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Seasonal composition, abundance and biomass of the subestuarine fish assemblage in Sobs Chico (Rio de la Plata estuary, Uruguay)/ Composicao, abundancia e biomasa sazonal da assembleia de peixes no subestuario do Solis Chico (Estuario do Rio de la Plata, Uruguay).

1. Introduction

Large estuaries sometimes present particularly long narrow branches that have their own freshwater supply. Such water bodies can be called subestuaries or tidal creek subsystems of the main estuary. A true estuary is connected to the ocean; its salinity therefore always reaches oceanic values at the mouth. Instead, a subestuary is connected to the main estuary, where the salinity can vary significantly (Tomczak, 1998). Therefore, subestuarine characteristics depend on the incidence of larger water bodies as estuaries and freshwater input from rivers (Uncles and Stephens, 2010). These estuarine environments are utilized by some fish species during particular periods of their life cycle, defining estuarine habitats as temporary spawning and feeding grounds (Able, 2005; Lellis et al., 2008). In the shallow habitats of Chesapeake Bay subestuaries, juvenile stages predominate since they are protected from bigger predators and find abundant food to grow and successfully complete their life cycle in the area (Uphoff Junior et al., 2011). In this regard, subestuarine systems located along the Uruguayan coast play an important functional role for fish that develop their life cycle between these subsystems and the Rfo de la Plata estuary, including target fisheries relevant species (Acuna et al., 2015). In this sense, the Pando subestuary has been identified as a nursery area for juvenile fish of economic importance for Uruguay and Argentina, while the Sohs Grande subestuary has been defined as an area mostly used by early stages of development of fish (Acuna-Plavan et al., 2010; Gurdek and Acuna-Plavan, 2014). Unlike, a third subestuary, the Sohs Chico is an scarcely studied ecosystem particularly with regard to its fish fauna composition. It is located adjacent to the other two subsystems, and thus it is expected that it may show a similar fish fauna. Given this, the aim of this study was to determine the species composition, abundance and biomass of the fish assemblage of the Sohs Chico subestuary and analyze the seasonal variability.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Study area

The Sohs Chico subestuary (34[degrees]45' S, 55[degrees]41' W) (Figure 1) is located in the Uruguayan coast of the Rio de la Plata estuary. This system presents a drainage basin of 653 [km.sup.2], a length of 47 km, an average flow of 8.7 [m.sup.3] [s.sup.-1] and a maximum width of 280 m (Cayssials et al., 2000). The Solis Chico subestuary presents an extensive salt marsh area in its lower portion, characterized by halophytes and hydrophytes and a large population of crabs, representing the highest natural productivity of the area (Gimenez, 2003; Geo-Uruguay, 2008).

2.2. Sampling

Three surveys were performed in spring 2011, autumn and winter 2012. Fish were captured by beach seine net (12 m long with a central bag of 6.70 m long and, mesh size 12 mm) and two sets of gill nets (40 m long, 1.7 m high, each one with 4 different mesh sizes). The last nets were set in the subestuary for an average of 12 hours (between 8 p.m. until 8 and 9 am). Twelve hauls were made during each survey, six on each margin of the estuary, covering an area of ca. 300 [m.sup.2] per haul. Collected fish were identified to species level according to Ringuelet et al. (1967), Figueiredo and Menezes (1978), Figueiredo and Menezes (1980), Menezes and Figueiredo (1980), Dawson (1982), Menni et al. (1984), Menezes and Figueiredo (1985), Figueiredo and Menezes (2000), Bemvenuti (2002), Marceniuk (2005), Dyer (2006), Rangel and Guimaraes (2010). Each individual was counted, measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and weighted to the nearest 0.1 g.

Additionally, three replicates of temperature ([degrees]C), salinity and dissolved oxygen (mg/l) of water were measured directly in the field with multiparameter Ysi Pro-plus (USA) with a temperature resolution of 0.1 [degrees]C, 0.01 for salinity and 0.01 mg/l for dissolved oxygen.

2.3. Data analysis

Fish biomass and abundance captured by beach seine net were only expressed in grams and number of individuals per 1000 [m.sup.2], respectively. These values were estimated for total sample period and seasons (spring 2011, autumn and winter 2012). The species collected with the gill net are just used to present his record in this gear.

