Searching for competing patterns in morphological derivation: the case of adjective borrowing.
1. Subject, aim, data
This research focuses on loan adjective formations and adjective borrowings in the Baltic, Slavic, and Germanic languages. Certain pairs of adjectives were chosen for two reasons: first, they have attracted by far the greatest attention among lexicographers, publishers, grammarians, language teachers and linguists; second, their conclusions on the chosen adjective pairs are rarely based on corpora data. It is also significant to note that 5942 collocations (1) have been selected from the corpora of four languages. Numbers in Figure 1 denote how many collocations have been selected from the following sources:
Figure 1 Numbers of selected collocations from the corpora of four languages Lithuanian (DLKT) 1329 Latvian (LVK2013;) Saeima-2.0) 711 Russian (NKRJa) 2144 English (BYU-BNC) 1758 Note: Table made from pie chart.
This paper aims at finding out the possible competing patterns which are characteristic of loan adjective derivation and adjective borrowing in general in Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian, and English. Presenting a preliminary open exploration, the paper relies both on the main dictionaries of the investigated languages (they are enumerated in the list of references) as well as on the materials taken from the following corpora (2), namely the Corpus of Contemporary Lithuanian (DLKT), the Balanced Corpus of Modern Latvian (LVK2013), the Corpus of the stenographs of sessions of the 5th-9th Latvian Parliament (Saeima-2.0), the Russian National Corpus (NKRJa), and the British National Corpus (BYU-BNC).
The article is structured as follows. Section 2 summarises previous studies on the competing variants of borrowed adjectives and briefly introduces terminology employed in the paper. Section 3 is concerned with the analysis of competing patterns of borrowed adjectives in Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian, and English; it is divided into subsections that focus mostly on the collocational behaviour of the rival words in the corpora. Section 4 puts forward the interpretation of the results before the final conclusions of the study are presented.
2.1. Previous investigations into competing variants of borrowed adjectives
The competing variants of borrowed adjectives in Lithuanian and Latvian have been mentioned in passing. The instances of synonymy between adjectival suffixes in contemporary Lithuanian have been analysed by Vaskeliene and Kucinskiene (2012) on the basis of data taken from [DZ.sup.e3] as well as being briefly discussed by Kniuksta (1976). In Latvian, the competing variants of adjectival suffixes are briefly reviewed in the latest academy grammar (Nitina, Grigorjevs 2013: 264-267). In Russian and English, more has been done in this field in comparison to Lithuanian and Latvian. In Russian, the competition between paronyms, i.e. words that are alike in form, but different in meaning and usage, has been analysed. As a result, more than four Russian dictionaries of paronyms have been compiled (cf. Kolesnikov 1971, Vishnjakova 1984, Bel'chikov, Panjucheva 1994, Kolesnikov 1995). The authors of these dictionaries focused on the phenomenon of paronymy. Even though they attempted to illustrate the difference between confusingly similar words in Russian, questions concerning the criteria of distinguishing such pairs of words still arise. In English, Hawkes (1976), Marsden (1985), Ross (1998), Gries (2001, 2003), and Kaunisto (1999, 2001, 2007) examined the rivalry between adjectives ending in -ic/-ical. The latter author (2008) also investigated adjective pairs in -ive/-ory.
It seems that, besides the rivalry of adjectives with different suffixes, very little attention has been paid to the existence of other competing patterns of borrowed adjectives.
Before proceeding, a brief introduction to the terminology used in the paper is provided here.
Simplex borrowings are perceived as morphologically unanalysable words that consist of one free stem morpheme which is not further divisible into meaningful component pieces, e.g.:
(1) Lith trivial-us, -i, Latv trivial-s, -a 'trivial' (indirectly from Lat trivialis) Lith privat-us, -i, Latv privat-s, -a 'private' (indirectly from Lat privatus) Eng tranquil (from Latin tranquillus), simple (from French simple [left arrow] Lat simplus (3))
The loan-formations, mostly neoclassical ones, that are found in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and other languages are called correlative borrowings (cf. Urbutis 2009: 293; cf. Marchand's [1969: 218f.] correlative derivation). They form the largest part of the so-called internationalisms of the Lithuanian language (cf. Keinys 2005, Drotvinas 2002, Gaivenis 2002). Correlative borrowings are related to borrowings containing the same root. The language user feels the relation between them, similarly as one feels the relation between the derived and the base word. More specifically, correlative borrowings are both formally and semantically motivated, e.g.:
(2) Lith form-al-us, -i 'formal' (cf. form-a 'form') [left arrow] indirectly from Lat formalis Latv form-al-s, -a 'formal' (cf. form-a 'form') [left arrow] indirectly from Lat formalis Eng form-al (cf. form) [left arrow] Old French formal and Lat formalis
Hybrid derivatives are words formed from a stem belonging to the donor language by applying to it a suffix or prefix belonging to the recipient language (3) and vice versa (4) (cf. Fowler 2009: 241); the second pattern is, as a rule, particularly rare. Even though the borrowed stems or affixes are integrated into the recipient language, the language user still feels that the word consists of partly borrowed and partly native material, e.g.:
(3) borrowed stem + indigenous suffix (a) or prefix (b)
a) Lith tem-in-is, -e (4) 'thematic(al)' [left arrow] tem-a 'theme' (indirectly from Lat thema [left arrow] Greek thema)
Latv temat-isk-s, -a 'thematic(al)' [left arrow] temat-s 'theme' (indirectly from Lat thema, gen. thematis [left arrow] Greek thema, gen. thematos)
Eng grace-ful [left arrow] grace (from Old French grace [left arrow] Lat gratia)
Rus [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe 'cyclic' [left arrow] uukn 'cycle' (from Late Lat cyclus [left arrow] Greek kyklos)
b) Lith ne-legal-us, -i 'illegal' [left arrow] legal-us, -i 'legal' (indirectly from Lat legalis) Latv ne-legal-s, -a 'illegal' [left arrow] legal-s, -a 'legal' (indirectly from Lat legalis) Eng un-natural [left arrow] natural (from Old French naturel [left arrow] Lat naturalis) Rus [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe 'illegal' [left arrow] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe 'legal' (from Lat legalis)
(4) indigenous stem + borrowed suffix (a) or prefix (b)
a) Lith dial. smel-iav-as, -a 'sandy' (the suffix is of Slavic origin) [left arrow] smel-is 'sand' Latv dial. balt-enkij-s, -a (5) 'as white as snow' (the suffix is of Russian origin) balt-s, -a 'white'
Eng talk-ative (the suffix is of Latin origin) [left arrow] talk, lov(e)-able (the suffix is of French origin) [left arrow] love
Rus colloq. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe (6) 'readable' (the suffix -aoenb- is of French origin [left arrow] Lat -abilis) [left arrow] humamb 'to read'
b) Lith anti-karin-is, -e 'antiwar' [left arrow] karin-is, -e 'military' Eng anti-war [left arrow] war
Rus ahmu-boehh-biu, -ar, -oe 'anti-war' [left arrow] boehh-biu, -ar, -oe 'war [adj.]' (the prefix anti- is of Greek origin)
As far as suffixes are concerned, they can be simplex and complex. Simplex suffixes are usually monosyllabic (e.g. Lith -in-(is, -e), Eng -ic), whereas complex suffixes (e.g. Lith -yv-in-(is, -e), Rus -une-ck-(uu, -an, -oe), Eng -ic-al are made of combinations of simplex ones.
Finally, the term collocation was coined by Firth to refer to the common co-occurrence of two or more words (cf. Crystal 2008, 86-87).
