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Screening of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) Genotypes against Sucking Insect Pests under Natural Field Conditions.

Byline: _

: Abstract.- This study was conducted to examine the resistance in eight advance mungbean genotypes in comparison with two check varieties against sucking insect pests under natural field conditions at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Findings of the trial showed that none of the tested genotypes have complete resistance against sucking pests i.e., whiteflies, thrips and jassids. Comparison of resistance among the tested genotypes against whitefly showed that the lowest number of whiteflies per leaf (3.71.20) was observed in MH 3153, lower than those of both checks, whereas, the highest (111.53) was observed in MH 34143. Number of thrips per leaf was observed the lowest (41.00) and the highest (12.30.67) in cultivar MH 3153 and MH 34143, respectively. Similar population trend of jassid was observed with per leaf population of 1.2 and 3.3, the highest and the lowest in MH 3153 and AZRI2006, respectively. Among all the tested cultivars, MH 3153 gave the highest yield (438.7 g/plot) with 129 and 161% increase over check 1 and check 2, respectively. Therefore, genotypes which showed the highest resistanceagainst the sucking pests and tied with high grain yield could be used for direct release as variety or may be used in cross breeding programme to get improved resistant germplasm against sucking insects.

Key words: Mung bean, cultivars, sucking insect pests.

Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is an important pulse crop and a protein (22-24%) rich source (Nazir, 1994). It is a native to Indian subcontinent and mainly cultivated in China, India,Philippines, Burma, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. It is a short duration crop and is widely cultivated for seed, edible purpose and fits well in any cropping system. Mungbean is an important legume crop, fix the atmospheric nitrogen which becomes the source of fertilizer in the soil (Hafeez et al., 1988). After chickpea, mungbean is called as poor people diet owing to its protein nature and is meeting the major protein demand of the people (Shafique et al.,2009). Biomass of mungbean is a good source of fodder for animals and also used as green manuring to produce good quality organic matter in soil. It is grown on all types of soils in both rain fed and irrigated conditions of the country twice a year i.e., both in rabi and kharif seasons. During the year2012, mungbean was cultivated on an area of 13.6 thousand ha, with total production of 89.3 thousand tonnes (Anonymous, 2012) and its cultivated area and production has decreased to 4% compared to the previous years.Mungbean crop is vulnerable to differentspecies of insect pests. Attacks of insect pests on mungbean crop occurred at any stage from seedling to harvest with budding is the most preferred attractive stage to insects. There are 64 species of insects attacking on mungbean crop and among them sucking pests are the most notorious one (Lal,1985), these sucking insect pests includes whiteflies,jassids, and thrips (Khattak et al., 2004). In mungbean crop, whiteflies play a key role in the spread of mungbean yellow mosaic virus which is known as a serious disease of this crop (Akhtar et al., 2011, 2012). Heavy attack of whitefly cause the severe loss of cell sap of plants, make plants weakened and sickly black appearance to plants due to injection of body toxins of whitefly. Heavy infestation of jassid in mungbean causes leaves to turn brown, curling from the edges and ultimately dried the plants. In flowers, both nymph and adults of thrips nourish on pollen and scratch flower parts by sucking the plant sap causing ooze out of cell contents from the injured parts and consequently flower drop resulted in less pod formation. Different control strategies are in practice in the field for the control of insect pests of mungbean which mainly includes chemical insecticides and biocontrol agents. Among the insect control strategies, host plant resistance by the use of resistant varieties is an effective and safe strategy in pest management with no additional cost to the growers by the plantation of resistant cultivars.Previous workers like Chhabara and Kooner (1991), Sahoo and Hota (1991); Chhabra and Kooner (1993); Chhabara and Kooner (1994) have evaluated mungbean cultivars against their resistance to insect pests and screened a large numbers of mungbean genotypes for resistance/susceptibility against sucking pests. Naqvi et al. (1995) has tested 10 genotypes of mungbean against insects and found only two cultivars, M-8-20 and M-1030 resistant against insects compared to others. Khattak et al. (2004) has screened five mungbean varieties viz., NM 92, NM-98, NM-121-125, M-1 and NCM-2009 against sucking pests, whiteflies, jassid and thrips. It was observed that whitefly, jassid and thrips population was comparatively lower on NM-92 and NM-98 which enables to get higher yield compared to other tested varieties. Present study was therefore, carried out to screen eight advance genotypes of mungbean for their resistance against sucking insect pests under field conditions.

Materials and methodsThe present studies were conducted inexperimental field area of Plant Breeding and Genetics Division at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Eight advance mungbean genotypes/cultivars developed at NIAB viz., MH 3153, MH 5251, MH 5254, MH5255, MH 34143, MH 34144, MH 34164, MH34241 and two check varieties i.e., NM 2006(Check 1), AZRI 2006 (Check 2) were sown under natural field conditions. Experiment was planned in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates of each treatment. A plot size of 4.8 sq meters was maintained in each replicate of treatment with each row of 4 m length. Distance of 10 and 30 cm between the plants and rows were maintained, respectively. No plant protection measures were adopted throughout the crop growing period. Standard agronomic practices including hoeing, irrigations and fertilizers were carried out according to the crop requirements. Population of whiteflies, jassids and thrips were counted from per leaf basis of three mungbean plants by random selection from each replicate of the treatment. Plot yield (grams) of mungbean grains were measured from each plot of replicate. All the data were subjected to analyze statistically by MSTAC-C programme following Steel et al. (1997) and significance was applied to the genotypes by using Duncan's multiple range test. Standard error was calculated by Microsoft Excel.

Results and discussionResults showed significant variations in the population levels of whiteflies, thrips and jassids observed per leaf basis in different mungbean cultivars in response to yield of grains.Population of whitefly (number per leaf) demonstrates significant variations (Table I) among the tested cultivars (F = 3.67: df = 9; P = 0.0090). Population of whitefly (3.7 1.20) was observed the lowest on MH 3153, whereas, the highest (11) on MH 34143. Population of whitefly on other cultivars were observed 6, 8, 8.7, 9.7, 9.3, 6.7, 5.7 and 6 in MH 5251, MH 5254, MH 5255, MH 34144, MH34164, MH 34241, NM 2006 (Check 1) and AZRI2006 (Check 2), respectively. Among the tested cultivars, none showed complete resistance against whiteflies however, MH 3153 showed comparatively better resistance against sucking insects.Population###of###thrips###(numbers###per###leaf) showed significant variations (Table 1) among the tested cultivars (F = 12.57: df = 9; P = 0.0000). Population trend of thrips (4.0) observed the lowest on the MH 3153 whereas, the highest (12.3) on MH34143. Population of thrips on other lines wereobserved as 8.7, 5.3, 9.3, 7.7, 7.3, 9, 5.7 and 7.3 inMH 5251, MH 5254, MH 5255, MH 34144, MH34164, MH 34241, NM 2006 (Check 1) and AZRI2006 (Check 2), respectively. Complete resistance against thrips was not observed in any of the tested cultivar, except MH 3153 which showed comparatively better resistance among the tested genotypes.Trend of jassid population (numbers per leaf) has got significant variations (Table I) among the tested cultivars (F = 2.65: df = 9; P = 0.0000). The lowest population of jassid (1.2) observed on MH3153, whereas, the highest (3.3) on AZRI 2006(Check 2). On other genotypes, population of jassid

Table I.-###Average ten weeks population of insects, grain yield and yield difference over checks of mungbean cultivars.

###Insect population (No. per leaf)###Grain yield###Yield difference###Yield difference

###Genotypes###per plot###over check 1###over check 2

###Whiteflies###Thrips###Jassids

###(g)###(%)###(%)

MH 3153###3.71.20 d###4.01.00 e###1.20.44 ab###438.724.70 a###+129###+161

MH 5251###6.00.58 bcd###8.71.33 b###1.70.73 ab###171.79.85 bc###-10###+2

MH 5254###8.01.00 abc###5.30.67 de###1.50.76 ab###253.318.57 b###+32###+51

MH 5255###8.71.77 abc###9.31.20 b###2.50.29 ab###176.712.03 bc###-8###+5

MH 34143###11.01.53 a###12.30.67 a###2.60.98 ab###148.010.55 c###-23###-12

MH 34144###9.71.20 ab###7.71.45 bc###2.51.04 ab###179.37.54 bc###-7###+7

MH 34164###9.30.67 abc###7.31.20 bcd###1.91.07 ab###191.010.16 bc###-0.5###+14

MH 34241###6.71.77 bcd###9.01.53 b###1.81.09 ab###181.74.34 bc###-5###+8

NM 2006 (Check 1)###5.70.67 cd###5.71.20 cde###1.40.45 ab###192.017.92 bc###-###-

AZRI 2006 (Check 2)###6.01.16 bcd###7.31.20 bcd###3.30.33 a###168.014.06 bc###-###-

was recorded as 1.7, 1.5, 2.5, 2.6, 2.5, 1.9, 1.8, and1.4 in MH 5251, MH 5254, MH 5255, MH 34143,MH 34144, MH 34164, MH 34241 and NM 2006 (Check 1), respectively. None of the tested genotype showed complete resistance against jassid, while MH 3153 observed as comparatively better resistant cultivar among the tested ones.Response of mungbean grains yield (g/plot)showed significant variations (Table I) among the tested genotypes (F = 19.26; df = 9; P = 0.000). The highest grain yield (438.7 g) was observed in MH3153, and it was 129 and 161.3 times increasedyield as compared to NM 2006 (Check 1) and AZRI2006 (Check 2), respectively. While, the lowest (148.0) in MH 34143 which were 23 and 12 times lower when compared with two checks. Yield performance of other genotypes was observed as intermediate when compared to that of two checks. Cultivar MH 5254 yielded 253.3 g which were 32 and 51 times more as compared to check 1 and check 2. Among the tested genotypes MH 3153 and MH 5254 are better genotypes with low insect population and high grain yield as compared to other tested genotypes. So these lines can be used in further breeding programmes towards evaluations of new varieties with higher resistance against insect pests.Our results in comparison to work of the previous researchers (Sahoo and Hota, 1991; Chhabra and Kooner, 1991; Fargali et al., 1996) showed that the findings regarding screening of mungbean cultivars against sucking pests are in the line of the results that we have attained in our study. Our present findings are in accordance to the results reported by Naqvi et al. (1995) who have screened ten cultivar of mungbean and found none of them resistant against sucking pests as we have in our study. Consistent results to our findings has been reported by Khattak et al. (2004) who has screened five cultivars of mungbean viz., NM 92, NM 98, NM 121-125, M-1 and NCM-209 for resistance against whiteflies, jassid and thrips and found none has complete resistance. Whereas, mungbean varieties, NM-92 and NM-98 showed comparatively better resistant cultivars regarding low mean population of whiteflies as compared to other tested varieties. Results of the present findings lead towards a conclusion that among the tested cultivars, MH 3153 was found least affected by sucking insects and gave the higher yield with an increase of 129 and 161% over check 1 and check 2, respectively. So, cultivar MH 3153 and others which showed different level of resistance against the sucking pests associated with high grain yield could be used for direct release as a variety or may be used in cross breeding programmes to get improved germplasm.ReferencesAkhtar, K.P., Sarwar, G., Abbas, G., Asghar, M.J. and Hamed, M., 2012. Intl. J. Pest Manag., 58: 139-145.Akhtar, K.P., Sarwar, G., Abbas, G., Asghar, M.J., Sarwar, N. and Shah, T.M., 2011. Crop Protection, 30: 1202-1209.Anonymous, 2012. Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan. Govt. Pakistan, Economic trade and investment wing, Islamabad, pp. 23.Chhabra, K.S. and Kooner, B.S., 1991. Lugume Res., 14: 175-184.Chhabra, K.S. and Kooner, B.S., 1993. Pest Manag. Econ.Zool., 6: 215-218.Chhabra, K.S. and Kooner, B.S., 1994. Pest Manag. Econ.Zool., 2; 11-14.Fargali, M.A., Ali, A.G. and Hussein, H.A., 1996. Assiut J. agric. Sci., 27: 125-134.Hafeez, F.Y., Aslam, Z. and Malik, K.A., 1988. Plant and Soil,106: 3-8.Khattak, M.K., Ali, S. and Chishti, J.I., 2004. Pak. Ent., 26: 9-12.Lal, S.S., 1985. Trop. Pest Manag., 31: 105-114.Naqvi, S.H., Talpur, M.A., Rustamani, M.A., Khan, M.M. andHussain, T., 1995. Proc. Pakistan Congr. Zool., 15:247-251.Nazir, M.S., 1994. Crop Production. NBF, Islarnabad, pp. 51. Sahoo, B.K. and Hota, A.K., 1991. Madras agric. J., 78: 84-86.Shafique, M., Nadeem, S., Hamed, M., Atta, B.M. and Shah, T.M., 2009. Pakistan J. Zool., 41: 277-280.Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. and Dickey, D.A., 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics. A biometrical approach.3rd ed. McGraw Hill Inc., New York.