The frequency of occurrence was calculated according to the presence of each species in each haul during the study period. These values were related to their relative abundance and presented in an Olmstead-Tukey diagram (modified by Gonzalez-Acosta et al., 2005). In the scatter diagram, two reference lines show the median frequency (X-axis) and median abundance (Y-axis) of fish species in Solis Chico subestuary. The hierarchical classification of species was made taking into account the following criteria:

Dominant: species with frequency and relative abundance higher than the average for each variable.

Common: species with relative abundance lower than the mean, but relative frequency higher than the mean.

Occasional: species with relative abundance higher than the mean and relative frequency lower than the mean.

Rare: species with relative abundance and frequency lower than mean abundance and frequencies.

Temporal variability in fish assemblage composition and environmental factors were examined using parametric and no-parametric statistical techniques. Assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance were evaluated by Shapiro-Wilk test (Shapiro and Wilk, 1965) and the Levene's test, respectively. Subsequently a parametric test was applied for analysis of variance (ANOVA) or a non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis), depending on the fulfillment of the assumptions. Whenever significant differences were found, the Student-Newman-Keuls Method (SNK) and Dunn's Method were used respectively.

Analysis of BIO-ENV was used to estimate the influence of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen on community composition (abundance of fish) (PRIMER v.6.0 software package) (Clarke and Warwick, 1994). This process selects the abiotic variables that maximize the correlation rank (p) between the biotic and abiotic (dis) similarity matrices (Bray Curtis for biota, and Euclidean distance for environmental variables). Their rank was compared through a Spearman coefficient (p) (Clarke, 1993; Clarke & Warwick, 2001).The significance level used was a = 0.05 (Sokal and Rohlf, 1969).

3. Results

3.1. Environmental factors

The average temperature in spring 2011 (15 [+ or -] 0.8 [degrees]C) was similar to that of the winter 2012 (15 [+ or -] 0.2 [degrees]C), and lower to than in the autumn 2012 (18 [+ or -] 0.6 [degrees]C) (SNK, p < 0.05) (Figure 2). In contrast, the average salinity showed a decline from spring 2011 (21 [+ or -] 6.0), achieving significantly lower values in winter 2012 (10 [+ or -] 2.1) (Dunn's Method, p < 0.05) (Figure 2). The average dissolved oxygen values ranged between 6.0 [+ or -] 5.4 and 13 [+ or -] 2.3 mg/l, with significant differences between periods (SNK, p < 0.05) (Figure 2).

3.2. Fish composition

A total of 523 specimens corresponding to 14 species (86% euryhaline) and 11 families were caught in the Solis Chico subestuary (Table 1). In terms of species richness, Clupeidae and Sciaenidae were the most numerous families, represented by two and three species, respectively. Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823) (54.6 [+ or -] 29.9 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]) and Brevoortia aurea (Agassiz, 1829) (46.8 [+ or -] 31.8 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]) presented the highest number of individuals, whereas B. aurea (286.4 [+ or -] 448.3 grams x 1000 [m.sup.2]), Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) (7815 grams x 1000 [m.sup.2]), Mugil liza Gunther 1880 (155.4 [+ or -] 173.2 grams x 1000 [m.sup.2]) and Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1836) (249.4 [+ or -] 218.7 grams x 1000 [m.sup.2]) were the most abundant in biomass. A group of species with low abundance and biomass were constituted by the gobies, blennies and syngnathids, represented by adult phases. Seven species were collected by gill nets. Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758) (one individual; 18.0 cm) and Pogonias cromis (Linne, 1766) (three individuals; 42.3 cm [+ or -] 17.2) were species only captured by gill nets. The fish assemblage included a wide range of lengths, mostly represented by juveniles (Table 1). Adults individuals were usually captured by gill nets (58 individuals) represented by L. grossidens (20.1 cm), B. aurea (22.6 cm [+ or -] 11.1), M. liza (31.7 cm [+ or -] 11.7) and O. argentinensis (26.5 cm [+ or -] 5.8); except for the white-mouth croaker which was only represented by juveniles (14 individuals; 13.3 cm [+ or -] 0.7).