3. Competing patterns of borrowed adjectives in Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian, and English
In the analysed languages, three rival patterns of borrowed adjectives could be distinguished on the basis of competition between:
1. derivatives with different suffixes
2. simplex or correlative and suffixed adjectives
3. derivatives with simplex and complex suffixes
3.1. Competition between derivatives with different suffixes: the first pattern
This pattern is typical of Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian, and English. Consider the three productive Lithuanian suffixes which belong to derivational categories of relational (-inis, -e) and qualitative (-ingas, -a and -iskas, -a) adjectives and are used in Lithuanian hybrid derivatives (cf. Keinys 1999: 75f., Stundzia 2016: 3097f.). In this case one adjective root can take three different suffixes which implicate different derivational meanings of the derived words. However, cases of synonymy among suffixes belonging both to the same and different derivational categories still occur. In Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian, and English dictionaries, competition between the two suffixed adjectival derivatives can be observed, cf. e.g.:
(5) Lith -isk-as, -a/-ing-as, -a (a); -in-is, -el-isk-as, -a (b)
(a) ritm-isk-as / ritm-ing-as (kvepavimas, sirdies plakimas) 'rhythmic(al) breathing, heartbeat'
(b) ritm-in-e / ritm-isk-a (linija, figura) 'rhythmic(al) line, form' ([LKZ.sup.e2])
(6) Latv -isk-s, -al-ig-s, -a
(a) person-isk-a /person-ig-a (lieta, piezime) 'the personal effect, remark'
(b) cilvec-isk-s / cilvec-ig-s 'human; humane' (LLVV)
(7) Rus -H-biu, -ar, -oe /-ob-biu, -ar, -oe (a); -H-biu, -ar, -oe / -(e)ck-uu, -ar, -oe (b)
(a) ahmpauum-H-biu, -ar, -oe / ahmpauum-ob-biu, -ar, -oe 'anthracitic'
(b) uuhun-h-biu, -ar, -oe / uuhuh-eck-uu, -ar, -oe 'cynical' (TSRJa)
(8) Eng -ivel-ory declarat-ive / declarat-ory (CED)
According to [LKZ.sup.e2] and [DZ.sup.e3], ritm-isk-as, -a and ritm-ing-as, -a are defined as 1) 'having regularly repeating patterns' and 2) 'regular, harmonious recurrence of elements'. The semantics of the first pair of adjectives in (5a) is the same. However, ritm-ing-as, -a has a third additional meaning 'continuous, uninterrupted'. In [DZ.sup.e3], ritm-in-is, -e (5b) has only one meaning 'consecutive, periodic repetition (movement, sound, accord)', whereas in [LKZ.sup.e2] it contains two: 1) 'having rhythm' and 2) 'sth. that is made according to some rhythm, sound'. The first meaning of the said adjective is almost the same as in the case of ritm-isk-as, -a and ritm-ing-as, -a. The rival pair in (5b) also has identical meanings, thus, it is not easy to tell the difference between the two derivatives with different suffixes.
In LLVV, it is indicated that person-ig-s, -a and person-isk-s, -a could be synonymous in their three meanings: 1) 'belonging to a person'; 2) 'related to a person individually'; 3) 'having relation with a concrete person'. Cilvec-isk-s and cilvec-ig-s can also be used synonymously with the meanings 'human' and 'humane'. However, only the combinations of the adjectives person-ig-s, -a and person-isk-s, -a with nouns, showing the synonymy, are given in this dictionary (cf. 6a).
In the Russian online dictionary (7), the adjective pair in (7a) is considered to be synonymous. Yet, in the dictionary of paronyms, ahmpauum-h-biu, -ar, -oe and ahmpaium-ob-biu, -ar, -oe bear different meanings (Vishnjakova 1984: 27). The former means 'characteristic of anthracite', the latter 'containing or using anthracite'. According to TSRJa, uuhuh-eck-uu, -ar, -oe and uuhuh-h-biu, -ar, -oe (7b) are synonymous in their meanings. In the dictionary of paronyms (Vishnjakova 1984: 177), the former adjective has two meanings. As regards the first meaning, it refers to cynicism, namely the philosophical teaching of cynical people, whereas the second meaning 'showing cynicism' is obsolete. The latter adjective is defined as 'shameless, unethical, showing nihilistic attitude to human culture and generally accepted moral rules'.
In the CED, the first pair of words (8a) is synonymous only in the first meaning, namely 'making or having the nature of a declaration'. Declarat-ory has one more meaning common in the language of law, cf. ' (of a statute) stating the existing law on a particular subject; explanatory', '(of a decree or judgment) stating the rights of the parties without specifying the action to be taken'.
In order to find out how the competing pairs of adjectives are synonymous, we have conducted a fairly rough quantitative analysis of their collocational behaviour in the corpora of four languages. We have chosen the most typical examples of simple or correlative adjectives, as well as the most productive suffixes of derivatives.
3.1.1. Corpus of Contemporary Lithuanian Language
In Lithuanian, an exceptionally productive suffix -in-is, -e is used to make relational adjectives (cf. DLKG 2005: 210, [LG.sup.2] 1997: 82, Keinys 1999: 75) with the meaning 'made from' or 'pertaining to' the base noun; this is why words with this affix are increasingly common in Lithuanian terminology. Productive suffixes -ing-as, -a and -isk-as, -a are used in the formation of qualitative adjectives. Adjectives formed with these two suffixes are generally derived from nouns. It is significant to point out that the former suffix denotes the possession of qualities usually in abundance, e.g.: gal-ing-as, -a 'powerful' [left arrow] gal-ia 'power', ismint-ing-as, -a 'wise' [left arrow] ismint-is 'wisdom', whereas the latter suffix denotes similarity of a thing signified by the base noun. However, similarity can be external (a) or internal (b), e.g.: (a) griozd-isk-as stalas 'cumbersome table' [left arrow] griozd-as 'lumber', smekl-isk-as vaizdas 'ghostlike view' [left arrow] smekl-a 'ghost', (b) draug-isk-as zmogus 'friendly man' [left arrow] draug-as, -e 'friend', vaik-isk-as elgesys 'childlike behaviour' [left arrow] vaik-as 'child' (cf. Keinys 1999: 75f.). However, nominal collocations (8) with these suffixed derivatives show that adjectives with different suffixes can be used synonymously with deverbal action and resultative nouns (a) and also with simplex indigenous and borrowed inanimate nouns (b), cf. e.g.:
(9) ritm-in-is, -e (189 collocations (9) in total)/ ritm-isk-as, -a (133 collocations in total) 'rhythmic(al)' (30 coinciding collocations)
a) alsavimas 'heavy breathing', judejimas 'movement', judesys 'motion', kartojimas 'repetition,' piesinys 'picture', zaidimas 'play', veikla 'activity', etc.
b) daina 'song', formos 'forms', garsas 'sound', gestai 'gestures', muzika 'music', periodas 'period', pulsas 'pulse', etc.
(10) ritm-in-is, -e / ritm-ing-as, -a (118 collocations in total) 'rhythmic(al)' (24 coinciding collocations)
a) deriniai 'combinations', judejimas 'movement', pasikartojimas 'repetition', veikla 'activity', sauksmas 'call', etc.
b) daina 'song', garsas 'sound', linija 'line', muzika 'music', pauze 'pause', periodas 'period', sistema 'system', struktura 'structure', etc.
(11) ritm-ing-as, -a / ritm-isk-as, -a 'rhythmic(al)' (30 coinciding collocations)
a) alsavimas 'heavy breathing', duziai 'strokes', gaudesys 'rumble', judesys 'motion', judejimas 'movement', kalbejimas 'talk', pasikartojimas 'repetition', svyravimas 'swing', tiekimas 'supply', veikla 'activity', etc.
b) daina 'song', garsas 'sound', linija 'line', melodija 'melody', muzika 'music', zodis 'word', etc.
(12) ritm-in-is, -e / ritm-ing-as, -a / ritm-isk-as, -a 'rhythmic(al)' (13 coinciding collocations)
a) alsavimas 'heavy breathing', judejimas 'movement', judesys 'motion', (pasi)kartojimas 'repetition', veikla 'activity', etc.
b) daina 'song', garsas 'sound', linija 'line', muzika 'music',periodas 'period', etc.
