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Schuhirandella fulva, new genus and new species from Western Australia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Bryocorinae: Monaloniina).

Abstract--Schuhirandella fulva, a new genus and new species from Western Australia, is described. A differential diagnosis for the genus is given, and is compared to other monaloniine and odonielline Bryocorinae. Digital images of habitus, SEM images, drawings of male and female genitalia, and information on host plants are provided.

Key words: New genus, new species, Miridae, Monaloniina, taxonomy, Western Australia.

INTRODUCTION

The plant bug subtribes Monaloniina and Odoniellina (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae: Bryocorinae: Dicyphini) are putative sister-groups, forming a monophyletic group in the subfamily Bryocorinae (Schuh, 1976). The Monaloniina and Odoniellina are distributed mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere, with the greatest diversity in the Oriental and Afrotropical regions, as well as six genera and nine species are known from Australia (Cassis and Gross, 1995; Stonedahl et al., 1995). The subtribe Monaloniina includes iconic raTa, such as the widespread genera Ragwelellus Odhiambo, 1962 and Helopeltis V. Signoret, 1858. Within Australia, the endemic genus Rayieria Odhiambo, 1962 is broadly distributed and includes many undescribed species.

The Monaloniina (except Felisacus Distant, 1904) and Odoniellina together are united by several external morphological characters, with the most important being the reduction of the efferent system of the metathoracic glands, linear trichobothria, absence of trichoma, bothrium tubercular, and unique structure of pretarsus with wide pseudopulvilli, hair-like parempodia and long guard setae (Schuh, 1976).

This work describes a new genus, Schuhirandella, gen. nov., from Western Australia, which is assigned to the Monaloniina based on diagnostic characters given in this work.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

SPECIMENS: The specimens have been databased in the Plant Bug Planetary Biodiversity Inventory database (http://research.amnh.org/pbi/databases/ locality_database.html), with each assigned a unique specimen identifier. These data can be accessed through the "Discover Life" website (http://www.discoverlife.org/). Type material is to be deposited in the Australian Museum (AM), the Western Australian Museum, (WAM), and the University of New South Wales (UNSW).

TERMINOLOGY AND HOMOLOGY: The structures of the male genitalia follow those described in Konstantinov (2003), except for the structure of endosoma which follows Cassis (2008). Terminology of female genitalia follows Davis (1955) and Schwartz (2011), the term "sclerotized bands" is taken from Stonedahl (1991). Dissection techniques follow those used by Kerzhner and Konstantinov (1999).

MICROSCOPY: A Hitachi desktop TM-3000 electron microscope was used to examine fine structures. Uncoated specimens were examined at low Kv (5-15 Kv). The habitus images were prepared using the Visionary Digital macrophotography system (www.visionarydigital.com) and concatenated in Helicon Focus software (www. heliconsoft.com). All images were edited using Photoshop CS3 and CS5 software.

MORPHOMETRICS: Measurements were taken using a digital micrometer and recorded with Winwedge software (www.winwedge.com) for the following body parts: body length, clypeus to cuneus length, head width, interocular distance, length of antennal segments I and II, pronotum length and width. Unless otherwise stated, all measurements are in millimeters.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

TAXONOMY

SCHUHIRANDELLA GEN. NOV.

ETYMOLOGY: The genus is named in honor of Dr. Randall T. Schuh of the American Museum of Natural History, on the occasion of his 70th birthday and for his remarkable contributions to our knowledge of the systematics of Heteroptera. The gender is feminine.

DIAGNOSIS: Schuhirandella gen. nov. is recognized by the following set of characters: body short, 3.8-5.4; clypeus bulged from lateral view (Fig. 2A); frons bulged between antennal fossae (Fig. 2D); longitudinal depression on head shorter than eye diameter; antenna distinctly shorter than body length (Fig. 1); antennal segment I subequal to half of vertex width, clothed with only simple setae (Fig. 2D); antennal segment II slightly shorter than length of head and pronotum combined, slightly bulged apically (Fig. 1); antennal segments III and IV short and clavate (Fig. 1); eyes only slightly bulged, not on stalks (Fig. 2B, D); labium slightly surpassing posterior margin of prosternum, but not reaching middle of mesosternum (Fig. 2A); labial segment I as long as or slightly longer than buccula (Fig. 2A); labial segment IV shorter than head (Fig. 2A); collar only slightly bulged; scutellum flattened, without outgrowths or rows of punctures laterally; pronotum and scutellum impunctate; posterior part of metepimeron roundish; metasternum without medial outgrowth; corium flat, without swellings; hemelytra without row of punctures on clavus and R + M vein, clothed with distinct suberect setae; R + M vein almost reaching apex of corium; inner margin of clavus slightly concave claval commissure longer than; inner margin of corium behind clavus straight; forecoxae removed from each other; foretibia distinctly shorter than head and pronotum combined; femora slightly widened apically, not curved; tarsal segment I 1.5 times as long as segment II and slightly longer than segment III (Fig. 2C); single hemelytral cell of membrane elongate, longer than distance from its apex to apex of membrane and longer than pronotum (Fig. 1); ductus seminis attached to phallobase on left side (Fig. 3A).