3.3. Classification of fish species

According to number of individuals and frequency of occurrence of species over the study period, the species O. argentinensis, P. platana (Regan, 1917),M. liza, B. aurea, M. furnieri and Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839) were classified as dominant (Figure 3). On the other hand, C. carpio, Genidens barbus (Lacepede, 1803), Lycengraulis grossidens (Agassiz, 1829), Gobiosoma parri (Ginsburg, 1933), Hypleurochilusfissicornis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) and Syngnathus folletti (Herald, 1942) were included into the category of rare species (Figure 3). Common or occasional species were not found.

3.4. Temporal variability of fish assemblage and environmental factor

Autumn 2012 was the season with the highest species richness (10 species), in opposition to spring 2011 and winter 2012 when only four species were represented. Temporal analysis of the fish community abundance revealed that the highest average values of number of individuals were captured in autumn 2012 (1010 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]) decreasing towards winter 2012 (253 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]), with the lowest values occurring during spring 2011 (60 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]). In autumn 2012 greatest abundance was registered forM. furnieri (300 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]) followed by O. argentinensis (233 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]) and M. liza (190 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]); whereas in spring 2011, B. aurea was the most abundant species (50 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]). In winter 2012, P. platana was the most abundant species (123 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]), followed by B. aurea (107 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]). Besides the mentioned species, P. orbignyanus was also abundant in autumn 2012 (27 individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]) (Figure 4). Comparing abundance between seasons, O. argentinensis presented the highest abundance during autumn (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.01), similar to M. liza (Kruskal-Wallis, p< 0.01), although the latter was absent in winter 2012. On the other hand, while P platana occurred mostly in autumn, B. aurea presented its greatest number during winter 2012. Micropogonias furnieri was only registered in autumn (Figure 4).

The highest correlation were found with, temperature, probably main factor structuring temporal changes in fish community (R = 0.866), followed by salinity and oxygen concentration (R = 0.500 and R = -0.500, respectively).

4. Discussion

4.1. Composition and structure of the fish community

The Solis Chico subestuary presented a typical composition of species from estuarine areas located in southwest Atlantic Ocean coasts in Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina (Ramos and Vieira, 2001; Jaureguizar et al., 2003, 2004; Retta et al., 2006; Gonzalez-Castro et al., 2009; Acuna-Plavan et al., 2010; Cousseau et al., 2011; Gurdek et al., 2011; Bruno et al., 2013). Captures were dominated by euryhaline species, such as B. aurea, O. argentinensis and M. furnieri, in coincidence with studies undertaken in the Uruguayan coast (Retta et al., 2006; Acuna-Plavan et al., 2010; Gurdek et al., 2011; Lorenzo et al., 2011). The dominance by a few species coincided with studies in temperate estuaries from the southwest Atlantic coast (Ramos and Vieira, 2001; Retta et al., 2006; Gonzalez-Castro et al., 2009; Acuna-Plavan et al., 2010; Cousseau et al., 2011; Gurdek et al., 2011; Bruno et al., 2013). Other species registered in the Solis Chico were P platana, a species commonly registered in estuarine waters, M. liza and P. orbignyanus, migrant species (Ramos and Vieira, 2001; Gonzalez-Castro et al., 2009; Bruno et al., 2013) whose life cycles involved the Rio de la Plata estuary and adjacent marine areas (Jaureguizar et al., 2006; Acuna et al., 2015). Lycengraulis Grossidens, despite being a resident species in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments (Mai and Vieira, 2013) generally found along the Uruguayan coast (Retta et al., 2006; Norbis et al., 2006), showed a low abundance in the Solis Chico. On the other hand, some collected species in the Solis Chico were categorized as rare. These was the case of G. parri, H. fissicornis and 5. folletti, which belong to the Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae families respectively. In contrast to the expected, these species were not registered in adjacent sub-estuaries and they are little cited for the Uruguayan coast. These species have some common aspects, e.g., small size, bottom dwelling habits, parental care, spawning of few eggs that adhere to the substrate (Acha, 1994; Bruno et al., 2011; Garcia et al., 2005; Mantero et al., 2006; Possamai and Favaro, 2015) and use of vegetated areas of the Atlantic Ocean, usually in shallow coastal areas and in estuarine waters. The biology of these species remains unknown along the Uruguayan coast and there are only a few records of them (Acuna-Plavan et al., 2010; Machado, 2013; Retta et al., 2006). Regarding the species composition found in the Solis Chico, it should be considered that the sampling area was restricted to the lower area of the subestuary, thus probably influencing the absence of freshwater species, except for C. carpio, an invasive species sporadically recorded in the subestuaries and Uruguayan coast in conditions of low salinity (Fabiano et al., 1992; Rico, 2000; Acuna-Plavan et al., 2010). These results al so show the potential dispersion of this invasive species in freshwater and estuarine waters of Uruguay. Finally, the little abundant G. barbus, M. americanus and P. cromis are species widely cited in the Rio de la Plata estuary, where they develop their life cycles. Estuaries are essential areas for reproduction and nursery of larvae and juvenile fishes (Whitfield, 1999; Beck et al., 2001; Vidy et al., 2004). Regarding the length structure of the collected fish assemblage, a large representation by juvenile stages was observed, mainly captured by the beach seine net. This reaffirms the importance of Uruguayan subestuaries of the Rio de la Plata as nursery areas (Retta et al., 2006; Acuna-Plavan et al., 2010; Acuna et al., 2015). On the other hand, passive gears, such as gill nets allowed the capture of larger species than those caught by seine netting. This can be related to movement and habitat use by fish species, where certain specimens escape more easily the trawl or tend to move to deeper estuarine areas (Potter and Pawson, 1991; Rozas and Minello, 1997; Elliott and Hemingway, 2002). The use of different gears increases the capture efficiency of fish allowing the collection of a more diverse fish assemblage, indicating that is important to consider the capture of each gear type separately (Cowley and Whitfield, 2001).

