Scales of selection and perception: landscape heterogeneity of an important food resource influences habitat use by a large omnivore.
As experimental scales should be dictated by the organism and phenomenon of study (Wiens et al. 1986, Addicott et al. 1987), examination of selection for food resources (Nielsen et al. 2010) should therefore not only consider local supply, but also incorporate landscape-level resource estimates to better reflect the amount of environmental heterogeneity large mammals perceive. Grizzly (brown) bears Ursus arctos are habitat generalists with a diverse, omnivorous diet (Hamer et al. 1991, Mattson et al. 1991, McLellan and Hovey 1995, Munro et al. 2006) that enables them to adjust their foraging behavior based on annual and seasonal food availability (Jonkel and Cowan 1971, Bunnell and Tait 1981, Deacy et al. 2017). Resource abundance and distribution therefore affect habitat use (Jonkel and Cowan 1971, Nielsen et al. 2004a, 2010), and accounting for this heterogeneity by acknowledging their grain size could provide valuable insight into the landscape factors most relevant for habitat selection.
Resource selection functions (RSFs) are statistical tools for evaluating animal habitat selection that estimate relative probability of use given particular environmental site characteristics (Manly et al. 2002). RSF models that have been developed for grizzly bears previously (Nielsen et al. 2002, Moe et al. 2007, Goldstein et al. 2010, Peters et al. 2015) have mainly evaluated the effects of environmental variables, such as habitat cover type and elevation, measured at the local patch-level. Questions of spatial scale, which are essential for testing the influence of environmental heterogeneity, have been largely overlooked in the context of grizzly bear habitat selection, although these have been investigated for other animals such as ungulates (Boyce et al. 2003, Anderson et al. 2005). The few studies that have directly considered scale have focused on the extent of the landscape available for bear use (Nielsen et al. 2004a, Ciarniello et al. 2007), rather than the spatial scale at which properties of the resource units themselves were estimated. Grizzly bear habitat selection models also seldom incorporate food resource attributes as explanatory variables, despite food-probability models often explaining bear selection more effectively than those that are habitat-oriented (Nielsen et al. 2003). Buffaloberry occurrence in particular, along with that of a few other key food items, significantly predicts bear foraging activity (Nielsen et al. 2010). Spatial variation of food resources appears to be more influential for grizzly bear habitat use than temporal availability (Mangipane et al. 2018); however, the importance of food resource heterogeneity relative to other food properties has not been explored, although it has been demonstrated to strongly affect grizzly bear foraging behavior (Searle et al. 2006).
Canada buffaloberry Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. is one of the primary fruit resources for grizzly bears in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, where it comprises a major component of their summer and early fall diet (Munro et al. 2006). The fruit is especially crucial during hyperphagia, when bears increase their food consumption to build body fat reserves in preparation for winter denning (Nelson 1980). Grizzly bear selection for buffaloberry has been assessed using predictions of shrub occurrence (Nielsen et al. 2003, 2010), but given the dioecious habit of this species and that only female plants bear fruit, occurrence does not correspond to the availability of the food resource itself. Although local density of grizzly bears is correlated with buffaloberry fruit abundance (Nielsen et al. 2017), selection for buffaloberry fruit resources has not been fully examined. An understanding of seasonal habitat use of this important resource is valuable for informing the conservation and management of grizzly bear populations (Boyce et al. 2002), including the threatened population in the province of Alberta (ASRD 2010).
The focus of this paper is to evaluate the role of landscape-level food resource heterogeneity in grizzly bear selection for buffaloberry patches by comparing patch- and landscape-level foraging strategies. Buffaloberry heterogeneity as defined here reflects both fruit distribution and variability in patch quality, represented by fruit density, which are properties that contribute to spatial heterogeneity (Kotliar and Wiens 1990). We know that buffaloberry heterogeneity is significantly related to the heterogeneity of conifer forest canopy (Denny and Nielsen 2017), but the implications of these shrub (resource) patterns for bears have not yet been studied.
Our objectives were therefore to: 1) identify the spatial scale at which grizzly bears select buffaloberry fruit resources; 2) determine whether patch- or landscape-level foraging strategies explain resource use; and 3) assess the importance of resource heterogeneity in structuring habitat selection. We hypothesize that: 1) landscape-level foraging strategies will be more supported than those of the patch-level because grizzly bears perceive their surroundings at spatial scales beyond that of the patch, in accordance with their environmental grain; and 2) the heterogeneity of the food resource (buffaloberry) will further explain grizzly bear resource selection because changes in food availability influence foraging behavior.