It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the phylogenetic relationships of Monaloniina and Odoniellina in depth. However, an understanding of characters and classification of the Monaloniina s.1. and Odoniellina s.1. is required to hypothesize the position of Schuhirandella (see Schuh, 1976 for phylogenetic relationships of these two tribes with other mifid groups). Our unpublished work indicates that each of the subtribes Monaloniina and Odoniellina sensu Schuh 1995 are not monophyletic, although together they undoubtedly form a clade and all the taxa within these two subtribes require suprageneric redefinition. Schuhirandella is similar to some members of the Odoniellina s.1. and Monaloniina s.1. in that they lack rows of punctures on the clavus and on the R + M vein, referred below as Odoniellina s. str. and Monaloniina s. str. accordingly. Representatives of Odoniellina s. str. include Bryocoropsis Schumacher, 1917, Boxia China, 1943, Boxiopsis Lavabre, 1960, Distantiella China, 1944, Microcarvalhoia Kerzhner and Schuh, 1998, Odoniella Haglund, 1895, Pseudodoniella China and Carvalho, 1957, Platyngomiriodes Ghauri, 1963, Platyngomiris Kirkaldy, 1902, Rhopaliceschatus Reuter, 1903, Sahlbergella Haglund, 1895, Volkeliopsis Poppius, 1915, Volkelius Distant, 1904, and Yangambia Schouteden, 1942. Schuhirandella shares some characters with this group of genera, such as oval and robust body, short antennae and legs, antennal segment I shorter than width of vertex, and subclavate or clavate antennal segments III and IV. However, those characters are not unique for Odoniellina s. str. and vary within other monaloniines and odoniellines.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Monaloniina s.str, includes Arthriticus Bergroth, 1923, Eucerocoris Westwood, 1837, Helopeltis V. Signoret, 1858, Monalonion HerrichSchaeffer, 1850, Ragwelellus Odhiambo, 1962, Rayieria Odhiambo, 1962, Physophoroptera Poppius, 1910, and Physophoropterella Poppius, 1914. We assume that Schuhirandella belongs to this group of genera rather than to other monaloniines or odoniellines. The following characters unite all those genera and Schuhirandella: scutellum not swollen, punctures on pronotum and scutellum absent, forecoxae not touching each other, posterior part of metepimeron not angulate, metasternum without outgrowth posteriorly, membrane cell longer than pronotum length, and distance from cell to apex of membrane distinctly shorter than cell length. Some of those characters, such as position of coxae and structure of metepimeron and metasternum are unique within Monaloniina and Odoniellina.

Arthrticus, Eucerocoris, Helopeltis and Ragwelellus can be easily separated from Schuhirandella by the elongate body, antennal segment I distinctly longer than head width and the long appendages. The Neotropical monaloniine genus Monalonion is similar to Schuhirandella in having a short antennal segment I, but differs from it in having an elongate body and long appendages. Physophoroptera and Physophopterella also have a relatively short body and appendages; however, they can be separated from Schuhirandella in having exaggerated outgrowths of the scutellum and posterior part of the corium. Schuhirandella is likely most closely related to the Australian endemic genus Rayieria, as it has frons and clypeus bulged, labium of similar length and structure. Some undescribed species of Rayieria are small and show similar body ratios as Schuhirandella fulva sp. nov. However, Rayieria can be easily separated in having antennal segment I distinctly longer than width of the head and segments III-IV not clavate.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