4.2. Seasonal variation offish assemblage and environmental factors

The fish community of Solis Chico subestuary presented a seasonal variation with higher values of species occurrence and abundance during autumn. Spring and summer are the seasons that present the highest abundance of fish in temperate estuaries (Potter et al., 1986; Veiga et al., 2006; Selleslagh and Amara, 2008; Bruno et al., 2013), sometimes registering higher values during the autumn (Cardoso et al., 2011). This variability can be related to temperature variability and seasonal patterns related to life history cycles, such as those registered in the Pando subestuary (Acuna-Plavan et al., 2010). Also, adjacent habitats to estuaries have been suggested to play an important role in the interannual recruitment dynamics for many species (Woodland et al., 2012), attributing the seasonal peaks to the arrival of juveniles of many marine species that use shallow water ecosystems as nurseries (Veiga et al., 2006). In this sense, the fish patterns in the Solis Chico subestuary could be dependent on the Rio de la Plata estuary for completing their life cycle (Acuna et al., 2015). Both, reproduction and migration processes of fish in the large estuary would influence the seasonal dynamics of juveniles in subestuaries along the Uruguayan coast. The ichthyofauna (B. aurea, C. carpio, G. barbus. M. liza, O. argentinensis, M. americanus, M. furnieri, P. cromis, P. orbignyanus) of the Solis Chico subestuary are species economic important for Uruguay and play relevant ecological role in estuarine system of the Rio de la Plata that should be highlighted.

A strong positive linear relationship between temperature and the abundance of fish species in Solis Chico was found. The highest abundance of fishes during autumn 2011 was correlated with the highest values of temperature in coincidence with studies in adjacent subestuaries, such as Pando (Acuna-Plavan et al., 2010) and in the coastal zone of the Rio de la Plata (Lorenzo et al., 2011). On the other hand, in spring 2011 and winter 2012 specimen abundance of fish community and temperature values was similar. Temperature has been determined as the most important abiotic factor affecting distribution of fish species in Portugal estuaries and it has been related to seasonal migrations (Pombo et al., 2005). Changes in water temperature exert a seasonal influence on the relative abundance of fish species within fish assemblages captured in the Rio de la Plata estuary (Jaureguizar et al., 2004). Other hydrographic characteristics of estuarine subsystems determine the composition and structure of the fish community living there (Uphoff Junior et al., 2011), such as salinity and dissolved oxygen (Whitfield, 1999; Jung and Houde, 2003). Salinity in the subestuaries may fall or rise very fast depending on the depth and size and given the proximity of both freshwater and the marine system (Uncles and Stephens, 2010). Also, a seasonal oscillation dependent on meteorological factors can be observed (Garcia et al., 2003). During 2011 climate conditions across the South American region were influenced by "La Nina" events, with dry seasons and low river flows (Bidegain et al., 2012). The higher salinity values registered in the Solis Chico subestuary during spring 2011 was probably affected by patterns of rainfall occurring on its basin previous to sampling (Instituto Uruguayo de Meteorologia, INUMET). Moreover, low salinities registered in winter 2012 may be the result of heavy rainfall occurring in the region and higher discharge of freshwater (Instituto Uruguayo de Meteorologia, INUMET). Despite two scenarios prevail (ENSO during 2011 and meteorological event in 2012), no abundance of marine fish or greater presence of freshwater fish was recorded in the subestuary, respectively.

