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Seasonal features of the clotting reactions to physical load.

INTRODUCTION

An important problem of the modern physiology is the assessment of factors which define the peculiarities of the urgent adaptive reactions of the hemostasis system to the physical exercise that can both promote the development of coagulation disorder and be the preventive factor of cardiovascular accident [1].

One of the conditions for living organisms' existence is the rhythmicity of biological functions, biophysical, biochemical and physiological processes. In 1945-1950 the scientists proved the species specificity of biological rhythms of animals and human, possibility of their changes under the influence of the external and internal environment factors. The last quarter of the XX century presented the data of biological rhythms of coagulation system functioning. It was stated that the functional state of the homeostasis system is changing during the 24-hours period, several days and is subjected to the changes of seasons and solar activity [2, 3, 4].

During the physical exercise the clotting blood activity changes significantly [5, 6, 7]. The direction of these changes depends on the typological peculiarities of the organism, haemocytes features, initial level of indices [8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. However, these responses of the clotting system to the physical exercise in different periods of biological rhythms are occasional and insufficient.

The significance of the study of seasonal peculiarities of responses of coagulation system to the muscular work is conditioned by the importance of revealing potentially dangerous periods of thrombohemorrhagic complications. This is necessary for the organisation of medical and preventive measures system in definite phases of functional rhythms, for the revealing of the mechanisms that condition the peculiarities of homeostasis system response to the physical exercise of different people and for the development of methods that promote individual coagulative response to this stimulation pulse. The solving of these tasks is very important for the prevention of possible complications of almost healthy people, rational organisation of sportsmen's training cycles, increasing of the effectiveness of cardiovascular disease treatment.

Methods:

The investigation was carried out with the participation of 33 healthy volunteers at the age of 18-19 (16 males and 17 females). The experimental group was of constant set, each respondent was examined four times once in every season. In the course of examination we fixed the coagulation indices in the state of the relative rest and after the physical exercise. The blood sampling of females was performed only in preovulatory phase, on the 6-10 days of the ovarian menstrual cycle.

A single load using the stationary bicycle with the capacity of 80-85% of the maximum individual heart rate during 20 minutes was used as the test work. The average capacity of the performed work was 2.46 [+ or -] 0.04 Wt/kg which corresponds to the work in the zone of high capacity. The blood for investigation was sampled from the median cubital vein 10 minutes before the work and during the 1st-2nd minute of the rehabilitation period, the blood was stabilized by the 3.8% solution of sodium citrate in proportion 9:1.

In blood samples there were defined the following indices: time of clotting; plasma recalcification time; activated recalcification time of the platelet rich and poor plasma; index of contact activation range (ICAR); index of thrombocytic activators release (ITAR); prothrombin time of the common plasma; fibrinogen concentration; thrombin time of plasma; heparin time; antitrombin III activity (AA III).

The acquired data were processed by the methods of analysis of variance for interconnected and non-connected values with the calculation of differences certainty factor - t Student's criterion.

Body:

The investigation of the seasonal dynamics of coagulation indices in the state of rest showed that, according to the average indices, the whole group of respondents in the state of rest had such coagulation indices which had significant differences in different seasons. Thus, clotting time of the whole blood, recalcification time, activated recalcification time of the common and thrombocytes-free plasma have the biggest value in spring and the least one--in autumn. ICAR is of relatively constant state during the year, and ITAR has minimum value in autumn and maximum one in summer (Table 1).

The second clotting phase is, obviously, quickened during the spring-summer period. It is shown by the shortening of the prothrombin time (in 10.3%) comparing to the autumn-winter period. Thrombin time and AA III activity have minimum value in autumn and winter and maximum one in spring and summer.

Thus, during the year cycle the spring shortage of clotting potencies and anticoagulants activity of blood are characteristic for the homeostasis system as well as the increasing of coagulative potencies of plasma. The peculiarities of homeostasis system of different seasons are, obviously, connected with the change of state of mediator and endocrines' regulative elements of the function, in particular, sympathoadrenal system which activity has a seasonal dynamics.

