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Scientific significance of the botanical data collected by Josef Jundzill during expedition for plant, animal and mineral study through Lithuania in 1821/Juzefo jundzilo (Josef Jundzill) ekspedicijoje lietuvos augalams, gyvunams ir mineralams tirti 1821 metais sukauptu botanikos duomenu moksline reiksme.

Introduction

J. Jundzill was a Professor of Natural Sciences of Vilnius University. His life and scientific activities: studies of natural sciences at the Imperial University of Vilnius in 1812-1815 and abroad: in Halle, Gotingen, Paris, Freiberg and London in 1817-1820; research work at the Imperial University of Vilnius in 1823-1832 and Botanical Garden in 1825-1829 were analyzed by several authors (Bielinski 1903: 168-170; Mowszowicz 1987: 239), and most comprehensively by P. Kohler (2004: 83-117). For the development of botany science in Lithuania is very important an expedition performed by J. Jundzill in 1821.

In May-September, 1821, J. Jundzill with assistant J. Krinicki (later professor of mineralogy and zoology at Kharkiv University) went on a scientific trip through the central, western and northern parts of the present day Lithuanian territory, collecting plants, fungi, animals and minerals. The expedition started in Vilnius. Its route passed alongside the biggest rivers of Lithuania, i.e. Neris, Nemunas, Dubysa, Nevezis, Sventoji, and Venta towards the Baltic Sea, and included Vilnius, Kernave, Jonava, Ukmerge, Kaunas, Kedainiai, Vilkija, Ariogala, Raseiniai, Jurbarkas, Taurage, Sveksna, Rietavas, Plunge, Kretinga, Palanga, Pape Lake, Kalvarija, Vieksniai, and Zagare environs. During the expedition, J. Jundzill wrote a diary. Wherein he described the route of the trip and the plants, insects and soils discovered.

This diary he sent to the Council of the University of Vilnius and to the Ministry of Education of Russian Imperium, to which Vilnius University belonged at that time. The manuscript of this diary has survived and a copy is preserved at the Lithuanian State History Archive. In the following year, 1822, J. Jundzill published the diary version in the journal "Pamietnik Farmaceutyczny Wilenski" (1822a: 438-446; 1822b: 574-587).

Authors of many fundamental books about Lithuanian flora have used the materials of J. Jundzill's expedition published in the journal "Pamietnik Farmaceutyczny Wilenski". The expedition itself, time of travel, route, and visited localities are discussed by Hrynewecki (1933: 108-111), Merkys (1960: 54), Galinis (1971: 13), and Kohler (2004: 83-117). Some parts of the diary were also published in the book about Vilnius and Kremenets schools of botany by Grebecka (1998: 141-143).

However, up to now there has been no special work revealing the scientific significance of the botanical data collected by J. Jundzill during this expedition for flora distribution studies in Lithuania. Therefore, this paper aims to fill this gap.

My goal was to analyze the present distribution of the plants registered by J. Jundzill, and, thereby, to observe the temporal changes in the plant species distribution. Thus to present the significance of botanical data collected during the expedition for the formation of plant distribution studies in Lithuania.

Materials and methods

Materials entitled "O wojazach Magistra Jundzilla w przedmiocie botaniki za granica i w kraju" (About the journeys of Master Jundzill on the subject of botany abroad and in the native land) (Fig. 1) are preserved at the Lithuanian State History Archive in fund 721, inventory 1, file 101.

These materials include J. Jundzill's letters to Professor S. Jundzill during his journey for natural history studies in Europe, S. Jundzill's application to the Senate of the Imperial University of Vilnius and Ministry of Education to organize a scientific journey in Vilnius province, the agreement of the Ministry of Education to organize such expedition, and the diary which J. Jundzill wrote during the journey for collecting natural history objects in Vilnius Governorate (most of the territory of Lithuania belonged to the Russian Imperia in 1795-1915 and was generally called Vilna Governorate).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The last part of the above-mentioned manuscript includes the materials of J. Jundzill's expedition. The journey materials are composed of 4 reports. They include information about the route, investigated localities, precise data of arrival to the chosen localities and departure, as well as names of the recorded plants, fungi, insects and soils. Information about plants occupies the largest part of registered objects.