The above-mentioned examples in (9-12) clearly illustrate that the two or even three rival adjectives can go together with the same action, resultative or simplex nouns. Adjectives also enter into different collocations both with action or resultative nouns (a) and with simplex and correlative nouns (b), cf. e.g.:
(13) ritm-in-is, -e (718 (10)) 'rhythmic(al)'
a) apskaiciavimas 'calculation', atkartojimas 'repetition', atradimas 'discovery', poziuris 'attitude', etc.
b) aidas 'echo', ciklas 'cycle', disonansas 'dissonance', dziazas 'jazz', energija 'energy', formule 'formula', gimnastika 'gymnastics', signalas 'signal', zenklas 'sign', etc.
(14) ritm-ing-as, -a (246) 'rhythmic(al)'
a) aimana 'moan', bendradarbiavimas 'collaboration', darbas 'work', istrauka 'extract', gyvenimas 'life', finansavimas 'sponsorship', griaustinis 'thunder', kalbesena 'speech', knarkimas 'snore', laikas 'time', zaismas 'play', etc.
b) dvasia 'spirit', eiles 'verse', etc.
(15) ritm-isk-as, -a (215) 'rhythmic(al)'
a) atgimimas 'rebirth', issidestymas 'arrangement', (klimato) kaita 'climate change', verksmas 'cry', surmulys 'uproar', etc.
b) konvulsijos 'convulsions', marsas 'march', siuzetas 'plot', spektaklis 'performance', ratas 'cycle', tachikardija 'tachycardia', etc.
Examples (9-11) illustrate that adjectives (ritm-in-is, -e, ritm-ing-as, -a and ritm-isk-as, -a) belonging to distinct categories can co-occur with the same simplex indigenous and borrowed inanimate nouns, as well as with derivatives denoting action and result. Meanwhile, examples in (13-15) show the co-occurrence of adjectives with different nouns. In this case one can notice a slight difference in the collocational behaviour of the analysed adjectives, i.e. ritm-in-is, -e shows preference to collocations with simplex nouns, while ritm-ing-as, -a to action or resultative nouns, and ritm-isk-as, -a seems to be the most flexible in terms of collocational behaviour (11).
3.1.2. Corpus of Modern Latvian
In Latvian, two productive derivational suffixes, i.e. -isk-s, -a and -ig-s, -a, corresponding to three above-mentioned Lithuanian suffixes, enter into genuine competition with each other. Hybrid adjectives derived by means of these suffixes can be used synonymously, mostly both with action or resultative nouns (a) and simplex or correlative borrowed nouns (b) and sometimes with quality nouns as well (c), cf. e.g.:
(16) person-isk-s, -a (444 collocations with 119 different nouns) / person-ig-s, -a (237 collocations with 120 different nouns) 'personal' (336 coinciding collocations include 37 different nouns)
a) apvainojums 'insult', attieksme 'attitude', dzive 'life', ierasanas 'coming', lietosana 'use', pieredze 'experience', etc.
b) dati 'data', dokuments 'documents', higiena 'hygiene', identitate 'identity', interese 'interest', manta 'property', menedzeris 'manager', records 'record', etc.
c) drosiba 'safety', ipasiba 'quality', labums 'good', etc.
In LVK2013, the token frequency of person-isk-s, -a is higher (444) in comparison to person-ig-s (237). These two adjectives more often collocate with different nouns, particularly with simplex or correlative borrowed ones (a) and also with derivatives denoting action or result (b), cf. e.g.:
(17) person-isk-s, -a
a) arhivs 'archive', drama 'drama', forma 'form', iniciativa 'initiative', karjera 'career', kontakts 'contact', konteineris 'container', rezisors 'director', vesture 'history', etc.
b) darbs 'work', piemers 'example', piedalisanas 'participation', stastijums 'story', uzskats 'opinion', etc.
(18) person-ig-s, -a
a) bizness 'business', budzets 'budget', faktors 'factor', filma 'film', kapitals 'capital', mozaika 'mosaic', soferis 'driver', treneris 'trainer', etc.
b) iezime 'feature', jautajums 'question', nakotne 'future', petijums 'research', skatijums 'view', etc.
3.1.3. Russian National Corpus
In the corpus, the adjectives uuhuh-h-biu, -ar, -oe and uuhuh-eck-uu, -ar, -oe 'cynical' have about 100 common collocations:
(19) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe (522 collocations in total) / uuhuh-eck-uu, -ar, -oe (242 collocations in total) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'glance', nosuka 'logic', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'thought', hasnocmb 'impudence', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'nihilism', ombem 'answer', omkpobehhocmb 'frankness', nechr 'song', meopur 'theory', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'smile', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'phrase', mymka 'joke', etc.
A dictionary of paronyms (Vishnjakova 1984: 177) notices that the two adjectives are synonymous because they both mean 'showing impudence', e.g. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'cynical statement' and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'cynical smile'. In the corpus [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe has indeed a larger number of collocations in comparison to uuhuh-eck-uu, -ar, -oe. The reasons could be that the latter adjective is obsolete (cf. Vishnjakova ibid.) and the speakers tend to use a shorter form due to language economy, cf. e.g.:
(20) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe (1731) (12) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'fight', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'widow', socydapcmbo 'state', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'girl', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'animal', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'life', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'journalist', meduuuha 'medicine', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'youth', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'observer', nosoda 'weather', norumuka 'politics', camupa 'satire', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'fate', memka 'aunt', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'humanity', etc.
(21) uuhuh-eck-uu, -ar, -oe (521) apsymehmauur 'argumentation', uder 'idea', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'lover', hehabucmb 'hatred', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'pseudonym', npeepehue 'contempt', ckynocmb 'stinginess', mepmuh 'term', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'astonishment', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'philosopher', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'philosophy', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'experiment', komop 'humour', etc.
3.1.4. British National Corpus
184.108.40.206. On the rivalry between -ive and -ory
Kaunisto (2008: 74) correctly notices that in present-day English words ending in -ive or -ory (13) are not very widespread; yet, competition between the two word formational patterns might be observed.
The first pair of words analysed here is declarat-ive (35) and declarat-ory (16). As the numbers indicate, the token frequency of these two words in the corpus is relatively low. At first sight, the two words look synonymous due to similar adjective-noun collocations which can be determined, cf. e.g.:
(22) declarat-ive (14 collocations in total) /declarat-ory (12 collocations in total) doctrine, form, statements (3 coinciding collocations)
Garner (2003) also observes that these adjectives have synonymous meanings, namely 'serving to declare'. However, declarat-ory has produced a number of fixed expressions in legal English (cf. declaratory act, declaratory action, declaratory decree, declaratory judgement, declaratory statute, declaratory theory (14)), meanwhile declarat-ive is frequently used in grammar (declarative statement, sentence, sentence types, verb forms) (cf. Kaunisto 2008: 82). As Garner (2003) points out, the word declamat-ory is sometimes confused with declarat-ory. The former has the meaning 'empty and bombastic'.
In the BYU-BNC, the token frequency of investigat-ive (286) is much higher in comparison to investigat-ory (42). Both adjectives bear the same meaning, namely they relate to investigating something, cf. e.g.:
(23) investigat-ive (109 collocations in total) / investigat-ory (29 collocations in total) abilities, agency, body, journalist, procedure, process, research, role, stage, style, task, visit, work, etc. (16 coinciding collocations)
However, these adjectives also collocate with different nouns:
(24) investigat-ive branch, newspaper, outsiders, knowledge, practice, session, stories, strategy, studies, techniques, units, workloads, etc.
(25) investigat-ory authorities, component, fees, frolics, function, orders, policy, response, stance, tools, etc.
