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Section IV: physics, mathematics, computer science and technology science building, room 104 Andreas Lazari, presiding.

2:00 DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING NATURAL DYES EXTRACTED FROM MONDO GRASS BERRIES **, Victoria Martin *, A DeSilva, J. E. Hasbun, Sharmistha Basu-Dutt and Anne Gaquere, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Pigment extracted from Mondo Grass (Ophiopogon japonicas) is used to construct a dye-sensitized solid state solar cell of the configuration TiO2/dye/CuI by adsorbing the pigment from an alcoholic solution of pigment onto a TiO2 film and deposition of the hole collector p-CuI. The optical and chemical properties of the dye and photovoltaic characteristics of the cell will be presented.

2:15 LOW FREQUENCY OSCILATIONS IN A PLANAR MATERIAL **, Anton Hud* and Javier E. Hasbun, University of West Georgia, Carrolton, GA 30118. When a specific frequency of sound is applied to a planar material, such as a piece of glass, a wave travels along the length of the material. It is possible to vary the sound frequency in such a way to induce resonance. The property of the material to resonate is dependent on the material's Young's modulus, density, and physical dimensions. These are factors that must be taken into account in any theory that explains the vibrational behavior. There already exists a box used for demonstrating this property of planar materials; however, a unifying theory explaining why the material oscillates at the specific frequency has not been put forth. In previous 1 work we developed a 1st order harmonic theory to explain the vibrations we observed. However, the theory lacked generality. We believe that the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is better suited to explain our observations. In this presentation, we will present our results from the comparison between theory and experiment (Hud and Hasbun, 2010).

2:30 VIDEO CAPTURE ANALYSIS OF TOOL USE BY BEARDED CAPUCHIN MONKEYS. Bart Foster * and J.B. Sharma, Gainesville State College, Gainesville, GA 30503. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the kinematics of the bearded capuchin monkeys of Brazil. These are the first New World primates to have been observed using stone tools. In Brazil, wild bearded capuchin monkeys have been observed using large hammer stones and anvils made of stone or wood to break open nuts, mainly ground palm nuts. The goal of this project is to analyze a short movie clip of a bearded capuchin monkey and determine the kinematics and energetics of the monkey's motion. The work and power output for the attempt will be calculated and analyzed using Logger Pro software. The data will be compared to a study showing how many strikes it takes on average to break a ground palm nut open. This will be used to determine how much work is done on average to break open a ground palm nut. The video clip has been edited using Adobe Premier to stabilize the frames so that all the frames are centered on a common point, greatly reducing the shake in the video.

2:45 INVESTIGATING MAGNETIC PROPULSION FOR USE IN ZERO EM-MISSION VEHICLES **, Brad Williams *, Michael Rodriguez * and Hauke Busch, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. A number of renewable energy sources are available for transportation purposes to build zero emission vehicles. Magnetic propulsion can be used to propel those vehicles in a more efficient way than done with conventional methods. This project investigates the plausibility of using these magnetic forces as a means of efficiently transferring power to a bicycle wheel by applying a magnetic propulsion device to that bicycle. To do this, neodymium magnets are mounted at even intervals around an aluminum bicycle wheel, which is fed through a series of copper coils. A spoke-less rim only wheel is replacing the conventional wheel design. Several bearing and mounting methods are being explored for minimal friction losses and optimal handling of the wheel. In addition several magnetic coils, magnets and control systems are being tested for optimal power transfer to the wheel. The coils will have a current running through them that is alternating in sequence with the rotational velocity of the wheel in order to pull and then push the permanent magnets through the coils. At present the current will be supplied by a battery mounted on the bike but it is planned that they can be replace with fuel cells in the future. The GCSU Astronomy and Physics Club is funding this project.

3:00 GEOMETRIC HIGHWAY DESIGN USING LIDAR AND ORTHORECTIFIED IMAGERY, Christopher S. Tankersley * and J.B. Sharma. Gainesville State College, Oakwood, GA 30566. Safety in highway transportation has been a, important factor since the automobile was invented in 1885. One major problem is crashes involving curves and/or single vehicles. Hall County has the highest rate in Georgia (per 100 million vehicle miles traveled) in both crashes in curves and crashes involving a single vehicle. This is a function of the hilly terrain of this area and road design that has preceded contemporary highway safety standards. To try and identify why this was happening and possibly find a solution we investigated the geometric design of an accident prone area. Using information from the Department of Transportation involving accident areas, along with Google Earth for coordinates, we were able to use aerial LiDAR images and 2009 NAIP multispectral images to make geometric measurements. With this data, we were able to calculate the actual radius of curvature for horizontal and vertical curves as well as the sight distance at various points. Comparing this to the American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) guidelines we were able to tell if, based on the design speed and parameters of the road, whether or not the design is safe. The conclusion we were able to derive was that the speeds on the roads designed before the AASHTO guidelines were implemented are too high and thus unsafe. This project demonstrates the utility of geospatial technology to effectively and economically facilitate safe highway design.