Each report was written from different place of Lithuania and at different time. In the end of each report the lists of collected plants are given. The diary is comprised of very concrete facts and enables us to evaluate the scientific significance of the data.

The methods of investigation are descriptive and analytical.

The currently used names of the plants from J. Jundzill's journey were determined using P. Kohler book "Zielnik Josefa Jundzilla" (1995). This book describes the historical herbarium of J. Jundzill with plant names after their revision to the present day nomenclature.

Present distribution of J. Jundzill's collected plants was determined using data of fundamental works about Lithuanian flora (Snarskis 1950; Minkevicius et al. 1959-1980; Balevicius et al. 1992; Naujalis et al. 1995; Laasimer et al. 1993; Kuusk et al. 1996, 2003; Jukoniene 2003; Rasomavicius et al. 2007). Three criterions: frequent, infrequent (meaning a plant is infrequent but distributed throughout the whole territory) and rare were used for determining a plant's frequency.

Natural objects registered by J. Jundzill during the expedition

As mentioned above, the diary is composed of 4 reports. All of them had supplemental lists of the collected objects (Fig. 2). The first report was written in Kaunas on June 21st. In the supplement, 239 names of plants, 10 of lichens, 8 of fungi, 1 of algae and 64 of insects collected on the way from Vilnius to Kaunas; visiting Ukmerge and Jonava is mentioned. The second report was written in Raseiniai on July 14th. It contains 116 names of plants, 11 of lichens, 2 of algae and 23 of fungi collected on the way from Kaunas to Raseiniai visiting Kedainiai, Vilkija, and Ariogala. The third report was written in Palanga on August 14. In this supplement J. Jundzill mentioned 88 plants, 15 of lichens, 3 of algae, 11 of fungi and 44 of insects collected on the way from Raseiniai to Palanga through Jurbarkas, Taurage, Sveksna, Plunge, and Kretinga. He wrote the last report in Vilnius on the 5th of September and indicated 48 names of plants, 3 of lichens, 2 of algae, 1 of fungus and 12 of insects collected on the way from Palanga to Riga through Salantai, Kalvarija, Papile, Zagare and Jelgava in its supplement. Just a few species of fishes (Esox belone and Squalus pristis) and common birds called ducks are registered in the third report. Likewise, description of the soils is also poor.

Revision of plant species by J. Jundzill's expedition and their present distribution in Lithuania

All in all, 585 names of plants are recorded in 4 reports. While comparing the material of J. Jundzill's herbarium and the names of plants from his manuscript, the names of plants, which corresponding to the contemporary nomenclature of botany, were ascertained. Among all revised plants in the herbarium 1854 specimens, 231 belong to those collected during the expedition. These 231 specimens are registered in all reports. Most of them (152) are registered in the first report that includes plants collected by J. Jundzill on the way from Vilnius to Kaunas. Among them there are 120 specimens of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta), 30 specimens of bryophytes (Bryophyta), 1horsetail (Equisetophyta) and 1 fern (Polypodiophyta). 37 specimens are from the second report, including plants collected on the road from Kaunas to Raseiniai. Among them there are 14 specimens of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta), 19 of bryophytes (Bryophyta) and 4 of ferns (Polypodiophyta). 23 specimens were collected during the third journey on the road Raseiniai-Palanga, including 17 flowering plants (Magnoliophyta), 2 ferns (Polypodiophyta), 1 clubmoss (Lycopodiophyta) and 3 bryophytes (Bryophyta). 19 specimens are mentioned in the 4th report, including material collected on the road Palanga-Riga. Among them there are 18 flowering plants (Magnoliophyta) and 1 bryophyte (Bryophyta).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

The largest amount of plants specimens was collected by J. Jundzill in the surroundings of Vilnius, Kaunas, Jonava and Palanga.

Then, a comparison of all reviewed plants with the present data of their distribution was performed. After the revision it was determined that 90 % of them are frequent or infrequent and distributed throughout the whole territory of Lithuania.