We defined the study area by the spatial extent of a buffaloberry fruit density model (see Nielsen et al. 2017 for details of the modelling approach) that covered 19 952 [km.sup.2] of managed, conifer-dominated forest located near the town of Hinton (53[degrees]24'41"N, 117[degrees]33'50"W) in the Rocky Mountains foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada (Fig. 1). Elevation ranges from approximately 850-3200 m with dominant tree species being lodgepole pine Pinus contorta, white spruce Picea glauca and trembling aspen Populus tremuloides. Active natural resource extraction and human activity related to the forestry, mining, and energy (oil and gas) industries, along with recreational use, have produced a variety of anthropogenic disturbances and early seral forests.
Grizzly bear habitat selection and GPS radio-telemetry dataset
Grizzly bears involved in this study were captured for the fRI Research Grizzly Bear Program (Hinton, Alberta) using either aerial darting or culvert traps (Cattet et al. 2003), and fitted with Followit (Lindesberg, Sweden) iridium satellite-based GPS radio collars. Capture and handling protocols followed guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists (Sikes and Gannon 2011) and were approved by Animal Care Committees at both the University of Alberta and the University of Saskatchewan, and by Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development. We obtained a total of 7783 GPS radio-telemetry locations recorded at a 30-min frequency from eight collared bears (four female, four male) monitored during fruit ripening of buffaloberry between 1 August and 15 September 2016. This temporal period has been linked to an increase in the utilization of fruit resources by grizzly bears in the study region, which comprise on average 49.7% of their diet during this timeframe (Munro et al. 2006), although this depends on availability in a given year. The 2016 season was characterized by high buffaloberry fruit production in the area (T Larsen, pers. comm.), suggesting it would be a suitable year to examine bear use of this resource given the inter-annual variation in fruiting phenology (Krebs et al. 2009).
We only considered crepuscular (twilight) and diurnal (daylight) locations recorded between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. in our analysis as this represents the typical daily foraging period for bears in this area during summer months (Munro et al. 2006). We determined crepuscular and diurnal periods by consulting sunrise, sunset, and civil twilight tables for Hinton, Alberta, for the month of August, 2016 (NRCC 2017). GPS radio-telemetry data from collared animals are compatible with a used-available RSF study design, as no information is available regarding true absences (Boyce et al. 2002). We delineated a seasonal home range per bear by calculating minimum convex polygons (MCPs) that effectively encompassed all the GPS points ('used' locations) of each individual. We generated random points within every MCP at a density of 10 points [km.sup.-2] of home range to represent 'available' locations for each bear, resulting in a total of 70 498 random points. All spatial analyses were performed in a GIS (ArcMap ver. 10.3.1, ESRI 2015).
Spatial scale and fruit resource properties
We derived two patch-level and three landscape-level buffaloberry variables using the buffaloberry fruit density model (Nielsen et al. 2017). The first patch-level variable was local fruit density, estimated at a 30 x 30 m (900 [m.sup.2]) pixel resolution. Euclidean distance to the nearest pixel occupied by buffaloberry was the second, which was calculated for all points to indicate direct proximity to a resource patch. Local elevation, also estimated per 900 [m.sup.2], was obtained as a third non-resource patch-level variable.
To determine the most appropriate spatial scale for the three landscape-level variables, we first calculated mean fruit density, standard deviation (SD) of fruit density, and proportion of the landscape with buffaloberry fruit present within a series of 32 circular moving 'windows'. Radii corresponded to grizzly bear travel distances at successive 30-min increments based on an average movement rate for bears in the study region of 343 m [h.sup.-1] for the month of August (Graham and Stenhouse 2014). Spatial scales ranged from 172 m to 5488 m, which represented travel distances for periods from 30 min to 16 h, in accordance with the diurnal and crepuscular timeframe. We extracted values for the patch-level variables and the landscape-level variables measured at each spatial scale and compared 'used' and 'available' locations per bear following a type III resource selection function study design (Manly et al. 2002).