Plant Parasitic and Virus Vector Nematodes Associated with Vineyards in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

_: Abstract.- Grapevines is host for many plant parasitic nematode species and virus transmission species. Surveys were undertaken in 15 vineyards in Turkey. Samples were taken from each vineyard older than 10 years, from depth of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm. Totally 300 subsamples were examined. In this study, 22 species were identified belonging to 16 genus within Tylenchida, Aphelenchida, Dorylaimida and Triplonchida orders from soil and root samples of vine (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Central Anatolia Region (Nevsehir, Karaman, Konya, Isparta and Burdur provinces). Malenchus fusiformis, Aphelenchoides clarus, A. confusus, Rotylenchus (R.) colbrani, Xiphinema diversicaudatum and Trichodorus similis were found for the first time in Turkey. The species most frequently encountered were X. pachtaicum and Helicotylenchus crenacauda.

Key words: Plant parasitic nematodes, virus vector nematodes, vineyards.

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the most extensive fruit crop grown worldwide. Approximately 7,086,022 hectares of grapevine are grown in the worldwide and Turkey where takes the 5th order for grapevine growing areas in the world covers 472,545 hectares mainly in Aegean, Southeast Anatolia and Central Anatolia region (Anonymous, 2013)Crop losses caused by plant parasitic nematodes are increasing in Turkey, but the economic significance of the damage caused by these parasites is not well-understood or recognised by growers. Basic information about plant parasitic nematodes, their host associations, and occurrence in different localities in Turkey was recently reviewed by Kepenekci (2012), who listed 240 nematode species associated from different localities in the country.Grapevines are hosts for many nematode species. The most serious direct damage is caused by Meloidogyne, Xiphinema and Pratylenchus spp (Brown et al., 1993). Less important species are Criconemoides, Paratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Rotylenchus, Longidorus, Paralongidorus and Trichodorus in the world grapevine areas (Boubals and Dalmasso, 1964; Raski and Krusberg, 1984; Tacconi and Mancini, 1987; Raski, 1988). One of the most serious problem is grapevine fanleaf nepovirus, transmitted by Xiphinema index. This problem is covered in the section on nematode transmitted viruses. However, little information is available on the plant parasitic nematodes associated with grapevine in Turkey and no information is available for Central Anotolia.Studies associated with Xiphinema species were carried out in Turkey (Erturk and Ozkut, 1974; Arinc, 1982; Elekcioglu, 1992) while studies related to other virus vector nematodes i.e. Longidorus, Paratrichodorus and Trichodorus species were very few (Ozturk and Enneli, 1994). The Longidorus, Paratrichodorus and Trichodorus species are the substantial virus vector nematodes as they carry viral diseases.The first detection of virus vector nematodesin Turkey was initiated with detection of X. index and Longidorus sp. of vine short virus (Kaskaloglu and Turkmenoglu, 1965; Kaskaloglu, 1965). In another study, X. index and X. americanum were detected to be dominant in Izmir vineyard (Yuksel,1966). In our country, X. mediterraneum was firstly detected in the grapevine sites by Arinc (1982). According to the statement of the analyst, Tarjan (1969), in another study on different populations of X. americanum, the analyses were performed in the populations available in Adapazari, SAlke, Amasya and Gaziantep, some cities of Turkey. Some researchers stressed out the fact that the species defined as X. americanum and detected in some Mediterranean countries should be a separate species (Dalmasso and Younes, 1970; Coomans and Loof, 1969). Lamberti and Martelli (1971) claimed that this species should be X. mediterraneum. It is claimed that this species was the same as the one previously detected in the surveys on Aegean and Marmara and defined as X. americanum and great possibly this species was X. mediterraneum (Arinc,1982). It is apparent that different and similar nematode was confused by another nematode belonging to X. americanum of which presence is still not known in Turkey and Europe. The presence of this species is not known in our country (Kepenekci, 2012).The first study held on nematode-virus relations in Turkey carried out by Arinc (1982) was associated with "Aegean Region vineyard sites in Xiphinema species (Nematoda: Longidoridae), as well as their separation, hosts and damages". In this research, the studies were performed between 1971-1974 in order for detecting the Xiphinema speciesassociated with nematodes in Aegean Region including Izmir, Manisa, Balikesir, Canakkale, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Usak cities. According to the results of the study, X. turcicum, X. mediterraneum, X. index, X. italiae, X. brevicolle, X. ingens and X. pyrenaicum were detected. In addition to morphological and morphometric properties, synonyms, variations detected, the separation in research area, and in literature as well as habitats are demonstrated. Of this X. index and X. italiae species are virus vector nematodes. These two viruses are available in the vineyards of our country where Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus are also available.Grapevines are hosts for many plant parasitic nematode species and some of the species can transmit viruses. In this study, virus vector nematode species of Dorylaimida in grapevines growing areas of The Central Anatolia of Turkey were examined considering their two main aspects, namely faunistic and taxonomic.Material and methodsSoil samples and grapevine roots were collected from vineyards of five provinces in the Central Anatolia Region during July and August2004-2005. Fifteen vineyards, older than ten years,from Nevsehir, Karaman, Konya, Burdur and Isparta provinces were sampled (Fig. 1). Soil samples were collected with a spade or a 70 mm auger (800-1500 cm3) from depths of 0-30 cm and30-60 cm. Ten subsamples were taken from each vineyard and each depth. Totally 300 subsamples were collected. Root samples were collected from ten vine plants in each vineyard (approximately 50 gram of roots for each sample).In laboratory studies, sieve and funnelmethods were used to obtaining active nematodes from soil (Hooper, 1986a). Incubation method was used to extract the nematodes from plant roots (Young, 1954). For identification, nematodes were fixed according to De Grisse (1969). The slides were prepared by the paraffin ring method (Hooper,1986b). Taxonomic status was given according toHunt (1993) and Siddiqi (2000).

Results and discussionTwenty two species were identified belonging to###16###genera###within###the###orders###Tylenchida, Aphelenchida, Dorylaimida and Triplonchida. Most of them are new records for vineyards in Turkey. Malenchus fusiformis (Thorne and Malek); Aphelenchoides clarus Thorne and Malek, A. confusus Thorne and Malek, Rotylenchus (R.) colbrani Brzeski and Choi; Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky) and Trichodorus similis Seinhorst were found for the first time in the nematofauna of Turkey. The species most frequently encountered were X. diversicaudatum and Helicotylenchus crenacauda (Table I).Root-knot nematodes occurring in vineyardsin some provinces of Turkey (Erturk and Ozkut,1974; Lamberti et al., 1994) were not found in the present survey. X. index, the most important nematode species in vineyards was not also found in the present survey.A preliminary experiment was undertaken toevaluate the changes in nematode levels by soil depth. Soil samples from 15 vineyards of five different provinces were taken at depths 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm. Paratylenchus (P.) variabilis, Filenchus filiformis, Safianema lutonense, Rotylenchus (R.) colbrani, Ditylenchus destructor, Helicotylenchus canadensis, H. pseudorobustus, Boleodorus###thylactus,###Merlinius###brevidens, A. confusus, Scutylenchus stegus, S. tartuensis were

Table I.-###Plant parasitic and virus vector nematodes###

###associated with grapevine in the Central###

###Anatolia Region of Turkey.

Nematode species (Family)###Distributionx###

Filenchus filiformis (Butschli) Meyl (Tylenchidae)###k(1)

Boleodorus thylactus Thorne (Tylenchidae)###k(1)

Malenchus (M.) fusiformis (Thorne and Malek)###n(2)###

Siddiqi (Tylenchidae) y###

Ditylenchus destructor Thorne (Anguinidae)###k(1)

Safianema lutonense Siddiqi (Anguinidae)###n(1)###

Helicotylenchus canadensis Wassem###n(1)###

(Hoplolaimidae)###

H. crenacauda Sher (Hoplolaimidae)###b(2), k(2), i(1)

H. pseudorobustus (Steiner) Golden (Hoplolaimidae)###n(1)###

Rotylenchus (R.) colbrani Brzeski and Choi###n(1)###

(Hoplolaimidae) y

Pratylenchus scribneri Steiner in Sherbakoff and###n(2)

Stanley (Pratylenchidae)

Merlinius brevidens (Allen) Siddiqi###n(1)###

(Telotylenchidae)

Scutylenchus stegus (Thorne and Malek) Siddiqi###n(1)###

(Telotylenchidae)###

S. tartuensis (Krall) Siddiqi (Telotylenchidae)###o(1)

Paratylenchus (P.) variabilis Raski###k(1)

(Paratylenchidae)###

Aphelenchus avenae Bastian (Aphelenchidae)###n(1), k(2)###

Aphelenchoides clarus Thorne and Malek###n(1), k(1)

(Aphelenchoididae) y

A. confusus Thorne and Malek (Aphelenchoididae) y###k(1)###

Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky) Thorne###n(2), o(1), i(1)

(Longidoridae) y

X. pachtaicum (Tulaganov) Kirjanova###n(1), k(1)###

(Longidoridae)###

Longidorus elongatus (de Man) Micoletzky###n(1)###

(Longidoridae)