Rare or presently endangered plant species found by J. Jundzill during the expedition and their present distribution in Lithuania

Records of the rare plants found by J. Jundzill during the expedition constitute the most interesting part of the information. In the end of the 4th report, which was written in Vilnius on 5 September, J. Jundzill indicated: "We found very rare species and species which have never been found before, such as Callitriche intermedia, Circaea alpina, Circaea intermedia, Calamagrostis schleicheri, Koeleria cristata, Sesleria caerulea, Scirpus caricinus, Primula farinosa, Salsola kali, Chenopodium villosum, Ribes alpinum, Swertia perennis, Lunaria rediviva, Alyssum montanum, Cakile maritima, Dentaria bulbifera, Taxus baccata, Betula nana, Myrica and many other cryptogams".

Only 8 specimens from this list (Callitriche intermedia, Circaea alpina, Salsola kali, Swertia perennis, Lunaria rediviva, Cakile maritima, Dentaria bulbifera, Betula nana) have survived in the herbarium. Species Salsola kali, Swertia perennis, Lunaria rediviva, Dentaria bulbifera and Betula nana are rare and 4 of them (Swertia perennis, Lunaria rediviva, Dentaria bulbifera, and Betula nana) are included into the Red Data Book of Lithuania. Yet, the species mentioned by J. Jundzill as rare: Callitriche intermedia, Circaea alpina, and Cakile maritima are frequent in Lithuanian flora. Among the 231 specimens in the revised herbarium data, presently 27 plant species are rare or endangered (Fig. 3). 14 of them are included into the list of protected species of Lithuania and into the Red Data Book of Lithuania. Some species (Taxus baccata, Carex stenophylla, Bry um knowltonii, Dicranum congestum, Fontinalis squamosa, Hygrohypnum molle, Meesia longiseta, and Neckera crispa) are included in the lists of Lithuanian flora only referring to J. Jundzill's materials, and have never been confirmed with herbarium specimens or as growing in the wild.

List of plant species from the expedition in the book "Opisanie roslin w Litwie, na Woiyniu, Podolu i Ukraine dziko rosnacych, iako i oswojonych. Podlug wydania szesnastego ukiadu roslin Linneusza" (1830)

This J. Jundzill's book is generally considered as the first modern flora compendium of Lithuania (Kohler 2004: 117; Grebecka 1998). The opinion that the plants collected during the expedition provided a basis for J. Jundzill's herbarium and the book also exists (Kohler 2004: 117; Grebecka 1998: 143).

After comparing botanical data of the expedition with the material of the book (Jundzill 1830) it was observed that the exact localities are indicated only for a small part of plants in the book, and that the definitions of the localities are unclear. For example, common Lithuanian plant Festuca hirsuta is only indicated as growing in Volhynia, Bromus inermis--only in Kaunas surroundings, Volhynia and Podolia, Atriplex patula--in Palanga. Clearer indications are given for some rare plants, for example, Betula nana grows near Jurbarkas. In the diary, J. Jundzill mentioned the places where rare species Swertia perennis, Dentaria bulbifera, and Dianthus superbus had been found, but these places are not indicated in the book. Moreover, J. Jundzill did not include some species from the expedition into the book. The reasons for this are unclear. From the revised list of collected plants, 18% of plants are not included, mostly the sedges or grasses from the genera Agrostis, Phleum, Festuca, Poa, Carex as well as--bryophytes, ferns and clubmosses. Probably he was not sure about the correct identification of these tricky species.

Conclusions

Summarizing the above-presented materials, some concluding remarks could be made.

J. Jundzill's journey and collected materials have had several meanings for botany development in Lithuania: as a historical event--the expedition which explored plants in a rather large territory of Lithuania in the 19th century, materials supplied in the reports are historical sources for investigations into the history of botany, and collected plant registers are valuable floristic information for present--day botanists. All fundamental work regarding Lithuanian flora is included in J. Jundzill's expedition data.

231 specimens of plants from the expedition remain in J. Jundzill's herbarium and confirm that these species really grew in Lithuania 200 years ago. In comparison with the current data, 90% of the plant species collected by J. Jundzill are frequent or infrequent and distributed throughout the entire territory of Lithuania. 10% are rare, and 14 species are included in the Red Data Book of Lithuania.

J. Jundzill's observations about the rare plants are among the first information about these endangered plants in Lithuania. More than 10 plant species have been included in the lists of Lithuanian plant species only following J. Jundzill's expedition data.