Both words modify official entities such as agency / authorities / body / powers (cf. Kaunisto 2008: 84). Garner (2003: 465) proposes the idea that there is no point in having two synonymous words. "We might be well advised to throw out investigatory and stick with investigative, or to develop some DIFFERENTIATION". However, in the BYU-BNC, adjectives ending in -ory have produced a number of fixed expressions, especially in relation to journalism (e.g. investigatory journalism, journalistic skills, trade journalists, journalist, newspaper, reporting, reporter, tabloid, television programme, writer) and medicine (investigatory colonoscopy, mastectomy). According to Garner (2003: 465), investigat-ory occurs almost as commonly as investigat-ive in American law-enforcement contexts (for more on the most frequently occurring -ive/-ory adjective pairs in BYU-BNC and COCA, see Kaunisto 2008: 80-85).
The last pair of words is stimulat-ive and stimulat-ory. In the CED, both adjectives are given as synonyms, whereas the OALD does not contain the mentioned forms. The latter dictionary, gives only stimulat-ing which is used in the meaning 'inspiring' and 'making you feel more active and healthy'. According to the CED, stimulat-ive and stimulat-ory derive from the verb stimulate which has 3 meanings: 1) 'to fill (a person) with ideas or enthusiasm'; 2) 'to excite (a nerve, organ, etc.) with a stimulus'; 3) 'to encourage (something) to start or progress further'. However, neither adjective is mentioned as synonymous with the word stimulat-ing. Cf. adjective collocates in the BYU-BNC:
(26) stimulat-ive (5 (15)) / stimulat-ory (48) / stimulat-ing (756 (16)) effect (1 common collocation)
(27) stimulat-ory (16 collocations in total) / stimulat-ing (168 collocations in total) activity, component, effect, interactions, properties (5 coinciding collocations)
In the corpus, the token frequency of stimulat-ive is very low. However, it has been noticed that in specialised dictionaries this word is the preferred form in the language of finance:
(28) stimulat-ive fiscal policy, grants, middle-income tax cut, deficit, action, monetary / financial policy, financial conditions (17)
In fact, in the future, this term might prevail only in the domain of finance. Stimulat-ory in comparison to stimulat-ive has a larger number of instances in the BYU-BNC. It seems that the former is more favoured when referring to medicine or biology:
(29) stimulat-ory action, autocrine cycle, conditions, impulses, laxatives, organs, receptors, response, signals
As a result, the differentiation between stimulat-ive and stimulat-ory lies in their established uses and not in meaning.
Finally, but no less significantly, the adjective stimulat-ing might be characterized by the highest frequency of occurrence. This adjective is used in various contexts:
(30) stimulat-ing analysis, approach, atmosphere, debate, job, classes, music, overview, pattern, lecture, seminar, textbook, time, tour, tutorials, workshop, etc.
3.2. Competition between simplex or correlative and suffixed adjectives: the second pattern The second pattern is observed only in two analysed languages, i.e. Lithuanian and Latvian. It is significant to point out that it seems to be very rare in Latvian and not found in Russian, while the situation in English can only be ascertained through further research (18) , cf. e.g.:
(31) Lith (a) lokal-us, -i / lokal-in-is, -e 'local'
(b) preliminar-us, -i /preliminar-in-is, -e 'tentative ' ([DZ.sup.e3], [LKZ.sup.e2])
(32) Latv (a) morals, -a / moral-isk-s, -a 'moral'
(b) militars, -a / militar-isk-s, -a 'military' (LLVV)
As far as Lithuanian dictionaries are concerned, in [DZ.sup.e3], adjectives lokal-us, -i and lokal-in-is, -e (31a) are given as total synonyms, namely both words are described as 'connected with a particular place, boundaries; local'. In [LKZ.sup.e2], the adjective lokal-us, -i is not included, however, lokal-in-is, -e is defined as 'connected with a particular place'. In [DZ.sup.e3],preliminarus, -i means 'tentative', and preliminar-in-is is defined using definite form of the same adjective, namely 'preliminarusis'. In spite of that the meanings are identical. In [LKZ.sup.e2], both adjectives in (31b) are given as synonyms too.
As regards Latvian (32), LLVV describes morals, -a as an adjective having three meanings: 1) 'connected with morality'; 2) 'corresponding to norms of morality'; 3) 'connected with the spiritual life of a human being'. As the adjective moral-isk-s, -a is concerned, it is viewed as being synonymous with the simplex one in meanings 1 and 2. The simplex militars, -a and the suffixed derivative militar-isk-s, -a 'military' are given as total synonyms in LLVV. In both cases the dictionary shows a clear preference for the simplex form.
3.2.1. Corpus of Modern Lithuanian
In Lithuanian, simplex adjectives compete with hybrid suffixed adjectives ending in -in-is, -e (19). Nominal collocations include both simplex nouns (a) and derivatives denoting action, quality and place (b), cf. e.g.:
(33) lokal-us, -i (238 collocations in total) / lokal-in-is, -e (288 collocations in total) 'local' (77 coinciding collocations)
a) kultura 'culture', projektas 'project', procesas 'process', problema 'problem', spalva 'colour', tinklas 'network', etc.
b) bendradarbiavimas 'collaboration', dievybe 'deity', erdve 'space', koncentracija 'concentration',padidejimas 'increase',prdtrukis 'outburst', etc.
The meanings of both adjectives in DZe and TZZe are considered to be synonymous. Both adjectives refer to 'a local or certain place'. Despite the same meaning, the adjectives in DLKT frequently collocate both with simplex or correlative nouns (a) and derivatives mostly denoting action (b), cf. e.g.:
(34) lokal-us, -i 'local' (568 (20))
a) blokada 'blockade', defektas 'defect', demonas 'demon', dokumentai 'documents', erozija 'erosion', imunitetas 'immunity', katalogas 'catalogue', kontrole 'control', etc.
b) gyvenimas 'life', aktyvinimas 'activation', ataugimas 'regrowth', issilaisvinimas 'liberation', atsalimas 'global cooling' (zemes) drebejimas 'earthquake', isplitimas 'outspread', kraujavimas 'bleeding', pakitimas 'change', sukilimas 'revolt' etc.
(35) lokal-in-is, -e 'local' (716)
a) aspektas 'aspect', disciplina 'discipline', literatura 'literature', tradicijos 'traditions', karai 'wars', rinka 'market', etc.
b) aprasymas 'description', gedimas 'breakdown', judejimas 'movement', kaita 'change', nukrypimas 'deviation', pakilimas 'rise', etc.
Even though collocations are different, it seems that at least in some cases lokal-us, -i could also occur with the nouns lokal-in-is, -e collocates with.
The second competing pattern is highly characteristic of Lithuanian as comparatively a large number of such rival pairs exists, cf. more examples, e.g.:
(36) global-us, -i / global-in-is, -e and glob-al-isk-as, -a 'global' dual-us, -i/ dual-in-is, -e 'dual' fatal-us, -i /fatal-in-is, -e and fatal-isk-as, -a 'fatal' (21)
The above-mentioned examples might be used with the same meaning, e.g. globalus / globalinis /globaliskas mastymas 'global thinking'. The token frequency of globalus, -i is 1237, globalinis, -e--1687 and globaliskas, -a--only 18. Other competing adjective forms can also be used synonymously, however, the token frequency of some in the DLKT differs considerably from that of globalus, -i and its derivatives. The word dualus, -i occurs 82 times, dualinis, -e 36; fatalus, -i 18, fatalinis, -e 21, fataliskas, -a 467 (22). These adjective pairs have no discernible differences in meaning.
3.2.2. Corpus of Modern Latvian
As far as LVK2013 is concerned, simplex or correlative adjectives dominate or even are the only ones representing the said competing pattern, e.g.:
(37) morals, -a (140 collocations) / moral-isk-s, -a (1 collocation) 'moral' apsverums 'consideration' (only 1 coinciding collocation)
(38) militars, -a (331 collocation) / militar-isk-s, -a (no collocations at all) 'military'
As regards moral-isk-s, -a, LLVV gives collocations with action or resultative nouns moral-isk-s viedoklis 'moral view', pagrimums 'moral decline', and more collocations of the same type can be found in Saeima-2.0, e.g. moraliska attirisanas 'moral purification', moraliska atmosanas 'moral awakening', moralisko apstakli [acc. sg.] 'moral circumstance', moralisko apspriesanu [acc. sg.] 'moral discussion', etc (23). In the case of militar-isk-s, -a only LLVV gives one collocation ar militarisku sveicienu 'with military greeting'.