Further investigations which we had conducted with the aim to reveal peculiarities of clotting system responses to the physical exercises showed that average values of haemocoagulation changes under the influence of muscular work in all seasons were insignificant and their direction and expression were different for different respondents during the year.

After the correlation analysis we revealed the connections between the changes of hemocoagulation and anticoagulants values and their initial values. In all seasons we observed a tight connection between the initial level and change of clotting activity of whole blood which had had the expressed tendency to the increase while transferring from autumn months to summer ones: in autumn linear correlation coefficient was 0.57, in winter 0.64, in spring - 0.65. in summer - 0.67. Thus, this connection exists during the whole year with non-expressed tendency to the increase while transferring from autumn months to summer ones.

Change of clotting ability of plasma, which appears in individual responses, is also in close connection with its value in the state of rest. Such connection is characteristic for some values during the whole year (recalcification time of plasma, ICAR), for other values this connection is significant only in some seasons (activated recalcification time of common and thrombocytes-free plasma, ITAR, prothrombin time of plasma, fibrinogen concentration). We have also revealed a non-stable in different season's correlation connection between the AA III values before the beginning of work and its change due to the work, which shows that the initially high value of activity of this clotting inhibitor leads to its decrease and vice versa.

Consequently, the revealed dependence of changes of some coagulation values due to the physical exercises from their initial values is of seasonal nature.

Basing on the direction of clotting of the whole blood response to the physical exercises and its stability in different seasons we pointed out 3 groups of respondents out of the whole number of such (Table 2): for the first group the load constantly led to the increase of clotting (hypercoagulation type, 30.3 % of respondents), for the second group--its decrease (hypocoagulation type, 33.3 %), for the third group such load led to the different changes in different seasons (unstable type of response, 36.4 %). More attention, in my opinion, should be paid to the groups with the stable type of reaction.

The clotting time in the state of rest were almost not changing during the year in the group with hypercoagulation type of response.

For the group with hypocoagulation type the initial values of the spontaneous clotting were changing more significantly (in spring and autumn the clotting were 17.6 % and 16.9 % more than in summer and winter), but in all seasons it was significantly lower (15.5-30.9 %) than for the first group.

Obviously, at the relative initial hypocoagulation, the clotting initiators which are formed in the blood flow due to the response to the physical load, do not reach the limit concentration as they are neutralized by anticoagulants, or their concentration turned to be insignificant. This leads to the non-formed emission of anticoagulative compounds from the vascular walls and tissues which are also quickly neutralized. As the result, the general haemostatic potential increases and there appears a relative hypocoagulation due to the physical exercise.

At the relatively high initial clotting activity the additional appearing of procoagulants due to the physical exercises leads to the thrombin formation in supraliminal concentration; this leads to the formed reflexory response of anticlotting mechanisms due to which the blood stream has excess of anticoagulants and there appears a relative hypocoagulation which is conditioned by the muscular work.

According to the indices of plasma element the most expressive and significant changes due to the response to the muscular work in both groups we pointed out in spring months. In hypercoagulation group of response in spring we observed the shortage of activated recalcification time of the common and thrombocytes-free plasma and the tendency to the shortage of thrombin time. In hypocoagulation group the work induced a certain increase of activated recalcification time of thrombocytes-free plasma, thrombin time and a significant increase of free heparin. At the same time, in spring months we observed the shortage of activated recalcification time of the common plasma and significant increase of ITAR in response to the load for the persons of the second group.

Thus, the most expressed differences of the response to the plasma and thrombocytic elements of coagulation to the physical load are in spring for the persons of the opposite types of response. For the representatives of the hypercoagulation type we observed the increase of coagulation plasma potencies and decrease of thrombocytes functional activity, for the group of opposite response we observed the increase of anticoagulation properties of plasma and increase of thrombocytes function.

Report:

All the above said allows us to draw a conclusion that there are groups of people who differently response to the muscular work by the changes of clotting system. Directions of these changes can be both constant and non-constant. I stable groups of response the influence of season is appeared only by the changes of quantitative parameters of response and does not deal with the qualitative ones, at the same time the most expressed changes in the coagulation system in response to the load appears in spring.