DESCRIPTION: Male: COLORATION (Fig. 1A): Head: Dorsally uniformly pale brown or brown, with pale brown irregular markings medially and reddish stripes behind eyes and along posterior margin; lateral, anterior, and ventral sides yellow. Antenna: Segment I yellow, brown or red; segment II uniformly yellow, yellow with base brown or reddish basally and apically; segments III and IV yellow or mostly reddish with yellow base. Labium: Mostly yellow, segment IV brownish black, yellow basally. Eye: Brown with reddish tinge. Thorax: Pronotum: Yellow medially, pale brown at sides, with or without reddish tinge. Scutellum and mesoscutum: Uniformly yellow or with mesoscutum and posterior angles of scutellum reddish brown. Pleurites: Uniformly yellow. Hemelytron: Yellow or reddish, cuneus with yellow outer margin, membrane transparent with greyish tinge, cell yellow or reddish. Legs: Coxae yellow, femora uniformly yellow or with reddish apex; tibiae uniformly yellow or with base reddish; tarsi yellow with segment III apically and claws dark brown to black. Abdomen: Uniformly yellow. SURFACE AND VESTITURE: Body smooth, glabrous, without any exaggerated outgrowths or punctation; hemelytron semitransparent. Body clothed with only simple setae; dorsum (except membrane) and abdomen clothed with dense, erect, pale setae, mostly as long as or slightly shorter than width of antennal segment II; setae on pleura and coxae semiadpressed, pale, and distinctly shorter than width of antennal segment II; antenna with dense erect brown to dark brown setae of different length, mostly slightly shorter than width of antennal segment II; antennal segment II apically, segments III and IV also with short, pale, semiadpressed setae; setae on femora and tibiae dense, erect, as long as or slightly shorter than width of antennal segment II, mostly brown to dark brown, yellow to pale brown at the base of femora; setae on tarsi dense, brownish, distinctly shorter than antennal segment II width. STRUCTURE AND MEASUREMENTS: Body relatively short (see Table 1). Head: Transverse (Fig. 2D), slightly convex dorsally (Fig. 2A); eye slightly bulging, not on stalks, half as long as vertex width, removed from pronotum by distance half as long as dorsal eye diameter (Fig. 2D); frons distinctly bulging between antennal fossae (Fig. 2D); vertex with an indistinct longitudinal depression shorter than eye diameter; transverse depression on dorsal side posteriorly almost indistinct (Fig. 2D); head anteriorly 1.5 times as wide as high (Fig. 2B); antennal fossa elongate, large, half as long as eye height (Fig. 2B); inferior margin of eye and antennal fossa at same level (Fig. 2B); base of clypeus slightly above inferior margin of eye (Fig. 2B); clypeus bulging from lateral view (Fig. 2A); eye laterally almost as high as distance from eye to apex of clypeus (Fig. 2A); head only slightly bulging ventrally (Fig. 2A); buccula slightly shorter than labial segment I and almost as long as distance between buccula to pronotum (Fig. 2A). Labium (Fig. 2A): Slightly surpassing posterior margin of prosternum, not reaching middle of mesosternum; segment I slightly longer than distance between buccula and pronotum; segment II slightly longer than segment I; segment III almost as long as segment I; segment IV 1.5 times as long as segment III, shorter than head. Antenna: Distinctly shorter than body length (Fig. 1A); segment I thickened, wider than clypeus, half as long as vertex width (Fig. 2D); segment II 3 times as long as segment I, widened apically; segment III twice as short as segment II, clavate; segment IV 1.5 times as short as segment III, clavate. Thorax: Pronotum: Only slightly raised posteriorly, not convex (Fig. 2A); collar long, only slightly shorter than calli, more or less delimited laterally and indistinctly delimited dorsally (Fig. 2D); calli slightly raised, but distinct and separated (Fig. 2D); depression between calli posteriorly absent. Mesoscutum and scutellum: Scutellum flattened, without row of punctures at sides; two punctures between mesoscutum and scutellum absent; apex of scutellum obtuse, not touching claval commisure: Pleura: Posterior part of metepimeron reduced, not angulate. Metepisternum: Without outgrowth. Hemelytron: Outer margin straight (Fig. 1A); clavus divided into two parts with uprising; inner margin of clavus slightly concave, longer than scutellum; inner margin of corium behind clavus straight; corium flat, without bulging posteriorly; hemelytron without rows of punctures on clavus and on R + M (Fig. 1A); R + M almost reaching apex of corium; outer margin of cuneus 3.5 times as long as base (Fig. 1A); membrane cell long, apically acute, extended into small vein posteriorly, cell longer than distance between cell and apex of membrane and distinctly longer than pronotum (Fig. 1A). Legs: Coxae not touching each other; femora slightly widened apically, straight; fore tibia distinctly shorter than head and pronotum combined; hind tibia distinctly shorter than half of body length; tarsal segment I 1.5 times as long as segment II and almost as long as segment III (Fig. 2C); claw broadly rounded, without teeth (Fig. 2F); parempodia shorter than pseudopulvilli; pseudopulvilli surpassing apex of claw; guard setae long (not seen on the SEM image). Genitalia: Genital capsule (Fig. 3D): Trapeziform, with supragenital bridge, not turned relatively to other segments, apex of ventral wall placed almost medially. Right paramere (Fig. 3B): Small, bulging medially and thin apically. Left paramere (Fig. 3C): 2.5 times as long as right paramere, medially straight, curved basally and apically. Aedeagus (Fig. 3A): Endosoma simple, not divided, without sclerotization; phallotheca rounded posteriorly, distinctly sclerotized dorsally and almost membranous laterally and ventrally, except a small sclerotized area on the right side; ductus seminis attached to phallobase on the left side; secondary gonopore not sclerotized and devoid of characteristic sculpture.