On the other hand, dissolved oxygen was generally not a limiting factor for the occurrence of fish in the Solis Chico subestuary, showing a negative relationship with the fish abundance. During periods of low dissolved oxygen values highest values of temperature occurred, this variable may be exerting more influence on the number of fish than dissolved oxygen. In addition to these factors, the behaviour of the fish community of subestuaries is also dependent on habitat and temporary ecological aspects related to food resources and feeding availability. Concerning these points, the lower portion of the Solis Chico subestuary (adjacent to the seine netting location) presents a salt marsh area that occupies 3.4 [km.sup.2] (MVOTMA, 2003). The role of these ecosystems in terms of retention of particulate organic matter and nutrients as well as suitable habitat for migratory and native flora and fauna is widely recognized (Blanco, 2003). These habitats provide shelter and food resources to the fishes, hence influencing on fish assemblage (Franca et al., 2009; Nicolas et al., 2010), also playing a crucial role in maintaining biodiversity in aquatic systems, particularly for fish (Pasquaud et al., 2008). In Sohs Chico subestuary, Stebniki (2014) found mainly zooplankton, phytoplankton and zoobenthos in the diet of fish, recording seasonal variability in food intake.

In addition to environmental variables, human activities are also affecting Uruguayan coastal fish communities, including those of the subestuaries of the Rio de la Plata (PNUMA and IMC, 2009; Gutierrez et al., 2015). The main anthropogenic activities in the Solis Chico basin are related to agriculture, forestry and summer tourism (MVOTMA, 2003; Goyenola et al., 2009). Also, irreversible modifications were made on the west margin of the stream near its mouth, where a retaining wall was constructed and a salt marsh was destroyed (Retta et al., 2006; Solari et al., 2014). Thus it is important to ensure that key habitats will be managed and conserved appropriately, since these are the habitats for early stages of fish of economic and biological importance.

5. Conclusion

The fish assemblage of Sohs Chico subestuary is typical of the Uruguayan coast estuarine systems and was characterized by the presence of euryhaline fishes, target species for Uruguay fisheries and was home to rare species. Seasonality influenced on the changes in fish abundance, which was can be explained by sharing fish life cycles between the Rio de la Plata and the Uruguayan coast subestuaries.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.02216

Acknowledgements

We thank the fisherman Alfredo Hargain for his participation in the fishing activities and to the Professor Rafael Arocena and the Limnology laboratory (Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica) for lending us the boat. Special thanks to the IctioEstuarios Project team: Ruben Canavesse, Samanta Stebniki, Vernadet Bianchinotti, Andres de la Rosa, Veronica Severi, Martin Sosa and Diego Corrales who helped us in the field and laboratory activities. This work was funded by a full time program of Universidad de la Republica (2012-2013), PEDECIBA (2012) (Programa de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Basicas and an Initial Fellowship (ANII, Agencia Nacional de Investigacion e Inovacion, 2011-2012).

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A. Acuna Plavan (a), *, R. Gurdeka, N. Munoz (a), J.M. Gutierrez (b), M. Sposito (a), P. Correa (a), A. Caride (a)

(a) Oceanografia y Ecologla Marina, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica--Udelar, Uruguay, Igua 4225, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay

(b) Nucleo de Pesquisas Ecologicas e Desenvolvimento Socio-Ambiental de Macae, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro--UFRJ, Avenida Sao Jose do Barreto, Sao Jose do Barreto, CEP 279650450, Macae, RJ, Brazil

* e-mail: acuplavan@gmail.com

Received: February 22, 2016--Accepted: April 14, 2016--Distributed: August 31, 2017 (With 4 figures)

Caption: Figure 1. Location of the study area in the lower Solis Chico subestuary and subestuaries adjacent (Pando and Solis Grande) in Uruguayan coast of the Rio de la Plata. Sampling locations by beach seine net (middle star) and gill nets (upper and lower stars) and the salt marsh zone (white arrow) are indicated.

