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Section III: Earth & Atmospheric Sciences Bailey Science Center, room 1023 Alfred J. Mead, presiding.

8:00 DEVELOPING A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME AND DIGITIZING PROTOCOL FOR ARTIFICIAL FEATURES ALONG ESTUARINE SHORELINES IN SOUTH CAROLINA **. Albert S. Killingsworth * (1). AR. Middleton * (2) and C.W. Jackson (1), (3), (1) Department of Geology and Geography, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460-8149, (2) Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University. Statesboro, GA 30460-8149 and (3) Applied Coastal Research Lab, Georgia Southern University. Savannah, GA 31411. Estuarine shorelines are mobile coastal features that often impact populated upland areas and adjacent structures due to chronic erosion. Shoreline armoring is often used to protect property and other structures such as docks, piers, and bridges from further erosion. Many studies have conducted mapping of these stabilized structures using head-up digitization in ArcGIS with aerial imagery. Recently, a project was conducted in the South Carolina Low Country to map historical estuarine shorelines and calculate erosion and accretion rates using AMBUR. Additionally, artificial shoreline features were mapped along both upland and tidal channel shorelines in order to determine which structures are most vulnerable to shoreline erosion. In order to facilitate the analyses, a new classification scheme was devised by developing a modified hierarchal system from existing schemes in North and South Carolina. This new system catalogues hard structures in a way that is more flexible and expandable to accommodate new or previously unmapped structure types and facilitates GIS-based querying and analysis within AMBUR. Within the GIS, features are attributed by classification type, date of imagery, and quality of imagery used. Features are represented either as polygons, polylines, or points depending on what is most applicable for analysis with shoreline change data in AMBUR. Structures like bulkheads and revetments are shown best as polylines, while docks and bridges are displayed as polygons. A primary goal of the mapping phase of the project is to provide a technique that is repeatable and expandable to include a variety of artificial shoreline features found world-wide. Ultimately, using historical imagery datasets, the study aims to provide historical rates of shoreline armoring of these artificial features.

8:15 ASSESSING VULNERABILITY OF ARTIFICIAL STRUCTURES ALONG ESTUARINE SHORELINES IN SOUTH CAROLINA **, Adam R. Middleton * (1), AS. Kill-ingsworth * (2) and C.W. Jackson (21), (3), (1) Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University Statesboro, GA 30460-8149, (2) Department of Geology and Geography. Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460-8149 and (3) Applied Coastal Research Lab. Georgia Southern University, Savannah, GA 31411. Estuarine shorelines are found within mobile coastal environments that change both spatially and temporally in response to processes such as seasonal wave climate, impacts of large storms such as hurricanes, and sea level change. With increasing development and armoring along estuarine/upland shorelines, rates of coastal erosion can often increase and become exacerbated by anthropogenic activities in addition to natural processes. The estuarine shoreline in the Lowcountry of South Carolina has seen an increase in residential and commercial development that will continue to rise in the future. This means that there will be a continual rise in the number of people living on and near these active shorelines in South Carolina. An increasing number of artificial structures like docks, bridges, and causeways will continue to be built to meet the demands of the area. The integrity of some of these structures along with the structures that have already been there for years may be compromised due to erosion. In order to reduce the risk of injury or harm, identification of these structures is important. The current project incorporates geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques with aspects of public health and environmental justice to assess the vulnerability of these structures. Historic shorelines were derived from various aerial photography and rates of erosion were calculated using AMBUR. Structures in the study area were also identified, digitized, and classified using a new classification scheme developed in an earlier phase of the project. By overlaying the rates of erosion and accretion with the shoreline structures shapefile, structures that are at risk of deterioration can be identified.

8:30 WATER QUALITY AT THREE BLACKWATER STREAM SITES. SOUTH GEORGIA, C.R. Nimmo * and D.M. Thieme, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Water quality conditions are reported for three blackwater streams in the central region of South Georgia based upon measurements from September to December. 2012. Data collected on a weekly basis included air and water temperatures, pH levels, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity. The Winkler method using sodium thiosul-fate titration was used for dissolved oxygen, and all of the measurements followed the procedures of the Georgia "Adopt-a-Stream" program. The three locations were on the Withlacoochee River, Okapilco Creek, and Piscola Creek, all of which are in Brooks County. While the Withlacoochee River can be considered "unimpaired" at this location. the two creeks are examples of "impaired" streams mostly as a result of agricultural runoff. Results show consistently lower dissolved oxygen, pH, and electrical conductivity for the impaired locations in spite of fluctuations with rainfall and temperature during period of study.