L. attenuatus Hooper (Longidoridae)###n(1)

Trichodorus similis Seinhorst (Trichodoridae) y###n(1),

###i(1)

found in one vineyard and same soil depth 0-30 cm. Aphelenchoides clarus a vineyard in two different provinces and same soil depth 0-30 cm. On the other hand Malenchus (M.) fusiformis and Paratylenchus scribneri in two same vineyards at depths 0-30 and30-60 cm. Aphelenchus avenae was at soil depth of0-30 cm. H. crenacauda was at soil depth of 30-60cm unlike other species of Helicotylenchus. Xiphinema diversicaudatum, X. pachtaicum, Trichodorus similis were found in more than two province and vineyard and the same soil depth of30-60 cm. Unlike other virus transmission species, Longidorus elongatus, L. attenuatus were at soil depth of 0-30 cm and in one vineyard.A majority of the genera were found in higher densities at depth of 0-30 cm from other depth. The highest density of the virus transmission species, Xiphinema and Trichodorus were at soil depth of30-60 cm. Plant parasitic nematode species populations were also higher at the shallower layerthan at 30-60 cm; however, this did not apply to allnematodes, for example, root lesion nematode(Pratylenchus scribneri).The present study indicates that severalnematodes are associated with vineyards in TurkeyHowever, more investigations are required to fully elucidate the role of plant parasitic nematodes ingrapevine production in TurkeyAcknowledgmentsThis study is part of a research project "Thevineyards of Central Anatolia Region Integrated Pest Management Research, Practice and TrainingProject" TAGEM/BS/96/06/09/502, supported by the General Directorate of Agricultural Researchand Policies (GDAR), Food, Agriculture andLivestock Ministry.ReferencesAnonymous, 2013. www.fao.org. FAOSTAT- Crop Production, reached in February, 21, 2013.Coomans, A. and Loof, P.A.A., 1969. Nematologica, 15: 293-294.Dalmasso, A. and Younes, T., 1970. Nematologica, 16: 51-54. De Grisse, A., 1969. Meded. Ritksfac. Landwet. Gent., 34: 351-359Elekcioglu, I.H., 1992. Plits, 10: 120 pp.Erturk, H. and Ozkut, S., 1974. IV. Bilim Kongresi, 1-7.Hooper, D.J., 1986a. In: Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes (ed. J.F. Southey). Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, pp. 5-30.Hooper, D.J., 1986b. In: Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes (ed. J.F. Southey). Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, pp. 59-80.Hunt, D.J., 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: Their Systematics and Bionomics. CAB International, pp. 352.Kaskaloglu, N., 1965. Zirai Mucadele Haberler Bulteni, Yil 4,Sayi 81.Kaskaloglu, N. and Turkmenoglu, H., 1965. Tarim Bakanligi, Izmir, Bornova Zirai Mucadele Enstitusu Yayini.Kepenekci, I., 2012. Nematoloji. Egitim, Yayim ve Yayimlar Dairesi Baskanligi, Tarim Bilim Serisi Yayin No: 3 (2012/3), 1155 pp.Lamberti, F. and Martelli, G., 1971. Nematologica, 17: 75-81. Lamberti, F., Ozaslan, M., Catalano, L., Elia, F. and Kaskavalci,G., 1994. Proceedings of the 9th Congress of theMediterranean Phytopathological Union, pp. 411-412.Ozturk, G. and Enneli, S., 1994. Proceedings of the 9th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, pp. 537, 538.Raski, D.J. and Krusberg, L.R., 1984. In: Plant and insect nematodes (ed. W.R. Nickle). New York, Marcel Dekker, pp. 457-506.Raski, D.J., 1988. In: Compendium of grape diseases (eds. R.C.Pearson and A.C. Goheen). Minesota, USA, AmericanPhytopathological Society, pp. 55-59.Siddiqi, M.R., 2000. Tylenchida parasites of plants and insects.CABI Publishing, UK, 833 pp.Tacconi, R. and Mancini, G., 1987. Informatore Agraria, 43:69-75.Tarjan, A.C., 1969. Nematologica, 15: 241-252. Young, T.W., 1954. Pl. Dis. Rep., 38:794-795.Yuksel, H.S. 1966. Plant Protection Bulletin, 6: 31-34.

Prevalence and Chemotherapy of Theileriosis in Clinical Affected Equines of Lahore District, Pakistan - A Review of 300 Cases

_: Abstract.- The prevalence of theileriosis in clinical affected equines of Lahore district was examined and the efficacy of three treatments measured. A total of 300 blood samples (horses, 100; donkeys, 100; mules,100) were collected from equines and examined microscopically; Overall, 174 (58%) were positive for Theileria equi whereas prevalencein horses, mules and donkeys was 54%, 64% and 56%, respectively. The final efficacy of treatment with Imidocarb dipropionate, Buparvaquone and Aak (Calotropis procera) was 91.70%, 66.70% and 58.30%, respectively, making Imidocarb dipropionate the most effective treatment. This is the first report of Theileria equi infection in equines of Pakistan.

Key words: Calotropis procera, donkeys,Theileria equi, Imidocarb dipropionate

Theileriosis is economically significant disease in numerous countries of Asia and Africa. Losses in terms of vaccination and treatment cost, decrease in live weight of sub-clinical cases, increase in inter calving interval, mortality and delay in the age of maturity of affected female animals have been reported (Gharbi et al., 2006). Theileriosis effected animals show petechial and echymotic hemorrhages on serosal surfaces of internal organs and serous fluid is found in body cavities. Edematous and hemorrhagic enlarged lymph nodes are seen in case of acute infection. But in chronic case shrunken lymph nodes are found.The enlargement of spleen and liver is also found. The gastro intestinal tract shows signs of hemorrhagic enteritis especially in small intestine and abomasums region. Severe pulmonary edema is often found during postmortem (De-Waal and Heerden, 2004). Donkeys usually remain asymptomatic carriers with positive antibody titer throughout life (Kumar et al., 2009). The animals that recover from infection act as carriers of the parasite for several years, becoming reservoirs for vector ticks (CacciA et al., 2000). Incidence of theileriosis can be controlled by acaricides and tick control methods. Diagnosis of theileriosis can be made by direct microscopy of stained thick and thin blood smears slides (De Waal and Heerden, 2004). In view the importance and utilization of equines in Pakistan and the significant losses rendered by theileriosis due to improper diagnosis and expensive treatment of theileriosis, the present study was designed to find prevalence of theileriosis and evaluate the efficacy parameters of allopathic and herbal drugs under field conditions in equines.

Materials and methodsA total of 300 equines (horses, 100; donkeys,100; mules, 100) suspected for theileriosis were included. Intermittent fever, loss of appetite, anemia, loss of weight, dyspnea, pale mucous membrane, jaundice and recumbency were the main clinical signs showed by Theileria infected equines. In severe cases petechial hemorrhages and haemoglobinuria were also observed in some clinically positive animals. Data on species, age, sex, clinical history and treatment protocols were recorded. Blood samples were collected from ear tip puncture and Jugular venipuncture and thin blood smear slides were prepared by using Giemsa's stain. T. equi was identified microscopically by their morphological characteristics as described by standard key. Thirty six equines (horses, 12; donkeys, 12; mules, 12) positive for theileriosis were divided into three groups (A-C), each group comprised 4 horses, 4 donkeys and 4 mules. The equines of group A were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol(R), ICI, Pakistan) at the dose of2 mg/kg BW, i/m. The equines of group B were treated with buparvaquone (Butalex(R), ICI, Pakistan) at dose rate of 2 mg/kg BW, i/m, while the group C was treated with Calotropis procera (Aak) stem, flowers and buds orally in dried powder form at the dose rate of 0.3 mg/kg BW, divided into eight equal doses on alternative days (Durrani et al.,2009). Efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and blood smear examination on day 2, 4, 6 and 10 post-medication.Data on prevalence of theileriosis was estimated by Pearson's chi-square test for significance using statistical software package STATA 9.1 (College Station TA-77845, USA).

Results and discussionOf 300 animals 58% were positive for theileriosis when comma or pear shaped T. equi were observed inside the RBCs. These morphological observations coincide with the studies of Rashid et al. (2009). Out of 300 animals54% horses, 64% mules, and 56% donkeys were found positive for theileriosis (pless than 0.05, Table I). Most of the equines under study belonged to the poor farmers who were rearing these on poor management and prophylactic measures. Moreover, higher temperature that characterizes the current study area might be another reason of higher prevalence. Garba et al. (2011) reported overall20.1% equines prevalence of piroplasmosis in Nigerstate, amongst which infection rate was 80.4% due to T. equi and 19.6% due to Babesia caballi. Similarly Nagore et al. (2004) observed 9 out of 24 horses positive (37.5%) for T. equi through microscopy. Contrary to this, Ibrahim et al. (2011) reported 18%, Moretti et al. (2010) reported 3.1%, Baldani et al. (2010) 3.52%, Sevinc et al. (2008)0.62% and Ruegg et al. (2006) 6.7% prevalence in equines. These low values of prevalence were probably due to the carrier stage of infection or good management practices or season of low tick infestation. The sex wise data showed higher prevalence in males equines compared to female (Table I, Pless than 0.05), whereas more prevalence (66.66%) was observed in equines having age less than 5 years compared to age =5 having 61.88% prevalence except in donkeys who showed more prevalence (59.42%) in =5 years adult donkeys (pless than 0.05, Table I). These results correspond closely to the findings of Al-saad (2009) who found 85.7% prevalence of T. equi in foals aged 1 to 8 months.

Table I.-###Sex and age wise prevalence in equines.

Age groups###Horses (n=100)###Mules (n=100)###Donkeys (n=100)

###Male###Female###Total###Male###Female###Total###Male###Female###Total

###(%)###(%)###(%)###(%)###(%)###(%)###(%)###(%)###(%)

less than 5 years###04/06###06/10###10/16###05/05###04/04###09/09###09/17###06/14###15/31

###(66.60)###(60.00)###(62.50)###(100.0)###(100.0)###(100.0)###(52.94)###(42.86)###(48.39)

5 years###18/38###26/46###44/84###51/68###04/23###55/91###39/62###02/07###41/69

###(47.37)###(56.52)###(52.38)###(75.00)###(17.39)###(60.44)###(62.90)###(28.57)###(59.42)

Total###22/44###32/56###54/100###55/73###09/27###64/100###48/79###08/21###56/100

###(50.00)###(57.14)###(54.00)###(75.34)###(33.33)###(64.00)###(60.76)###(38.10)###(56.00)

Table II.-###Efficacy of various drugs against Theileria equi in equines.

###Efficacy (%)

Drugs names

###Horses (n=4)###Mules (n=4)###Donkeys (n=4)###Overall (n=12)

Imidocarb dipropionate###3(75%)###4(100%)###4(100%)###11(91.7%)

Buparvaquone###2(50%)###3(75%)###3(75%)###08(66.7%)

Aak (Calotropis procera)###3(75%)###2(50%)###2(50%)###07(58.3%)

Table II shows the comparative therapeutic efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate, buparvaquone and C. procera (Aak). The imidocarb dipropionate showed higher efficacy (91.70%) followed by buparvaquone (66.70%) and C. procera (58.30%) in equines. Results regarding the efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate correlate with the findings of Correa et al. (2005), Butler et al. (2008), Rashid et al. (2009), Adaszek et al. (2011) who reported greater efficacy of this drug against equine theleriosis. Bruning (1996) also found buparvaquone as an effective drug against T. equi infection along with imidocarb dipropionate. Kumar et al. (2003) reported no efficacy of buparvaquone against T. equi infection. This contradiction in efficacy of buparvaquone in equines might be due to the drug resistance of organism, difference in strains of parasite or environmental conditions. It is concluded that the equine theileriosis is highly prevalent in the area under study and imidocarb dipropionate is the most effective drug against this malady.