Caption: Figure 2. Average values ([+ or -] standard deviation) of temperature (T--[degrees]C), salinity (S) and dissolved oxygen (DO-mg/l) of water in Solis Chico subestuary during spring 2011 and autumn and winter 2012.

Caption: Figure 3. Olmstead-Tukey test for association (modified of Gonzalez-Acosta et al., 2005) of abundance and relative frequency of fish assemblage species collected in Solis Chico subestuary. The lines dividing the quadrants correspond to the median values of the axes. 1: Cyprinus carpio; 2: Genidens barbus; 3: Lycengraulis grossidens; 4: Gobiosoma parri; 5: Hypleurochilus fissicornis; 6: Syngnathusfolletti; 7: Paralichthys orbignyanus; 8: Mugil liza; 9: Brevoortia aurea; 10: Micropogonias furnieri; 11: Platanichthysplatana; 12: Odontesthes argentinensis.

Caption: Figure 4. Seasonal distribution of species abundance (individuals x 1000 [m.sup.2]) during spring 2011 (grey bar), autumn (white bar) and winter 2012 (black bar) in Sohs Chico subestuary.
Table 1. List of species (families, species, common name) captured by
beach seine net and gill net in Solis Chico subestuary. Average
abundance [+ or -] standard deviation (number of individuals x 1000
[m.sup.2]) and biomass [+ or -] standard deviation (grams x 1000
[m.sup.2]) of species sampled in the Solis Chico subestuary by beach
seine net. Mean length (cm) ([+ or -] standard deviation), range and
total number of individuals (N) of fish captured by both gear.

Families          Species            Common name   Abundance

Engraulidae       Lycengraulis       River         3.33
                  grossidens         anchovy
                  (Agassiz 1829)
Clupeidae         Brevoortia aurea   Brazilian     46.8 [+ or -] 31.8
                  (Agassiz 1829)     menhaden
                  Platanichthys      River Plate   37.1 [+ or -] 22.6
                  platana (Regan     sprat
                  1917)
Cyprinidae        Cyprinus carpio    Common carp   3.33
                  (Linnaeus 1758)
Ariidae           Genidens barbus    Marine        3.33
                  (Lacepede 1803)    catfish
Mugilidae         Mugil liza         Mullet        32.2 [+ or -] 19.0
                  Gunther 1880
Atherinopsidae    Odontesthes        Silverside    30.2 [+ or -] 24.0
                  argentinensis
                  (Valenciennes
                  1836)
Sciaenidae        Menticirrhus       King
                  americanus         whiting
                  (Linnaeus 1758)
                  Micropogonias      Whitemouth    54.6 [+ or -] 29.9
                  furnieri           croaker
                  (Desmarest 1823)
                  Pogonias cromis    Black drum    --
                  (Linne 1766)
Gobiidae          Gobiosoma parri    Goby          4.44
                  (Ginsburg 1933)
Blenniidae        Hypleurochilus     Blenny        6.67
                  fissicornis
                  (Quoy & Gaimard
                  1824)
Syngnathidae      Syngnathus         Southern      6.67
                  folletti           pipefish
                  (Herald 1942)
Paralichthyidae   Paralichthys       Flounder      8.9 [+ or -] 2.9
                  orbignyanus
                  (Valenciennes
                  1839)