The addition of random effects into population-level RSF models can both address the spatio-temporal autocorrelation (Gillies et al. 2006) that usually affects these data (Boyce et al. 2002, Nielsen et al. 2002) and control for differences in the number of GPS locations recorded per individual (Bennington and Thayne 1994). These advantages have contributed to the increased application of mixed-effects logistic regression models, a type of generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) (Skrondal and Rabe-Hesketh 2004), in studies of animal resource selection (Gillies et al. 2006, Hebblewhite and Merrill 2008, Koper and Manseau 2009). We fit a mixed-effects logistic regression model, with a random intercept for bear identity, per scale using the lme4 package (Bates et al. 2015) in R (ver. 3.3.2 (< www.r-project.org >). for each of the three landscape-level buffaloberry variables to assess the influence of spatial scale on bear habitat use. These were global models intended to investigate population-level effects, rather than individual-level responses, and 'used' and 'available' locations for all bears were grouped. We included local elevation as a fixed effect predicted to influence buffaloberry fruiting phenology, which depends on temperature (Krebs et al. 2009, Laskin 2017), and specified it as a quadratic term because we expected grizzly bears would select for intermediate elevations where shrubs are typically more productive (Hamer and Herrero 1987). We extracted odds ratios from all model outputs and examined these as a function of spatial scale for the three landscape-level buffaloberry variables to visualize changes in effect size. Spatial scales were ranked per buffaloberry variable using Akaike information criterion (AIC) (Akaike 1974, Burnham and Anderson 2002) and then compared across variables to identify the most supported scale overall (Supplementary material Appendix 1).
Comparison of patch- and landscape-level foraging strategies
We developed eight a priori candidate hypotheses describing grizzly bear selection for buffaloberry based on fruit resource properties proposed to influence foraging strategies at the patch- and landscape-levels (Table 1). Patch-level hypotheses suggested bears would prioritize the local quality of the resource and direct proximity to a patch, while those of the landscape-level focused on the average quality of the resource, variability in patch quality, and fruit distribution. In particular, the resource heterogeneity hypothesis considered an interaction between variability in patch quality and fruit distribution, where it was hypothesized that greater contrast between patches could promote selection for areas with a widespread fruit distribution by facilitating the assessment of patch quality. We fit a mixed-effects logistic regression model representing each hypothesis to the set of 'used' and 'available' locations. Multicollinearity among explanatory variables was evaluated to ensure that Kendall rank correlation coefficients did not exceed a threshold of |0.7| and variance inflation factors for linear terms were < 5. We tested variable transformations using AIC and consequently applied [log.sub.10]-plus-one transformations to all variables except elevation and distance to nearest patch. After determining the final model structures, we compared support for the eight hypotheses with AIC. Coefficients were also used to predict effects of both individual variables and interaction terms on the relative probability of grizzly bear use of a site.
Spatial scale and fruit resource properties
A spatial scale of 1887 m (window radius), corresponding to an average travel distance for bears over 5.5 h, was the most supported scale overall for grizzly bear habitat selection (Supplementary material Appendix 1) and was used for all consecutive models. Effects of mean fruit density, variability in patch quality, and fruit distribution on bear habitat selection were positive and fluctuated in strength with spatial scale (Fig. 2). Variability in patch quality demonstrated the strongest individual effect on bear use, although that of mean fruit density was similar. Fruit distribution had the weakest effect, the strength of which continued to increase gradually but did not peak over the range of scales examined.
Comparison of patch- and landscape-level foraging strategies
Landscape-level foraging strategies were generally more supported than those of the patch-level, the highest ranked of which was proximity to patch. The heterogeneity hypothesis was most supported overall and represented all of the model weight (Table 2). For this hypothesis, variability in patch quality demonstrated a strong positive effect on grizzly bear habitat selection with a one standard deviation increase in variability raising the odds of bear use by 66%, compared to 16% for an equivalent increase in fruit distribution (Table 2). The relative probability of bear use was predicted to increase more than six-fold between areas of no variability in patch quality and those with an average landscape-level variation of 400 fruit per 900 [m.sup.2], the latter representing the approximate yield of an average shrub in a typical season (Fig. 3). Probability of habitat use gradually increased 1.5-fold from a landscape with no buffaloberry to one completely occupied by shrubs (Fig. 4). The interaction between variability in patch quality and fruit distribution was substantially supported over the individual variability and distribution hypotheses ([DELTA]AIC scores of 25.4 and 749.3, respectively). Although within the heterogeneity hypothesis these two variables were positively related to bear habitat use, their interaction was negative, indicating decreased use of areas with a more widespread fruit distribution when variability in patch quality was high (Table 2). The relative probability of bear use was predicted to remain low across most observed levels of fruit distribution until the variability in patch quality exceeded about 100 fruit per 900 [m.sup.2] (2.0 on a [log.sub.10]-transformed scale; Fig. 5). Relative probability of bear use appeared highest at moderate fruit distributions and high variability in patch quality, demonstrating a tradeoff between these two factors. Predictions were constrained to conditions found within the study area (Fig. 5) after further inspection revealed that extreme tradeoffs could not occur, since both very low fruit distribution and very high variability in patch quality was not possible (Fig. 6). Overall, habitat selection was highest in the upper foothills and subalpine regions of the study area (Fig. 6).