3:15 BALANCING PRECISION VERSES ACCURACY, AND IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ECONOMIC FOOD CALORIMETER **. Christopher Tran *, Sabir Siddique and Mark Schlueter, Georgia Gwinnett College, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. Food calorimeters are common equipment found in undergraduate laboratories. These instruments allow students to measure calories in food by burning them and measuring the heat produced. How accurate or precise are these instruments? Accuracy refers to how close the calorimeter measures the actual calories of an item, while precision is a measure of consistency or repeatable the measurements. For some scientific experiments, consistent measurements (precision) are most important; however, it other experiments the measuring the true value (accuracy) of an item is more important. The goal of our study was to determine just how accurate and precise the food calorimeters are. In order to determine precision and accuracy of the food calorimeter, three different types of food (corn pops, popcorn, and cheerios) were measured. In these measurements, we used an unmodified calorimeter and five different styles of modified calorimeters. The five variations of modified food calorimeters were modified in several ways with different types of insulation materials. The results indicated that the insulated calorimeter was more precise and more accurate than the original unmodified calorimeter. The accuracy of unmodified calorimeters was about 42%, while modified calorimeters improved accuracy and precision by more than 20%. The calorimeter modified with insulating tape was significantly more accurate than the naked calorimeter; while calorimeters modified with heavy insulation (thicker) materials showed less accuracy, but much more precise measurements. We found that is difficult to improve both accuracy and precision at the same time in the economic food calorimeter. If the experimenter desires more accurate results they should use lightly modified calorimeter, and for more precise they should then utilize the thicker insulated calorimeter.

3:30 MULTI-TEMPORAL LAND USE CHANGE ANALYSIS OF THE ALCOVY WATERSHED FOR PRUDENT ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT DECISION SUPPORT, James Fitzgerald and Sudhanshu S Panda. Institute of Environmental Spatial Analysis, Gainesville State College, Gainesville, GA 30566. Alcovy watershed in Newton County. GA suffers from poor environmental management practices. The objective of this study was to use advanced geospatial and land-use management techniques to study the environmental degradation in the watershed and propose mitigation measures for the improvement of the watershed environment. NAIP imageries (1-m) of 2005 and 2009 were classified using hybrid classification techniques of ISODATA and Maximum Likelihood Classification algorithms to obtain information about land-use types in the watershed in both years. ArcGIS 9.3's Map Algebra tools were used to analyze the land-use change over these five years. From the classified imagery of 2009 and 2005, the wetlands, upland forest, and urban cover acreage was computed. Then, the change by acres for each was computed along with their spatial locations. Finally, riverine wetlands and bottomland hardwood ecosystems were delineated using the watershed topographic map and STATSGO soil data to locate Tupelo Gum stands (a unique coastal flora seen only in this piedmont watershed) in the watershed with information from Georgia Wildlife Federation. Then, the temporal change results were analyzed and found that Tupelo Gum stand areas were encroached with new urban growth. Prospective remedial majors were suggested and communicated to the watershed management authorities along with the results to save the Tupelo Gum stand in the watershed.

3:45 MULTI-TEMPORAL LAND USE CHANGE ANALYSIS OF OCONEE COUNTY, GA FOR DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT AND LAND MANAGEMENT, John Hale and Sudhanshu S Panda, Institute of Environmental Spatial Analysis, Gainesville State College. Gainesville, GA 30566. Incessant urban sprawl along with underdevelopments create huge environmental hazard. Oconee County, GA has a large amount of unfinished constructions in the last five years that enhances soil erosion and subsequent water quality deterioration. The main objective of the project was to perform a land-use change analysis of the Oconee County to determine the increase in urban sprawl over the last five years (2005 - 2010) and locate unfinished constructions. High resolution, NAIP orthoimageries were collected for 2005 and 2010. The 2-m resolution imagery of 2005 was resampled to 1 m pixel size of 2010 image resolution. Training samples were collected from the unfinished construction sites using Trimble GeoXH GPS instrument and used to classify (supervised) both 2005 and 2010 imageries. In ArcGIS 9.3. Map Algebra tools were used to perform a land-use change analysis. Thus, we obtained the information about the urban growth in the county during these five years including the spatial locations of the unfinished construction sites. The stream network layer for the county was buffered with a distance of 0.25 mile to find unfinished constructions within that distance of a stream. Selection by location tool provided us with the spatial locations of these sites that are contributing for stream water quality deterioration in the county. This result along with proper land management suggestions was communicated to relevant authorities to take precautionary measures.

4:00 MONDO GRASS BERRY PIGMENTS FOR DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS **. Marc Williams *, A DeSilva, J. E. Hasbun, Sharmistha Basu-Dutt and Anne Gaquere. University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Pigment extracted from berries of Mondo grass is used to sensitize TiO2 and construct a dye sensitized photo-electrochemical cell. The photoanode was prepared by forming a TiO2 Degussa P25 nano-particle (~25 nm) film on a conducting glass substrate. The counter-electrode was prepared by spraying Chloro-Platinic acid/Isopropyl alcohol solution onto heated FTO glass. Iodide/Triiodide solution is used as the electrolyte. Details of the pigment extraction procedure and photovoltaic characteristics of the cell will be presented.

