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Schools and Higher Education.

Ostensibly, the key to a more egalitarian society lies with the systems of schooling and higher education. These systems themselves, however, are themselves characterized by inequality.

The schools and higher education systems resemble a pyramid: The higher one goes, the fewer are able to sustain the climb. By the time the highest step is reached--enrolling in a college or university--only a third of the age cohort have reached the pinnacle--pursuit of a college degree.

This figure of one-third emerged from cohort studies conducted by CBS that span an 8-year period after high school graduation. The most recent study for which CBS published data follows the high-school graduating class of 2008. (39)

The Ministry of Education publishes statistics about high school graduates out of all those attending high school. Adva, on the other hand, examines the entire age cohort--all those who were 17 years old in 2008. In other words, Adva also takes into account those who dropped out of school and those who were never enrolled in a matriculation program, such as many ultra-Orthodox youth.

Here are the figures for the pyramid below: In 2008, 79.2% of all 17-year-olds were enrolled in twelfth grade. Only 44.4% of this age cohort passed the matriculation exam that year.

Some of those who passed had a matriculation certificate that did not meet the admission requirements of the institutions of higher learning. As a result, only 38.5% of this age cohort were able to apply for admission to an institution of higher learning. Ultimately, by 2016, only 32.4% of those who had been 17 years old in 2008 made it into one of the colleges, universities, or academic seminaries of Israel--one out of three, approximately. (40)

Overall in Israel, 38.1% of the Jewish population and 25.2% of the Arab population are enrolled in institutes of higher learning. (41)

The figures published by the CBS do not allow for ongoing follow-up through completion of the first academic degree; therefore we do not know the proportion of those awarded a B.A. degree out of the 17-year-old cohort that year.

The figures for enrollment in higher education relate to institutions under the supervision of the Council for Higher Education and are based on admission criteria set by the Council. Therefore, enrollment figures do not include the Open University, which does not have admission criteria and admits students of a wide range of ages.
The Education Pyramid
The Cohort of 17-year-olds in 2008 Enrolled in Higher Education by 2016

                          Total population    Jews     Arabs (not
                                                       including East

Enrolled in                    32.4%            38.1%      25.2%
higher education           37,691           32,978      4,672
within 8 years
Qualified for                  38.5%            44.6%      26.0%
admission to higher        44,846           38,636      4,825
Passed the                     44.4%            50.5%      32.0%
matriculation exam         51,666           43,755      5,928
Enrolled in                    79.2%            84.2%      76.6%
12th grade                 92,217           72,989     14,207
Total cohort of 17-year-      100%             100%        100%
olds in 2008, including   116,415           86,641      18,547
ultra-Orthodox and
East Jerusalemites

Notes: Calculation based on all 17-year-olds within each group.
Arabs--includes Muslims, Christians and Druze.
Higher education--students enrolled in universities (not including the
Open University), public and private academic colleges (government
supported and not), and academic teachers' seminaries.
Sources: Adva Center analysis of CBS, Statistical Abstract of Israel,
various years; Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, Examinations
Department, "Matriculation Figures," various years.

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Title Annotation:WAGES
Publication:Israel: A Social Report
Date:Jan 1, 2018
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