ReferencesAdaszek, L., Gorna, M.J., Krzysiak, M., Adaszek, M., Garbal, M. and Winiarczyk, S., 2011. Wiadom. Parazytol., 57:2126.Al-Saad, K.M., 2009. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 8: 2585-9.Baldani, C.D., Nakaghi, A.C.H. and Machado, R.Z., 2010. Parasitol. Vet. Jaboticabal., 19: 228-232. Bruning, A., 1996. Br. Vet. J., 152: 139-151.Butler, C.M., Nijhof, A.M., Van Der Kolk, J.H., De Haseth, O.B., Taoufik, A., Jongejan, F. and Houwers, D.J.,2008. Vet. Parasitol., 151: 320-322.Caccio, S., Camma, C., Onuma, M. and Severini, C., 2000. Int.J. Parasitol., 30: 1181-1185.Correa, R.R., Roncati, N.V. and Bonagura, G., 2005. A. Hora.Vet., 24: 53-58.De-Waal, D.T. and Heerden, J.V., 2004. In: Infectious diseases of livestock, 2nd edn. (eds. J.A.W. Coetzer and R.C. Tustin) Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 425-433.Durrani, A.Z., Maqbool, A., Mahmood, N., Kamal, N. andShakoori, A.R., 2009. Pakistan J. Zool., 41: 389-397.Garba, U.M., Sackey, A.K.B., Tekdek, L.B., Agbede, R.I.S. andBisalla, M., 2011. J. Vet. Adv., 1: 11-15.Gharbi, M., Sassi, L., Dorchies, P. and Darghouth, M.A., 2006.Vet. Parasitol., 137: 231-241.Ibrahim, A.K., Gamil, I.S., Ad-Elbaky, A.A., Hussein, M.M. and Tohamy, A.A., 2011. Glob. Vet., 7: 201-210.Kumar, S., Gupta, A.K., Pal, Y. and Dwivedi, S.K., 2003. J.Vet. med. Sci., 65, 1171-1177.Kumar, S., Kumar, R. and Sugimoto, C., 2009. Jpn. J. Vet. Res.,56: 71-80.Moretti, A., Mangili, V., Salvatori, R., Maresca, V., Scoccia, E., Torina, M.1., Gabrielli, S., Maria, P. and Tampieri, P.M., 2010. Vet. J., 184: 346350.Nagore, D., Garcia-Sanmartin, J., Garcia-Perez, A.L., Juste, R.A. and Hurtado, A., 2004. Vet. Parasitol., 123: 41 Rashid, A., Mubarak, A. and Hussain, A., 2009. Vet. Ital., 45:391-395.Ruegg, S.R., Torgerson, P.R., Doherr, M.G., Deplazes, P., Bose, R., Robert, N. and Walzer, C., 2006. J. Wildl. Dis., 42: 518-526.Sevinc, F., Maden, M., Kumas, C., Sevinc, M. and Derinbay, E.O., 2008. Vet. Parasitol., 156: 173177.

A Comparative Study of Wool Quality of Sheep Breeds in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

By: Akbar Khan1, and A. N. Naqvi _: Abstract.- Livestock in Gilgit Baltistan contributes significantly to the nutritional requirements and economy of the people of the area. Sheep is a sacrificial animal and very important to many communities as it fits better to environmental and socioeconomic circumstances of the area. The locally made woolen products from sheep such as shuqa, socks, blankets, shawls, gloves, jerseys and woolen caps are major source of income generation. In order to compare the wool quality of sheep, samples were collected from various breeds of sheep from all over Gilgit Baltistan. Average fibre diameter (m) was found to be30.2213.68, 29.5615.09, 35.4215.30,30.3913.90, 36.7221.95, 28.4315.16,30.6115.27 and medulation (%) 28.83, 26.19,32.49, 23.14, 39.90, 20.62 and 22.94 for Koh-e- Ghezir, Batherathi, Gojali, Baltistani, Diameri, Gilgiti and Astori breeds, respectively. Information has been provided about the indigenous woolen products, raw materials and their market prices based on a survey of the three markets of Gilgit.

Key words: Sheep, wool quality, medulation, wool fibre diameter.Sheep are the major source of revenue for over a million livestock farmers in Pakistan as it fits better than other livestock to environmental and socioeconomic circumstances (Khan et al., 2007). Goat and sheep are multipurpose animals which provide hair, wool, meat and milk, goat and sheep meat is the major source of animal protein for the people of our country (Nasrullah et al,.2013). The population of sheep in Pakistan is about 27.8 million (Economic Survey of Pakistan 2009-10) and the annual contribution of wool in livestock products is42 thousand tons. However, an estimated increase of41% in sheep population in the last 20 years has notproportionally corresponded with increased productivity. The major factors being lack of selective breeding for improvement, and poor management, nutrition and disease control (Qureshi and Ghaffar, 2002).There are 31 breeds of sheep in Pakistan; the most important are 'Baltistani', 'Bibrik','Cholistani', 'Kajli' and 'Lohi', or salt range (Isani and Baloch, 1996). Sheep are generally raised in mixed flocks with goats, though separate sheep flocks are also raised. Besides meat (mutton), almost all sheep breeds produce coarse type wool. The difference in fleece type/yields results from variation within and between breeds under the influence of climate, nutrition, wool grease andforeign matter (Abbas et al., 2012). Wool from breeds such as Kaghani and Kari is known to be finer than the others but still not fine enough to meet the domestic needs of fine wool and long fibre, hence wool export from Pakistan is limited ( Khan et al., 2007).The Gilgit-Baltistan spans an area of some72,496 square kilometers, bordering China, Afghanistan, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and India (Fig. 1). The area is important globally due to its strategic position. The woolen products such as shuqa, socks, blankets, shawls, gloves, jerseys and woolen caps are major sources of income in the region and most of the people are directly or indirectly connected with woolen product business. Seven main sheep breeds are present in Gilgit- Baltistan, namely Diameri, Astori, Gilgiti, Baltistani, Gojali, Koh-i-Ghezir and kali breed. The last breed being found mainly in upper areas of Chilas Tehsil close to Babuser pass next to Kaghan Naran valley of KPK. Since no report is available on the quality of the wool in the region, this study aims to provide baseline data on two quality parameters (fiber diameter and average medulation) of wool in local breeds and on current monetary value of raw wool and wool products originating from different wool production areas in Gilgit-Baltistan.Materials and methodsWool samples were collected from 300 adultanimals from 60 flocks in seven districts of GilgitBaltistan and were analyzed for their quality attributes. Wool samples were taken from 5x5 cm2on the mid side of each animal and were kept inenvelopes labeled with the registration ID of the animal. Five samples were randomly selected from each herd and subsequently at least 40 fibres were taken incidentally from each randomly selected sample. The wool testing was done in the wool testing lab of National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad. The wool fibers were virtually observed and counted with the help of a projection microscope at 500 power magnification. The fiber diameter was measured in accordance with the standard protocol suggested by Von Bergen (1963). The visual subjectively and benzol test were used to separate the true wool and medullated fiber. In parallel, to determine the impact of local woolenproduct business, information on material, market prices of raw wool and woolen products was collected by interview in the three markets of Gilgit city.

Results and discussionThe quality parameters of wool of sheep fromGilgit-Baltistan are presented in Table I. The average wool diameter ranges from median28.4315.16 m (Gilgiti), 29.5615.09 m(Batherathi), 30.2213.68 m (Koh-e-Ghizar),30.3913.90 m (Baltistani) to coarse wool35.4215.30 m (Gojali) and 36.7221.95 m(Diameri breed). The quality of the wool is determined by fibre diameter, yield and staple length. Mean fiber diameter is the single most important quality character of wool and is the driver of its monetary value (Bray, 1955; Von Bergen,1963; Lang, 1964; Wan, 1970; Hunter and Gee,1980). The wool ranging from 12-24.5 m isdeemed fine, 24.5-31.5 m is medium and 35.5 mless than is coarse (Anonymous, 2013). Wool thinner than25 m is used for garments while coarse grades areused for out wears or rugs.

Table I.-###Wool diameter (m) and modulation (%) in seven sheep breeds found in the Gilgit- Baltistan region of Pakistan.

Breed###Location###wool diameter Medulation Medulation

Koh-e-###Ghezir,###Medium###30.2213.68###28.83

Batherathi###Ghezir###Medium###29.5615.09###26.19

Gojali###Hunza###Coarse###35.4215.30###32.49

Baltistani###Baltistan###Medium###30.3913.90###23.14

Diameri###Diamer###Coarse###36.7221.95###39.90

Gilgiti###Gilgit###Medium###28.4315.16###20.62

Astori###Astore###Medium###30.6115.27###22.94

Bhasin and Desai (1965) studied the wool quality of the Chokla breed, which shows diameter of 28.220.20m and medulation 24.010.62%. The present study showed similarity in fibre diameter and, on average, higher medulation as compared to the Chokla breed, which is perhaps a fine carpet wool breed. Food and Agriculture Organization (1982) reported that the Nali breed,which is good carpet-quality wool breed, hasdiameter and medulation of 34.920.69m and30.740.40%, respectively. Similar wool diameterand medulation values were found in sheep Hunza- Nagir and Diamer breeds (Table I). According to Kushwaha et al. (1999) the average fibre diameter and medulation in six monthly growths reported in Munjal sheep were 51.180.97m and 64.3741% respectively, while fibre diameter and medulation reported by FAO (1982) on sheep breeds of India (Marwari, Magra, Jaisal Meri, Pugal and Malpura) were 36.930.16 m, 65.181.66%, 32.450.35m, 48.290.39%, 39.12.76 m, 64.13.1%,35.151.00 m, 61.86%, 41.950.37 m, 71.84%, respectively. The present study suggests that sheep breeds found in Gilgit-Baltistan have medium fine wool which is the best for carpet production. The medulation seen in the present study (Table I) showed greater deviation from values reported by FAO (1982).The present study reveals that sheep found in Diamer and Gojal (Hunza Nagar) produce coarse wool with higher diameter and medulation than the rest of the districts under study. Overall, investigated beeds showed close resemblance in their fibre diameter and greater diversity in the medulation property of the fibre, with lower modulation in Gilgit, Astore, Baltistan and Ghezir districts. Fleece weight is around 1.5 kg per shearing with two shearing a year in March/April and September/ October for all the breeds. The wool products play a key role in economic development of the people of Gilgit-Baltistan. Table II shows the prices of different products (thread, pattu, coat, caps and shuga) which are usually available in the market.

ConclusionThis study has provided baseline information on wool quality of different breeds of the area.