In rare cases LVK2013 has collocations exclusively with the suffixed adjective, e.g. ident-isks, -a 'identic(al)' (44 collocations), whereas a simplex adjective bearing the same root and, as a rule, the same meaning, can be found in LLVV (ident-s, -a: identas paradibas [nom.pl.] 'identic(al) phenomena') and Saeima-2.0, e.g. identi jedzieni [nom.pl.] 'identic(al) ideas') (24). The preliminary analysis of the provided facts shows the ongoing processes of competition between simplex borrowed and suffixed hybrid adjectives in Latvian. It seems that simplex forms are used more frequently than suffixed ones, which in many cases may be a manifestation of the latest tendency in the development of spoken Latvian.
3.3. Competition between derivatives with simplex and complex suffixes: the third pattern
The third pattern is common in Lithuanian, Russian, and English, however, no occurrences have been found in Latvian, cf. e.g.:
(39) Lith -in-is, -e/-atin-is, -e (a); -in-is, -e/-yvin-is, -e (b)
(a) tem-in-is, -e / tem-atin-is, -e 'thematic(al)'
(b) dedukc-in-is, -e ([DZ.sup.e3]) / dedukt-yvinis, -e ([LKZ.sup.e2]) 'deductional'
(40) Rus -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe (b)
(a) sepou-ck-uu, -ar, -oe / sepo-uheck-uu, -ar, -oe 'heroic'
(b) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe 'comfortable' (TSRJa)
(41) Eng -ic/-icalc
(a) pedagog-ic/pedagog-ical (OALD)
(b) metaphor-ic /metaphor-ical (CALD)
In [LKZ.sup.e3], the first pair of adjectives (39a) is described differently. Tem-in-is, -e has two meanings: 1) 'connected with a theme or themes, dedicated to some theme' and 2) 'consisting of themes'. The second meaning is more common in linguistics, e.g. when talking about dictionaries. Tem-atin-is, -e also carries two meanings: 1) 'including the entirety of themes, related with the topic' and 2) 'a vowel that ends a stem'. The second meaning is more specific, i.e. as a term, it is used mainly in the linguistic field. The adjectives in (39b) are also given as synonyms by different dictionaries of Lithuanian (TZZe, [DZ.sup.e3]).
The two adjectives in (40a) seem semantically similar. As regards the latter one, it has got three meanings: 1) 'characteristic of a hero, brave'; 2) 'requiring a lot of effort'; 3) 'narrating deeds of heroes' (25). According to the dictionary (26), the first meaning of sepou-ck-uu, -ar, -oe and sepo-uheck-uu, -ar, -oe is identical. Thus, it follows that the two lexical items are total synonyms as they are mutually interchangeable with one meaning. According to Russian dictionaries (27), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe are not synonymous. The former is used with abstract nouns, whereas the latter one is used with concrete nouns. It has to be noted that in the NKRJa, the third competing pattern is the dominant one.
In the OALD, both pedagog-ic and pedagog-ical (41a) are included under the same entry. In the CALD, metaphor-ic and metaphor-ical (41b) are recorded within the same entry too.
In Lithuanian, the formants -at-, -yv- are taken from donor languages as elements of correlative borrowings, cf. e.g.:
(42) Lith tem-atik-a 'thematics', dedukt-yv-us, -i 'deductive' Cf. Rus [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe Cf. Eng them-atic ([left arrow] Greek themat-ik-os), deduct-ive ([left arrow] Lat deduct-iv-us)
Similarly, in Russian, the formants -uh- (-uk-) and -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]- are taken from donor languages, cf. e.g.:
(43) Cf. Fr hero-ique [left arrow] Lat hero-ic-us
Cf. Fr confort-able [left arrow] Late Lat confort-abil-is
3.3.1. Corpus of Modern Lithuanian
The examples below illustrate how in Lithuanian the adjective root can take a simplex and complex suffixes in collocations, both with simplex or correlative (a) and derived (b) nouns, cf. e.g.:
(44) tem-in-is, -e (96 collocations in total) / tem-at-in-is, -e (267 collocations in total) 'themat(ic)' (37 coinciding collocations)
a) analize 'analysis', aspektas 'aspect', ekspozicija 'exposition', grupe 'group', kompozicija 'composition', medziaga 'material', tinklas 'network', struktura 'structure', tradicija 'tradition', etc.
b) ivairove 'variety', bendrumas 'affinity', ieskojimas 'search', pateikimas 'representation', patikrinimas 'examination', rinkinys 'collection', rodykle 'index', skirstymas 'distribution', etc.
However, the two adjectives can also collocate both with simplex or correlative (a) and derived (b) nouns:
(45) tem-in-is, -e (1084 (28)) 'themat(ic)'
a) atlasas 'atlas', biblioteka 'library', ciklas 'cycle', definicija 'definition', daina 'song', diena 'day', ekskursija 'excursion', integracija 'integration', etc.
b) apibendrinimas 'generalisation', atradimai 'discoveries', erdve 'space', finansavimas 'sponsorship', isvyka 'trip', kaklaraistis 'tie', panasumas 'similarity', paskaita 'lecture',priesinys 'drawing', etc.
(46) tem-at-in-is, -e (188) 'themat(ic)'
a) analogija 'analogy', barjeras 'barrier', charakteristika 'characteristic', citata 'quotation', forma 'form', knyga 'book', objektai 'objects', sluoksnis 'layer', skale 'scale', tabu 'taboo', zurnalas 'magazine', etc.
b) apribojimas 'restriction', cikliskumas 'rhythmic(al)', jungimas 'connection', pletojimas 'development', sudetis 'composition', verte 'value', etc.
Even though collocations are different, in many cases tem-at-in-is, -e could also occur with the nouns that tem-in-is, -e collocates with.
In Lithuanian, it is common and promoted by linguists that adjectives with foreign suffixes or stem-final syllables such as -al-, -ar-, -at-, -et-, -ij-, -ik-, -yv-, -or- and others should not be used before the suffix -inis, -e (cf. Paulauskien? 2000: 118f.). These elements are found in other languages such as Russian, English, and in some cases also Latvian, e.g.:
(47) region-in-is, -e, cf. Eng region-al, Rus pesuoh-anbh-biu, -ar, -oe, Latv region-al-s, -a (cf. Late Latin region-al-is)
problem-in-is, -e, cf. Eng problem-atic, Rus [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe, but--Latv problem-isks, -a (cf. Late Latin problemat-ic-us, cf. Greekproblem-a, gen. problematos)
teor-in-is, -e, cf. Eng theor-etic, Rus meopem-uneck-uu, -ar, -oe, Latv teor-etisk-s, -a (cf. Late Latin theoret-ic-us)
statist-in-is, -e, cf. Eng statistic-al, Rus cmamucm-uheck-uu, -ar, -oe, but - Latv statist-isk-s, -a (cf. Modern Latin statist-ic-um)
iliuz-in-is, -e, cf. Eng illus-ory, Rus [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe, Latv iluzor-s, -al iluzorisk-s, -a (cf. Late Latin illus-or-ius)
Many derivatives containing the above-mentioned foreign elements are considered to be incorrect in standard Lithuanian, e.g. region-al-in-is, -e, problem-at-in-is, -e, problem-at-iskas, -a, teor-et-in-is, -e, statist-ik-in-is, -e. However, in some suffixed derivatives the foreign elements -ij-, -ik- and others are vitally important, and they cannot be omitted due to the ambiguity of the adjective, cf. e.g.:
(48) kolonij-in-is, -e 'colonial' [left arrow] kolonij-a 'colony' vs. kolon-in-is, -e 'columnar' [left arrow] kolon-a 'column'
(49) linij-in-is, -e 'linear' [left arrow] linij-a 'line' vs. lin-in-is, -e 'made of flax' [left arrow] lin-as 'flax'
The first pair (48) of adjectives relates to the meaning of 'a country under control of another country' and 'architectural style', meanwhile the second pair (49) of adjectives acquires the meaning of 'linear' and 'made of flax' ([DZ.sup.e3]) (29). As far as the element -ik- is concerned, it cannot be omitted in the derived word fizik-in-is 'related to physics' because the adjective fizin-is 'physical' also exists. The former has the base word fizik-a 'physics', whereas the latter consists of a bound stem, indigenous suffix and an inflection. Furthermore, the meaning of both adjectives is also different: fizikinis pertains to 'the science of physics' and fizinis pertains to ' the body or nature' ([DZ.sup.e3]).
