 34 5 3 2 0
35 to 39 7 4 3 0
40 to 44 3 3 0 0
45 to 49 4 1 3 0
50 to 54 5 3 2 0
55 to 59 3 0 3 0
60 to 64 2 2 0 0
65 to 69 3 1 2 0
70 to 74 3 2 1 0
75 and over 1 0 1 0
Unknown 0 0 0 0

 Race

Age White Black Other (1) Unknown

Total 36 3 1 0
Percent distribution (2) 90 7.5 2.5 0
Under 18 (3) 0 0 0 0
Under 22 (3) 2 0 1 0
18 and over (3) 36 3 1 0

Infant (under 1) 0 0 0 0
 1 to 4 0 0 0 0
 5 to 8 0 0 0 0
 9 to 12 0 0 0 0
13 to 16 0 0 0 0
17 to 19 0 0 0 0
20 to 24 2 0 1 0
25 to 29 1 0 0 0
30 to 34 4 1 0 0
35 to 39 6 1 0 0
40 to 44 3 0 0 0
45 to 49 3 1 0 0
50 to 54 5 0 0 0
55 to 59 3 0 0 0
60 to 64 2 0 0 0
65 to 69 3 0 0 0
70 to 74 3 0 0 0
75 and over 1 0 0 0
Unknown 0 0 0 0

(1) Includes 1 Asian or Pacific Islander victim.

(2) Because of rounding, the percentages may not add to total.

(3) Does not include unknown ages.

Table 5.6

Murder Offenders of 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
by Age (1)

Age Total WTC Pentagon PA

Total 19 10 5 4
Percent distribution (2) 100.0 52.6 26.3 21.1
Under 18 0 0 0 0
Under 22 4 1 1 2
18 and over 19 10 5 4
Infant (under 1) 0 0 0 0
 1 to 4 0 0 0 0
 5 to 8 0 0 0 0
 9 to 12 0 0 0 0
13 to 16 0 0 0 0
17 to 19 0 0 0 0
20 to 24 12 7 2 3
25 to 29 6 2 3 1
30 to 34 1 1 0 0
35 to 39 0 0 0 0
40 to 44 0 0 0 0
45 to 49 0 0 0 0
50 to 54 0 0 0 0
55 to 59 0 0 0 0
60 to 64 0 0 0 0
65 to 69 0 0 0 0
70 to 74 0 0 0 0
75 and over 0 0 0 0
Unknown 0 0 0 0

(1) All offenders are white males.

(2) Because of rounding, the percentage may not add to total.


Injuries from Violent Crime, 2000: A Study Using NIBRS Data

Introduction

An important tool for law enforcement in the war against crime is the ability to analyze and understand when and where crime takes place, what form it takes, and the characteristics of its victims and offenders. Armed with such information, law enforcement can support its case to acquire the resources it needs to fight crime. As a result, short-term and long-term strategies can be developed to chart the ways and means of combating both domestic and international enterprises of criminal activities. One major goal of the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program is to generate a reliable set of criminal statistics in order to depict a nationwide view of crime in America based on the data voluntarily submitted by local and state law enforcement agencies.

Since 1930, the UCR Program has remained virtually unchanged in its method of reporting the steadily increasing diversity and complexity of crime. In order to fulfill the need for more comprehensive crime data to meet the demands of modern society, the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) was developed.

The strength of NIBRS is the emphasis on criminal incidents, which permits analysis of the relationships between and among victim, offender, and offense. For example, NIBRS provides information about the age, sex, and race of the victim(s) and offender(s) of each crime category, characteristics available only for the offense of murder under the traditional UCR Summary Reporting System. Obviously, the NIBRS data provide rich and detailed information about the incidence of crime and its victims and offenders. The highly disaggregated NIBRS data allow users to extract specific information about crime and its dynamics. Consequently, the quality, breadth, and depth of the information derived from NIBRS is far superior to that provided by the summary system. Although NIBRS data are not yet nationally representative, this report demonstrates their potential by assessing the severity of personal injury resulting from violent crimes.