Female: COLORATION (Fig. 1B): Head: Yellow to pale brown, dorsum slightly darker than sides. Antenna: Segment I yellow with a reddish tinge; segment II mostly yellow with base and apex with a reddish tinge; segment III with basal half yellow and apical half reddish; segment IV mostly red with yellow base. Labium: As in male. Eye: Pale brown to brown. Thorax: Pronotum: Uniformly yellow or mostly pale brown, yellow medially. Scutellum and mesoscutum: Yellow, with or without a reddish tinge between. Pleura: Uniformly yellow. Abdomen: Mostly whitish yellow with a greenish tinge, segment IX yellow. SURFACE AND VESTITURE: As in male. STRUCTURE AND MEASUREMENTS: Generally larger than male with distinctly elongated pronotum and more clavate antennal segments, eye smaller, less than half as long as width of vertex and removed from pronotum by a distance subequal to dorsal diameter of eye (Fig. 1B). Genitalia: Dorsal labiate plate: Without sclerotized rings, with two distinct sclerotized bands (see Stonedahl, 1991 for terminology), spermathecal gland placed near posterior margin (Fig. 3E). Posterior wall: Simple, without sclerotization (Fig. 3F).

Schuhirandella fulva, sp.nov.

HOLOTYPE: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia: 2.1 km S of Coorow-Greenhead Rd, on Cockleshell Gully Rd, 30.08751[degrees]S, 115.12[degrees]E, 156 m, 06 Nov 2004, Cassis, Weirauch, Tatarnic & Symonds, Pityrodia bartlingii (Lehm.) Benth. (Lamiaceae), det. PERTH staff PERTH6987494, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00030414) (WAM).

ETYMOLOGY: The species is named for its yellow coloration, derived from the Latin "fulva," meaning yellow.

DIAGNOSIS: Body short; frons bulged between antennal fossae (Fig. 2D); antennae distinctly shorter than body length (Fig. 1A); antennal segment I subequal to half of vertex (Fig. 2D), antennal segment II slightly shorter than length of head and pronotum combined, slightly bulged apically (Fig. 1); antennal segments III and IV short and clavate (Fig. 1); eyes only slightly bulged, not on stalks (Fig. 2B, D); labium slightly surpassing posterior margin of prosternum (Fig. 2A); buccula almost as long as distance between buccula and pronotum (Fig. 2A); labial segment I slightly longer than buccula (Fig. 2A); labial segment IV shorter than head (Fig. 2A); calli slightly raised (Fig. 2A, D); scutellum flattened; pronotum and scutellum impunctate; posterior part of metepimeron roundish, not angulate; metasternum without medial outgrowth; R + M vein almost reaching apex of corium; inner margin of clavus longer than scutellum (Fig. 1), slightly concave; inner margin of corium behind clavus straight; forecoxae not touching each other; endosoma without sclerotization (Fig. 3A); ductus seminis attached to phallobase on the left side (Fig. 3A).

DESCRIPTION: Male: Total length 3.84. COLORATION: See generic description. SURFACE AND VESTITURE: See generic description. STRUCTURE AND MEASUREMENTS: As in generic description. Body 3.1x as long as pronotum; cuneus-clypeus length 2.65. Head: Width 0.83; vertex width 0.44, 2.2x as wide as eye; antennal segment I length 0.39, 0.5x as long as head width, and 0.3x as long as pronotal width; antennal segment II length 1.4, 1.7x as long as head width, and 1.1 X as long as pronotal width. Thorax: Pronotum length 0.6, width 1.23, 2.1x as wide as long and 1.Sx as long as head width. Genitalia: Apex of ventral wall of genital capsule placed apically (Fig. 3D); right paramere small, bulging medially and thin apically (Fig. 3B); left paramere 2.5 times as long as right paramere (Fig. 3C); endosoma without sclerotization (Fig. 3A); phallotheca rounded posteriorly, distinctly sclerotized dorsally and almost membranous laterally and ventrally, except small sclerotized area on the right side (Fig. 3A); ductus seminis attached to phallobase on the left side (Fig. 3A).