Conclusion:

1. The parameters of the coagulation system in the state of relative physical rest have seasonal peculiarities, the flash of which is the spring shortage of clotting activity accompanied by the increase of coagulation plasma potencies and increase of its lytic activity and decrease of anticoagulants activity.

2. One-time muscular load results in haemoconcentration, but it does not change the clotting time.

The direction and expression of responses of homeostasis system during the physical load have individual character and are connected with the initial state: at hypocoagulation in the state of rest the work leads as a rule to the increase of clotting potencies, at hypocoagulation--to their decrease. This connection is of correlation character and is described by the simple equations.

3. Seasonal peculiarities of coagulation responses to the physical exercises according to the average values of the whole group are not clear. Individual changes of coagulation properties of the whole blood resulting from the initial state under the influence of the load during the year are quite stable.

4. There are groups of persons, who response to the muscular work by the directionally constant (stable) changes in clotting system during the whole year: hype--or hypocoagulative. Some respondents have nonconstant (unstable) response. Stable groups of response have their characteristic features of homeostasis system response to the physical load. The influence of the seasons appears only by means of changes of quantitative response parameters, it does not deal with qualitative ones.

5. The most expressed differences of response of plasma and thrombocytic elements of coagulation to the physical load for persons with different types of response is in spring, and the peculiarities of the initial state - in spring and autumn. For the representatives of the hypercoagulation type in spring we observed the increase of coagulation plasma potencies and decrease of thrombocytes functional activity, for the group of opposite re sponse we observed the increase of anticoagulation properties of plasma and increase of thrombocytes function.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work is published with financial support from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation within the framework of the project 2.2. The development of fundamental practical investigations and research and development of natural sciences of the strategic development programme of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "E. Evsevieva Mordovian State Pedagogic Institute" for 2012-2016

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 April 2014

Received in revised form 20 May 2014

Accepted 25 May 2014

Available online 22 June 2014

REFERENCES

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[2] Opper, C., W. Adam, H. Fruhstorfen, N. Weiner, F. Xu and W. Wesemann, 1991. Circadian and ultradian changes of functional parameters in human blood platelets. Journal Interdiscip. Cycle Res., 22(2): 164-172.

[3] Pozharova, G.V. and M.A. Geras'kina, 2005. Peculiar characteristics of homeostasis system adaptation to the physical exercises of different strength. Human Physiology, 5: 85-86.

[4] Yakimiva, E.A. and E.E. Elaeva, 2006. Seasonal dynamics of fibrinolytic activity of blood. Successes of the modern natural science, 5: 73-74.

[5] Koller, A., 2002. Haemostasis and exercise, Am. Journal Cardiol., 89(10): 1242-1248.

[6] Prisco, D., R. Paniccia, B. Bandinelli, S. Fedi, A.P. Cellai, A.A. Liotta and L. Gat-teschi., 1998. Evaluation of clotting and fibrinolytic activation after protracted physical exercise. Thromb. Res., 89(2): 73-78.

[7] Lippi, G. and N. Maffulli, 2009. Biological influence of physical exercise on hemostasis. Semin. Thromb. Hemost., 3(35): 269-276.

[8] Mann, K.G., K. Brummel-Ziedins and T. Orfio, 2006. Models of blood coagulation. Blood Cells Mol. Dis., 2: 108-117.

[9] Golyshenkov, S.P. and M.P. Tairova, 2003. The role of the initial level of homeostasis system response to the 2-times physical exercise. Human Physiology, 1: 100-101.

[10] Golyshenkov, S.P. and N.A. Melnikova, 2004. Influence of physical exercise on the aggregating activity and lipid peroxidation of thrombocytes. Human Physiology, 6: 96-102.

[11] Golyshenkov, S.P., N.A. Melnikova and M.P. Tairova, 2005. Change of functional activity of thrombocytes under the influence of the repeated physical exercise. Human Physiology, 4: 102-107.

[12] Pozharova, G.V., G.G. Fedotova, M.A. Geras'kina, L.V. Gryzlova, E.A. Yakimiva, E.E. Elaeva and S. Yu. Tsyganova, 2009. Constitutional dependence of homeostasis system adaptation to the physical exercises. Morphology, 4: 115-116.