8:45 EFFICACY OF FILTRATION METHODS TO REMOVE CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATER AQUIFERS **, Alicia Estabrook and Samuel Mutiti, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Despite all the technological advancement and progress made over the decades, contaminated drinking water remains a source of health problems in the world. In some places recontamination of municipally treated water can also occur after leaving the treatment plant and potentially cause health problems. As a result, at-home treatment of drinking water right before consumption is becoming the order of the day. This study compares three treatment methods for the removal of heavy metals, chlorine, microorganisms, and nanoparticles. The effectiveness of three commercial water filters, and four sediment columns to remove contaminants was assessed. Bacteria disinfection at five different temperatures was also investigated. This study also investigates contaminant transport in groundwater using different groundwater models. The models represented sand, gravel, clay, confined and unconfined aquifers. Preliminary results show that the three activated commercial filters were somewhat successful in reducing their target contaminants but not all contaminants of concern were removed. Heating water to a temperature of at least 60[degrees]C is effective in deactivating bacteria, but may not necessarily be true for other microorganisms. Knowledge of what treatment method works best for particular contaminants is useful in determining which filter to use in any given area/situation.

9:00 GEOCHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF GROUND AND SURFACE WATER THROUGH A WETLAND SYSTEM **, Jenna B. Flitcroft *, C. Mutiti and S. Mutiti, Biological and Environmental Sciences, Georgia College. Milledgeville, GA 31061. Wetlands that are adjacent and/or connected to streams are very important in maintaining stream water quality. Such wetlands are particularly important when they serve as headwaters of streams and rivers. This study seeks to understand the geochemical evolution of water as it moves through an elongated wetland system in Milledgeville, GA. The wetland boundary was delineated using a combination of field observations and remote sensing. Water samples were collected at various locations along the surface water flow path within the wetland, the adjoining lake, and the stream emanating from the lake. Piezometers were installed to sample groundwater and quantify its contribution to the wetland. Phosphate levels were generally higher than what is typical of this region. However, phosphate, pH, and iron concentrations decreased downstream while nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased. The water, as expected, became more oxygenated downstream. Iron concentrations were lower than the average for surface waters. The wetland also harbors a sizeable amount of obligate and facultative wetland plant species. Over 100 unique plant species including woody trees and shrubs, grasses, sedges, rushes and other herbaceous plants have been collected. The spatial distribution and connectedness of the plants, animals and geochemistry is being investigated.

9:15 STRATIGRAPHY OF LATE EOCENE SEDIMENTARY UNITS IN BALDWIN COUNTY **, Lori Berry *, Alfred J. Mead and Samuel M. Mutiti, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Baldwin County, Georgia is bisected by the Fall Line of Georgia with surface exposures of igneous and metamorphic bedrock of the Piedmont to the north and Cenozoic sediments of the Coastal Plain to the south. These Coastal Plain sedimentary units are late Eocene in age and locally overlie the Piedmont bedrock. Historically, these beds have been identified as either the Barnwell Formation. Upper Sand Member of the Barnwell Formation or the Cooper Marl. Most recent classification of the beds has elevated the unit to the Tobacco Road Sand Formation and is recognized as a time equivalent of the Ocmulgee Formation to the west-southwest. Since these deposits lie north of the Georgia kaolin belt, extensive analysis of the Fall Line sedimentary units is lacking. Some geologic maps simply show the Baldwin County deposits as undifferentiated Cretaceous through recent sands and gravels. Tobacco Road Sand exposures in Baldwin County are characterized by a series of cut and fill fluvial channels with Piedmont derived gravels and locally derived clasts of kaolin. The purpose of this study is to create an elevation map for the exposed units, explore the varied sedimentology of this unit and utilize ArcGIS to display the attributes of these beds.