We observed that buffaloberry heterogeneity best explained grizzly bear selection for fruit resources. Bears selected for areas with a wider distribution of buffaloberry fruit and greater variability in patch quality, thus providing both a higher probability of shrub encounter and greater contrast between resource patches. Landscape-level foraging strategies were more supported than those of the patch-level, pointing to the large environmental grain of grizzly bears. Specifically, bears were most influenced by buffaloberry properties estimated at a spatial scale of 1887 m or 1.89 km (window radius) which corresponds to an average travel distance over 5.5 h, suggesting they may synthesize information on environmental conditions they encounter while moving through their home range. A similar scale of 1.69 km was used to measure average buffaloberry fruit supply when comparing this to the local abundance of bears (Nielsen et al. 2017).
Variability in patch quality emerged as an especially meaningful landscape-level buffaloberry property, based on its inclusion in the two most supported hypotheses. This implies that contrast between adjacent resource patches promotes selection by facilitating the assessment of quality and enabling bears to more efficiently identify high-quality patches. Even the addition of a modest amount of variability, equivalent to the fruit yield of an average shrub, was shown to increase bear habitat use (Fig. 3). Less support was found for the landscape resource quality hypothesis, which highlighted areas with a broad distribution of high-quality buffaloberry patches that were thus characterized by greater landscape homogeneity. Grizzly bear utilization of buffaloberry resources may therefore be contingent not only on locating high-quality patches, but also recognizing them as such, suggesting contrast could act as a cue for exploitation.
The positive effect of landscape variability on grizzly bear habitat selection is also likely related to their generalist habit (Hamer et al. 1991, Mattson et al. 1991, McLellan and Hovey 1995, Munro et al. 2006) and distinct habitat needs for different diel activities (Munro et al. 2006). Fruit density is a function of environmental and demographic factors that influence shrub growth and fruit production, such as local canopy cover (Hamer 1996, Nielsen et al. 2004b) and density (Johnson and Nielsen 2014). Greater variability in fruit density suggests the presence of a broader range of site types and increased environmental heterogeneity, which promotes plant species richness (Kreft and Jetz 2007). A higher diversity of complementary food resources, which affect local bear abundance (Nielsen et al. 2017), could provide animals with the opportunity to substitute these more readily and optimize macronutrient intake (Coogan et al. 2014). Landscape heterogeneity may thus contribute to grizzly bear foraging success by facilitating dietary flexibility, and helping to buffer against inter-annual fluctuations in the productivity of key food species (Krebs et al. 2009).
Previous work has also found food resource heterogeneity to be important for grizzly bear foraging behavior (Searle et al. 2006) and habitat use (Mangipane et al. 2018). Searle et al. (2006) conducted feeding trial experiments where the spatial arrangement of patches was manipulated and residence times of resource patches examined. Surrounding spatial context in the patch hierarchy was shown to affect residence time, with models accounting for this broader heterogeneity 34-times more supported than those limited to the patch-level.
The combination of both fruit distribution and variability in patch quality in the heterogeneity hypothesis suggests that bears respond to multiple aspects of their food resources simultaneously, implying that they compromise between different foraging strategies (Table 1) when selecting resources (Senft et al. 1987). This adaptability may be particularly necessary in our study area where anthropogenic disturbance caused by resource extraction is prevalent (Gaulton et al. 2011), requiring that bears navigate a dynamic environment. The interaction between variability in patch quality and fruit distribution was important to include, as the heterogeneity hypothesis received considerably more support than either of the individual hypotheses. Contrary to our expectations, the interaction was observed to be negative; this may relate to the elevation gradient and associated geographic separation of areas with a widespread fruit distribution and those with high variability in fruit density, which were restricted to high elevations in the west. Fruit distribution presumably demonstrates greater control over grizzly bear resource selection in the low-lying eastern portion, but its effect may decline with proximity to the mountains as it is overwhelmed by the comparatively stronger influence of variability. Bears in our study area may thus face a tradeoff between selecting for fruit distribution and variability in patch quality, partly due to the effect of terrain on buffaloberry properties.
