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Scissors-grinder and 'first-rate fiddler': the life and tunes of Henry Cave of Midsomer Norton and his father, Tom Cave.

Henry Cave and his father, Tom, were two of the many fiddlers who provided Cecil Sharp with tunes during the first decade of the twentieth century. Since then, their repertoire has lain largely dormant in Sharp's manuscripts. The scope of similar material that has been collected since that time, and modern ease of access to an extensive range of records and press reports, now make it possible to examine their music and their roles as musicians in a broader context and to modify some current misconceptions about the English fiddler and English fiddling.

In February 1908 the Castle Cary Visitor published the following brief notice: 'Henry Cave aged 53 died on December 27, 1907. A scissor grinder, well-known in Castle Cary, died from heart failure due to exposure in Chilcompton. Son of Thomas Cave, Evercreech.' (1) These few words record the death, in tragic circumstances, of Henry Cave (Figure 1), a fiddler who was one of Cecil Sharp's chief sources of traditional dance music in Somerset. Henry Cave also introduced Sharp to Tom Cave, the father who is mentioned in the notice of his death and another of Sharp's informants in the county; and either of them may have pointed Sharp in the direction of a third important source, James Higgins, at nearby Shepton Mallet. Had Sharp not visited Henry Cave - 'Harry' to those who knew him - just eight months previously, in April 1907, and on a couple of occasions in September of the same year, then we should have no record of the music that he, or his father, played.

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But, as the brief notice in the Castle Cary Visitor suggests, Henry Cave was far from being an obscure figure in his own lifetime and on his own territory. In fact, the same edition of the Castle Cary Visitor also carries what amounted to his obituary, under the heading 'Death of a Fiddler'. (2) The correspondent refers to a lecture that Cecil Sharp had delivered at the Pump Room in Bath on the subject of 'Somerset of 'Somerset Folk Songs'. In the lecture, Sharp refers to 'good examples of old fiddlers in Somerset [...] especially [...] one who combined the occupation of musician and scissors grinder', adding that the fiddler's mother was also a musician and that the family had combined the occupations of fiddle-playing and scissors-grinding for 'four generations' (a reference that may be somewhat formulaic, even if true), and describes Henry Cave himself as a 'first-rate fiddler'. (3)

Another report, in the magazine Bladud for 25 December 1907, evidently referring to the same lecture, which Sharp had delivered at the Bath Pump Room 'last Saturday' - i.e. 21 December 1907, apparently Sharp's fifth visit to Bath - states:
  One instance of an old fiddler which Mr Sharp mentioned was that of
  a scissors grinder who came quite close to Bath in his wanderings -
  for the country fiddler is a 'wandering minstrel' - and whom he
  described as a first rate fiddler. Both his parents - his father
  still lives at Evercreech, aged 85 - were expert players, and the
  combined occupations of scissor-grinding and fiddling have been in
  the family for at least four generations,' (4)


And yet another report, in the Bath Herald of 23 December 1907, quotes Sharp as saying that 'he had been tapping "fresh strata", and had held several conversations with itinerant fiddlers and concertina players. He had also discovered that some very fine exhibitions of step-dancing were to be seen in the Somerset villages.'5 This bears out a comment in the piece in Bladud to the effect that Sharp had 'latterly been studying the instrumental rather than the vocal folk music'.

The writer in the Castle Cary Visitor was evidently drawing on the earlier report in Bladud, and it is obvious that Henry Cave's death was regarded as being of no inconsiderable interest locally. But the pieces in the Castle Cary Visitor are not the only evidence that Henry Cave was a local character and a sought-after musician. A brief item in the Bristol Mercury and Daily Post of 12 December 1891 had reported:
  WRAXALL
  There was a very Fair attendance, despite the adverse elements - high
  wind and heavy rain--at the Village Club concert room on Thursday,
  when Mr Harry Cave gave his very amusing entertainment. Mr Roger Ford
   played the piano. (6)


Unfortunately, the nature of Henry Cave's 'very amusing entertainment' is not described, and there is no way of knowing whether it involved anything other than fiddle-playing or was in any way related to the roadside show he put on to attract customers when he was out grinding scissors. Roger Ford, also mentioned, had recently taken the chair at a meeting called to establish the Wraxall and District [Rugby Union] Football Club on 10 November 1890. (7)

Henry Cave's celebrity is underscored by the many postcards featuring him and his fiddle, and sometimes his handcart, that circulated during his lifetime. The four images shown in Figures 2-5 depict Henry Cave: three as a fiddler, one as a scissors-grinder, and one as both. The postcard shown in Figure 2 was shown to Tom Randall by Dorothy Schmid of Stratton-on-the-Fosse in 1981. She identified the woman in the photograph as her grandmother, Harriet Pearce (1849-1942), who kept the George Inn at Nettlebridge throughout the first decade of the twentieth century. (8) The card is postmarked 20 August 1906 and addressed to the Misses Pearce at Nettlebridge; presumably these were Harriet Pearce's daughters, Nora, Gladys (Dorothy Schmid's mother), and Violet.

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Tom and Henry Cave

Henry Cave was born at Shepton Mallet towards the end of 1854, the eldest recorded son of Thomas Cave (Figure 6) and his wife, Harriett (nee Burr). When Henry was baptized four years later, at Evercreech on 13 January 1858, his father was described in the parish register as 'half-gypsy'.

According to the 1851 census, Thomas Cave, who had married Harriett Burr at Wincanton on 26 November 1850 - the marriage certificate describing them both as 'travellers' - was a horse-dealer and was at that time living with his father, Henry Cave, at North Cadbury. Tom's age is given as twenty-three and his father's as fifty-nine. In the 1820s, Henry senior and his wife, Mary Defiance (nee Burton), are described in parish records as 'travellers' or 'travelling gypsies', and their eldest children were baptized at a variety of places in Somerset. Tom Cave himself was baptized at Castle Cary on 23 January 1828, and by the 1830s the family seems to have settled at Galhampton, just south of Castle Cary. References to their place of abode vary in their detail, but taken together they suggest that Henry and his family were living in Small Way Lane, just outside Galhampton, on Galhampton Hill, which is on the road to Bruton. From the 1830s, Henry senior's occupation is given a number of times as that of (agricultural) labourer. He was buried at Castle Cary on 17 July 1880.

In the 1861 census, Tom Cave and his family are still at Evercreech, where he seems to have remained until Cecil Sharp visited him there in 1907. The census lists his occupation as that of a grinder. He is subsequently described in the records as variously cutler, pedlar, and scissors-grinder, or a combination thereof. By 1911 he had been admitted to the Union Workhouse in Shepton Mallet, where he died in 1913, his age given as eighty-six.