The book "Opisanie roslin w Litwie, na Woiyniu, Podolu i Ukraine dziko rosnacych, iako i oswojonych. Podiug wydania szesnastego ukladu roslin Linneusza" (Jundzill 1830) does not provide as much value for the flora distribution studies in Lithuania as the materials of the expedition.

Botanical data of the expedition can be treated as one of the first evidences for the formation of plant distribution studies in Lithuania.

DOI: 10.3846/est.2009.13

References

Balevicius, K.; Lapele, M.; Paltanavicius, S. (red.). 1992. Lietuvos raudonoji knyga. Vilnius: Lietuvos Respublikos aplinkos apsaugos departamentas.

Bielinski, J. 1903. Jundzill Jozef, in Mahrburg, A.; Straszewski, M. (Eds.). Wielka Encyklopedia Powszechna llustrowana, volume 33. Warszawa: Drukarnia Aleksandra Tadeusza Jezierskiego, 168-170.

Galinis, V. 1971. Pirmoji floristine ekspedicija, Musu gamta 8: 13.

Grebecka, W. 1998. Wilno--Krzemieniec botaniczna szkola naukowa (1791-1841). Warszawa: Retro-Art.

Hryniewiecki, B. 1933. Tentamen florae Lithuania. Warszawa: Towarzystwo Naukowe Warszawskie.

Jukoniene, I. 2003. Lietuvos kiminai ir zaliosios samanos. Vilnius: Botanikos instituto leidykla.

Jundzill, J. 1822a. Raport Pana Josefa Jundzilla do fakultetu fizyczno-matematycznego w Uniwersytecie Imperatorskim wilenskim przysiane z podrozy botaniczney po gubernii Wilenskiey, Pamietnik Farmaceutyczny Wilenski 2(3): 438-446.

Jundzill, J. 1822b. Trzy poznieysze raporta Pana Josefa Jundzilla do fakultetu fizyczno-matematycznego w Uniwersytecie Imperatorskim wilenskim przysiane z podrozy botaniczney po gubernii Wilenskiey, Pamietnik Farmaceutyczny Wilenski 2(3): 574-587.

Jundzill, J. 1830. Opisanie roslin w Litwie, na Woiyniu, Podolu i Ukraine dziko rosnacych, iako i oswojonych. Podiug wydania szesnastego ukiadu roslin Linneusza. Wilno: Drukarnia Josefa Zawadskiego Typografa Academickiego.

Kohler, P. 1995. Zielnik Jozefa Jundzilla (Herbarium of Jozef Jundzill). Krakow: W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Kohler, P. 2004. Jozef Jundzill (1794-1877). Materialy do biografii [Jozef Jundzill (1794-1877). Materials for his biography], Kwartalnik Historii Nauki i Techniki 49(1): 83-117.

Kuusk, V.; Tabaka, L.; Jankeviciene, R. (Eds.). 1996. Flora of the Baltic countries: compendium of vascular plants, vol. 2. Tartu: Estonian Agricultural University.

Kuusk, V.; Tabaka, L.; Jankeviciene, R. (Eds.). 2003. Flora of the Baltic countries: compendium of vascular plant, vol. 3. Tartu: Estonian Agricultural University.

Laasimer, L.; Kuusk, V.; Tabaka, L.; Lekavicius, A. (Eds.). 1993. Flora of the Baltic countries: compendium of vascular plants, vol. 1. Tartu: Estonian Agricultural University.

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Aurika Rickiene

Institute of Botany, Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Zaliuju ezeru g. 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania

E-mail: aurika.rickiene@botanika.lt

Aurika Rickiene

Botanikos instituto Augalu fiziologijos laboratorija, Zaliuju ezeru g. 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lietuva

El. pastas aurika.rickiene@botanika.lt

Aurika Rickiene is a Research Associate at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Institute of Botany. In 2003 she defended her doctoral thesis "Botany Science in Lithuania in 1944-1965". Her current scientific work prolongs the studies of the history of botany in Lithuania. She has published over 10 scientific publications, attended the 20th, 21st and 22nd International Baltic conferences on the history and philosophy of science (2000; 2003; 2006; 2008); History of Science Society's and the Society for the History of Technology Co-Located Meeting on 3-6 Nov. 2005 in Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2nd International Conference of the European Society for the History of Science, Cracow, Poland, Sept. 6-9, 2006.