9:30 A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF MARINE MACROFOSSILS FROM EOCENE LIMESTONE IN JONES COUNTY, GEORGIA **, Shane J. Benton * and Alfred J. Mead, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Eocene-aged limestone deposits across central Georgia have been identified as Ocala Limestone, Tivola Limestone. Utley Limestone or Sandersville Limestone. Correlation of limestone outcrops has been hampered by a lack of exposure and locally severe weathering. In the present study, an abundance of macrofossils has been collected from two exposed limestone deposits in Jones County, Georgia. These exposures are variably weathered and exhibit silica replacement. Although a regional geologic map indicates the presence of Barnwell Group sediments in the area of these outcrops, the most likely stratigraphic affiliation is with the Tivola Limestone, a northeast trending tongue of the Ocala Limestone Group. While the Tivola Limestone is known to occur in Bibb, Twiggs and Wilkinson Counties to the south-southeast, it is not known to occur in Jones County. Macrofossils and bulk sediments were collected from both localities. Bulk sediments were screen washed through U.S. Standard Sieve Series 5, 16, 20, 35 and 230 screens. Concentrate was examined for the presence of fossil material using a Meiji Dissecting Microscope. Initial analysis indicates the presence of one vertebrate and approximately 20 invertebrate taxa.

9:45 TOOTH AGE AND GROWTH RATE IN THE MOSASAUR TYLOSAU-RUS PRORIGER **, Zachary T. Ansley * (1), K.M. Smith (1) and M.D. D'Emic (2), (1) Georgia Southern University, Statesboro. GA. 30458 and (2) State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY. 11794. Tylosaurus proriger is one of the largest mosasaurs (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA). an extinct group of marine reptiles that lived during the Late Cretaceous period. Mosasaurs. like most other reptiles, constantly replaced their teeth throughout life. The purpose of the study is to document tooth growth rate in T proriger and to compare this rate to other mosasaurs in order to obtain a better understanding of tooth formation time across the family Mosasauridae. The subject of this study is a near-complete T. proriger specimen from the Campanian Pierre Shale Formation, South Dakota, mounted in the Georgia Southern Museum (Statesboro, GA). To obtain tooth formation time, daily lines of dentin deposition (incremental lines of von Ebner) will be counted on a thin section of a maxillary tooth of T. proriger. Tooth growth rate (in mm/day) will be calculated by dividing tooth height by formation time. This growth rate can be used as a proxy for determining the growth rate of teeth of other mosasaurs without destructively sampling, provided tooth growth rate is found to be similar across mosasaurs. Obtaining tooth growth rates of many mosasaurs contributes to the study of their feeding ecology and evolution.

10:00 Section Business Meeting


BIOGEOGRAPHY AND STABLE ISOTOPE ECOLOGY OF AMERICAN MASTODONS (MAMMUT AMERICANUM) FROM THE ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN: EVIDENCE FROM A NEW MASTODON FROM NORTH CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA **. C.M. Brusser * (1), K.M. Smith (1), F. Rich (1) and K.M. Brown (2), (1) Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 and (2) College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424. American mastodons (Mammut americanum) have been recovered from late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) sediments across North America, with numerous occurrences in the southeast. Stable isotope analysis of tooth dentin and enamel from this species has produced a substantial amount of data on the ecology of Floridian mastodons, but less is known about the ecology of mastodons in South Carolina and Georgia. The compositions of Rancholabrean fauna in South Carolina. Georgia, and Florida are similar, so it is likely that environmental conditions during this time were similar across these states as well. Differential distribution of mastodons in the southeast could be based on taphonomy, but climatic conditions could also be a factor. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the area between the Southern Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean was likely a thermal enclave, an area of warmer temperatures and increased biodiversity. Here we map known occurrences of Atlantic Coastal Plain mastodons from before, during, and after the LGM to explore the potential effects of the thermal enclave on mastodon biogeography. We also report the recent discovery of an in situ mastodon from North Charleston, South Carolina, and apply methods of stable isotope analysis to its molar enamel and dentin. These analyses will provide evidence of the animal's diet, nutritional status, habitat and climate. A palynological analysis of the surrounding matrix will be used to date the specimen relative to the LGM and provide further paleoenvironmental data. Results from these analyses will be compared to existing ecological data on southeastern mastodons in order to investigate factors responsible for the unequal distribution of the species in this region.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROUND PENETRATING RADAR (GPR) USING BIDIRECTIONAL AND UNIDIRECTIONAL SURVEY PROFILES. Clara R. Rucker *, W.B. Hart * and Z.T. Ansley *, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30458. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a sensing technique that uses pulses of high frequency radio waves transmitted into the ground. Reflections of anomalies in the subsurface are measured via two-way travel times. These reflections and travel times produce a two-dimensional profile of the surveyed target area. GPR is a non-invasive and cost effective way of locating subsurface features and buried utilities such as power lines, fiber optic cables, pipelines, and irrigation lines. A geophysical survey was conducted using both bidirectional and unidirectional profiles in order to determine which method yielded more accurate results. Georgia Southern University's Physical Plant needed to supplement their data on irrigation mainlines beneath the Kiwanis Softball field at the campus Sports Complex. The study used a cart-mounted MALA X3M unit with a 500 MHz antenna to survey a 1000 square meter grid within the outfield. Profiles were taken in a SW-NE and a NW-SE direction to examine the shielding effect inherent in the orientation of the unit's antenna. The imaging software GPR-SLICE[c] was used to convert these two dimensional profiles into a three-dimensional model of the subsurface within the target area. The data was processed and filtered to provide an accurate image of the buried irrigation lines, including depth and a directional trend of each line. The survey found strongly-reflecting pipe-like anomalies at 70 cm, 165 cm, and 290 cm. Bidirectional profile lines and extensive filtration techniques provide a more complete subsurface image than the unidirectional profiles.