By 1871, the younger Henry Cave, Cecil Sharp's source, was also being described as a grinder, and it was in this capacity, as well as that of fiddler, that he was remembered locally. Although, as the piece in the Castle Cary Visitor has it, he was 'not altogether a needy knife-grinder', he would travel round the villages of north Somerset plying his trade and playing his fiddle, bivouacking in a 'bender' - a tilt constructed of withy or hazel hoops gathered for the purpose and covered with a large canvas. If staying, he would fix a tin chimney to this for a small fire to warm his makeshift shelter. His camp was often seen at Bennell Batch on the main road into Chilcompton from Radstock. He would advertise his trade with the cry of 'Sharpening! Bring your knives, bring your scissors, bring your pisspots!', and when he was not engaged in sharpening he would hang a painted backdrop from the nearest wall, secured with stones, and play a few tunes on his fiddle to attract attention, largesse, and trade. (9)

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Tom Cave had a younger son, also called Tom, who was born in 1870, and it is probably he and his wife Elizabeth Jane (nee Newman) who appear together in a photograph that Cecil Sharp seems to have taken outside Tom Cave senior's house in September 1907 (Figure 7). (10) During his time as librarian at the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, Dave Bland was able to gather some local information about 'Tom Cave' from the Rev. Gordon H. Ridler of Evercreech. In 1975, one of his parishioners, Mrs Eliza Cox, of the Old Cottage, Oxford Street, Evercreech, on seeing Sharp's photograph of a younger man and a woman outside Tom Cave's house, exclaimed 'Why that's old Tom Cave!', thus most probably identifying him as Tom Cave junior, Henry's brother." The Rev. Ridler summarized Mrs Cox's account of Tom Cave junior. (12) 'He lived in a cottage in Weston Town, Evercreech. He was not a gipsy to her knowledge, but was a knife-grinder, touring the district on a bicycle with grindstone attached. (3d a time)' (Although Henry's brother Tom is described as a general (farm) labourer in the 1891, 1901, and 1911 censuses, his marriage certificate describes his occupation in 1904 as being that of cutler and grinder.) 'He used to sing songs and tell fairy stories to the children, and was in her words "a nice old chap". He was spotlessly clean and always wore a clean white muffler. He was a very friendly man' Mrs Cox described Tom's wife as a 'superior type of girl', whom Tom 'led quite a dance'. 'He would come home the worse for wear, and she would flounce out of the house saying "I'm going to drown myself", whereupon Tom would take his fiddle and sing "She's going off to drown herself, drown herself, drown herself", etc. Some time later the gate would squeak as she returned & Tom would sing "Now she's coming back again", etc. Tom would not allow his son to fetch his bicycle for him because he said it would not do for people to say "Tom was too drunk to push his own bike"! Tom was in great demand to sing & play at Christmas parties.'

Cecil Sharp at East Harptree

It was while staying with Florence Kettlewell and her husband William at Harptree Court in East Harptree in 1907 that Cecil Sharp met Henry Cave and his father Tom, as well as James Higgins, another old fiddler and a former shoemaker, who was by then living in the workhouse at Shepton Mallet. Yet another local fiddler, Alban Bevan Jones, also a shoemaker, then aged about sixty, played a couple of tunes, 'Hornpipe' and 'Stepdance' (a version of'Fisher's Hornpipe), for Sharp at Benter, just outside Nettlebridge, on 12 April 1908, although no record of that meeting other than Sharp's notation of the tunes has survived. (13) As a result of their meeting with Sharp, the Kettlewells' son William 'Wylie' Kettlewell and their future daughter-in law Margaret 'Peggy' Walsh were later to become the first treasurer and first secretary, respectively, of the English Folk Dance Society

In her book 'Trinkum-Trinkurns' of Fifty Years, published in 1927, Florence Kettlewell describes how Sharp came to visit East Harptree: 'Many years ago I happened to see in the Bristol Times and Mirror that Mr. Cecil Sharp of the Hampstead Conservatoire was in the county, trying to collect folk songs, and I wrote to ask if he would like to come to Harptree, as we had some fine old singers. He willingly accepted the invitation and for three years or more came every holiday to collect material.' (14) In 1917, while collecting in the southern Appalachian mountains, Sharp wrote to Mrs Kettlewell: 'I do not think there was a happier spot in my life than those years I spent in Somerset collecting the county songs nor a happier period in that time than the month I spent at Harptree.' (15) In her book, Mrs Kettlewell indicates that she was already familiar with the sort of music that she knew Sharp would be interested in, recalling that 'Step dancing was a great feature of all our entertainments up to thirty years ago. Men and women vied with each other and prizes were given at our shows for the best and greatest number of steps. For the music a fiddler was usually secured and latterly a concertina was used.' (16)

The Caves and Cecil Sharp

Although Somerset conjures up images of rural tranquillity, the Nettlebridge Valley was once one of the centres of the Somerset coalfield, which at its peak in 1901 had seventy-nine collieries, (17) The last working pit closed as recently as 1973. Nettlebridge itself was the location of the deepest shaft in the coalfield, the Strap mine, with a depth of 1838 feet. Also known as Mendip or Downside colliery, this and the other collieries in Nettlebridge had closed by 1879, although collieries at Coleford, Radstock, and elsewhere remained open until after the First World War, At Midsomer Norton the last mine did not close until 1966. In Henry Cave's day, mining and 'hewing' were still dominant occupations in the area. (18)

Cecil Sharp first met Henry Cave at Coleford, Somerset, on Friday, 19 April 1907, and again on three subsequent occasions that year: at Midsomer Norton on Monday and Tuesday, 9 and 10 September 1907, and at Nettlebridge on Saturday, 14 September 1907. Sharp's Field Notebooks record: 'Henry Cave, Clay Batch, Midsomer Norton (known at P[ost] 0[ffice]).' (19) Although 'batch' was an old word meaning hill or slope, in this area it had also come to mean a slagheap. It may be that it was at Clay Batch that Sharp sought out Henry Cave in September 1907. Prior to his first meeting with Henry Cave at Coleford, Sharp had been judging the Mid-Somerset Musical Competition in Midsomer Norton, on 16-18 April 1907.

On the occasion of his first meeting with Henry Cave, at Coleford on 19 April 1907, Sharp noted down three tunes from his playing. He noted the same three tunes again when he next met him, at Midsomer Norton on 9 and 10 September 1907, along with a further ten tunes. (20) His last meeting with Henry Cave was at Nettlebridge, on 14 September 1907, when he noted just 'Greensleeves'.