Elena Alekseevna Yakimova, Larysa Vladimirovna Gryzlova, Elena Evgenievna Elaeva

The mordovian State Pedagogical Institute named after M. E. Evsev'eva, 430007, Republic of Mordovia, Saransk, street Student, 11A

Corresponding Author: Elena Alekseevna Yakimova, The mordovian State Pedagogical Institute named after M. E. Evsev'eva, 430007, Republic of Mordovia, Saransk, street Student, 11A
Table 1: Change of some clotting indices under the influence
of physical exercise in different seasons

Indicators                  Autumn                 Winter

                        rest      load         rest      load

All respondents

Clotting time, sec.     588.33    638.78       658.5     712.39

Recalcification time    177.00    192.11       216.94    217.33
of plasma, sec.

Activated               56.17     50.28        65.67     62.39
recalcification time
of plasma, sec.

Activated               92.33     85.78        113.33    118.06
recalcification time
of thrombocytes-free
plasma, sec.

ICAR, %                 66.94     74 31 ***    68.63     70.96

ITAR, %                 36.13     38.93        39.93     46.03

Prothrombin time        24.12     24.88        24.47     24.65
of plasma, sec.

Fibrinogen, mcmol/l     8.62      8.98         7.15      7 72 ***

Thrombin time of        12.78     12.06        12.71     12.12
plasma, sec.

Heparine time, sec.     2.56      3.00         2.65      2.82

AA III, %               88.56     113.97       108.47    112.42

Indicators                  Spring                Summer

                        rest      load        rest      load

All respondents

Clotting time, sec.     754.83    673.94      667.83    714.44

Recalcification time    221.89    210.89      211.67    209.39
of plasma, sec.

Activated               68.39     60.83       67.78     61.39
recalcification time
of plasma, sec.

Activated               110.17    110.83      135.72    136.83
recalcification time
of thrombocytes-free
plasma, sec.

ICAR, %                 68.32     71.09       67.45     69.71

ITAR, %                 36.78     43.31       45.81     50.62

Prothrombin time        20.75     20.47       22.82     24.19
of plasma, sec.

Fibrinogen, mcmol/l     5.66      6.27 ***    6.04      6.6 ***

Thrombin time of        13.12     13.18       13.44     13.00
plasma, sec.

Heparine time, sec.     2.18      2.29        2.94      2.29

AA III, %               126.18    120.15      139.66    132.82

Note: * - p<0.05; ** - p<0.02, 0,01; *** - p<0.001, 0.002
in relation to the index of rest.

Table 2: Change of some clotting indices under the influence of
physical exercise in different seasons for the persons with
different types of response

Indicators                                       Autumn

                                                 rest      load

The first group of response
Clotting time, sec.                              758.00    569.00
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             202.80    172.80
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   61.40     48.60
Activated recalcification time of                105.40    80.60
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          68.82     71.76
ITAR, %                                          37.10     38.78
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 22.00     23.40
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              7.82      8.56
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    14.00     13.20
Heparine time, sec.                              2.20      3.80 *
AA iii, %                                        105.88    130.00

The second group of response

Clotting time, sec.                              605.83    774.20
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             164.00    181.83
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   55.67     51.17
Activated recalcification time of                94.17     80.33
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          64.43     71.22
ITAR, %                                          40.10     35.82
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 24.80     27.20
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              9.25      9.47
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    12.67     12.00
Heparin time, sec.                               3.00      3.50
AA III, %                                        78.10     123.08

The third group of response
Clotting time, sec.                              588.3     638.78
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             177.00    192.11
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   56.17     50.28

Activated recalcification time of                92.33     85.78
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          66.94     74.31 **
ITAR, %                                          36.13     38.93
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 24.12     24.88
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              8.62      8.98
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    12.78     12.06
Heparin time, sec.                               2.56      3.00
AA III, %                                        88.56     113.97