Objectives

The objective of this research is to demonstrate the versatility of these data by analyzing the injuries associated with violent crime, using the classifications major, minor, and none. The specific objectives of the study are to present and discuss the number of victims by injury type and (1) selected offense; (2) location; (3) weapon type; (4) victim age, sex, and race; (5) relationship of victim to offender; and (6) offender age, sex, and race.

Methodology

Offenses in NIBRS are classified as crimes against persons, property, or society. Incidents can involve more than one offense, victim, or offender. For crime counting purposes, one offense is counted for each victim of crimes against persons, and one offense is counted for each distinct incident of crimes against property and crimes against society, regardless of the number of victims. All violent crimes involve force or threat of force. Since the primary objective of this research was to examine the injuries associated with violent crime, the offenses considered in this research were kidnaping/abduction, forcible sex offenses (forcible rape, forcible sodomy, sexual assault with an object, and forcible fondling), aggravated assault, and robbery. (The violent offense of murder was excluded from this list because the victims of murder suffer the ultimate injury--death. Although the violent crime of robbery is classified as a crime against property, it was included in this study because it involves force or threat of force to the victim(s) even though its objective is to obtain money or property.

The injury classifications in this study were limited to major, minor, and none. Injuries included under major are apparent broken bones, possible internal injuries, severe lacerations, loss of teeth, unconsciousness, or other major injury. Apparent minor injury and none were listed as separate categories. Injuries as related to the characteristics of the offense; location; weapon type; the age, sex and race of the victim(s); the relationship of the victim to the offender; and the age, sex, and race of the offender(s) were examined in detail in this report.

Although the statistics shown are an accurate depiction of reports from those law enforcement agencies participating in NIBRS data collection, they may not be representative nationally. However, as more law enforcement agencies provide data in the NIBRS format, the data will lend themselves to more in-depth national analysis.

Discussion of the Data

Criminal incidents reported to the FBI's UCR Program through NIBRS in 2000 involving one or more of the selected violent crime offenses were extracted from the complete NIBRS data set to become the focus of analysis for this report. The 2000 file included data from 3,157 law enforcement agencies in 19 states. These agencies jointly covered a population of 43.7 million or 16 percent of the Nation's inhabitants. The analysis of the characteristics of violent crime incidents was limited to the 2000 NIBRS data.

In NIBRS, data are collected on each single incident and arrest within 22 crime categories comprised of 46 specific crimes (Group A offenses). For each offense known to police within these categories, incident, victim, property, offender, and arrestee information are gathered when available. In addition to Group A offenses, there are 11 Group B offense categories for which arrests are reported. As opposed to the traditional UCR Summary Reporting System, NIBRS is incident-based; therefore, opportunities exist for the reporting of the complete description of the multiple characteristics within an incident. The major difference between the Summary Reporting System and NIBRS is the degree of detail in reporting. For this study, the analysis of these factors is limited to the 2000 NIBRS data.

During the year 2000, 3,157 agencies submitted a total of 2,672,924 Group A incident reports to the FBI. These reports contained information on 2,974,962 offenses, 2,887,983 victims, and 2,071,229 known offenders. Known means at least one characteristic (age, sex, or race) of the offender was reported. At least one of the selected violent crimes was involved in 6 percent of the incidents.

Even though criminal incidents can involve more than one offense, victim, or offender, most involve a single offense, victim, or offender. Sixty-four percent of the 2,672,924 crime incidents involved only one individual (person) victim, 92.1 percent involved a single offense, and 56.1 percent a single offender.