Our findings suggest human activities that shift the distribution and quality of food resources and generate landscape heterogeneity could promote grizzly bear habitat selection. Forest harvesting, for example, has been found to increase bear habitat use (Nielsen et al. 2004a, Stewart et al. 2013) through the creation of canopy openings which foster the growth of various food plants (Nielsen et al. 2004b, Munro et al. 2006) and significantly affect understory heterogeneity (Denny and Nielsen 2017). The effects of disturbance on food resource heterogeneity are not straightforward to predict, however, as they depend on a number of factors including initial site conditions and disturbance type. Proposed developments should therefore be evaluated on an individual basis to anticipate possible consequences for landscape patterns of food resources and bear foraging behavior, as well as mortality risk (Boulanger and Stenhouse 2014).
These results emphasize the value in considering environmental heterogeneity and spatial scale in studies of animal-resource interactions. Landscape-level estimates of resource properties should be incorporated into resource selection frameworks, especially for large-bodied, vagile species which typically perceive and respond to their surroundings at broad spatial scales. We recommend that researchers test the sensitivity of habitat selection to resource spatial scale, as we have here, to determine that which is most appropriate prior to proceeding with further analysis. This step will contribute to reducing the error associated with adopting an arbitrary experimental scale (Wiens 1989), as the conventional patch-level focus may obscure the factors affecting animal space use (Morrison et al. 2006). Accurately representing the level of spatial perception of study organisms will reflect the influence of food resource heterogeneity and ensure valid conclusions regarding foraging behavior to inform the conservation and management of wildlife species at risk.
Acknowledgements--We thank the partners and technicians of the Grizzly Bear Program at fRI Research for facilitating the development of the long-term bear monitoring dataset, as well as Dr. Kevin McGarigal for helpful comments which improved this manuscript.
Funding--Funding for this research was provided by fRI Research, the University of Alberta, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) through a Discovery Grant to SEN and a CGS-M scholarship to CKD.
Permits--Capture and handling protocols followed guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists (Sikes and Gannon 2011) and were approved by Animal Care Committees at both the University of Alberta and the University of Saskatchewan, and by Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development.
Addicott, J. F. et al. 1987. Ecological neighborhoods: scaling environmental patterns.--Oikos 49: 340-346.
Akaike, H. 1974. A new look at the statistical model identification. --IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 19: 716-723.
ASRD [Alberta Sustainable Resource Development] 2010. Status of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) in Alberta: update 2010. Wildlife Status Report no. 37.--Alberta Sustainable Resource Development.
Anderson, D. P. et al. 2005. Scale-dependent summer resource selection by reintroduced elk in Wisconsin, USA.--J. Wildl. Manage. 69: 298-310.
Bates, D. et al. 2015. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4.--J. Stat. Softw. 67: 1-48.
Bennington, C. C. and Thayne, W V. 1994. Use and misuse of mixed model analysis of variance in ecological studies. --Ecology 75: 717-722.
Boulanger, J. and Stenhouse, G. B. 2014. The impact of roads on the demography of grizzly bears in Alberta.--PLoS One 9: e115535.
Boyce, M. S. et al. 2002. Evaluating resource selection functions. --Ecol. Model. 157: 281-300.
Boyce, M. S. et al. 2003. Scale and heterogeneity in habitat selection by elk in Yellowstone National Park.--Ecoscience 10: 421-431.
Bunnell, F. L. and Tait, D. E. N. 1981. Population dynamics of bear--implications.--In: Fowler, C. W and Smith, T. D. (eds), Dynamics of large mammal populations. Wiley, pp. 75-98.
Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. 2002. Model selection and inference.--Springer.
Cattet, M. R. L. et al. 2003. Physiologic responses of grizzly bears to different methods of capture.--J. Wildl. Dis. 39: 649-654.
Charnov, E. L. 1976. Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem.--Theor. Popul. Biol. 9: 129-136.
Ciarniello, L. M. et al. 2007. Grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent.--Ecol. Appl. 17: 1424-1440.
Coogan, S. C. P. et al. 2014. Macronutrient optimization and seasonal diet mixing in a large omnivore, the grizzly bear: a geometric analysis.--PLoS One 9: e97968.