She is the secretary of the Lithuanian Association of Plant Physiologists and a member of the Lithuanian Association of Historians of Science.

Aurika Rickiene yra Botanikos instituto Augalu fiziologijos laboratorijos mokslo darbuotoja. 2003 m. ji apgyne daktaro disertacije "Botanikos mokslas Lietuvoje 1944-1965 m." Siuo metu tyrineja botanikos mokslo istorija ir jo raida Lietuvoje XIX-XX a.

A. Rickiene viena ir su bendraautoriais paskelbe 7 straipsnius recenzuojamuose mokslo zurnaluose Lietuvoje ir uzsienyje, isspausdino straipsniu apie Lietuvos botanikus jiems skirtuose leidiniuose, kartu su bendraautore sudare knyga, kurioje publikavo augalu fiziologo LMA akademiko A. Merkio bibliografija. Ji yra dalyvavusi tarptautinese mokslo istoriku konferencijose Lietuvoje, Latvijoje, Estijoje, Lenkijoje, JAV.

A. Rickiene yra Lietuvos augalu fiziologu draugijos sekretore ir Lietuvos mokslo istoriku draugijos nare.
Fig. 3. List of rare or presently endangered plants found by J.
Jundzill during the journey

Plant name by J. Jundzill and locality (1821)--Plant name after
revision to the present day nomenclature (Kohler, 1995)--included
into the Red Data Book of Lithuania (RDBL) or rare

Scirpus campestris (Kernave)--Eleocharis quinqueflora (F. X. Hartmann)
O. Schwarz--rare

Aira aquatica (Jonava)--Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv.--rare

Juncus bulbosus (Palanga)--Juncus bulbosus L.--rare

Allium ursinum (Vepriai)--Allium ursinum L.--included in the RDBL

Dianthus superbus var. flore albo (Kaunas)--Dianthus superbus
L.--included in the RDBL

Geum urbanum (urbanum [beta] intermedium Ehrhart--herbare) (near
Jonava)--Geum aleppicum Jacq.--rare

Lunaria rediviva (near Jonava)--Lunaria rediviva L.--included in
the RDBL

Dentaria bulbifera (Karmelava)--Dentaria bulbifera (L.)
Crantz--included in the RDBL

Astragalus onobrychis (near Jonava Upninkai)--Onobrychis
arenaria (Kit.) DC.--rare

Hieracium dubium (near the Jonava Lokio stream)--Hieracium x
schultesii F. W. Schultz--rare

Orchis morio (Rastinenai near Vilnius)--Orchis morio
L.--included in the RDBL

Orchis maculata (banks of the Sventoji river)--Dactylorhiza
maculata (L.) Soo--included in the RDBL

Carex stenophyla (Kaunas)--Carex stenophylla Wahlenb--rare

Carex divulsa (Mazuriskes near Vilnius)--Carex divulsa Stokes--rare

Carex muricata (Kaunas)--Carex muricata L.--included in the RDBL

Carex retroflexa (Kernave)--Carex loliacea L.--rare

Hypnum recognitum (Mazuriskes near Maisiagala)--Thuidium recognitum
(Hedw.) Lindb.--rare

Mnium crudum (Jonava)--Pohlia cruda (Hedw.) Lindb.--included in the
RDBL

Gymnostomum microstomum (near Kaunas)--Hymenostomum microstomum
(Hedw.) R. Brown--rare

Jungermannia laevigata (Jonava)--Porellaplatyphylla (L.)
Pfeiff.--included in the RDBL

Jungermania serpyllifolia (Buda near Kedainiai)--Lejeunea cavifolia
(Ehrh.) Lindb.--included in the RDBL

Jungermania incisa (Buda near Kedainiai)--Lophozia incisa (Schrad.)
Dum.--rare

Iris sibirica (Raseiniai)--Iris sibirica L.--included in the RDBL

Salsola kali (Palanga)--Salsola kali L.--rare

Betula nana (near Jurbarkas)--Betula nana L.--included in the RDBL

Splachnum ampullaceum (Rietavas)--Splachnum ampullaceum Hedw.--rare

Saxifraga hirculus (Palanga)--Saxifraga hirculus L.--included in
the RDBL

Swertia perennis (near Palanga)--Swertia perennis L.--included in
the RDBL
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