Indicators                                       Winter

                                                 rest      load

The first group of response
Clotting time, sec.                              731.20    592.60
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             219.60    220.00
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   67.60     66.20
Activated recalcification time of                108.60    111.60
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          68.22     69.99
ITAR, %                                          37.78     40.80
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 24.20     25.20
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              6.73      7.57 **
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    12.25     11.75
Heparine time, sec.                              2.40      2.20
AA iii, %                                        109.82    151.90

The second group of response

Clotting time, sec.                              550.00    732.8 **
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             194.00    217.17
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   63.17     61.17
Activated recalcification time of                117.83    124.00
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          66.73     71.42 *
ITAR, %                                          40.85     47.97
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 27.00     24.00
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              7.07      7.73*
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    12.83     11.83
Heparin time, sec.                               2.17      2.33
AA III, %                                        108.00    97.5

The third group of response
Clotting time, sec.                              658.50    712.39
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             216.94    217.33
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   65.67     62.4 ***

Activated recalcification time of                113.33    118.06
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          68.63     70.96
ITAR, %                                          39.93     46.03
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 24.47     24.65
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              7.15      7.72
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    12.71     12.12
Heparin time, sec.                               2.65      2.82
AA III, %                                        108.47    112.42

Indicators                                       Spring

                                                 rest      load

The first group of response
Clotting time, sec.                              795.80    593.40
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             230.40    199.20
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   68.80     57.60
Activated recalcification time of                108.60    95.60
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          70.06     71.01
ITAR, %                                          35.56     39.18
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 21.00     23.00
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              5.48      6.33
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    12.25     11.75
Heparine time, sec.                              2.00      2.00
AA iii, %                                        132.46    130.58

The second group of response

Clotting time, sec.                              663.67    816.5 **
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             214.33    212.50
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   64.00     61.33
Activated recalcification time of                109.17    124.83
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          68.77     70.94
ITAR, %                                          40.62     48.02
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 21.83     19.50
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              5.39      6.42 *
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    13.50     14.50
Heparin time, sec.                               1.40      2.00
AA III, %                                        143.15    141.63

The third group of response
Clotting time, sec.                              754.83    673.94
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             221.89    210.89
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   68.39     60.83 *

Activated recalcification time of                110.17    110.83
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          68.32     71.09
ITAR, %                                          36.78     43.31
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 20.75     20.47
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              5.66      6.27
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    13.12     13.18
Heparin time, sec.                               2.18      2.29
AA III, %                                        126.18    120.15

Indicators                                       Summer

                                                 rest      load

The first group of response
Clotting time, sec.                              799.80    583.00 *
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             208.00    206.40
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   70.20     63.20
Activated recalcification time of                148.40    181.00
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          66.08     69.50 **
ITAR, %                                          49.86     61.56 **
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 21.20     25.60
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              6.40      6.92
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    13.20     13.20
Heparine time, sec.                              2.20      3.00
AA iii, %                                        112.50    162.62

The second group of response

Clotting time, sec.                              530.33    732.50 **
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             207.83    200.50
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   60.67     61.17
Activated recalcification time of                122.33    105.67
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          70.15     67.32
ITAR, %                                          45.35     38.65
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 21.83     23.33
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              6.04      6.37
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    13.83     13.33
Heparin time, sec.                               3.00      2.17
AA III, %                                        138.33    149.22

The third group of response
Clotting time, sec.                              667.83    714.44
Recalcification time of plasma, sec.             217.67    209.56
Activated recalcification time of plasma, sec.   67.78     61.39 ***

Activated recalcification time of                135.72    136.83
  thrombocytes-free plasma, sec.
ICAR, %                                          67.45     69.71
ITAR, %                                          45.81     50.62
Prothrombin time of plasma, sec.                 22.82     24.19
Fibrinogen, mcmol/l                              6.04      6.60
Thrombin time of plasma, sec.                    13.44     13.00
Heparin time, sec.                               2.94      2.29
AA III, %                                        139.66    132.82

Note: * - p<0.05; ** - p<0.02, 0,01; *** - p<0.001, 0.002
in relation to the index of rest.
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Author:Yakimova, Elena Alekseevna; Gryzlova, Larysa Vladimirovna; Elaeva, Elena Evgenievna
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2014
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