3.3.2. Russian National Corpus
The third competing pattern of adjectives is a productive phenomenon of Russian word-formation. It has been noticed in the corpus that sepou-ck-uu, -ar, -oe and sepo-uheck-uu, -ar, -oe collocate with concrete, animate nouns (quite often indicating groups of people) such as apmur 'army', boeu 'fighter', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'division', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'wife', eamumhuk 'defender', mama 'mother', omeu 'father', omprd 'troop', nremr 'tribe', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'phalanx', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'person'. However, collocations with abstract, inanimate nouns dominate entirely, cf. the examples below:
(50) sepou-ck-uu, -ar, -oe (219 collocations in total) / sepo-uheck-uu, -ar, -oe (763 collocations in total) akm 'act', apmur 'army', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'battle', somobhocmb 'readiness', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'fate', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'life', kohmpamaka 'counterattack', heycmpamumocmb 'fearlessness', nobedehue 'behaviour', porb 'role', cmepmb 'death', mpaduuur 'tradition', etc. (112 coinciding collocations)
The large number of common adjective-noun collocations in NKRJa revealed that the two adjectives are synonymous not only in their first, but also in their second and third meaning (30), i.e. sepou-ck-uu, -ar, -oe displays a growing tendency to combine with nouns that should collocate with zepo-unecK-u?, -an, -oe, cf. e.g., sepouckuu, -ar, -oe bpemr 'time', noxod 'march', nopmpem 'portrait', cepdue 'heart', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'fate',ycurue 'effort', etc.
In NKRJa, these two adjectives also collocate with different nouns, cf. e.g.:
(51) sepou-ck-uu, -ar, -oe (4079)(31) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'air', bhumahue 'attention', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'star', ombem 'answer', kpobb 'blood', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'medal', npakmuka 'practice', npucymcmbue 'presence', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'indifference', pahehue 'injury', pebrma 'boys', camoeamuma 'self-defence', cnacehue 'rescue', cbih 'son', hmehue 'reading', etc.
(52) sepou-ck-uu, -ar, -oe (1020) babymka 'grandmother', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'biography', epas 'enemy', dpyz 'friend', sahscmep 'gangster', komedur 'comedy', rupuka 'lyrics', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'youth', nechr 'song', penopmep 'reporter', cmambr 'article', cmuxu 'rhymes', enoner 'epopee', etc.
Next pair of rival adjectives is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe, cf. e.g.:
(53) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe (180 collocations in total) / [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] -ar, -oe (218 collocations in total) 'comfortable' dom 'house', sopod 'city', socmuhuua 'hotel', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'life', kpecro 'armchair', kyxhr 'kitchen', omerb 'hotel', caroh 'saloon', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'sofa', cnarbhr 'bedroom', cmurb 'style', etc. (40 collocations)
It should be noted, however, that the said adjectives frequently collocate with different nouns, cf. e.g.:
(54) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe 'comfortable' (1330) (32) krumam 'climate', kohmpacm 'contrast' kohmekcm 'context', mukpokrumam 'microclimate', opyhcue 'gun', pesuoh 'region', coh 'dream', cxema 'scheme', cmpaha 'country', meppumopur 'territory', 30Ha 'zone', eenocuned 'bike', etc.
(55) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe 'comfortable' (836) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'bus', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'car', domuk 'little house', socnumarb 'hospital', ueba 'house', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'ship', kpyue 'cruise', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'unfreedom', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: 'beach', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'conversation', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'suitcase', etc.
According to a dictionary of paronyms (33), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe is used with abstract nouns, whereas [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe is used with concrete ones. However, the NKRJa illustrates that these adjectives can be used both with abstract and concrete nouns. Despite [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe collocating with several abstract nouns, in most cases it is used with concrete ones, whereas [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe tends to collocate with nouns with a concrete meaning. Such an explanation is somewhat unhelpful since it does not allow for a principled differentiation between the two adjectival forms.
3.3.3. British National Corpus
As far as adjectives ending in -ic and -ical are concerned (e.g. comic / comical, economic / economical, politic / political, pedagogic / pedagogical), traditionally it is believed that adjectives with the suffix -ical derive from adjectives with the suffix -ic. Marchand (1969: 242) also puts forward a similar idea that "formations in -ical (34) are secondary derivatives, i.e. they are derived from adjectives in -ic by means of -al". He attempts to explain the difference between -ic and -ical forms by stating that the meaning of -ic adjectives is more directly connected to the idea expressed by the root than the meaning of -ical adjectives. A similar explanation was offered by Hawkes (1976: 95): "the adjective in -ic, derived from the root substantive, has a semantically more direct connection with that root idea; the adjective in -ical, a derivative of itself from an adjective form, has a looser connection with the root idea and often takes on a correspondingly looser meaning". Ross (1998: 42) is of the same opinion that adjectives ending in -ic are more specific, meanwhile adjectives ending in -ical are more general.
220.127.116.11. On the rivalry between -ic and-ical
The adjectives pedagog-ic and pedagog-ical are often treated as synonyms. According to the OALD, both adjectives mean 'concerning teaching methods'. Pedagog-ical does not have a separate entry in the dictionary and is mentioned under the entry pedagog-ic. 21 coinciding collocations prove that the rivalry between the adjectives still has not resulted in a clear preference for either of the forms, cf. e.g.:
(56) pedagog-ic (79 collocations in total) / pedagog-ical (58 collocations in total) activity, aim, applications, approaches, concern, foundations, function(s), implications, method, principles, responsibilities, skills, style, theory, tradition, value, etc.
It needs to be noted, however, that in the BYU-BNC the words pedagog-ic and pedagog-ical occur with roughly equal frequencies, with no apparent pattern governing the choice between the two. The former occurs 133 times, while the latter 124 times. The very fact that the adjectives are used in the field of education probably also explains why variation between the two forms still exists. However, there are more cases when competing adjectives collocate with different nouns, cf. e.g.:
(57) pedagog-ic accountability, advantage, autonomy, cause, chances, concept, dependency, fashion, material, research, technique, thinking, tone, trade, validity, version, etc.
(58) pedagog-ical aspirations, assumption, benefit, intentions, linguistics, needs, orientation, perspectives, potential, preference, relationship, tasks, term, tool, work, etc.
Even though collocations are different it seems that pedagog-ic could also occur with the nouns pedagog-ical collocates with. For instance, pedagogic preference, technique, thinking collocate well too.
One more pair of competing adjectives is bibliograph-ic and bibliography-ical. In the BYU-BNC, the rivalry between these two adjectives has resulted in a clear preference for the form in -ic, cf. bibliograph-ic (203 (35)) vs. bibliograph-ical (130). Even though the latter has a lower frequency of occurrence, it should be borne in mind that both adjectives still have not undergone differentiation, cf. e.g.:
(59) bibliograph-ic (64 collocations in total) / bibliographic-ical (62 collocations in total) aids, checking, collection, control, description, details, essay, knowledge, reference, resource(s), search, sources, surveys, tools, etc. (20 coinciding collocations)
However, both adjectives are rather frequently used with different nouns:
(60) bibliograph-ic applications, display, education, entity, material, method, notes, packages, schemes, services, subjects, system, etc.