AcknowledgementsWe appreciate the cooperation of Dr.Fateullah Khan and his team for his cooperation in testing the wool samples at wool testing lab of National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad. ReferencesAbbas, R.Z., Iqbal, Z. and Saleemi, K., 2012. Grading and marketing of wool, http://www.pakissan.com/english/ allabout/crop/cotton/grading.and.marketing.of.wool.ht Bray, R.J., 1955. Wool characteristics in relation to manufacturers' requirements. International Wool Secretariat, London.Bhasin, N.R. and Desai, R.N., 1965. Studies on factors affecting the characters concerning 1965 quality of wool fibre inSurvey of Pakistan, 2010-09. Ministry of Food andAgriculture Federal Bureau of StatisticsFood and Agriculture Organization. 1982. FAO ProductionYearbook. Rome.Hunter, L. and Gee, E., 1980. The effects of staple crimp, resistance to compression and fiber diameter and length characteristics on the physical properties of wool worsted yarns. Proc. 6th Quin. Int. Wool Text. Res. Conf., Pretoria, South Africa, IIL327.Isani, G.B. and Baloch, M. N., 1996. Sheep and goat breed ofPakistan, Karachi Press CorporationKushwaha, B.P., Riyazuddin, Singh, R.N. and Parthasarathy, S.,1999. Anim. Genet. Resour. Inform., 25: 27-31Lang, W.R., 1964. The technical relevance of wool quality.Wool Technol. Sheep Breed, 11:8Nasrullah, Abdullah. M. and Baber, M.E., 2013. Pakistan J.Zool., 45:107-111Qureshi, M.A. and Ghaffar, A., 2002. Performance of KajliApplied to Livestock Improvement, held at Montpellier. France on August, 19-23Khan, S.M., Muqarrab, A. K., Sohail, A. and Sultan, M., 2007.Int. J. Agric. Biol., 9: 941-944Von Bergen, W., 1963. Wool Technol. Sheep Breed, 101:43. Wan, R.B., 1970. Wool Technol. Sheep Breed, 17:9Young, S.S.Y., Turner, H. N. and Dolling, C.H.S. 1960. Aust. J.Agric. Res., 11:604

Prevalence and Chemotherapy of Anaplasmosis in Clinically Affected Small Ruminants in the River Ravi Region, Lahore

By: Akhtar Ali, Muhammad Ijaz, Aneela Zameer Durrani,Muhammad Mudassir Ali, Khalid Mehmood and Ahmad Jawad Sabir

_: Abstract.- Anaplasmosis is deadly infectious malady of small ruminants throughout the world. The prevalence of anaplasmosis in clinically affected small ruminants from the River Ravi region of Lahoretherapeutic studies on infected animals. A totalof 300 (n=150 sheep; n=150 goats) blood samples were collected from clinically affected small ruminants and examined microscopically;129 (43%) were positive for Anaplasma ovis. Ahigher prevalence of anaplasmosis was recorded in sheep (55.33%) as compared to goats (30.67%). Hb and WBCs were significantly increased (Pless than 0.05), while the concentration of RBCs and PCV non-significantly decreased (Pgreater than 0.05) in infected small ruminants. The final efficacy of oxytetracycline, imidocarb dipropionat and diaminazin aceturate was 100,87.5 and 62.5%, respectively in small ruminants making oxytetracycline the most effective drug.

Key words: Anaplasmosis, oxytetracycline,Anaplasmosis ovis.

Ticks are the most important ectoparasites of ruminants###and###are###responsible###forsubstantial economic losses in terms of high morbidity and mortality resulting in decrease production of meat, milk and other livestock by-products (Makala et al.,2003). Ticks not only cause direct damage but also can transmit several protozoans, rickettsial and viral diseases (Noaman, 2012). Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are widely distributed throughout the world especially in tropical and subtropical regions including Pakistan (Khan et al., 2004). The prevalence varies from region to region and various factors determine the occurrence of the TBDs (Magona et al., 2011).Anaplasmosis is also a tick-borne infectiousdisease of cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic ruminants (Inokuma, 2007). In the poor countries of tropical and subtropical regions where livestock consists mainly of sheep and goats, anaplasmosis causes large losses in livestock productivity (Rymaszewska and Grenda, 2008). Anaplasma ovis (A. ovis) is an obligate intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen which infects sheep, goats and wild ruminants (Fuente et al., 2006). It is characterized by depression, debility, marked decline in body weight, fever and progressive anemia whose consequence is reduction in milk production (Rymaszewska and Grenda, 2008).The hematological profile can be considereda useful tool for diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of the treatment for A. ovis (Ahmadi- Hamedani et al., 2013). The most effective and confirmed method of control is through the strategic use of drugs which kill the pathogen without harming the host. Many of the standard chemotherapies are used today, however expensive, with toxic side effects and in some cases have marginal efficacy because of the emergence of drug resistant pathogen (Cheesman, 2000). Tetracyclines (Chlortetracycline, Tetracycline and Oxytetracycline) are used for the treatment of anaplasmosis. Other compounds such as imidocarb eliminate parasites from carrier animals (Akhter et al., 2010).Keeping in view the importance of small ruminants in our country and the significant losses rendered by anaplasmosis, the present project has been designed to study the prevalence, hematology and chemotherapy against anaplasmosis in small ruminants under field conditions. Materials and methodsThree hundred blood samples (n=150 sheep; n=150 goats) of small ruminants were collected from the field, various private and public hospitals located in the River Ravi region of Lahore, Pakistan. Data on sex, age and breed of small ruminants were recorded. The samples were collected from clinically affected small ruminants with anaplasmosis and examined in Medicine Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Thin blood smears were prepared and blood parasites were identified as described by various OIE publications (OIE, 2004, 2008).Ten small ruminants out of 129 (n=83 sheep; n=46 goats), affected with anaplasmosis were selected for hematological examination. Blood sample (5 ml) was collected directly from the jugular vein of affected small ruminants into sterilized plastic bottles with anticoagulant coated with EDTA at 1 mg/ml of blood. Hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell count (WBCs), red blood cell count (RBCs) and packed cell volume (PCV) were estimated using a hematological analyzer.Of 129 small ruminants (n=83 sheep; n=46 goats) of mixed age, sex and breed that tested positive for Anaplasma, 24 were randomly selected and placed in three groups (AC). Each group comprised of 8 animals (n=4 sheep; n=4 goats). Groups A, B and C were treated with oxytetracycline (Oxy-fen, Selmore, Pvt. Ltd., Pakistan) @ 20mg/kg BW, imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol, ICI, Pvt. Ltd., Pakistan) @ 3mg/kg BW and diminazene aceturate (Fatrybanil, Fatro, Pvt. Ltd., Pakistan) @ 3.5-7mg/kg BW, respectively. Efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and blood smear examination at days 2, 4, 6 and 10 of post- medication.Data###on###prevalence###of###anaplasmosis###in clinical affected cases was estimated by Pearson's chi-square (2) test for significance where as data on hematology was analyzed by Student's t-test, while data on chemotherapy was analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA), using SPSS (statistical package for social science), Pless than 0.05 was considered significant.

Table I.-###Overall prevalence of anaplasmosis in small ruminants.

###Male###Female

###Total No.###Total No.

Animal###No. positive###No. positive

###No. examined###No. examined###examined###positive (%)

###(%)###(%)

Sheep###77###36 (46.75)###73###47 (64.38)###150###83 (55.33)

Goats###68###25 (36.76)###82###21 (25.61)###150###46 (30.67)

Total###145###61 (42.07)###155###68 (43.87)###300###129 (43.0)

Results and discussionData on overall prevalence and breed wise prevalence of anaplasmosis in small ruminants is given in Tables I and II, whereas the data regarding hematology is shown in Table III. Of 300 (n=150 sheep; n=150 goats) small ruminants, 129 (43%) tested positive for Anaplasma. These observations coincide with the findings of Ameh et al. (2004) who reported prevalence of hemoparasite 52.3% in Jos and south east Bouchi while Opera and Wokedi (2011) also recorded 32% prevalence of Anaplasma ovis in the small ruminants. Jatau et al. (2011) also reported similar results of the prevalence of A. ovis in small ruminants. In this research work it was found that the prevalence of A. ovis is 55.33% in sheep. Alessandra and Santo (2012) studied the prevalence of A. ovis in small ruminants and found that A. ovis is 82.9% prevalent in sheep. A. ovis is predominant hemoparasite in sheep (Adejinmi et al.,2004). Opara and Wokedi (2011) in Nigeria foundthat the prevalence of A. ovis is 29.3% in Sheep. Sparagano et al. (2004) observed seven groups of that Anaplasma is more prevalent in sheep than goats. These observations correlate with the readings of Jatau et al. (2011) who also reported more prevalent in sheep than goats. In case of sex wise prevalence it was recorded that prevalence was more in female sheep (64.38%) than male sheep (46.75%). These observation overlaps with the results of the Opera and Wokedi (2011) that A. ovis prevalence is more in female (81.3%) than male (18.8%) in small ruminants. In present study anaplasmosis was 36.76 and 25.61% prevalent in male and female goats, respectively. Ahmadi- Hamedani et al. (2009) reported 43.5 and 66.5% anaplasmosis in male and female goats, respectively. In this study the samples were collected from the animals whose owner was usually poor men, so the reason for high overall prevalence may be poor management and poor prophylactic measures to be adopted.the sheep and found that the A. ovis is 29%. The low prevalence of anaplasmosis in sheep in the above two study might be because of the season, good prophylactic measures and low disease load. In present study prevalence of A. ovis was 30.67% in goats. These results correlate with the findings of Useh et al. (2006). He found that hemoparasites are27% prevalent in goats of Nigeria, while Ahmadi-Hamedani et al. (2009) showed that 22.3% (43/193) goats were positive for Anaplasma by thin blood smear examination. In present study the prevalence of anaplasmosis in goat was more than findings of Ajanusi and Chiezey (2006) who reported A. ovis9.2% in goats. The low prevalence might be due to season, less number of vectors, low disease load and good managemental practices. These results showedthat Anaplasma is more prevalent in sheep than goats. These observations correlate with the readings of Jatau et al. (2011) who also reported more prevalent in sheep than goats. In case of sex wise prevalence it was recorded that prevalence was more in female sheep (64.38%) than male sheep (46.75%). These observation overlaps with the results of the Opera and Wokedi (2011) that A. ovis prevalence is more in female (81.3%) than male (18.8%) in small ruminants. In present study anaplasmosis was 36.76 and 25.61% prevalent in male and female goats, respectively. Ahmadi- Hamedani et al. (2009) reported 43.5 and 66.5% anaplasmosis in male and female goats, respectively. In this study the samples were collected from the animals whose owner was usually poor men, so the reason for high overall prevalence may be poor management and poor prophylactic measures to be adopted.

Table II.- Breed wise prevalence of anaplasmosis in small ruminants.

Animal###Breeds###animals###animals

###examined###positive

Sheep###Salt range###55###34 (61.82)

Thali###42###22 (52.38)

Kajli###29###14 (48.27)

Mix breed###24###13 (54.17)

Goats###Teddy###82###27 (32.93)

Beetal###47###11 (23.40)

Mix breed###21###08 (38.09)

The result of hematological study in small ruminants is shown in Table III. Anaplasmosis have

Table III.-###Average values of different blood parameters of Anaplasma ovis affected small ruminants (Mean S.E).