On Saturday, 14 September 1907, Sharp wrote to his wife, Constance, from Harptree Court:
  I got here on Monday getting my fiddler at Midsomer Norton en route.
  Then on Tuesday I got him again and found his father was living at
  Evercreech. On Wednesday there was a garden party here so I got off
  early cycled to Evercreech, 17 or 18 miles, had my man for 3 hours,
  and back in time for last part of garden party. Thursday, had a
  splitting headache a real bad one. Had fiddler over in the afternoon
  to teach children dances in the schoolroom [...] Bed early and all
  right again yesterday. Went a long round and found another old
  fiddler (88) in Shepton Union. Got some good tunes from him. Tonight
  I am going to Nettlebridge Inn, 4 miles from Midsomer Norton, where
  I have invited the neighbourhood to a country dance, my fiddler
  coming to play [...] I got some fine tunes this week but there [sic]
  a heap more to be got round Shepton way. (21)


The other 'old fiddler' was James Higgins, from whom Sharp noted eight tunes on this occasion: three 'Hornpipes', 'Greensleves', 'The Triumph', 'Cuckoos' Nest', 'Lass o' Dallogil' and a 'Jig.' (22) Nettlebridge Inn was a local name for the George Inn at Nettlebridge (Figure 8).

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On Sunday, 15 September 1907, Sharp wrote to Constance from the Castle Hotel in Taunton:
  Had a magnificent evening last night. I had issued invitations to the
  neighbourhood for a merry making at Nettlebridge Inn. The
  young bloods of the villages round rolled up in scores. The tap room
  was full but by squashing they managed to clear a space for the
  dancing. And such dancing! Jigs by the score, broom dances,
  4-handed reels and country dances! I never saw such light feet &
  loose ankles in my life. My old scissor grinding fiddler with a grin
  all over his face up in the corner and fiddling for all he was worth!
  1 had persuaded Mrs K[ettlewell] to motor over. Arriving first I saw
  the impossibility of getting her and party into the tap room. Then a
  brilliant idea struck me and I got them to let down the tightly
  sealed shutter and wipe off the steam off [sic] the window glass.
  Mrs K etc then viewed the scene from without in clear atmosphere!
  It was a weird sight & no mistake, and one which she has never before
  seen, I warrant! (23)


Sharp's obvious enthusiasm on this occasion is not the only evidence to suggest that he was more sensitive to, and appreciative of, traditional music in its natural environment than he has generally been credited with being. (24)

Florence Kettlewell also wrote about this occasion:
  About 1910 [sic] I drove one evening to Nettlebridge to see Korhe
  dance in his own setting. I stood up in the waggonette, which was
  drawn up outside the Inn, and looked through the parlour window.
  The fiddler, Cave by name, was perched up in a corner. The room was
  full of men who faced each other in long rows and as soon as the
  music struck up began to step dance. They advanced and retired and
  walked round, and then footed it briskly. When a man was tired he
  sat down and  another took his place, and thus it went on till
  closing time. The landlord told me that whenever Korfie was in the
  neighbourhood, men would flock from far and near for a dance. (25)


'Korfie' was a celebrated local step-dancer, Alfred Parfitt (1879-1970), nicknamed 'Coffee'. (26)

On 12 March 1909, Georgia Pearce, editor of the Clarion Song Book (1906), wrote in Robert Blatchford's radical newspaper the Clarion (circulation c.80,000 in 1910): 'Near Mendip he [Sharp] collected some fine tunes from an old scissors grinder, who was also a fiddler. Here other forms of country dancing had survived. Step dancing, with forty different steps, and never once repeated, four-handed reels, a broom-stem dance, a tongs dance, all vigorous measures and energetic.' Pearce seems to have derived some of her information, which otherwise follows the details of Sharp's letter to Constance, either directly or indirectly from Sharp himself Theaddition of a 'tongs dance' to the dances performed at the Nettlebridge Inn that evening may perhaps be associated with Sharp's notation of the tune 'Greensleeves' from Henry Cave on the same occasion (see below). That both Pearce and Mrs Kettlewell refer to step-dancing, which Sharp did not mention in connection with this occasion, would seem to confirm that Sharp's term 'jigs' (which, given his knowledge of morris dancing in Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire, he would have associated with exhibitionist solo dancing) in fact refers to step-dancing.

The Death of Henry Cave

Within a few months of his playing for Cecil Sharp in September 1907, Henry Cave was dead. The tragic circumstances of his death as recounted in the report in the Castle Cary Visitor are amplified in a transcript of a report on the inquest into Henry Cave's death:
  Dr. Craddock held an inquest at the Winterfield Inn, Paulton, on
  Tuesday [31 December 1907], touching the death of Henry Cave,53,
  scissors grinder, of Evercreech, who was found in a ditch between
  Chilcompton and Midsomer Norton on the morning of Friday last.
  Charles Hodges, farmer, of Chilcompton, stated that at or about
  8 a.m. on Friday he found deceased lying in ditch, which had water
  running in it, with his coat off, that garment being wrapped around
  his head. He procured assistance and helped to get deceased out.
  John Short, landlord of the Redan Inn, Chilcompton, deposed that
  deceased came to his house at 5.30 p.m. on Boxing Day, and stayed
  until just before 11 p.m. Deceased played his fiddle to the persons
  in the bar. Deceased was quite sober when he left.
  Dr. Hugh P. Costobadie stated that death occurred in Paulton Hospital
  on Saturday, as the result of heart failure, consequent on exposure,
  and the jury returned a verdict in accordance with the medical
  evidence.27


The report in the Castle Cary Visitor itself adds a few details from the inquest: 'a man who made his living as a scissors grinder and musician has just died from exposure at Chilcompton. His fiddle and its bag were in his possession, and it transpired that on Boxing Day he had been playing at Chilcompton. He was not altogether a "needy knife grinder", for he had money in his possession, but it is stated that he was used to "sleeping out".' (28)

Sharp was in the area at the time and described the prevailing weather conditions in a letter to the Rev. F Etherington (with whom Sharp had stayed at Minehead while collecting there), written on Sunday, 29 December 1907, from 'a very small primitive pot-house with a thatched roof in Castle Cary, whither he had removed the previous Friday (27 December 1907) in order to escape a 'house full of people' at Harptree:
  In this really Arctic weather I should have preferred warmer quarters
  and unfortunately the songs have not been good enough so far to
  compensate for the shivering![...] I have scarcely seen the sun
  since I left London. For 3 days it has blown a continuous icy blast
  from the N.E. Yesterday I tried to get to Bruton Town, but was forced
  to turn back. I couldn't face the wind! The first time I have ever
  had to do such a thing." (29)


The Caves' Fiddle Tunes

The tunes that Sharp noted from the playing of Henry and Tom Cave are listed below, in their apparent order of notation, identified by reference numbers in Sharp's Folk-Tunes fair copy manuscript (abbreviated FT) and the titles that Sharp used. References to 'dotting' refer to specific (musical) notes and to Sharp's dotting of the first of a pair of quavers, with the attendant reduction of the second quaver to a semiquaver. If I seem to have dwelt overmuch on this topic of dotting in what follows, it is because it is the device that most obviously reveals on the printed page the musical personality of the Caves and other traditional musicians in England, and defines the character of this repertoire in performance. The detail of Sharp's notations reveals that he was attempting to appreciate the Caves' performances as he took them down, rather than merely to record tunes for their own sake.