(61) bibliographic-ical addendum, aspects, books, tools, competence, complications, consultants, detective, division, machines, search, support, terminology, etc.
Looking at the collocates of both adjectives, it seems that they are synonymous with the meanings 'connected with a list of books about a particular subject or by a particular author, or to the list of books that have been used by somebody writing an article, etc.' and 'connected with the study of the history of books and their production' (OALD). Pairs of competing words differ from one another only by their derivational affix.
Metaphor-ic and metaphor-ical in comparison to bibliograph-ic / bibliography-ical have also entered into genuine lexical competition with each other. According to the CALD, the adjective metaphoric-al is used in two meanings: 'metaphorical language containing metaphors' and 'not having real existence but representing some truth about a situation or other subject'. Neither this dictionary, nor the OALD highlights the major differences between these adjectives. As regards the forms metaphor-ic and metaphor-ical in the BYU-BNC, it seems that both words can be used in a broadly similar fashion. The different frequency of occurrence of the two adjectives (token frequency of metaphoric 72 and metaphorical 191) in the BYU-BNC does not suggest any drastic signs of differentiation between the two forms, cf. e.g.:
(62) metaphor-ic (45 collocations in total) / metaphor-ical (113 collocations in total) expression(s), function, juxtaposition, language, mapping, models, nature, relationship, sense, strategy, terms, etc. (13 coinciding collocations)
However, competing adjectives can often go together with different nouns, cf. e.g.:
(63) metaphor-ic aspects, combination, components, construction, domains, focus, form, innovation, interaction, proliferation, relation, relevance, reversability, technique, tool, verb, etc.
(64) metaphor-ical act, allusion, borderlines, character, experience, phrase, possibilities, potential, power, transition, tree, value, variety, walls, ways, weight, word, etc.
It is worth mentioning that both adjectives are used in a number of fixed expressions especially common in cognitive linguistics: metaphoric(al) language / mapping; metaphoric aspects; metaphorical utterance, etc. It seems that Lakoff and Johnson, as well as many of their followers, expressed preference for the form metaphorical. Their seminal book Metaphors We Live By (2003) includes 295 instances of metaphorical and only 12 instances of metaphoric.
4. Discussion of the results
There are several things to note about the results of the study. Investigating the occurrence of competing variants of adjectives in the dictionaries as well as in the corpora, we have noticed three types of rival patterns of borrowed and hybrid adjectives in Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian, and English.
All three rival patterns of borrowed and hybrid adjectives are typical of Lithuanian. As the collocations mostly with simplex inanimate and action or resultative nouns show, Lith ritm-in-is, -e / ritm-ing-as, -a / ritm-isk-as, -a (cf. ex. 9-12) can be used synonymously in spite of the fact that the suffix -inis, -e belongs to a relational category of adjectives and -ingas, -a, -iskas, -a belong to a qualitative category of adjectives. Such a case illustrates that sometimes the boundaries between the suffixes belonging to distinct categories of adjectives are not clear-cut. As the competing adjective variants belonging to the second and third rival pattern are concerned, there is a clear tendency to choose shorter forms of adjectives or adjectives with simplex suffixes, especially in standard Lithuanian. It is likely that both language economy and language policy could be the reasons why shorter forms of the adjectives are preferred.
The first and second rival pattern of adjectives are typical of Latvian, while the third pattern involving the competition of adjectives with simplex and complex suffixes is excluded here. As in Lithuanian, collocations include mostly simplex and action or resultative nouns. The second rival pattern involving the competition between simplex or correlative and suffixed adjectives is rare in Latvian. That is why the said language seems to be least sensitive to the rivalry of borrowed and hybrid adjectives. It could be an argument for the assumption that the integration of borrowed adjectives is more straightforward in Latvian than in the other investigated languages.
The first and third rival patterns of borrowed and hybrid adjectives are intrinsic to English and Russian. The second rival pattern could be singled out in the latter language (36) if the stem were of native origin. As the present study focuses on borrowed and hybrid adjectives, the second pattern involving competition between simplex or correlative and suffixed adjectives is excluded. When an adjective is borrowed in Russian, both a suffix and an inflection are added directly, meanwhile in Lithuanian and Latvian, it is possible to add only an inflection or both a derivational suffix and an inflection.
It seems that Russian dictionaries of paronyms succeeded quite well in highlighting the differences between the two competing variants of adjectives with simplex and complex suffixes. Even though the dictionaries of paronyms usually emphasize the distinct meaning of words, NKRJa shows that the competing variants of adjectives are synonymous to some degree and can differ from one another only by their derivational suffix (cf. uuhuh-eck-uu,-ar, -oe and uuhuh-h-uu, -an, -oe; sepou-ck-uu, -ar, -oe and sepouh-ec-kuu, -ar, -oe; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], -ar, -oe).
As far as English is concerned, it has to be noted, however, that the analysed adjectives in -ive and -ory seem to be stylistically marked in comparison to the adjectives in -ic and -ical which seem to be stylistically neutral and have a wide range of use (cf. pedagog-ic / pedagog-ical, bibliograph-ic / bibliograph-ical, metaphor-ic / metaphor-ical). According to corpus data, adjectives containing the suffixes -ive and -ory are stylistically foregrounded and are used in different registers, such as linguistics (declarat-ive), law (declarat-ory), journalism (investigat-ive) finance (stimulat-ive), medicine or biology (stimulat-ory).
Even though 5942 adjective-noun collocations have been analysed, it is still not easy to offer a principled differentiation between some competing variants of adjectives, especially when they are not used in a particular register.
1. Three rival patterns of borrowed and hybrid adjectives are typical of Baltic, Slavic, and Germanic languages, i.e.:
1. competition between derivatives with different suffixes;
2. competition between simplex or correlative and suffixed adjectives;
3. competition between derivatives with simplex and complex suffixes.
2. The first rival pattern is the most productive and characteristic of Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian and English, whereas the second one is typical of Lithuanian and Latvian. The third pattern is intrinsic to Lithuanian, Russian, and English. Regarding the productivity of the second and third patterns, it varies with different languages.
3. There is some discrepancy between information given in dictionaries and the one gathered from corpora. The former (particularly dictionaries of Russian), as a rule, indicate paronymic relations between different adjectives having the same borrowed root, whereas the latter show partial synonymy. The exception to this case seems to be the Dictionary of Standard Latvian (LLVV) which is sensitive to synonymous usage of borrowed and hybrid adjectives. In some cases, the synonymous relations between borrowed or hybrid adjectives given in LLVV are not supported by the data from the Balanced Corpus of Modern Latvian (LVK2013), but can be found in the corpus Saeima-2.0 which seems to illustrate the latest tendencies in the usage of contemporary Latvian.
4. The discrepancy of information given in various sources could be an argument for the ongoing rivalry between different types of borrowed and hybrid adjectives in the Baltic, Slavic, and Germanic languages. This shows the development of the processes concerning the integration of borrowed vocabulary into the morphological and semantic systems of researched languages. The integration of borrowed adjectives seems to be more straightforward in Latvian than in other investigated languages. In the case of some languages, particularly Lithuanian, language policy can also be involved in these processes.
5. Further investigations into the rivalry of borrowed and hybrid adjectives should strive to concentrate on detailed corpus-based semantic and statistical analysis of adjective-noun collocations.
Lina Inciuraite-Noreikiene, Bonifacas Stundzia
This article is based on a presentation at the Third Conference on Universals and Typology in Word Formation, Kosice 26-28 June 2015. We thank Dr. Stefan Th. Gries for his help and several useful comments on an earlier draft of this paper. We are also grateful to Hannah Shipman for proofreading the English text. We would like to thank anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. Needless to say, we alone are to blame for any remaining errors.