Selected Offenses

Among the offenses considered in this report, aggravated assault was the violent crime accounting for the most victims (117,507). This offense also showed the highest percentage of victim injury. Over 57 percent of the aggravated assault victims were reported to have suffered injury, 24.0 percent major and 33.3 percent minor. In terms of percentages, kidnaping/abduction was the offense next most likely to result in injury. The 6,905 victims of kidnaping/abduction suffered personal injury 31.4 percent of the time: 5.7 percent major and 25.7 percent minor. Victims of forcible sex offenses most frequently suffered no personal injury. Most victims of a forcible sex offense suffered forcible fondling (17,365), but victims of this offense were least likely to suffer an injury (10.1 percent). Forcible rape followed in number of victims (13,856) and resulted in the highest percentage of injuries among the forcible sex offenses, 29.5 percent. Of the 34,915 victims of robbery, 71.6 percent reportedly suffered no injury; 21.4 percent suffered minor injury and 6.9 percent, major injury. Because persons can be victims of more than one offense in a criminal incident, they were included in the counts for each relevant offense. Thus, the number of victims in Table 5.7 is correct for each offense category but cannot be summed to a total of persons victimized.

Location

Victims of violent crimes (kidnaping/ abduction, forcible rape, forcible sodomy, sexual assault with an object, forcible fondling, aggravated assault and/or robbery) in bars and nightclubs were more likely to suffer major injury than minor ones or none. Bar/nightclub was the only location where victims of major injury (39.4 percent) outnumbered those experiencing minor injury or none. The location with the highest number of victims (97,589) was residence/home, having 2.6 times as many victims as highway/road/alley, the next most frequent location. Of persons victimized in residences, 45.3 percent were injured (16.1 percent major and 29.3 percent minor). Violent offenses resulted in injury to 44.5 percent (17.6 percent major and 26.9 percent minor) of those victimized on highways/roads/alleys. In a single criminal incident, a person can be victimized in more than one location. In Table 5.8, the victims were included in the counts for each appropriate location. Thus, the number of victims is correct for each location but cannot be summed to a total of persons victimized.

Weapons

An examination of victims by type of weapon and type of injury showed that persons attacked with dangerous weapons (knives, clubs, etc.) as well as those attacked with personal weapons (hands, fists, feet, etc.) outnumbered those who had firearms used against them. Twenty-one percent of the victims who had firearms used against them, 55.8 percent of the victims attacked with other dangerous weapons (knives, clubs, etc.), and 49.9 percent of the victims attacked with personal weapons (hands, fists, and feet, etc.) were injured. Considering severity of injury for these three weapons categories, one finds that 22.5 percent of the victims of the dangerous weapons classification, 16.3 percent of those attacked with personal weapons, and 9.9 percent of those against whom firearms were used suffered major injuries. Victims can suffer more than one offense with different weapon types within one criminal incident. They are, therefore, accounted for in each appropriate weapon category in Table 5.9.

Victim Characteristics

Of the 193,801 victims of violent crime considered in this report, 16.5 percent experienced major injury; 27.5 percent, minor injury; and 56.1 percent, no injury. When looking at the data by age, one finds that persons under the age of 18 accounted for 25.8 percent of all victims and 13.9 percent of all persons suffering major injury. Persons aged 18 through 45 accounted for 61.3 percent of the victims and 73.5 percent of the major injuries. In the 26-through 45-year-old age group, victims experiencing injury outnumbered those experiencing no injury.

Examining the data by gender, one finds that more males (51.0 percent) than females (48.4 percent) were victims of violent crime. Of the male victims, 49.3 percent were injured, and for females, 38.6 percent were injured. Males accounted for over two-thirds of the victims suffering major injury.

An examination of the data by race showed that whites accounted for 58.6 percent of the victims suffering major injury and blacks accounted for 38.5 percent. However, within each racial cohort, the data showed that 21.3 percent of black victims and 14.7 percent of white victims suffered major injury. Conversely, 28.0 percent of white victims and 26.4 percent of black victims suffered minor injury. Combined, the Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaskan Native race categories accounted for 1.0 percent of the total victims. No racial group had higher percentages for injury than for no injury. (In the above discussion of victim age, gender, and race, the percentages were calculated from data in Table 5.10 and include the unknowns in each category.)

Relationships

In NIBRS when an offender perpetrates a crime against person or a robbery against the victim, the relationship of the victim to the offender is recorded, unless nothing is known about the offender. In incidents where victims knew or were related to one or all of their assailants, about half (46.3 to 56.4 percent) of the victims were injured. In instances where the offender was a stranger, 34.8 percent of the victims were injured. (See Table 5.11.)