I have also looked at the analogues of the items in the Caves' repertoire in depth, in order to establish some sort of global context for their music. As will be seen, the evidence of the tunes that Sharp collected from Henry and Tom Cave, and from other local fiddlers (James Higgins and Alban Jones), suggests either that our knowledge of traditional fiddling elsewhere in the country at and before this time is wanting, or that at least in this part of Somerset there was once a particularly vibrant and to some extent discrete local slant on traditional fiddle music.

Tunes Noted from Henry Cave

Friday, 19 April 1907 at Coleford

FT 1362, 'The Triumph (Country Dance)'

A version of the familiar tune for the set dance of the same name. Sharp's notation shows that Henry Cave dotted isolated groups of four quavers, but played sequences (runs) of groups of four quavers undotted, as he also did (though not quite identically) when Sharp noted this tune again on 9 September 1907 (see FT 1477 below). This is also a feature of Stephen Baldwin's playing.

FT 1363, 'Swansea Hornpipe' (see Appendix)

One of two versions of the once popular 'Astley's' or 'Ashley's Hornpipe' (the former being probably the original and the latter the more common name) that Sharp noted from Henry Cave (under different names), and not the tune more generally known by the name given in the manuscript, which was often attached to quite different tunes. The Forest of Dean fiddler Stephen Baldwin referred to the 'real' 'Swansea Hornpipe' as both the 'Liverpool Hornpipe' and the 'Gloucester Hornpipe' (the latter name being a local 'floater': Stephen's father Charlie Baldwin used it for 'Nelson's Hornpipe'), reserving the name 'Swansea Hornpipe' for the 'Wonder Hornpipe' (which he also called the 'Liverpool Hornpipe'!). On a later occasion Henry Cave applied the name 'Swansea' to a different, less recognizable, tune (see FT 1481 below).

Sharp's notation of this version includes a pattern of note value and slurring in the A music that seems to suggest that Henry Cave sometimes (or 'indifferently', as Sharp added in a note beneath his notation) used something akin to the 'Scotch snap' when playing this tune. The slurring of the first pair of notes in the bars that are introduced with these 'Scotch snaps' is also a distinguishing feature of what Honeyman calls the 'Sailor's Hornpipe' style of playing hornpipes. (30) Henry Cave's use of paired crotchets in bars 1, 3, and 5 of the B music is unusual in this tune. An alternative flourish, which Sharp marks (a), and the trill (tr) in the penultimate bar of the B music are also worthy of note.

FT 1364, 'Sailor's Hornpipe' (see Appendix)

'Clearly not right name', as Sharp noted in parentheses, and in fact a version of the tune now usually known as 'The Friendly Visit', the name by which it appears in O'Neill.31 Kerr's Fourth Collection of Merry Melodies includes it as 'English Clog Hornpipe', a description that may more closely reflect the tradition in which Henry Cave played or acquired it; (32) and as the 'Empire Hornpipe' it opens (and therefore may have lent its name to) Thomas Craig's Empire Violin Collection of Hornpipes. (33) It appears in the Northumbrian Pipers Tunebook under the title of the 'Whittle Dene Hornpipe'; (34) and also under a corrupt (or perhaps merely well-nigh illegible) form of that name in the manuscript of the Northumbrian fiddler John Hall (1866-1939) as the 'Whittee Deem Hornpipe'. (35) It had apparently also once been known in South Wales as both 'Carpenter's Hornpipe' and 'Lord Byron's Hornpipe'. (36) The name given in Ryan's Mammoth, Collection 'Almack's Hornpipe', may, if it is to be associated with Almack's Assembly Rooms which were open in King Street in London between 1765 and 1863, suggest a fashionable origin, like that of other similarly named tunes such as 'Astley's Hornpipe' (see FT 1363 above), 'Fisher's Hornpipe', and 'Miss Baker's Hornpipe'.(37)

Sharp's notation includes triplets, which were a feature of Henry Cave's and Tom Cave's playing of the tunes that Sharp noted in 2/4 time, commenting beneath his notation: 'Not many dotted notes and used ad lib when used at all. Fast and smooth,' Nor, it should be noted, does Sharp include any slurring, other than of triplets, in his notation of this tune.

Sharp also noted all three of the above tunes when he next collected from Henry Cave, at Midsomer Norton on 9 September 1907.

Monday, 9 September 1907, at Midsomer Norton

FT 1477,'The Triumph'

See note on FT 1362 above.

FT 1478, 'Haste to the Wedding'

The familiar 6/8 tune of that name, noted without any dotting. Sharp had collected a version earlier that year, on 28 March 1907, from the fiddler John Mason of Church Icomb, near Stow on the Wold, Gloucestershire, (38) whom he was to visit again on 29 September 1907, shortly after seeing the Caves.

FT 1479, 'Bricks and Mortar (Country Dance)' (see Appendix)

A slightly different version, under a different name, of 'Astley's/Ashley's Hornpipe' (Henry Cave's 'Swansea Hornpipe', see note on FT 1363 above), but without the 'Scotch snaps'; instead, Henry Cave dotted the first pair of quavers in bars 1, 3, 9, and 11 of the A music, before launching into undotted 'runs', creating an effect that is reminiscent of hornpipe playing among recorded traditional musicians in England, where the first beat of a phrase or strain is stressed and the remainder of the phrase or strain is 'swung'. (40)

Elsewhere in Somerset, the name 'Bricks and Mortar' was used at Whatley, near Frome, for a step-dance for two lines of dancers facing each other. (40) On this occasion, Henry Cave may have been bestowing the name of a similar dance on this tune.

FT 1480,'Country Dance'

An unidentified tune in 6/8 time.

FT 1481,'Swansea

An unidentified hornpipe, quite distinct from both Henry Cave's 'Swansea Hornpipe' (FT 1363 above) and the tune more generally known by that name. Sharp's notation indicates that Henry Cave alternated dotted passages with undotted passages.

FT 1482, 'Sailor's Hornpipe'

This time Sharp noted 'Grandmother's Tune' above the title to indicate a different version from FT 1364 above, with sparing use of both dotting and triplets.

FT 1483, 'The Bridge Inn' (see Appendix! This hornpipe is similar to a tune that Sharp noted from Tom Cave as a 'Country Dance' (see FT 1493 below). Sharp dots the ascending passage that is found in bars A1-A4, A9-A12, and B9-12, in each case leaving the subsequent descending passages undotted, while Tom Cave's version is undotted throughout. There is no Bridge Inn locally but the name may be a colloquial and abbreviated reference to the Nettlebridge Inn, the name by which the George Inn at Nettlebridge was known, where Sharp arranged for Henry Cave to play for the local residents five days later (see above).

Tuesday, 10 September 1907, at Midsomer Norton

FT 1484,'Speed the Plough'

A fairly standard version of the ubiquitous hornpipe-cum-reel. Sharp's notation clearly distinguishes between Henry Cave's dotting of the B music and his undotted A music.