Crist, T. O. et al. 1992. Animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes: an experiment with Eleodes beetles in shortgrass prairie.--Funct. Ecol. 6: 536-544.
Deacy, W W et al. 2017. Phenological synchronization disrupts trophic interactions between Kodiak brown bears and salmon. --Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2017: 201705248
Denny, C. K. and Nielsen, S. E. 2017. Spatial heterogeneity of the forest canopy scales with the heterogeneity of an understory shrub based on fractal analysis.--Forests 8: 146.
ESRI 2015. ArcGIS Desktop: ArcMap ver. 10.3.1.--Environmental Systems Res. Inst.
Gaulton, R. et al. 2011. Characterizing stand-replacing disturbance in western Alberta grizzly bear habitat, using a satellite-derived high temporal and spatial resolution change sequence.--For. Ecol. Manage. 261: 865-877.
Gillies, C. S. et al. 2006. Application of random effects to the study of resource selection by animals.--J. Anim. Ecol. 75: 887-898.
Goldstein, M. I. et al. 2010. Brown bear den habitat and winter recreation in south-central Alaska.--J. Wildl. Manage. 74: 35-42.
Graham, K. and Stenhouse, G. B. 2014. Home range, movements, and denning chronology of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) in west-central Alberta.--Can. Field Nat. 128: 223-234.
Hamer, D. 1996. Buffaloberry [Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.] fruit production in fire-successional bear feeding sites.--J. Range Manage. 49: 520-529.
Hamer, D. and Herrero, S. 1987. Grizzly bear food and habitat in the front ranges of Banff National Park, Alberta.--Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 7: 199-213.
Hamer, D. et al. 1991. Food and habitat used by grizzly bears, Ursus arctos, along the continental divide in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta.--Can. Field Nat. 105: 325-329.
Hebblewhite, M. and Merrill, E. 2008. Modelling wildlife-human relationships for social species with mixed-effects resource selection models.--J. Appl. Ecol. 45: 834-844.
Heinrich, B. 1979. Resource heterogeneity and patterns of movement in foraging bumblebees.--Oecologia 40: 235-245.
Johnson, K. and Nielsen, S. E. 2014. Demographic effects on fruit set in the dioecious shrub Canada buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis).--PeerJ 2: e526.
Jonkel, C. J. and Cowan, I. M. T. 1971. The black bear in the spruce--fir forest.--Wildl. Monogr. 27: 1-57.
Koper, N. and Manseau, M. L. 2009. Generalized estimating equations and generalized linear mixed-effects models for modeling resource selection.--J. Appl. Ecol. 46: 590-599.
Kotliar, N. B. and Wiens, J. A. 1990. Multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure: a hierarchical framework for the study of heterogeneity.--Oikos 59: 253-260.
Krebs, C. J. et al. 2009. Climatic determinants of berry crops in the boreal forest of the southwestern Yukon.--Botany 87: 401-408.
Kreft, H. and Jetz, W 2007. Global patterns and determinants of vascular plant diversity.--Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104: 5925-5930.
Laskin, D. N. 2017. Remote sensing of understory plant phenology: a framework for monitoring and projecting the impacts of climate change.--PhD thesis, Univ. of Calgary.
Levins, R. 1968. Evolution in changing environments: some theoretical explorations.--Princeton Univ. Press.
Mangipane, L. S. et al. 2018. Influences of landscape heterogeneity on home-range sizes of brown bears.--Mamm. Biol. 88: 1-7.
Manly, B. F. J. et al. 2002. Resource selection by animals: statistical design and analysis for field studies.--Kluwer.
Mattson, D. J. et al. 1991. Food habits of Yellowstone grizzly bears, 1977-1987.--Can. J. Zool. 69: 1619-1629.
McLellan, B. N. and Hovey, F. W 1995. The diet of grizzly bears in the Flathead River drainage of southeastern British Columbia.--Can. J. Zool. 73: 704-712.
Mech, S. G. and Zollner, P. A. 2002. Using body size to predict perceptual range.--Oikos 98: 47-52.
Moe, T. F. et al. 2007. Importance of diel behaviour when studying habitat selection: examples from female Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos).--Can. J. Zool. 85: 518-525.
Morrison, M. L. et al. 2006. Wildlife--habitat relationships: concepts and applications.--Island Press.