Female: Total length 5.3-5.4. COLORATION: See generic description. SURFACE AND VESTITURE: See generic description. STRUCTURE AND MEASUREMENTS: As in generic description. Body 3.8-3.9x as long as pronotum; cuneus-clypeus length 3.7-3.8. Head: Width 0.9-1.0; vertex width 0.54).6, 2.8 3.0x as wide as eye; antennal segment I length 0.40.5, 0A-0.5x as long as head width, and 0.34).4x as long as pronotal width; antennal segment II length 1.63, 1.7x as long as head width, and 1.2x as long as pronotal width. Thorax: Pronotum length 0.9, width 1.4, 1.5-1.6x as wide as long and 1.5x as wide as head. Genitalia: Dorsal labiate plate without sclerotized rings, with two distinct sclerotized bands, spermathecal gland placed near posterior margin (Fig. 3E); posterior wall simple, without sclerotization (Fig. 3F).

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

PARATYPES: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia: 1 km E of Grey Rd on Ajana Rd, on southern boundary of Kalbarri National Park, 27.87052[degrees]S, 114.1667[degrees]E, 197 m, 23 Oct 2004, Cassis, Wall, Weirauch & Symonds, Calothamnus sp. (Myrtaceae), det. Field ID, 2 [female][female] (AMNH_PBI 00019576, AMNH_PBI 00019224), 2 juvenile (AMNH_PBI 00020200, AMNH_PBI 00020201) (AM). 8.2 km E of Indian Ocean Rd on Coorow-Greenhead Rd, Lesuer National Park, 30.04767[degrees]S, 115.0551[degrees]E, 30 m, 06 Nov 2004, Cassis, Weirauch, Tatarnic & Symonds, Calothamnus quadrifidus R.Br. (Myrtaceae), det. PERTH staff PERTH6990371, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00400345) (AM).

HosT PLANTS (Fig. 4). Four specimens were collected from an unidentified species of Calothamnus (Myrtaceae), a single male was collected from Calothamnus quadrifidus R.Br. (Myrtaceae), and the holotype was collected from Pityrodia bartlingii (Lehm.) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank David Britton of the Australian Museum for the loan of the material. Sue Carroll of the Western Australian Herbarium provided identifications of the host plant material. The specimens were collected during the field trips that were the part of the Plant Bug Biodiversity Inventory project (http://research.amnh.org/pbi/). We are also indebted to Thomas J. Henry (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian, Washington, USA) and Fedor V. Konstantinov (St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia) for thorough reviews of the paper.

LITERATURE CITED

Cassis, G. 2008. The Lattinova Complex of austromirine plant bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 110: 845-939.

Cassis, G. and G. F. Gross. 1995. Hemiptera: Heteroptera (Coleorrhyncha to Cimicomorpha). Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 27.3A. CSIRO Australia, Melbourne, xv + 506 pp.

Davis, N. T. 1955. Morphology of the female organs of reproduction in the Miridae (Hemiptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 48: 132-150.

Kerzhner, I. M. and F. V. Konstantinov. 1999. Structure of the aedeagus in Miridae and its bearing to suprageneric classification. Acta Societas Zoologicae Bohemicae 63:117 137.

Konstantinov, F. V. 2003. Male genitalia in Miridae (Heteroptera) and their significance for suprageneric classification of the family. Part I: general review, Isometopinae and Psallopinae. Belgian Journal of Entomology 5:3-36.

Schuh, R. T. 1976. Pretarsal structure in the Miridae (Hemiptera) with a cladistic analysis of relationships within the family. American Museum Novitates 2601: 1-39.

Schuh, R. T. 1995. Plant Bugs of the World (Heteroptera: Miridae): Systematic Catalog, Distributions, Host List, and Bibliography. New York Entomological Society, New York, 1329 pp.

Schwartz, M. D. 2011. Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the North American genus Slaterocoris Wagner with new synonymy, the description of five new species and a new genus from Mexico, and a review of the genus Scalponotatus Kelton (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 354: 1-290.

Stonedahl, G. M. 1991. The Oriental species of Helopeltis (Heteroptera: Miridae): a review of economic literature and guide to identification. Bulletin of Entomological Research 81: 465-490.

Stonedahl, G. M., M. Malipatil and W. Houston. 1995. A new mirid (Heteroptera) pest of cashew in northern Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 85: 275-278.

ANNA A. NAMYATOVA AND GERASIMOS CASSIS

Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 2052

E-mail: anna.namyatova@gmail.com
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Author:Namyatova, Anna A.; Cassis, Gerasimos
Publication:Entomologica Americana
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Geographic Code:8AUST
Date:Jan 1, 2012
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