FT 1485, 'Country Dance' (see Appendix)

Another hornpipe, which Sharp also noted from the playing of Tom Cave (see FT 1495 below). Similar in its second part to the 'Cliff Hornpipe', it was also in the repertoire of the singer and multi-instrumentalist Harry Cox in Norfolk, from whom Frank Purslow recorded a - typically robust - version (on the fiddle) in the early 1960s, which he may have learned from his father, the fiddler Bob 'Battler' Cox. (41) It can be found in a great many nineteenth-century fiddler's manuscripts and tune books under a wide variety of names, most commonly the 'Railway Hornpipe' (for example, in the manuscripts of Thomas Llewelyn of Glamorgan; (42) John Moore of Wellington, Shropshire; (43) and James Nuttall of Rossendale, Lancashire, (44) and it seems once to have been among the most popular items with musicians in England and Wales. (45) O'Neill published an Irish version which he called 'Stack's' Hornpipe' in honour of his source, Patrick Stack, originally of Listowel in County Kerry, and Francis Roche published another Irish version under the name of the 'Thieving Magpie'. (46) Henry Cave dots the distinctive passage in the B music (B1-B6), while the whole of the A music, and its reappearance as bars 7-15 of the B music, is undotted.

FT 1486, 'Country Dance'

A fairly standard, but undotted, version of the hornpipe now generally known as 'Nawie on the Line'. It has been attributed to the Scots-born Tyneside fiddler James Hill(d. 1853).47 Kerr published it simply as 'The Nawie', (48) but it was later published in Boston, Massachusetts, as the 'London Hornpipe'. (49) The scansion suggests to me that the name 'Navvie on the Line' may originally have been a mnemonic ditty or piece of doggerel.

FT 1487, 'Country Dance'

A tune in 6/8 time which Sharp also collected a few days later (as 'Jig') from James Higgins (aged eighty-eight) in Shepton Mallet Union Workhouse. (50)

FT 1488, 'Country Dance' (see Appendix)

Another unnamed, and undotted, hornpipe. O'Neill published a version as the 'Bath Road Hornpipe'; (51) and a third, more ornate, version has been published in Tro Llaw. (52)

FT 1489, 'Country Dance'

A fairly standard, and undotted, version of the 'Bristol Hornpipe', a tune that seems to have been recorded by almost every traditional musician who played for step-dancing in southern and eastern England in the twentieth century, but seldom under this - or, indeed, any other - name. Most recorded versions exhibit some degree of variation from published versions, but Henry Cave's follows them very closely. (53)

Saturday, 14 September 1907, at Nettlebridge

FT 1506, 'Greensleeves'

The familiar tune associated variously with dancing over crossed (churchwarden) 'bacca' pipes, flails, or whips. Sharp subsequently noted versions in 2/4 and 4/4 time, but he had already noted it in 6/8 from John Mason as a 'Tobacco Pipe Dance' on 28 March 1907 and from James Higgins at nearby Shepton Mallet the day before. (54) This date, 14 September 1907, was the evening on which Sharp arranged for Henry Cave to play for public dancing at the Nettlebridge Inn, as witnessed by Florence Kettlewell, and it was probably at that event that Cave played this tune, perhaps for the broom (possibly broomstick) or tongs dance that Sharp saw performed on that occasion. It was the only tune that Sharp had not noted previously from Henry Cave - or the only one that he was able, or perhaps inclined, to note.

Tunes Noted from Tom Cave

The tunes headed 'Country Dance' are only given this designation by Sharp in Folk Tunes; in his Field Notebooks they are untitled.

Wednesday, 11 September 1907, at Evercreech

FT 1490, Four-Hand Reel'

A version of the 'Morpeth Rant'. In bars 7 and 8 of the A music Sharp uses the symbol for a mordent: i.e. the note itself, the note above, the note itself.

FT 1491, 'Country Dance'

An unidentified hornpipe.

FT 1492, 'Country Dance '

An unidentified hornpipe.

FT 1493, 'Country Dance' (see Appendix)

A close version of the tune published in Tro Llaw as the 'Magestero Hornpipe', (55) a somewhat different version of which may also have been played by Henry Cave (see FT 1483 above). This tune, another version of which was published by Thomas Craig as the 'Haymarket Hornpipe' (56) bears an obvious resemblance to the 'Cliff Hornpipe' and is one of a large family of tunes sharing the same melodic outline or elements. Some of those features also seem to occur in FT 1485, 1495, and the analogues I have cited. Beatrice Hill's '(Herefordshire) Breakdown', recorded by Peter Kennedy in 1952, seems to share features of both this tune and the 'Cliff Hornpipe'. (57)

FT 1494, 'Country Dance'

An unidentified hornpipe.

FT 1495, 'Country Dance' (see Appendix)

A version of a hornpipe also played by Henry Cave (see FT 1485 above). While Henry Cave dotted the whole of the distinctive first six bars of the B music, his father only dotted the second pair of semiquavers in bars 1, 2, and 4 of that passage.

Technique, Style, and Repertoire

It is, of course, impossible to say how either Henry or Tom Cave played their tunes or their instruments. It is apparent from the many photographs available that both held their fiddles squarely in the horizontal under the chin, and that Tom held his elbow out, while Henry seems to have preferred a dropped elbow. Significantly, but not unusually, both tucked the little finger of the right hand (both played right-handed) between the hairs and the stick of the bow. This practice, which affords a maximum combination of flexibility and control, was common among untrained English fiddlers with similar repertoires, as is borne out by photographs of John Mason (58) and Stephen Baldwin, (59) and, perhaps most significantly, A. van Anrooy's line drawing of the fiddler Charles Benfield of Bould, Oxfordshire. (60)

As we have seen, Sharp described Henry Cave as a first-rate fiddler and reportedly described his father Tom and his mother as 'expert players'. These appraisals must obviously be weighed in the light of Sharp's musical background. This does not necessarily mean that Henry Cave's playing was at the accessible (to the trained musician) end of the spectrum of 'traditional' fiddling; it may say more about Sharp's own understanding of the music the Caves played. However, elements in Sharp's notation of the playing of both Henry and Tom Cave - the 'Scotch snaps', flourishes, and their use of triplets, trills, and mordents - suggest both that they were sophisticated exponents of their art and that Sharp made every effort to record their musical personalities rather than merely the tunes in his notations. However, the only indications that Sharp himself provides of either player's technique or style are his description of Henry Cave's rendition as 'Fast & smooth' (FT 1364) and his references to, or notation of, the patterns of dotting and slurring in individual tunes.