Families          Species            Biomass

Engraulidae       Lycengraulis       29.0
                  grossidens
                  (Agassiz 1829)
Clupeidae         Brevoortia aurea   286.4 [+ or -] 448.3
                  (Agassiz 1829)
                  Platanichthys      31.97 [+ or -] 31.7
                  platana (Regan
                  1917)
Cyprinidae        Cyprinus carpio    7815.0
                  (Linnaeus 1758)
Ariidae           Genidens barbus    17.7
                  (Lacepede 1803)
Mugilidae         Mugil liza         155.4 [+ or -] 173.2
                  Gunther 1880
Atherinopsidae    Odontesthes        249.4 [+ or -] 218.7
                  argentinensis
                  (Valenciennes
                  1836)
Sciaenidae        Menticirrhus
                  americanus
                  (Linnaeus 1758)
                  Micropogonias      79.0 [+ or -] 63.7
                  furnieri
                  (Desmarest 1823)
                  Pogonias cromis    --
                  (Linne 1766)
Gobiidae          Gobiosoma parri    1.9 [+ or -] 1.6
                  (Ginsburg 1933)
Blenniidae        Hypleurochilus     12.7
                  fissicornis
                  (Quoy & Gaimard
                  1824)
Syngnathidae      Syngnathus         6.0
                  folletti
                  (Herald 1942)
Paralichthyidae   Paralichthys       44.3 [+ or -] 22.5
                  orbignyanus
                  (Valenciennes
                  1839)

Families          Species                                 Length
                                     Mean [+ or -] SD     Range

Engraulidae       Lycengraulis       15.6 [+ or -] 4.8    10.5-20.1
                  grossidens
                  (Agassiz 1829)
Clupeidae         Brevoortia aurea   15.8 [+ or -] 10.1   2.5-41.0
                  (Agassiz 1829)
                  Platanichthys      5.9 [+ or -] 1.1     2.8-9.3
                  platana (Regan
                  1917)
Cyprinidae        Cyprinus carpio    --                   75.0
                  (Linnaeus 1758)
Ariidae           Genidens barbus    --                   8.8
                  (Lacepede 1803)
Mugilidae         Mugil liza         5.7 [+ or -] 7.4     2.7-40.3
                  Gunther 1880
Atherinopsidae    Odontesthes        13.2 [+ or -] 5.5    5.0-44.8
                  argentinensis
                  (Valenciennes
                  1836)
Sciaenidae        Menticirrhus                            18.0
                  americanus
                  (Linnaeus 1758)
                  Micropogonias      6.5 [+ or -] 3.0     2.1-14.9
                  furnieri
                  (Desmarest 1823)
                  Pogonias cromis    42.3 [+ or -] 17.2   22.6-53.8
                  (Linne 1766)
Gobiidae          Gobiosoma parri    3.6 [+ or -] 0.9     2.9-4.2
                  (Ginsburg 1933)
Blenniidae        Hypleurochilus     5.4 [+ or -] 0.6     5.0-5.8
                  fissicornis
                  (Quoy & Gaimard
                  1824)
Syngnathidae      Syngnathus         14.8 [+ or -] 0.2    14.7-14.9
                  folletti
                  (Herald 1942)
Paralichthyidae   Paralichthys       7.4 [+ or -] 3.5     3.2-112.6
                  orbignyanus
                  (Valenciennes
                  1839)

Families          Species
                                     N

Engraulidae       Lycengraulis       3 *
                  grossidens
                  (Agassiz 1829)
Clupeidae         Brevoortia aurea   123 *
                  (Agassiz 1829)
                  Platanichthys      79
                  platana (Regan
                  1917)
Cyprinidae        Cyprinus carpio    1
                  (Linnaeus 1758)
Ariidae           Genidens barbus    1
                  (Lacepede 1803)
Mugilidae         Mugil liza         61 *
                  Gunther 1880
Atherinopsidae    Odontesthes        127 *
                  argentinensis
                  (Valenciennes
                  1836)
Sciaenidae        Menticirrhus       1 *
                  americanus
                  (Linnaeus 1758)
                  Micropogonias      104 *
                  furnieri
                  (Desmarest 1823)
                  Pogonias cromis    3 *
                  (Linne 1766)
Gobiidae          Gobiosoma parri    2
                  (Ginsburg 1933)
Blenniidae        Hypleurochilus     2
                  fissicornis
                  (Quoy & Gaimard
                  1824)
Syngnathidae      Syngnathus         2
                  folletti
                  (Herald 1942)
Paralichthyidae   Paralichthys       14
                  orbignyanus
                  (Valenciennes
                  1839)

* Indicate occurrence of species captured by gill net.
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Plavan, A. Acuna; Gurdeka, R.; Munoz, N.; Gutierrez, J.M.; Sposito, M.; Correa, P.; Caride, A.
Publication:Brazilian Journal of Biology
Article Type:Ensayo
Date:Jul 1, 2017
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