Munro, R. H. M. et al. 2006. Seasonal and diel patterns of grizzly bear diet and activity in west-central Alberta.--J. Mammal. 87: 1112-1121.
NRCC [National Research Council Canada, Government of Canada] 2017. Sunrise/sunset calculator: advanced options and sun angles.--< www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/services/sunrise/advanced.html >.
Nelson, R. A. 1980. Protein and fat metabolism in hibernating bears.--Fed. Proc. 39: 2955-2958.
Nielsen, S. E. et al. 2002. Modeling grizzly bear habitats in the Yellowhead ecosystem of Alberta: taking autocorrelation seriously.--Ursus 13: 45-56.
Nielsen, S. E. et al. 2003. Development and testing of phenologically driven grizzly bear habitat models. --Ecoscience 10: 1-10.
Nielsen, S. E. et al. 2004a. Grizzly bears and forestry I. selection of clearcuts by grizzly bears in west-central Alberta, Canada. --For. Ecol. Manage. 199: 51-65.
Nielsen, S. E. et al. 2004b. Grizzly bears and forestry II. distribution of grizzly bear foods in clearcuts of west-central Alberta, Canada.--For. Ecol. Manage. 199: 67-82.
Nielsen, S. E. et al. 2010. Dynamic wildlife habitat models: seasonal foods and mortality risk predict occupancy--abundance and habitat selection in grizzly bears.--Biol. Conserv. 143: 1623-1634.
Nielsen, S. E. et al. 2017. Complementary food resources of carnivory and frugivory affect local abundance of an omnivorous carnivore.--Oikos 126: 369-380.
Peters, W. et al. 2015. Resource selection and connectivity reveal conservation challenges for reintroduced brown bears in the Italian Alps.--Biol. Conserv. 186: 123-133.
Pyke, G. H. 1984. Optimal foraging theory: a critical review. --Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15: 523-575.
Rapport, D. J. 1991. Myths in the foundations of economics and ecology.--Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 44: 185-202.
Ritchie, M. E. 1998. Scale-dependent foraging and patch choice in fractal environments.--Evol. Ecol. 12: 309-330.
Searle, K. R. et al. 2006. Spatial context influences patch residence time in foraging hierarchies.--Oecologia 148: 710-719.
Senft, R. L. et al. 1987. Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies.--Bioscience 37: 789-799.
Sikes, R. S. and Gannon, W. L. 2011. Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research.--J. Mammal. 92: 235-253.
Skrondal, A. and Rabe-Hesketh, S. 2004. Generalized latent variable modeling: multilevel, longitudinal and structural equation models.--Chapman and Hall/CRC Press.
Stewart, B. P. et al. 2013. Quantifying grizzly bear selection of natural and anthropogenic edges.--J. Wildl. Manage. 77: 957-964.
Wiens, J. A. 1989. Spatial scaling in ecology.--Funct. Ecol. 3: 385-397.
Wiens, J. A. and Milne, B. T. 1989. Scaling of 'landscapes' in landscape ecology, or, landscape ecology from a beetle's perspective.--Landscape Ecol. 3: 87-96.
Wiens, J. A. et al. 1986. Overview: the importance of spatial and temporal scale in ecological investigations.--In: Diamond, J. and Case, T. J. (eds), Community ecology.--Harper and Row, pp. 145-153.
With, K. A. 1994. Ontogenetic shifts in how grasshoppers interact with landscape structure: an analysis of movement patterns. --Funct. Ecol. 8: 477-485.
Supplementary material (available online as Appendix wlb-00409 at < www.wildlifebiology.org/appendix/wlb-00409 >). Appendix 1.
Catherine K. Denny, Gordon B. Stenhouse and Scott E. Nielsen
C. K. Denny (firstname.lastname@example.org) and S. E. Nielsen, Dept of Renewable Resources, Univ. of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H1, Canada.--G. B. Stenhouse, fRI Research, Hinton, AB, Canada.