###Sheep###Goat

Hematological parameters

###Healthy###Affected###Healthy###Affected

Hemoglobin (g/dl)###11.841.54###07.441.43###11.531.10###8.590.53

WBC (x109/l)###9.561.41###10.840.66###8.271.40###10.181.08

RBC (x 1012/l)###12.301.26###11.030.95###12.301.26###11.921.35

PCV (%)###35.812.92###28.822.62###32.212.09###29.92.07

significant effect on few parameters of the blood. Hemoglobin level of the infected small ruminants was decreased from the normal value. Ahmadi- Hamedani et al. (2013) also observed that hemoglobin level was decreased in infected small ruminants. A significant decrease of Hb was found in the animals suffering from anaplasmosis as compared to healthy animals (Adejinmi et al., 2004; Alsaad et al., 2009; Younis et al., 2009). A decreased hemoglobin level was recorded in small ruminants which were experimentally infected with A. ovis (Yasini et al., 2012). It was also observed that there was no significant increase in the numbers of the WBC. These results correlate with the findings of Yasini et al. (2012). Ahmadi-Hamedani et al. (2013) found that WBC numbers in the infected group were lower than in the uninfected group. Biobaku et al. (2010) observed that the number of the WBC increase during protozoan infection. In present study it was found that there is no significant decrease in RBC number and PCVThese observations correlate with the findings of the Ahmadi-Hamedani et al. (2013). The hematological study showed that the number of RBC and PCV value decreased in animals suffering with A. ovis infection (Alsaad et al., 2009; Younis et al., 2009; Yasini et al., 2012). Biobaku et al. (2010) studied the prevalence and clinico-hematological parameters of small ruminants and concluded that RBC and PCV value decreased in A. ovis infected animals.The result of treatment trials is given in TableIV. It was found that oxytetracycline drug was moreeffective against Anaplasma infection in small ruminants at dose rate of 20mg/kg body weight I/M as animals showed complete recovery after 10th day of treatment. Imidocarb dipropionat at dose rate of3mg/ kg BW I/M was found less effective as 75% of the animals recovered the 10th day of treatment. Diaminazin aceturate was least effective at dose rate of 3.5-7mg body weight I/M as 50% of the animals recovered at 10th of the treatment. These results show a relation with the findings of Coetzee et al. (2005). He found that the animals treated with oxytetracycline were recovered completely while the animals treated with imidocarb diapropionat were diagnosed positive after treatment. Oxytetracycline is the most effective drug against anaplasmosis than imidocarb dipropionate and enrofloxacine (Atif et al., 2012). As compared to diaminazene aceturate, imidocarb dipropionate is less effective drug against the blood protozoan infection in animals (Akhtar et al., 2010).

ConclusionFrom this study it was concluded that anaplasmosis is significantly prevalent in small ruminants in and around Lahore, while oxytetracycline is the most effective drug against anaplasmosis in both sheep and goats. The outcome of this study will help the veterinarians and farmers in the field. ReferencesAdejinmi, J.O., Sadiq, N.A., Fashanu, S.O., Lasisi, O.T. andEkundayo S., 2004. Afr. J. Biol. Res., 7: 41-43.Ahmadi-Hamedani, M., Khaki, Z., Rahbari, S. and Ahmadi- Hamedani, M.A., 2013. Comp. Clin. Pathol., 22: 545.Ahmadi-Hamedani, M., Khaki, Z., Rahbari, S., Kazemi, B. and Bandehpour, M., 2009. Iran. J. Vet. Res., Shiraz University, 10: 367-372.Ajanusi, O.J. and Chiezey, N.P., 2006. Nigerian J. Parasitol.,26: 13-17.Akhter, N., Lal, C., Gadahi, A.J., Mirbahar, B.K. and Memon, I.M., 2010. Vet. World, 3: 272-274.Alessandra, T. and Santo, C., 2012. Tick born diseases in sheep and goats: clinical and diagnosis aspects. Small Ruminant Res., 106S: S6-S11.Alsaad, M.K., Al-Obaidi, T.Q. and Esmaeel, A.S., 2009. IraqiJ. Vet. Sci., 23: 101-106.Ameh, L.G., James-Rugu, N.A.T. and Izang, S.D., 2004.Nigerian J. Parasitol., 25: 21-24.Atif, F.A., Khan, M.S., Khan, M.A., Ashraf, M. and Avais, M.,2012. Pakistan J. Zool., 44: 449-456.Biobaku, K.T., Takeet, M.I., Olurode, S.A., Ono, O.O. andOloye, A.A., 2010. Nigerian J. Parasitol., 31: 1-6.Cheesman, S.J., 2000. The Topoisomerases of protozoan parasites. Parasitol. Today, 16: 277.Coetzee, J.F., Apley, M.D., Kocan, K.M., Rurangirwa, F.R. andVan Donkersgoed, J., 2005. Vet. Parasitol., 127: 61-73.Fuente, D.L., Atkinson, M.W., Hogg, J.T., Miller, D.S., Naranjo, V., Almazan, C., Anderson, N. and Kocan, K.M., 2006. J. Wildl Dis., 42: 381385.Inokuma,. H., 2007. Vectors and reservoir hosts of Anaplasmataceae. In: Rickettsial diseases (eds. D. Raoult and P. Parola),. Taylor and Grancis Group LLC, New York, pp. 199212.Jatau, I.D., Abdulganiyu, A., Lawal, A., Okubanjo, O.O. andYusuf, K.H., 2011. Sokoto J. Vet. Sci., 9: 7-11.Khan, M.Q., Zahoor, A., Jahangir, M. and Mirza, M.A., 2004.Pak. Vet. J., 24: 193-195.Magona, J.W., Walubengo, J., Olaho, W.M., Jonsson, N.N., Welburn, W.S. and Eisler, C.M., 2011. Exp. appl. Acarol., 55: 203-213.Makala, L.H., Mangani, P., Fujisaki, K. and Nagasawa, H.,2003. Vet. Res., 34: 2745.Noaman, N., 2012. Comp. Clin. Pathol., 21: 367369.OIE, 2004. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Paris, France.OIE, 2008. Terrestrial Manual, Bovine anaplasmosis. Paris, France.Opara, M.N. and Nwokedi, C.C., 2011. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod.Africa, 59: 393-398.Rymaszewska, A. and Grenda, S., 2008. Vet. Med., 53: 573584.Sparagano, O., Spitalskal, E., Namavari, M.M., Hosseini, H.M., Shad-Del F., Seghatoleslam, A. and Amabadi, R.O.,2004. Epid. santACopyright Anim., 45: 73-75.Useh, N.M., Ajanusi, O.J., Lawal, I.A., Adamu, S., Agbeder, R.I.S. and Esievo, K., 2006. Nigerian J. Parasitol., 27:54-57.Yasini, S.P., Khaki, Z., Rahbari, S., Kazemi, B., Amoli, S.J., Gharabaghi, A. and Jalali, S.M., 2012. Iran. J. Parasitol., 7: 91-98.Younis, E.E., Hegazy, N.A.M., El-Deeb, W. and El-Khatib,2009. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Africa, 57: 297-309.

Biometric Assessment of the Testis in Pakistani Adult Male Goats (Capra hircus)

By: Hamayun Khan, Muhammad Misri Rind, Muhammad Usman Mehmood, Qaisar Shahzad, Ali Gohar, Mehboob Alam, Qaisar Ali and Hamza Khan Kumbar

_: Abstract.- The biometric analysis of the testes of adult male of the local breeds of goat is reported. The mean length, breadth, thickness and circumference of right testicle with epididymis recorded was 8.420.91 cm,4.580.56 cm, 4.190.53 cm and 12.531.23cm and those of left testicle with epididymis were 8.441.06 cm, 4.620.57 cm, 4.240.51 cm and 12.661.32 cm, respectively. The measurement of circumference of left testicle with epididymis were significantly (P less than 0.05)higher than those of right testicle with the epididymis. The mean length, breadth, and circumference of right testicle without epididymis were 6.620.83 cm, 4.380.55 cm, and 12.361.16 cm, whereas those of the left testicle without epididymis were 6.650.84cm,4.410.56 cm and 12.471.18 cm, respectively. The mean weight of right and left testicle without epididymis was 59.3616.86 g and60.3517.16 g, respectively. The breadth, circumference and weight of left testicle without epididymis were significantly (Pless than 0.05) higher than those of right testicle withoutepididymis.

Key words: Biometry, Capra hircus, testicle measurements.

Pakistan is the main goat producing countries in the world. Indigenous goats are primarily valued for meat, milk, skin, fiber, and other associated products. The by-products are blood, dung (a good fertilizer), bones and horns. The male goat is capable of propagating at one year age and the female at seven months; but the fruits of a generation so premature are generally weak and defective; their best time is at the age of two years or eighteen months at least. The goat is a short lived animal, full of ardour, but soon enervated. His appetite for the female is excessive, so that one buck is sufficient for one hundred and fifty female (Mackenzie, 1980).The testis, epididymis and accessory organs are principal organs of mammalian male reproductive system. Functionally the testis is both exocrine and endocrine in nature producing the spermatozoa and the male sex hormone- testosterone. Available literature indicated that the testes vary somewhat from species to species as far as shape, size and location are concerned but the essential structure is the same (Frandson, 1981).The biometric assessment of the male genital tract is vital to determine the actual cause of reproductive failures of the animals leading to greater economic losses. Such information could help to design programs for the treatment of animals having various reproductive disorders and suggest the preventive remedies if possible to enhance reproductive ability of the male animals. Chronic infection of Johne's Disease appears to interfere with the normal development of reproductive organs and functions of related endocrine glands (Singh et al., 1986).Extensive researches has been concentrated towards the enhancements of productivity and understanding of the domesticated animals of Europe and America (Bokonyi, 1983;Wing, 1983) whereas little or no attention has been given to the intellect of the animal's functional morphology of the indigenous stock. Currently many research workers investigated biometry of testis of male goats under different environmental condition (Kabiraj et al., 2011; Ibrahim et al., 2012; Oyeymi et al., 2012) in different region of world. Available literature regarding the biometry of testis in indigenous livestock is very limited. Khan et al. (2003) investigated the testicular size and dimension in male buffalo, Nisar et al. (1992) carried out research on the biometry of testis in bull, Siddiqui et al. (2005) evaluated the biometry of the ram testis. Currently there is dearth of reliable information on the reproductive parameters of testis of goats owned by farmers in different area of Pakistan. Recent review of literature indicated that the size of the testis and functional testicular charteristics are indicators of sexual activity and semen production from the daily sperm production potential of the animals (Hassan et al., 2009; Leal et al., 2004). Therefore the aim of this study was to describe in detail the biometric characteristic values of the testis of the local breed of the goat.