Offender Characteristics

Persons can be victimized by more than one offender in a single incident. Because of this multiplicity, it is possible for victims to be counted differently in separate portions of Table 5.12. The offenders in a multiple-offender incident could be in different age, sex, or racial groups; therefore, a victim could be counted more than once in any portion of Table 5.12. (See footnote for example.) In addition, information about offenders is frequently incomplete, especially in connection with incidents that have not been cleared. Table 5.12 shows all offender data as reported; that is, any one or a combination of characteristics (age, sex, or race) may have been reported.

The percentages of injury and no injury to persons victimized varied somewhat when viewed by a breakdown of offender age. The percentages of victims suffering no injury ranged from 51.9 when the offender was aged 26 through 35 and aged 36 through 45 to 70.5 when the offender was a juvenile aged 10 through 12. The variance was less when one looks at offender gender. Nearly half (46.0 percent) of the victims of females escaped injury, as did 57.8 percent of those victimized by males. An examination of the race of the offenders showed the percentage of no injury was more than 50 percent for victims in all categories except American Indian/Alaskan Native. Persons victimized by offenders of this racial group accounted for the smallest number of violent crime victims. (See Table 5.12.)

Summary and Conclusion

The findings from this study showed that most of the time, victims of violent crime (excluding murder) reportedly suffer minor or no injuries. Major injuries to victims were reportedly inflicted least often. When compared with victims of other offenses, victims of aggravated assault suffered major injuries most often. Overall, most victims suffered a violent crime at the location of residence/home. The weapon data revealed that of firearms, personal weapons, and dangerous weapons, the weapons used to inflict major injury on most victims were dangerous weapons such as knives, clubs, etc. A breakdown of age groups showed that infants and victims aged 36 to 45 had the highest percentages of major injury. The data concerning victim gender revealed that males most often suffered major injury. Within each racial cohort, American Indian/Alaskan Native was the race of victims most often experiencing a major injury, followed by blacks. More victims were injured by relatives or acquaintances than by strangers. In terms of known offenders, most victims had major injuries inflicted upon them by someone in the age group 22 to 25. More victims were injured by males than by females.

It must be remembered that the general conclusions drawn from this analysis are limited to the jurisdictions participating in NIBRS. However, the report demonstrates that the NIBRS data can be used effectively for analyzing many factors of violent crime by providing richer and more detailed information about the incidence of crime and its victims, offenses, and offenders than the traditional summary UCR data collection system. Although the operation of NIBRS is limited to those data received from 19 states, the data are considered sufficiently comprehensive for the purpose of demonstrating the utility of NIBRS. As NIBRS participation grows throughout the law enforcement community, so will the utility of the data and the ability to do complex analysis on a wide array of criminal justice issues. That ability will bring with it an understanding of crime never before possible. The information obtained from these types of analyses may provide a significant strategic advantage in designing a long-term crime fighting scheme. It will also help the public to understand the dynamics of crime not only nationally, but regionally and locally as well.
Table 5.7

Number of Victims
by Selected Offense and Injury Type, 2000

 Injury

Selected Offenses Total (1) Major Minor None

Kidnaping/abduction 6,905 391 1,778 4,736
Forcible rape 13,856 867 3,215 9,774
Forcible sodomy 3,562 180 508 2,874
Sexual assault with an object 2,347 98 405 1,844
Forcible fondling 17,365 234 1,524 15,607
Aggravated assault 117,507 28,155 39,123 50,229
Robbery 34,915 2,414 7,486 25,015

(1) Victims of more than one offense within an incident are counted
within each appropriate offense category.