It is also impossible to guess what criteria, if any, Sharp employed when selecting tunes for notation, other than that his prime interest lay in music for dancing. He was obviously not averse to collecting tunes more than once from the same musician, or to collecting tunes with which he was already familiar. It may be significant that the only tunes that Sharp noted from the playing of both Henry and Tom Cave are the rare hornpipes (FT 1483/1493, 1485/1495), and it is possible that he did not duplicate tunes they had in common that were already familiar to him.

In all, Sharp collected twenty-three items (including duplicates) from the Caves: seventeen from Henry and six from Tom. Of Henry's tunes, he noted four in 6/8 time (FT 1478, 1480, 1487, 1506) and the remainder in 2/4 time. Tom's tunes were all noted in 2/4 time. In Sharp's Field Notebooks the notations lack time signatures, but he added them to his Folk Tunes fair copies. The tunes were noted in G (nine tunes), A, a feature in particular of Tom Cave's playing (eight tunes), and D (six tunes). Sharp noted the tune that Henry Cave called the 'Sailor's Hornpipe' from him in both G (FT 1364) and A (FT 1482); while Henry and Tom Cave seem to have played versions of the same unnamed hornpipe in G (FT 1483) and D (FT 1493), respectively.

Sharp designated the unnamed hornpipes he noted from the playing of the Caves 'Country Dance', assigning to them (along with named hornpipes and similar tunes) a time signature of 2/4 in Folk Tunes. In both the Field Notebooks and Folk Tunes he noted all of these tunes with a single set of four quavers (or the equivalent) to the bar. At the same time, he was noting James Higgins's hornpipes, and his version of 'The Triumph' in 4/4 time, with two sets of four quavers (or the equivalent) to the bar. This is the modern convention, which had also been adopted by Kerr in his Merry Melodies in the 1870s, although the time signature of 2/2, favoured by O'Neill, is also found in some modern collections.

Sharp noted James Higgins's 'Radstock Tune' in 2/4 time, with two sets of four semiquavers (or the equivalent) to the bar. He did not otherwise adopt the practice he used for the Caves' hornpipes, and it therefore seems likely that those notations are intended to reflect something he heard in their playing, possibly a faster tempo.

The tunes in 6/8 time include 'Greensleeves', which may have been associated with the 'tongs dance' recorded by Georgia Pearce. The other tunes in 6/8 time, including 'Haste to the Wedding', may be associated with set (social) dances, and the same may be true of'Speed the Plough' (not strictly a hornpipe), which Sharp published (from a different source) as a country dance in his first Country Dance Book (which also contains two versions of 'Haste to the Wedding').61 'The Triumph' was presumably associated with the longways dance of that name, which Sharp also published in his first Country Dance Book. (62) Henry Cave's 'Bricks and Mortar' may have been associated with the step-dance for rows of dancers described by Florence Kettlewell; and Tom Cave's 'Four-Hand Reel' (a version of the 'Morpeth Rant') was presumably associated with the dance of that name for four (step-)dancers, which Sharp recorded on the same occasion.

The weighting in favour of hornpipes - that is to say, in favour of tunes with a potential association with step-dancing - may reflect the preference of the Caves, If the selection were Sharp's - who might have been expected to concentrate on tunes associated with social dancing - then the weighting in favour of hornpipes would be even more significant, for it would suggest that the division really does reflect their actual repertoires. Certainly, Florence Kettlewell's own reminiscences confirm the prominence of step-dancing at 'entertainments' in the area, while none of the types of dance listed by Georgia Pearce could strictly be described as social dances. The range of hornpipes, both familiar and unfamiliar, that the Caves played for Sharp, and the ornamentation they employed in them, supports the suggestion I have made elsewhere that by this time tunes associated with social dancing ('Haste to the Wedding', 'The Triumph') constituted a static element in the fiddler's repertoire, associated with a static repertoire of dances that was in public ownership; while tunes associated with stepdancing represented a dynamic element, a repertoire that fiddlers might themselves select and choose to perform (which is not to say that the step-dancers did not have their own favourites), and decide how to perform them. (63)

Although otherwise untitled tunes are headed 'Country Dance' (which Sharp also used as a subtitle for some of the named tunes), the fact that, in the case of Tom Cave, Sharp left them completely untitled in his Field Notebooks indicates that the term was Sharp's own. His use of it might reflect observations made by Henry Cave, but if so, what Cave meant by it remains unknown.

As is the case with other English fiddlers (notably Stephen Baldwin and James Higgins), the Caves' repertoire includes a few tunes or versions of tunes (FT 1483/1493, 1485/1495, 1488, for example) that are not, or are only seldom, found elsewhere (and apparently were unpublished prior to the twentieth century). Intriguingly, the items represented by FT 1483/1493 and 1488 seem to have survived in similar isolation in Ireland. Taken with the tunes that I have (as yet) been unable to identify, this element in the repertoires of Henry and Tom Cave suggests that the pool of tunes on which they could draw - certainly in the case of hornpipes - was somewhat different from the repertoire that is suggested by nineteenth-century published sources and manuscript tune books.

English Fiddling

The tunes that Cecil Sharp noted in Somerset, the Welsh Marches, and the Cotswolds in the first decade of the twentieth century represent the most substantial body of traditional (instrumental music) collected in England before the Second World War, after which audio recording became the norm in this context. Notwithstanding Sharp's reference to 'conversations with [...] concertina players', all of the tunes he collected in Somerset - and most of those he collected elsewhere - were noted from the playing of fiddlers. The only contemporary comparison, outside of the many manuscript tune books that survive from the nineteenth century, is with the tunes that Clive Carey collected in Essex and Sussex. While these, along with the tunes in Sharp's manuscripts, can only tell us something about repertoire and such details of performances as were noted by the collectors, we do know what a few other traditional fiddlers who were active before (and after) the First World War sounded like from audio recordings, notably those of Stephen Baldwin (b.1873) in the Forest of Dean, (61) Bill Goringe (b.1871) in Sussex, (65) and Herbert Smith ([pounds sterling].1892) in Norfolk. (66) These serve to scotch a few oft-rehearsed myths about the last generations of traditional fiddlers in England, specifically that they only employed single strokes of the bow, and that they could not do that without droning. The technical characteristics that are actually observable are 'back-bowing' (using an up-bow for stressed notes) and 'cross-bowing' (slurring on to the beat), while stylistically the subjugation of melody to rhythm is apparent to varying degrees in these and other English fiddlers. It is impossible from Sharp's notations to form a real idea of what Henry Cave or his father might have sounded like, although there are indications of pace and decoration/ornamentation (see notes to individual tunes above). More recent recordings of Gypsy fiddlers in England suggest a more mellifluous approach to repertoire, including hornpipes, (67) so we cannot assume that Henry Cave emphasized rhythm in the same way as the gorgio (non-traveller) fiddlers I have referred to. Given Sharp's credentials, and bearing in mind his sensibilities, some store must evidently be set by his description of Henry Cave as a 'first-rate fiddler'.