4:15 EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE ON A ONE DIMENSIONAL ROD, Matt Herren *, David McCall * and Dr. Tom Colbert, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA 30904. Following the application of a step function in temperature at one end we have measured the temperature profile across an insulated metal rod as it approaches steady state. Measurements were made using a series of thermocouples spaced evenly every ten centimeters across the rod with length of 97.5cm and diameter of 3.6 centimeters. The system was wrapped with three layers of insulation; the inner layer being 1cm wide foam, surrounded by 3.5cm wide fiberglass insulation, and a thin, outer layer of foil for reflection. The insulation layers gave us a good approximation of a one-dimensional model for the temperature profile. The rod was initially set at room temperature. During the experiment we held one end of the rod at a constant 100[degrees]C using a steam generator. We observed the changing temperature profile as the rod approached steady state, taking readings at each point every fifteen minutes. We compared the experimental data to predictions from solutions of the one-dimensional heat flow equation. The model shows a good agreement with predicted data when using the diffusivity for carbon steel as [alpha] = 1.72x10-5 m2/s.

4:30 HIGH-PRESSURE PAIR DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION STUDY ON AMP-ORPHOUS GALLIUM **, Matthew M. Bishop * (1), Nenad Velisavljevic (2) and Gary N. Ches-nut (1), [.sup.1]University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118 and [.sup.2]Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545. Gallium, a member of the boron group, is a solid metal that liquefies slightly above room temperature. Widely used in the semiconductor industry for a large range of electronics, there is significant interest in the fundamental electronic and atomic behavior of gallium. Due to the amorphous nature of gallium, the investigation into short and long-range atomic ordering requires pair distribution function analysis in conjunction with x-ray diffraction. Gallium experiences a number of structural phase transitions, which provide information about the behavior of the atomic arrangement, and the influence of electron interplay. Pressure is induced by the utilization of a diamond anvil cell with synchrotron radiation providing intense x-rays for monitoring electronic and atomic behavior. The high-pressure pair distribution function study on amorphous elemental gallium will provide a fundamental understanding of short and long-range atomic ordering, as well as, the electronic and structural phase transitions. Student funding for this research is provided by a Student Travel Award through the University of West Georgia. Additional funding for this research is provided the Department of Energy, contract # DE-AC52-06NA25396. CHESS is supported by the NSF & NIH/NIGMS via NSF award DMR-0936384.

4:45 TWO POSSIBLE GEORGIA TEKTITES FOUND IN BIBB COUNTY, GEORGIA, Paul Scott (1) and Richard Schmude, Jr. (2), [.sup.1]Auburn University, Auburn, AL and [.sup.2]Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. The author (Paul Scott) found two tektites in Bibb County, Georgia. The larger one had a density of 2.44 [+ or -] 0.02 g/mL and the smaller one had a density of 2.42 [+ or -] 0.03 g/mL. These densities are similar to those for other tektites which include one from Europe (2.33 g/mL), one from Libya (2.20 g / mL), two from Texas, USA (average = 2.36 g/mL), five from western China (average = 2.39 g/mL0, 286 from eastern China (average = 2.43) and 99 Georgia tektites (average = 2.33 g/mL). The two tektites found in Bibb County have a similar color, density and surface texture as tektites from Asia and Australia. It is concluded that these two tektites could be Georgia tektites but in order to verify this claim, more specific forms of analysis must be performed.

5:00 FORMATION OF COLLAPSED TETRAGONAL PHASE IN EUCO2AS2 UNDER HIGH PRESSURE, Matthew Bishop (1), Walter Uhoya (2), Georgiy Tsoi (2). Yogesh K Vohra (2), Athena S Sefat (3) and Brian C Sales (3), [.sup.1]Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118, [.sup.2]Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 and [.sup.3]Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge. TN 37831. The structural properties of EuCo2As2 have been studied up to 35 GPa, through the use of x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at a synchrotron source. At ambient conditions, EuCo2As2 (14/mmm) has a tetragonal lattice structure with a bulk modulus of 48 [+ or -] 4 GPa. With the application of pressure, the a axis exhibits negative compressibility with a concurrent sharp decrease in c-axis length. The anomalous compressibility of the a axis continues until 4.7 GPa, at which point the structure undergoes a second-order phase transition to a collapsed tetragonal (CT) state with a bulk modulus of 111 [+ or -] 2 GPa. We found a strong correlation between the ambient pressure volume of 122 parents of superconductors and the corresponding tetragonal to collapsed tetragonal phase transition pressures. MB acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) site under grant no. NSF-DMR-06446842. The Adanced Photon Source is supported by DOE-BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The research sector. HPCAT is supported by DOE-BES, DOE-NNSA, NSF, and the W.M. Keck Foundation.
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Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Date:Mar 22, 2011
Previous Article:Section II: chemistry science building, room 174 Ellen Moomaw, presiding.
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