Materials and methodsOne hundred reproductive organs of male goats of various ages slaughtered at different slaughter houses of Hyderabad district were collected for this study. The genital tract having no gross abnormalities or pathological lesions was removed from the carcasses, packed in polyethylene bags and brought to the Departmental laboratory within 2 hours of collection. The organs were cleaned and freed from adhering tissues and were placed on the surgical table in their normal position. The measurements of the length, breadth and thickness of the right and left testicles with and without epididymis were taken with the help of vernier-caliper. The circumference of testicles withand without epididymis were measured with measuring tape or with the help of modified thick thread graduated with a measuring tape and the readings were noted against a centimeter scale.The weight of right and left testicles was estimated with a triple beam balance and the readings were recorded in grams. According to the technique used by Khan et al. (2003) and Oyeyemi et al. (2012) following methodology was adopted;Testicle with epididymis: The length wasmeasured from the caputal extremity to the caudal extremity, breadth from the free border to the epididymal border, thickness from the medial surface to the lateral surface; circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle along with the body of the epididymis by a graduated nylon tape.Testicle without epididymis: The length was measured from the dorsal extremity to the ventral extremity (pole to pole); breadth from the free border to the attached border excluding epididymis, circumference was measured by encircling the thickest part of the testicle excluding epididymis by a graduated nylon tape.The data collected regarding the biometry of the testis of male goat was subjected to statistical analysis as per method (Bhattacharyya and Richard,1977). The following measures were computed for analyzing the data such as: mean standard deviation and range. Student's paired t-test was utilized to determine differences between means.

Results and discussionTesticles with the epididymisThe biometric data on the testicles with epididymis are presented in Table I. The mean S.D. Range of length, breadth, thickness and circumference of right testicle with epididymis were8.420.91 cm (5.9-11.4 cm), 4.580.56 cm (3.5-6.4 cm), 4.190.53 cm (2.9-5.9 cm) and 12.531.23 cm (8.2-15.2 cm) respectively, and the left testicle with epididymis was 8.441.06 cm (4.5-11.6 cm) in length, 4.620.57 cm (3.5-6.5 cm) in breadth,4.240.51 cm (2.9-5.8 cm) in thickness and12.661.32 cm (6.75-15.5 cm) in circumference. The mean breadth, thickness and circumference of left testicle with epididymis were significantly (Pless than 0.05) higher than those of the right testicle with epididymis. On the other hand, no significance difference was observed for the length of the right and left testicles with the epididymis.

Testicles without epididymisThe biometric data on testicle without epididymis are presented in Table I. From these data it appeared that the meanS.D. (range) of length, breadth and circumference of right testicle without epididymis###were###6.620.83###cm###(4.35-8.9###cm),4.380.55 cm (3.2-6.1 cm) and 12.361.16 cm (9.3-15.1 cm) respectively, and the left testicle without epididymis was measured as 6.650.84 cm (4.8-8.7 cm) in length, 4.410.56 cm (3.1-6.15 cm) in breadth and 12.471.18 cm (9.2-15.2 cm) in circumference. The MeanS.D. (Range) of weight of###right###testicle###without###epididymis###was59.3616.86 g (24.8-118.3 g) and that of left testicle without epididymis was 60.3517.16 g (23.9-120 g). The mean breadth, circumference and weight of left testicle without epididymis in the present study were significantly (Pless than 0.05) higher than the right testicle without epididymis whereas no significant difference between the lengths of right and left testicle without epididymis was observed.The testicular dimension is the important indicator of the present and future sperm production in animal. Also the basic biometric assessment of reproductive organs is vital in breeding soundness evaluation and potential fertility in breeding males (Togun and Egbunike, 2006). Additionally, morphometric evaluation of the testes is essential in estimating Spermatogenic function of any species or breed. Correspondingly, the mammalian testis has been demonstrated as reliable interpreters of spermatozoa###production###(Gage###and###Freckleton,2003). In scientific literature the varying figures forlength, breadth, circumference and weight of right and left testicle without epididymis have been reported by various workers in male goat and other domestic species. The findings regarding length and breadth of the right and left testicle without epididymis of male goat obtained in the current study were in close agreement with those reported for bucks by Mahmood et al. (1988) and Yaseen et al. (2010). According to them, the right testicle without###epididymis###of###adult###buck###averaged6.590.10 cm in length and 4.100.08 cm in breadth

Table I.-###Biometric values of the right and left testicles of male goat and other animals.

Variable###Side###Adult malea###Steerb###Marwari###Pashmina

###(1-3 year)###goatc###buckd

Length of testis with epididymis (cm)###Left###8.4351.06###10.590.26

###Right###8.4220.911###10.160.24

Length of testis without epididymis (cm)###Left###6.6520.840###7.590.13###6.700.11

###Right###6.6180.832###7.520.13###6.590.10

Breadth of testis with epididymis (cm)###Left###4.6190.571###5.720.17

###Right###4.5830.565###5.300.17

Breadth of testis without epididymis (cm)###Left###4.4070.557###3.710.08###4.170.09

###Right###4.3840.832###3.760.08###4.100.08

Thickness of testis with epididymis (cm)###Left###4.2370.509

###Right###4.1900.528

Circumference of testis with epididymis (cm)###Left###12.6571.330

###Right###12.5311.233

Circumference of testis without epididymis (cm)###Left###12.4761.186###11.460.20

###Right###12.3611.166###11.520.21

Weight (g) of testis without epididymis###Left###60.34617.246###61.562.89###97.941.59

###Right###59.36016.942###60.862.16###96.941.61

and the left testicle without epididymis averaged6.700.11 cm in length and 4.170.09 cm in breadth. Likewise in Marwari goat, Yaseen et al. (2010) reported average length, width and weight of left testes were 10.590.26 cm, 5.720.17 cm and97.941.59 g, whereas the same parameters for righttestes were 10.160.24 cm, 5.300.17 cm and96.941.61g, respectively. On the other hand, Roberts (1971) and Nickel et al. (1973) reported much higher length, breadth and weight of the testicles of ram and buck than present findings. The higher values might be due to change of specie of the ram and different breeds of bucks having different genetic make reared under better management and nutritional conditions.The present observations were in closevicinity with those reported for steers aged 1-3 years by Nisar et al. (1992). They reported the average length, of right testicle without epididymis as7.520.13 cm, breadth 3.760.08 cm, circumference11.520.21 cm and weighed 60.862.16 g and the left testicle without epididymis averaged 7.590.13 cm in length, 3.710.08 cm in breadth 11.460.20 cm in circumference and weighed 61.56=2.89 g. The findings of the present study in male goat were also in partial agreement with those reported for Indian buffalo males by Joshi et al. (1967). According to them, the right testicle without epididymis of Indian buffalo male averaged 7.60 cm (6.00-8.90 cm) in length, 4.30 cm (3.30-5.30 cm) in breadth, 12.20 cm (9.50-15.00 cm) in circumference, and 74.86 g (38.20-116.45 g) in weight, and the left testicle without epididymis averaged 7.87 cm (5.70-9.80 cm) in length, 4.33 cm (3.30-5.50 cm) in breadth, 12.29 cm (9.00-15.90 cm) in circumference and 79.06 g (36.00-120.40 g) in weight. In the present study it was found that the weight of the left testicle without epididymis was significantly higher than the right one. The results of this study that the left testicular weight was more than the right one in adult buck, confirmed the findings of Siddiqui et al. (2005) and Ott et al. (1982) in the Ram.It is well established that testicular size is considered as measure of the reproductive growth status, spermatogenesis yield and the semen producing ability of the animal (Daudu, 1984; Hassan et al., 2009; Leal et al., 2004). In addition, it has been demonstrated that heavier testes produce more spermatozoa than the smaller ones (Brito et al., 2004). It seems reasonable from these reports including our current finding that the significant (pless than 0.05) higher testes size and weight of adult male goat could contain more seminiferous tubule where sperm production occur and Interstitial endocrine cells where testosterone is produced. In order to establish the functional significance of the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial endocrine cells with spermatozoa production, further studywould be needed to elucidate the correlation of thesebiometric measurements with histologicalassessment of testis of local goat population.In conclusion, this study demonstrated the distinctive biometric assessment of both caprine testicles. The breadth, thickness and circumference of left testicle with epididymis and breadth, circumference and weight of left testicle without epididymis were significantly higher than those of right testicle with and without epididymis respectively.

AcknowledgementsAuthors are grateful to staffs and butchers at slaughterhouse Hyderabad, who extended the cooperation in collection of the specimen.

Conflict of interestAll authors have no conflict of interest with any one about this manuscript.

ReferencesBhattacharyya, G.K. and Richard, J.A., 1977. Statistical concepts and methods. 1st edition. John Wiley and sons. Inc. U.S.A.Bokonyi, S., 1983. Domestication, dispersal and use of animals in Europe. In: Domestication, conservation and use of animal resources (eds. L. Peel and D.E. Tribe). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1-20.Brito, L.F., Silva, A.E., Unanian, M.M., Dode, M.A., Barbosa, R.T. and Kastelic, J.P., 2004. Theriogenology, 62:1198-1217.Daudu, C.S., 1984. Theriogenology, 21: 317-324.Frandson, R.D., 1981. Anatomy of the male reproductive system. In: Anatomy and physiology of farm animals. Lea and Febiger, Great Britain, pp. 430-444.Gage, M. J. and Freckleton, R.P., 2003. Proc. biol. Sci., 270:625-32.Hassan, M. R., Pervage, S., Ershaduzzaman, M. and Talukder, M. A. I., 2009. J. Bangladesh Agric. Univ., 7:301-304.Ibrahim, A. A., Aliyu, J., Ashiru, M. and Jamilu, M., 2012. Int.J. Morphol., 30:1597-1603.Joshi, N.H., Luktuke, S.N. and Chatterjee, S.N., 1967. Ind. Vet.J., 44: 137-145.Kabiraj, S. K., Masusul Hoque, S. A., Yahia Khandoker,M.A.M. and Husain, S. S., 2011. J. Cell Anim. Biol., 5:27-32.Khan, H., Ahmed, N., Khan, S., Ahmed, R. and Rind, M.M.,2003. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 2: 639-643.Leal, M.C., Becker-Silva, S.C., Chiarini-Garcia, H. and Franca, L.R., 2004. Anim. Reprod., 1:122-128Mackenzie, D., 1980. Goat husbandry. 4London, pp. 24. Ed. Faber and Faber,Mahmood, S., Biswas, J.C. and Koul, C.L., 1988. Ind. Vet. J.,65: 952-954.Nickel, R., Schumer, A. and Seiferl, E.E., 1973. The viscera of the domestic mammals. Parey, Berlin, pp.75.Nisar, I., Khan, M.Z., Ahmed, A., Khan, A. and khan, H.A.,1992. Pak. Vet. J., 12: 167-169.Ott, R.S., Health, E.H. and Bane, A., 1982. Am. J. Vet. Res., 43:241245.Oyeyemi, M.O., Fayomi, A.P., Adeniji, D.A. and Ojo, K. M.,2012. Int. J. Morphol., 30:489-492Roberts, S.J., 1971. Veterinary obstetrics and general diseases.2nd edition. CBS Publishers and Distributors (India), pp.604-607.Siddiqui, H.U.R., Ahmad, A. and Khan, M.Z., 2005. J. Agric.Soc. Sci., 1: 18132235.Singh, N., Singh, S.V. and Vihan, V.S., 1986. Reproductive inefficiency in Johne's disease affected goats. Annual Report. Central Institute for Research on Goats. Makhdoom, P.O. Farah-281122, Mathura (U.P.) India, pp.70.Togun, V.A. and Egbunike, G. N., 2006. Middle-East J. Sci.Res., 1: 87-95Wing, E.S., 1983. Domestication and use of animal in the America. In: Domestication conservation and use of animal resources (eds. L. Peel and D.E. Tribe) Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 21-39.Yaseen, S.M., Joshi, S., Mathur, R. and Gajbe, U.R., 2010.Haryana Vet., 49: 72.