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Faculty of Philology
Department of Baltic Linguistics
5 Universiteto St
LT-01513 Vilnius, Lithuania
lina. email@example.com. lt
Faculty of Philology
Department of Baltic Linguistics
5 Universiteto St
LT-01513 Vilnius, Lithuania
(1) Repeated collocations are not included in the number.
(2) It is worth noting that all the corpora are annotated, with the exception of DLKT and Saeima-2.0. These corpora comprise different number of words. DLKT (2011) encompasses about 140 million words, therefore, it is by far the largest corpus of the Lithuanian language. A substantial part of this corpus comprises the General Press, namely texts both from regional and national newspapers, the Popular Press as well as the Special Press, i.e. specialised newspapers and magazines. The remainder of it is composed of fiction, memoirs, scientific and popular literature, and various official texts. The corpus Saeima-2.0 encompasses more then 22 million words. As regards the LVK2013 (2007-2013), it is the smallest one among the above-mentioned corpora with roughly 4.5 million words. It has been compiled from printed and electronic materials created after 1990. The most significant part of the corpus is comprised of the mass media, while the rest of it incorporates fiction, scientific and other texts, normative acts, etc. NKRJa (2006-2008) is made up of over 300 million words. It contains not only authentic prose, illustrating standard Russian, but also translated works, poetry and texts, representing the non-standard forms of contemporary Russian, namely spoken (recordings of oral speech, spontaneous and public) and dialectal. Finally, the BYU-BNC (1980s-1993) is a 100-million-word corpus composed of written and spoken language. The written part embraces extracts from regional and national newspapers, specialist periodicals and journals, academic books and popular fiction, published and unpublished letters, as well as memoranda, school and university essays. The spoken part encompasses orthographic transcriptions of unscripted informal conversations and spoken language collected in various contexts (e.g. business or government meetings).
(3) Etymologies of words are checked, as a rule, in an online etymology dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/ (Last accessed Apr. 2016).
(4) Lithuanian, Latvian, and Russian suffixes are given together with the endings of the nominative case of adjectives.
(5) Personal information of Dr. Anna Stafecka from University of Latvia.
(6) Personal information of Dr. Anna Daugavet from Sankt Petersburg State University.
(7) http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ogegova/6262 (Last accessed Jan. 2015).
(8) For more on the conception of collocation and phraseology, see Marcinkeviciene (2010).
(9) Only adjective-noun collocations have been extracted from DLKT.
(10) The numbers indicated in brackets show the token frequency, i.e. the number of times a word form occurs in a corpus.
(11) Adjectives ending in -inis, -e are considered to be particularly productive in Lithuanian (cf. DLKG 2005: 210, [LG.sup.2] 1997: 82). It is not surprising, therefore, that in DLKT the hybrid derivative ritm-in-is, -e has the largest number of tokens in comparison to ritm-isk-as, -a and ritm-ing-as, -a.
(12) Adverb-verb collocations as well as derived nouns are included in this number, which shows the token frequency of a word. However, they are not investigated in this paper. The search in the NKRJa was done in the following way. The stems [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]* were written in the search tool. Both derived nouns (e.g. ?ununnocmb 'cynicism') and adverb-verb (e.g. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'answers in a cynical way') collocations were extracted from the corpus.
(13) Nouns ending in -ive and -ory are not investigated in this paper.
(14) Examples taken from on-line Legal dictionaries: http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/, http://thelawdictionary.org/, http://dictionary.law.com/(Last accessed Jan. 2016).
(15) The numbers in brackets show the token frequency of a word.
(16) Verb-noun collocations (e.g. stimulating imagination / the economy / the youngsters) are included in this number, however, they are not analysed.
(17) The last four words starting with deficit are taken from financial glossaries as well as the Oxford Dictionary of Law (Last accessed Jan. 2016).
(18) As regards English, at first, initially our aim was to distinguish the second rival pattern here. Two adjectives were selected from the BYU-BNC, namely formal and formal-istic. We found only 6 coinciding collocations with both adjectives. However, in order to state that they are synonymous, wider contexts need to be investigated (cf. more examples dual / dual-istic, global / global-istic).
(19) This suffix is so productive that it can be attached to all parts of speech, namely nouns (berz-in-is, -e 'birchen' [left arrow] berz-as 'birch'), adjectives (bendr-in-is, -e 'common' [left arrow] bendr-as, -a 'general, common'), numerals (pirm-in-is, -e 'primary' [left arrow] pirm-as, -a 'first'), verbs (pirkt-in-is, -e 'shop-bought' [left arrow] pirkt-as, - a 'bought'), adverbs (aplink-in-is, -e 'surrounding' [left arrow] aplink 'around'), and prepositional constructions (po-kar-in-is, -e 'postwar' [left arrow] po 'after' + kar-as 'war'). This suffix can also be added to compounds (ilga-met-in-is, -e vs. ilga-met-is, -e 'long-lived [left arrow] ilg-as, -a 'long' + met-ai 'year'). It seems that in DZe there are no compounds having the suffix - inis, -e with the exception of words like dvylik-in-is, -e 'twelve years old', astuoniolik-in-is, -e 'eighteen years old', devyniolik-in-is, -e 'nineteen years old'. In LKZe, compounds with the suffix -inis, -e are also very rare and might come from Old Lithuanian texts.
(20) The numbers in brackets denote the token frequency of a word.
(21) In DZe, the two adjectives are synonymous.
(22) Shorter and longer forms of compounds can also compete with each other, cf. e.g.: daugiamilijon-is, -e vs. daugiamilijon-in-is, -e 'multimillion'. It is possible that the former compound can later change the longer one daugiamilijon-in-is, -e, which is now favoured by the Lithuanian dictionaries (DZe, LKZe). Such a change is possible due to similar hybrid adjectives such as viena-cilindr-is, -e 'one-cylinder' (DZe, LKZe), instead of viena-cilindr-in-is, -e, and smulkia-struktur-is, -e 'exhibiting complex/elaborate structure' (LKZe), instead of smulkia-struktur-in-is, -e, which already exist in the aforesaid dictionaries. The Lithuanian language standardisers, as a rule, prefer shorter forms of borrowed adjectives (cf. Paulauskiene 2000: 118ff; for more see 3.3.1).
(23) Collocations with simplex nouns are also possible, cf. moraliska problema 'moral problem'.
(24) A preliminary list of possible Latvian examples of the second pattern has been kindly presented by Prof. Dr. Andra Kalnaca from University of Latvia.
(25) http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ushakov/778834 (Last accessed Jan. 2015).
(26) http://slovar.cc/rus/efremova-tolk/275056.html (Last accessed Jan. 2015).
(27) http://paronymonline.ru/%D0%9A/649 (Last accessed Jan. 2016). https://my-publication.ru/ru/community/comment/?idmain=8&idpost=269 (Last accessed Jan. 2016).
(28) These numbers show token frequency of adjectives in DLKT.
(29) http://dz.lki.lt/ (Last accessed Jan. 2016).
(30) The three meanings of sepouneckuu, -ar, -oe are listed above.
(31) Adverb-verb collocations are included in this number that shows the token frequency of a word. However, they are not investigated in this paper. The search in the NKRJa was done in the following way: the stems zepouck* and sepouyeck* were written in the search tool. Both adjective-noun and adverb-verb (e.g. sepoucku nosuo 'died in a heroic way') collocations were extracted from the corpus.
(32) Adverb-verb collocations (e.g. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'it was comfortable to live'; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'it was comfortable') are included in this number that shows token frequency of a word. However, they are not analysed in this paper.
(33) http://paronymonline.ru/ (Last accessed Jan. 2016).
(34) Boldface is used in the original by the author.
(35) The numbers indicated in brackets show the token frequency of a word.
(36) As regards English, see Footnote 18.
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|Author:||Inciuraite-Noreikiene, Lina; Stundzia, Bonifacas|
|Publication:||SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2016|
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