Table 5.8

Number of Victims
by Location and Injury Type, 2000

 Injury

Location Total (1) Major

Air/bus/train terminal 287 41
Bank/savings and loan 805 34
Bar/nightclub 4,918 1,939
Church/synagogue/temple 267 31
Commercial/office building 3,018 497
Construction site 183 38
Convenience store 3,661 385
Department/discount store 1,233 93
Drug store/doctor's office/hospital 952 129
Field/woods 2,548 403
Government/public building 1,009 153
Grocery/supermarket 1,390 133
Highway/road/alley 37,063 6,510
Hotel/motel/etc. 3,386 535
Jail/prison 1,118 279
Lake/waterway 280 53
Liquor store 208 27
Parking lot/garage 12,085 1,988
Rental storage facility 113 21
Residence/home 97,589 15,707
Restaurant 2,880 299
School/college 4,195 475
Service/gas station 1,584 154
Specialty store 1,377 106
Other/unknown 11,834 1,961

 Injury

Location Minor None

Air/bus/train terminal 67 179
Bank/savings and loan 62 709
Bar/nightclub 1,631 1,348
Church/synagogue/temple 51 185
Commercial/office building 555 1,966
Construction site 52 93
Convenience store 601 2,675
Department/discount store 334 806
Drug store/doctor's office/hospital 196 627
Field/woods 692 1,453
Government/public building 279 577
Grocery/supermarket 331 926
Highway/road/alley 9,974 20,579
Hotel/motel/etc. 842 2,009
Jail/prison 398 441
Lake/waterway 65 162
Liquor store 46 135
Parking lot/garage 3,298 6,799
Rental storage facility 41 51
Residence/home 28,546 53,336
Restaurant 518 2,063
School/college 1,053 2,667
Service/gas station 332 1,098
Specialty store 225 1,046
Other/unknown 3,079 6,794

(1) If a victim suffers more than one offense at the same location
during the same incident, the victim is counted once within that
location. If a victim suffers more than one offense at different
locations during the same incident, the victim is counted within each
appropriate location.

Table 5.9

Number of Victims
by Weapon and Injury Type, 2000

 Injury

Weapon Type Total (1) Major Minor None

Firearm(s) (2) 36,265 3,599 4,027 28,639
Dangerous weapons (3)
 (knives, clubs, etc.) 62,413 14,023 20,830 27,560
Personal weapons (4)
 (hands, fists, feet, etc.) 59,703 9,709 20,087 29,907
Firearms with dangerous and/or
 personal weapons (5) 2,852 452 824 1,576
Other weapon combinations (6) 7,334 2,149 3,120 2,065
Unknown 7,998 1,272 1,749 4,977
None 17,612 827 2,701 14,084

(1) If a victim suffers more than offense with the same weapon type,
the victim is counted once within that weapon type. If the victim
suffers more than one offense with different weapon types, the victim
is counted within each appropriate weapon type.

(2) Includes offenses committed with one or more firearm(s) but no
other weapon type.

(3) Includes offenses committed with one or more dangerous weapon(s)
but no other weapon type.

(4) Includes offenses committed with personal weapons and no other
weapon type.

(5) Includes offenses committed with firearms and any other weapon
type.

(6) Includes offenses committed with any weapon combination excluding
firearm(s).

Table 5.10

Number of Victims
by Victim Age, Sex, Race, and Injury Type, 2000

 Injury

Victim Characteristics Total Major Minor None

Victim Age
Total 193,801 31,966 53,206 108,629
Infant (under 1) 373 127 51 195
1 to 9 13,676 823 2,271 10,582
10 to 12 8,055 485 1,570 6,000
13 to 17 27,884 2,997 6,595 18,292
18 to 21 27,576 4,984 7,911 14,681
22 to 25 20,880 4,137 6,270 10,473
26 to 35 39,767 7,866 12,316 19,585
36 to 45 30,637 6,495 9,547 14,595
46 to 55 12,317 2,353 3,438 6,526
56 to 65 3,909 598 1,044 2,267
Over 65 2,964 438 759 1,767
Unknown age 5,763 663 1,434 3,666

Victim Sex
Total 193,801 31,966 53,206 108,629
Male 98,817 21,494 27,190 50,133
Female 93,889 10,350 25,848 57,691
Unknown sex 1,095 122 168 805