The Study of Anemia in Relation to the Socio-Demographic Factors in Pregnant Females of Quetta, Balochistan

By: Ambreen Ijaz, Mohammad Masood Tariq, GulMakai, Najamunnisa, Rukhsana,Aqalmina, Shahid Ameen, Majid Rafeeq,Saadullah Jan and Zafar Ahmad

_: Abstract.- The present study was conducted in the general out-patient Department of Mission Hospital Quetta. A total of 90 pregnant women were included in the study. The data regarding ethnic group, age, trimester, education, monthly income, type of tea taking and their hemoglobin (Hb) and weight were collected through a questionnaire. Out of the 90 women, 54 were anemic, 52 (96%) had mild and 2 (4%) had moderate anemia. Females of the age less than 20 and weight more than 25 kg showed higher prevalence of anemia. There was less prevalence of anemia in educated pregnant females. The prevalence of anemia is more in the first and third trimester. The study recommends that emphasis should be laid on education of females, early marriages be discouraged and the importance of balanced diet should be emphasized.

Key words: Anemia, pregnancy, hemoglobin content.

Anemia during pregnancy according to the WHO is defined as having hemoglobin (Hb) level less than 11.0g/dL (WHO, 2001) but extreme anemia is the one in which Hb level is less than7.0g/dL (Hinderaker et al., 2001). Anemia iscommon in developing countries. Out of 700-800 million people that are effected by anemia, 60-70 million are from the developed countries (Sabah et al., 2010).Pregnant women are more susceptible to have anemia with an estimation of above 65% in South Asia. According to WHO report (2001), about 35-75% of pregnant women are anemic in developing countries and 18% in industrialized countries. Iron deficiency anemia is an important health issue in Pakistan; about 22,000 maternal deaths during the last 10 years due to iron deficiency (Sabah et al.,2010). In pregnant women, iron deficiency during early days leads to limited supply of oxygen to cells, tiredness, poor work performance, decreased immunity, risk of premature delivery and low birth weight (Kvale, 2001; Raza et al., 2011).General population from developing countries does not have resources to cope up with their iron requirements using animal protein as well as different kinds of fruits and vegetables that are rich in vitamins and iron. In a survey in Isparta province of Turkey the population was anemic since their food was restricted to legumes (beans and peas) and cereals (corn, oat, grains) (Kisioglu et al.,2005). In Malaysia 35% of the population was anemic and higher prevalence was seen in young girls (Haniff et al., 2007). One fifth of Pakistani women suffer from anemia. One study, however, showed that there was a gradual increase in anemia in pregnant and lactating women (Saeed et al.,2008). In the global scenario the prevalence of anemia is found to be highest in India which includes pregnant women and preschool children. Among population which is highly educated and are highly paid, 50% of the pregnant women, children and young girls are anemic (Kalaivani, 2009). Lack of essential nutrients like iron, folate and vitaminB12 are also one of causes of anemia, which is responsible for symptoms like fatigue, weakness, cognitive deficits and serious heart complications (Bhatti and Shaikh, 2009).In pregnancy the iron requirement are very high which is very difficult to be met only through diet so the maternal iron stores are the only source to keep the iron stability (VanderJagt et al., 2007). There is a greater need of iron in pregnant adult females (27mg/day) as compared to non pregnant females (18mg/day) (Raza et al., 2011). However social norms also hinder and people who can easily get iron rich food not allow pregnant women to take them, which again makes them deficient in gettingimportant nutrients. In later pregnancy the quantity of iron which is absorbed from an average normal diet is less than the quantity which should be provided to her in this condition. If she has to fulfill her iron needs then a healthy female should have iron storage greater than 300mg to have pregnancy. In developing countries this amount of iron has to be possessed by most of the women for a healthy pregnancy (Kalaivani, 2009). The present study was conducted in Christian Missionary Hospital Quetta, to determine prevalence of anemia in pregnant females and to find out relationship of socio- demographic factors with anemia among pregnant women.

Materials and methodsThe present study is a cross sectionalcommunity based study conducted from September,2012 to March, 2013 in Christian Missionary Hospital Quetta (CMHQ) where patients of different districts also come to Quetta for treatment. The population of Quetta city consists of Pathans, Baloch, Punjabi and other (Hazara, Uzbak) communities. All the pregnant women attending the Hospital were included in the study and 90 pregnant women were personally interviewed. The information recorded in a designed proforma was bout age, weight, duration of marriage, number of children already had, interval between the pregnancies, worm infestation, gestational age, trimester, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, intake of iron preparation, use of egg, meat, poultry, intake of tea, Hb level, performance of daily routine work, blood pressure and other diseases if any. Haemoglobin (Hb) level less than 11g/dl was considered to be anemia in pregnancy. The degrees of anemia studied were: mild anemia (9.0-10.9 g/dL), moderate anemia (7.0-9.0 g/dL) and severe anemia (less than 7g/dL). The collected data were tabulated in the statistical format using SPSS version 9.5 (SPSS cary, NC, USA) statistical analysis program. Chi square test was used for data analysis of demographic characters in relation to anemia.

Results and discussionOut of 90 females studied 54 were anemic. The overall prevalence of anemia observed the pregnant females in the age group 14-40 was 60%. The prevalence of mild (10.20.6 g/dl), moderate(Hb 8.10.5 g/dl), and severe anemia (less than 7 g/dl) was96%, 4% and 0%, respectively. Most of the anemicfemales had mild anemia with mean Hb level of10.2.The maximum number of pregnant women was in the age group 20-30 (55%). The analysis of data suggested that there was a significant association between prevalence of anemia and age group (Pless than 0.05). Out of 8 females in the age group less than 20 years, 6 (11%) were anemic, while 2 (6%) were normal. Out of total of 55 (61%) females in the age group 20-30, 35 (64%) were anemic, and20 (56%) were normal. From amongst 25 (27%) pregnant women in the age group 30-40 years, 12 (22%) were anemic, while 13 (36%) were normal, whereas there was only 1 anemic female (2%) from the age group greater than 40.The association of anemia with socio- demographic aspects is shown in Table I. Analysis of data shows that there is no significant association (Pgreater than 0.05) between education, ethnicity, trimester, tea intake and weight categories. However, significant association (Pless than 0.05) was observed in weight category. Majority of pregnant women weighed 46-65 kg; 22 (61%) amongst them were anemic, while26 (48%) were normal. Fourteen females weighed inrange of the 25-45kg and all were anemic. Anemia is also more prevalent in females during first trimester and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The educated females showed less percentage of anemia as compared to illiterate and having low level of education. There is also high prevalence of anemia in females taking tea either milk tea or green tea.This study did not show any statistically significant association between anemia###and tea intake although tea intake is known to inhibit absorption of non-heame iron. The prevalence of anemia was found higher in pregnant females taking milk tea compared to black or green tea. While there were high proportion of normal females who did not take any kind of tea during pregnancy. This observation is similar to the data presented by Nelson et al. (2004) that the healthy people having no possibility of iron deficiency have no limitation on tea intake, while those having danger of iron deficiency should limit to taking tea between meals and or one hour after meal.

Table I.-###Relationship of anemia with different age,###

###blood pressure, weight, ethnicity, eating habits###

###and socio-economic factors.

Demographic###n###Anemiaa###Normalb###P###

characters###(%)###(%)###value###

Ethnic group###

###Pathan###34###21(39%)###3(36%)###greater than 0. 05

###Baloch###20###11(20%)###9(25%)###

###Punjabi###30###18(33%)###12(33%)###

###Othersc###6###4(7%)###2(6%)###

Education

###Illiterate###33###19(35%)###14(39%)###greater than 0. 05

###High school###23###14(26%)###9(25%)###

###Intermediate###16###9(17%)###7(19%)###

###Graduate###9###6(11%)###3(8%)###

###Postgraduate###9###6(11%)###3(8%)###

Trimester of pregnancy###

###1st###8###7(13%)###1(3%)###greater than 0. 05###

###2nd###26###13(24%)###I3(36%)###

###3rd###56###34(63%)###22(61%)

Type of tea intake###

###Milk tea###42###25(46%)###17(47%)###greater than 0.05###

###Black tea###26###15(28%)###11(30%)###

###Green tea###9###6(11%)###3(8%)###

###No tea intake###13###8(15%)###5(13%)

Age group (year)

###less than 20###6(11%)###2(6%)###less than 0.05###

###21-30###35(64%)###20(56%)###

###31-40###12(22%)###13(36%)###

###greater than 41###1(2%)###0(0%)###

Weight (Kg)

###25-45###14###0(%)###14(26%)###less than 0.05###

###46-65###48###22(61%)###26(48%)###

###66-85###28###14(38%)###14(26%)

The relationship between anemia and trimester was observed significant and the prevalence of anemia is more in first and third trimester.Low socioeconomic status, lack of educationand less awareness of important factors relating to anemia are risk factors for anemia in Pakistan. Another threat contributing for iron deficiency during pregnancy is multiparity which might lead toinsufficiency of iron stores in females (Sharma et al., 2008; Hinderaker et al., 2011).The anemia was more prevalent in the females with age less than 20 and more prevalent in higher age more than 40 years that is coherent with study of Haniff et al. (2007) conducted from February to March to assess the prevalence of and the majority was of mild type the prevalence was higher in teenage group, Indians followed by Malays and Chinese females.RefrencesHaniff, J., Das, A., Onn, T.L., Sun, C.W., Nordin, N.M., ampal, S, Bahrin, S. and Ganeslingam, M., 2007. Asia Pacif. J. clin. Nutr., 16: 527-536.Hinderaker, S.G., Olsen, B.E., Bergsjo, P., Lie, R.T., Gasheka, P. and Jabeen, N., Mahmood, M. and Farooq, R., 1211. J. Islamabad med. Dental Coll., 37: 9655Kalaivani, K., 2009. Indian J. med. Res., 130: 627-633.Kisioglu, A.N., Ozturk, M., Cakmak, Z.A. and Ozguner, F.,2005. Biomed. Res., 16: 11-14.Raza, N., Sarwar, I., Munazza, B., Ayub, M. and Suleman, M.,2011. J. Ayub Med. Coll. Abbottabad. 23: 36-40.Bhatti, R. and Shaikh, D.M., 2009. Pakistan J. Zool., 41:158-160.Sabah, S., Fatima, I. and Ramzan, M., 2010. Profess. Med. J.,17: 686-690.Saeed, M. S. and Khalid, M.S., 2008. Pakistan Armed Forces med. J., 56: 150-56.Sharma, J.B., Soni, D., Murthy, N.S. and Malhotra, M., 2008. J.Obst. Gyn. Res., 29: 73-78. DOI:10.1046/j.1341-8076.2003.00079.Vanderjagt, D.J., Brock, H.S., Melah, G S., Elnafaty, A.U., Crossy, M.J. and Robert, H.G., 2007. J. H. Popul. Nutr.,25: 75-81.WHO/UNICEF/UNU, 2001. Iron deficiency anemia, assessment, prevention and control: a guide for program managers.
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Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2014
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