Acknowledgements

I am particularly indebted to Keith Chandler and Norman Burton who placed the often hard-earned results of their own researches completely at my disposal. This article would have been impossible without their help and they both deserve more than this mention in dispatches. I should also like to thank Paul de Grae, Tom Randall, Bob Patten, and Chris Howell for reacting so generously to my attempts to pick their brains, and the staff of Aberdeen University and Yeovil libraries. It goes without saying, of course, that my special gratitude is due to Malcolm Taylor and the staff of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, especially Rebecca Hughes, for providing me with most of the materials on which this article is based and much more besides.

Appendix: Tune Transcriptions

This selection is based on the 'added interest' of a tune, whether that lies in the detail of Sharp's notation of the performance or in what it may suggest about the Caves' repertoire. For the sake of comparison I have included notations of two tunes from both Henry and Tom Cave.

My transcriptions are based on Sharp's notations as they appear in Folk Tunes. With the exception of the added time signatures, Sharp's notations in his Field Notebooks are identical. The use of one beamed group of four quavers to the bar in tunes in 2/4 time, rather than two pairs of beamed quavers to the bar, is Sharps.

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Notes

(1.) Castle Cary Visitor, February 1908, p. 15.

(2.) Castle Cary Visitor, February 1908, p.9. (3.) Castle Cary Visitor, February 1908, p. 9.

(4.) London, VWML, Sharp MSS, Press Cuttings Books, 1906-1908, p. 92, Bladud, 25 December 1907.

(5.) Sharp MSS, Press Cuttings Books, 1906-1908, p. 92, Bath Herald, 23 December 1907.

(6.) Sharp MSS, Press Cuttings Books, Bristol Mercury and Daily Post, 12 December 1891, p. 7.

(7.) Mary Mason, Olde News (lntp://www/portbury-himdred.co.uk/pagel la.html) [accessed 18 November 2010]. The 1881 census for Wraxall gives Roger William Ford's age on 3 April 1881 as twenty-three.

(8.) 1901 census and 1911 census. The George Inn, with Harriet Pearce standing at the door, is shown in Figure 8.

(9.) Alice Witcombe (nee Dowling), interview with Tom Randall, 6 February 1974, published in Tom Randall, 'Henry Cave: A Somerset Fiddler', Five Arches, 3 (December 1986).

(10.) Sharp's photographs of Tom Cave senior, Henry Caves father, comprise London, VWML, Cecil J. Sharp MSS, Photograph Collection, A28(b)-(d). The photograph that has been identified as being of Tom Cave junior, Henry Caves brother, and his wife Elizabeth is Sharp MSS, Photograph Collection, A38(a). All four photographs were taken outside the same house and at the same time of day, as the shadows indicate. One of Sharps three photographs of Henry Cave (Sharp MSS, Photograph Collection, A37(a)) may have been taken in the same street, but if so it was at a quite different time of day.

(11.) London, VWML, letter of the Rev. Gordon H. Ridler, The Vicarage, Evercreech, to Dave Bland, 18 July 1975. The Rev. Ridler adds a note to the effect that 'Torn was buried in Evercreech cemetery on 28th March 1913, aged 86'. It seems reasonable to suppose that he had read this information relating to Tom Cave senior in the church records and had erroneously understood that this was the same Tom Cave as Mrs Cox was describing - assuming, of course, that Mrs Cox's identification of the man in the photograph as Tom Cave junior was correct.

(12.) London, VWML, letter of the Rev. Cordon H. Ridler, The Vicarage, Evercreech, to Dave Bland, 5 August 1975.

(13.) Cambridge, Archive of Clare College, ACC1987/25, Cecil J. Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes 1646, 1647, respectively (cited from microfilm in London, VWML).

(14.) F B. Kettlewell, 'Trinkum-Trinkumsof Fifty Years (Taunton: Barnicott and Pearce, 1927), pp. 61-62.

(15.) Quoted in Kettlewell, p. 63.

(16.) Kettlewell, p. 63.

(17.) Keith Ramsey, The Mines of the Bristol and Somerset Coalfield (http://projects.exetcr.ac.uk/ mhn/b_s_coal/index.htm) [accessed 1 June 2010].

(18.) Information relating to occupations in the Somerset coalfield in the 1901 and 1911 censuses.

(19.) London, VWML, Cecil J. Sharp MSS, Field Notebooks, Words, 1907/2, p. 116.

(20.) Although Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes 1487, 1488, suggest that Sharp noted these tunes on 11 September 1907, they fall within a sequence of tunes (Folk Tunes 1483-1489) that Sharp is known to have collected on 10 September 1907. Sharp MSS, Field Notebooks, Tunes, 1907/11, p. 1 (which relates to Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes 1488) is dated 10 September 1907. Sharp himself describes collecting tunes from Henry Cave on 9 and 10 September 1907, and from his father, Tom Cave, on 11 September 1907.

(21.) London, VWML, Cecil J. Sharp MSS, Correspondence, Box 3, Cecil J. Sharp to Constance Sharp, 14 September 1907.

(22.) Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes 1496-1499, 1501, 1503-1505. The tune on p. 1497, nowadays known as the 'Shepton Mallet Hornpipe', is a version of an early nineteenth-century song called 'Careless Sally. Sharp visited James Higgins again on 31 December 1907, when he noted another four tunes: 'My love is but a lassie yet', 'Bonnets So Blue', a 'Hornpipe', and the 'Radstock Tune'. The last, nowadays generally known as the 'Radstock Jig', is a version of a tune known in Ireland as 'Poll Ha'penny' or 'Hawk's Hornpipe' and closely related to 'Gilderoy'/' The Red-haired Boy'/'Little Beggar Man' (and via them to the 'First of May'/'Skillet Pan' and thence, ultimately, to "The Rakes of Kildare' - an extraordinary lineage).

(23.) Sharp MSS, Correspondence, Box 3, Cecil J. Sharp to Constance Sharp, 15 September 1907.

(24.) See the review in the Morning Post, I June 1910, of a lecture given by Sharp the previous day in which he described a meeting 'in Herefordshire' with 'a celebrated gipsy fiddler' (probably John Lock).

(25.) Kettlewell, pp. 63-64.

(26.) For more about Alfred Parfitt, see Bob and Jacqueline Patten, Somerset Scrapbook ([n.p.]: INA Books, 1978), pp. 86-88. His nickname was evidently pronounced Cawfie. Florence Kettlewell's Korfie is a phonetic transcription which would doubtless have been understood by her intended audience but inadvertently suggests an r before thef.

(27.) London, VWML, Dave Bland papers, untitled and undated newspaper cutting.

(28.) Castle Cary Visitor, February 1908, p.9.

(29.) Sharp MSS, Correspondence, Box 3, Cecil Sharp to Rev. F. Etherington, 29 December 1907.

(30.) Wm. C. Honeyman, Strathspey, Reel and Hornpipe Tutor (Blyth: Dragonfly Music, 1988 [1898]).