Victim Race
Total 193,801 31,966 53,206 108,629
White 127,708 18,724 35,745 73,239
Black 57,877 12,305 15,271 30,301
American Indian/Alaskan Native 614 138 167 309
Asian/Pacific Islander 1,368 201 316 851
Unknown race 6,234 598 1,707 3,929

Table 5.11

Percent Distribution of Victims
by Relationship of the Victim to the Offender and Injury Type, 2000

 Injury

Relationship of Victim to Offender (1) Total (2) Major

Family only (3) 100.0 15.2
Family and other offenders (4) 100.0 24.4
Known offenders only (5) 100.0 17.6
Known offenders and strangers (6) 100.0 23.3
Stranger(s) only (7) 100.0 13.4
All other (8) 100.0 17.2

 Injury

Relationship of Victim to Offender (1) Minor None

Family only (3) 31.1 53.7
Family and other offenders (4) 26.1 49.5
Known offenders only (5) 29.1 53.2
Known offenders and strangers (6) 33.1 43.6
Stranger(s) only (7) 21.4 65.2
All other (8) 24.6 58.3

(1) Does not include the victims in incidents where nothing is known
about the offender.

(2) Because of rounding, percentages may not add to total.

(3) Regardless of number, all offenders are related to victim.

(4) At least one offender was related to victim.

(5) Regardless of number, victim was acquainted with all.

(6) At least one offender was known to victim. No offenders were
related to victims.

(7) Regardless of number, all offenders were strangers to victims.

(8) Regardless of number, offenders were mutual combatants (victim was
offender) or unknown.

Table 5.12

Number of Victims
by Offender Age, Sex, Race, and Injury Type, 2000

 Injury

Offender Characteristics Total Major Minor None

Offender Age
1 to 9 1,609 129 359 1,121
10 to 12 4,143 311 911 2,921
13 to 17 24,649 3,270 6,377 15,002
18 to 21 33,760 5,892 9,071 18,797
22 to 25 26,384 4,939 7,542 13,903
26 to 35 43,260 7,741 13,066 22,453
36 to 45 30,030 5,350 9,102 15,578
46 to 55 11,538 2,038 3,120 6,380
56 to 65 3,530 482 839 2,209
Over 65 1,864 214 375 1,275
Unknown age 22,740 4,132 5,340 13,268

Offender Sex
Male 152,539 24,309 40,086 88,144
Female 31,571 5,929 11,120 14,522
Unknown sex 6,236 1,437 1,460 3,339

Offender Race
White 99,506 14,716 28,497 56,293
Black 72,971 13,624 19,017 40,330
American Indian/
 Alaskan Native 694 154 213 327
Asian/Pacific Islander 1,010 176 280 554
Unknown race 11,588 2,101 2,888 6,599

Note: All counts relate to victims and the known characteristics
(age, sex, race) of their assailants. Because of offender multiplicity,
victims may be counted in one or more categories. For example, a
person victimized by two 15 year olds, one male and one female,
would be scored once in the age portion of the table, but twice in
the sex portion. The objective of the table is to show the severity
of injury inflicted by offender characteristic.


Bibliography

U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States, Washington, D.C.: The Government Printing Office.

U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (August 2000). NIBRS Volume 1: Data Collection Guidelines, Washington, D.C.: The Government Printing Office.

U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (December 1999). NIBRS Volume 4: Error Message Manual, Washington, D.C.: The Government Printing Office.

U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1984). Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, Washington, D.C.: The Government Printing Office.

U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1992). Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, (NIBRS Edition). Washington, D.C.: The Government Printing Office.

Additional information about the incidents of September 11, 2001, can be found on the National Center for Health Statistic's Web site http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/icd9/terrorism_code.htm
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Title Annotation:breakdown by race, age, gender of 9-11-01 terrorist attack victims, offenders and law enforcement officers killed
Publication:Uniform Crime Reports: Crime in the United States
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2001
Words:8099
Previous Article:Section II: Crime Index offenses reported.
Next Article:Summary of the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program.
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