A COMPARISON OF 6'80 AND OD SOUTH BEACH MIAMI OCEAN WATER TO SW FLORIDA ESTUARIES **, J.Y. Acevedo * and W. Feng, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Oceanic water samples have been collected using 4 ml glass vials from five sites along South Beach Miami to test possible differences between open beach and estuary environments. The samples were taken during the months of May and June of 2012. The sampling area covers a distance of--300 m of the coast line. Eight samples were analyzed for their oxygen ([delta][.sup.18]O) and hydrogen ([delta]D) isotopic compositions. With the exception of one sample, analysis results show a range for 610 values of 0.9 to 1.4% and a range of 7 to 10% for [delta][.sup.18]O values. In comparison, published [delta][.sup.18]O values of samples collected in May and June of 1998 from the SW Florida estuaries show oxygen ranges of 1.7 to 2.2% (Blackwater River), 1.1 to 1.8% (Henderson Creek) and 1.8 to 2.4% (Faka-Union Canal). South Beach Miami water samples are similar to samples from Henderson Creek, but are generally more negative than estuary samples. This may be due to the more pronounced evaporative effect of the estuary environment, which tends to increase [delta][.sup.18]O values of the water. One sample collected on June 21st has a [delta][.sup.18]O value of 3.3[per thousand] and [delta]D value of 14%. This is significantly higher than all other analyzed samples, and seems to represent a gradual increase of stable isotopic compositions of the water over a two month period. This distinct different [delta][.sup.18]O and [delta] values, if correct, may indicate a unique event occurred during sample collection time, which will be further investigated in this study.

THE PREVALENCE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES OF ESTROGEN, E. COLI, AND COLIFORM BACTERIA IN FISHING CREEK AND THE OCONEE RIVER **. Tyler V. Mattix * and Samuel Mutiti, Biological and Environmental Sciences, Georgia College & State University. Milledgeville, GA 31061. The presence of estrogen and bacteria in surface water bodies is a major concern in most urban areas. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to even small amounts of environmental estrogen can have adverse health effects on humans and aquatic organisms. This study assesses the levels of 17[beta]-estradiol, EE2, Escherichia coll, and bacteria along portions of Fishing Creek and the Oconee River in Milledgeville, Georgia. Samples were collected from six sites along Fishing Creek, three along the Oconee River, and one from a faucet in the research lab. These samples were tested for the presence of bacteria and estrogen. All stream samples tested positive for estrogen and bacteria. Water from the faucet tested positive for estrogen and negative for bacteria. The highest concentrations of 17[beta]-estradiol were 3.4 ng/mL in Fishing Creek and 1.3 ng/mL in the Oconee River. The Oconee River had significantly lower E. coli levels compared to Fishing Creek. All sites along Fishing Creek had coliform concentrations > 2419.6 cfu/100 mL., but only one site had E. coli concentrations > 2419 cfu/100 mL. An assessment of the sources, final concentrations of EE2 and local implications of these findings are being carried out.
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Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Article Type:Conference notes
Geographic Code:1U5GA
Date:Mar 22, 2013
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