(31.) Francis O'Neill, The Music of Ireland (Chicago: Lyon and Healy, 1903), no. 1696; Francis O'Neill, The Dance Music of Ireland (Chicago: Lyon and Healy, 1907), no. 894.

(32.) Kerr's Merry Melodies, vol. 4 (Glasgow: James S. Kerr, [1870s?]), p. 29 (no. 272).

(33.) Empire Violin Collection of Hornpipes (Aberdeen: Thomas Craig, [nineteenth century]), p. 2.

(34.) Northumbrian Pipers'Tunebook ([n.p].: Northumbrian Pipers' Society, 1936), p. 15.

(35.) See Mike Yates, 'Tunes for the Salmon Fishers: John Hall and the Music of Spittal', Musical Traditions internet magazine, article MT102 (http://www.mustrad.org.uk/articles/j_hall.htm) [accessed 6 March 2011].

(36.) Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales, NLW336D, NLW 329B, Manuscripts of Thomas Llewelyn (d.1879) of Aberdare, South Wales; published in Tro Llaw, ed. by Robin Huw Bowen (Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales, 1987), nos. 38, 38a, 38b.

(37.) [William Bradbury] Ryans Mammoth Collection (Boston, MA: Elias Howe, [c.1882]), p. 150. For historical details of all these tunes see the Fiddler's Companion website (http://www.ibiblio.org/fiddlers/index.html).

(38.) Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes 1254.

(39.) To borrow a term from jazz to illustrate the point: the score of 'In the Mood', popularized by the Glenn Miller Orchestra (1939), does not include any dotting but has the expression 'Swung' at the start. The composer, Joe Garland, was critically influenced by 'Tar Paper Stomp' written and recorded by the New Orleans bandleader Joseph 'Wingy' Manone in 1930. This is not to suggest that the traditional fiddler might have felt an affinity with Glenn Millers music - Reg Hall learned locally that the Norfolk fiddler Walter Bulwer could not stand it! (personal communication).

(40.) See the account reprinted in D[ouglas] N. K[ennedy], 'Bricks and Mortar', EDS, 40.2 (1978), 59.

(41.) Copy of private recording by Frank Purslow in author's collection.

(42.) Manuscripts of Thomas Llewelyn; published in Tro Llaw, no. 158.

(43.) Manuscripts of John Moore (b.1819), of Wellington, Shropshire, p. 103; published in The Ironbridge Hornpipe, ed. by Gordon Ashman (Blyth: Dragonfly Music, 1991), no. 43.

(44.) Rawtenstall, Lancashire, Rossendale Museum, Manuscripts of James Nuttall of Rossendale.

(45.) For details of other versions, see Philip Heath-Coleman, 'Name that Tune: Waifs and Strays of English Melody', Musical Traditions internet magazine, article MT251(http://www.mustrad.org.uk/articles/waifs.htm) [accessed 7 March 2011].

(46.) Francis O'Neill, Waifs and Strays of Gaelic Melody (Chicago: Lyon and Healy, 1922), no. 313; F. Roche, Collection of Irish Airs, Marches & Dance Times, compiled and arranged for violin, mandoline, pipes or flute, rev. edn, 3 vols (Dublin: Pigott, [1927]), no. 182.

(47.) Kohlers Violin Repository of Dance Music (Edinburgh: Ernest Kohler & Son, 1881-85), p, 15. The attribution may have been made (correctly or incorrectly) by the editor, W. B. Laybourn, 'a professional player', who lived at North Shields 1845-58.

(48.) Kerr's Merry Melodies, vol. 1 (Glasgow: James S. Kerr, [1870s?]), p. 42 (no. 42).

(49.) Ryan's Mammoth Collection, p. 122 (no. 174).

(50.) Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes 1505, noted on 13 September 1907.

(51.) O'Neill, The Music of Ireland, no. 1682.

(52.) Manuscripts of Thomas Llewelyn; published in Tro Llaw, no. 120, where the editor bestowsthe name 'Brecon Hornpipe' on the tune in order to distinguish it from other untitled tunes.

(53.) See Heath-Coleman, 'Name that Tune'.

(54.) Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes 1255, 1499.

(55.) Manuscripts of Thomas Llewelyn; published in Tro Llaw, no. 144.

(56.) Empire Violin Collection of Hornpipes, p. 6.

(57.) Morris Dances from the West Midlands, CD (Folktrax FTX-115, [n.d.]), track 34.

(58.) Sharp MSS, Photograph Collection, A19c.

(59.) (59.) See Philip Heath-Coleman., notes to Stephen Baldwin, Here's one you'll like, I think: Traditional Fiddle Music from the Forest of Dean, CD (Musical Traditions MTCD334, 2005); Musical Traditions internet magazine, article MT160 (http://www.mustrad.org.uk/articles/baldwin.htm) [accessed 7 March 2011].

(60.) Reproduced in Maud Karpeles, Cecil Sharp: His Life and Work (London: Routlege & Kegan Paul, 1967), plate 12.

(61.) Cecil J. Sharp, The Country Dance Rook, Part 1, 2nd edn, rev. and ed. by Maud Karpeles (London: Novello, 1934), pp. 39, 48-49.

(62.) Sharp, The Country Dance Book, Part 1, p. 46.

(63.) Heath-Coleman, notes to Baldwin, Here's one you'll like, I think.

(64.) Baldwin, Here's one you'll like, I think.

(65.) Scan Tester, I Never Played to Many Posh Dances, CD (Topic TSCD581 D, 2009).

(66.) Norfolk Village Music, CD (Folktrax FTX-328, 1980).

(67.) Two tunes played by Harry Lee ('Breakdown' and 'Flowers of Edinburgh1) are included in My father's the king of the gypsies: Music of English & Welsh Travellers & Gypsies, The Voice of the People, ed. by Reg Hall, vol. 11, CD (Topic TSCD661, 1998), track 14; and Joe Smith can be heard playing an unnamed tune (in schottische time, but the first strain is the same as the sixth part of the 'Londonderry Hornpipe' as published in O'Neill, The Dance Music of Irelandy no. 925) in the background on Phoebe and Joe Smith and family, I am a Romany, CD (Folktrax FTX-100, [n.d.]), track 19. An echo of Gypsy style may also be present in Fred Whitings performance of Essex (later Suffolk) Gypsy Billy Harris's 'Hornpipe' (once again played as a schottische) which he may have acquired via 'Harkie' (Harcourt) Nesling. See Keith Summers, 'Sing, Say or Pay!', ch. 10 "The Earl Soham Slog', Musical Traditions internet magazine, article MT028 (http://www.mustrad.org.uk/ssp/singsay4.htm) [accessed 20 September 2011] and Fred Whiting, Old-Time Hornpipes, Polkas and Jigs, CD (Musical Traditions MTCD350, 2011).
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Date:Dec 20, 2011
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