This work is licensed under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY) <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/>. The license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Table 1. Eight candidate hypotheses and associated foraging strategies describing grizzly bear selection for buffaloberry fruit resources at the patch- and landscape-levels. Foraging hypothesis Spatial scale Model variable 1. Null - random intercept term for bear identity 2. Local resource patch fruit density (30-m pixel) quality 3. Proximity patch Euclidean distance to nearest buffaloberry patch 4. Local resource patch fruit density (30-m pixel) quality and + proximity Euclidean distance to nearest buffaloberry patch 5. Landscape landscape mean fruit density resource quality (1887-m radius) 6. Variability landscape standard deviation of fruit density (1887-m radius) 7. Distribution landscape proportion of the landscape with buffaloberry fruit present (1887-m radius) 8. Heterogeneity landscape standard deviation of fruit density * proportion of the landscape with buffaloberry fruit present (1887-m radius) Foraging hypothesis Variable explanation 1. Null - 2. Local resource local 'quality' of resource patch quality 3. Proximity immediate accessibility of resource 4. Local resource local 'quality' of resource patch quality and + proximity immediate accessibility of resource 5. Landscape average 'quality' of resource resource quality patches at the landscape-level 6. Variability amount of contrast between adjacent resource patches 7. Distribution broader distribution of resource 8. Heterogeneity interaction between the amount of contrast between adjacent resource patches and the broader distribution of resource Foraging hypothesis Foraging strategy 1. Null * selection for buffaloberry is random as bears move through their environment * bears will utilize resource patches of any quality when they encounter them 2. Local resource * bears will select for areas of higher local quality patch quality regardless of surrounding patch attributes 3. Proximity * bears will opportunistically utilize the closest resource patch to their current location 4. Local resource * bears will select for higher quality resource quality and patches from those closest to their current proximity location 5. Landscape * bears will select for areas of higher average resource quality patch quality at the landscape-level 6. Variability * bears will select for areas with greater variability in patch quality * higher contrast facilitates assessment of patch quality and ability to identify high-quality patches (cue for exploitation) 7. Distribution * bears will select for areas where the resource is more widespread * increased probability of encountering a patch of any quality 8. Heterogeneity * bears will select for areas where the resource is more widespread and there is greater variability in patch quality Table 2. Comparison of the eight candidate foraging hypotheses describing grizzly bear selection for buffaloberry fruit resources at the patch-and landscape-levels. Standardized beta (P) coefficients for model variables are displayed with standard errors in square brackets and odds ratios italicized. Dashes indicate where variables are not applicable. Foraging hypothesis Spatial scale Intercept Elevation [0.42] [0.19] 0.19 91.07 Variability landscape -1.75 4.26 [0.43] [0.18] 0.17 70.59 Landscape resource quality landscape -1.75 4.77 [0.43] [0.19] 0.17 117.63 Proximity patch -1.56 3.92 [0.38] [0.17] 0.21 50.59 Local resource quality and patch -1.56 3.92 proximity [0.39] [0.17] 0.21 50.53 Distribution landscape -1.53 4.55 [0.40] [0.19] 0.22 94.21 Local resource quality patch -1.40 3.45 [0.38] [0.16] 0.25 31.55 Null - -1.45 - [0.20] 0.23 Local fruit density (30 m) ([dagger]) Foraging hypothesis Elevation (2) - Heterogeneity -4.83 [0.20] 0.01 - Variability -4.62 [0.19] 0.01 - Landscape resource quality -5.08 [0.20] 0.01 - Proximity -4.26 [0.18] 0.01 -0.09 ([double dagger]) Local resource quality and -4.25 [0.01] proximity [0.18] 1.00 0.01 - Distribution -4.97 [0.20] 0.01 0.11 Local resource quality -4.00 [0.01] [0.18] 1.12 0.02 - Null - Standard deviation Distance to (SD) of fruit density patch (1887 m) ([dagger]) Foraging hypothesis - 0.51 Heterogeneity [0.05] 1.66 - 0.70 Variability [0.02] 2.01 - - Landscape resource quality -0.50 - Proximity [0.02] 0.61 -0.50 - Local resource quality and [0.02] proximity 0.61 - - Distribution - - Local resource quality - - Null Proportion of landscape with buffaloberry fruit Foraging hypothesis (1887 m) ([dagger]) Heterogeneity 0.15 [0.04] 1.16 Variability - Landscape resource quality - Proximity - Local resource quality and - proximity Distribution 0.35 [0.02] 1.42 Local resource quality - Null - SD (*) Proportion Foraging hypothesis (interaction) (1887m) ([dagger]) Heterogeneity -0.16 [0.03] 0.86 Variability - Landscape resource quality - Proximity - Local resource quality and - proximity Distribution - Local resource quality - Null - Mean fruit density Foraging hypothesis (1887 m) ([dagger]) [DELTA]AIC Heterogeneity - 0.00 Variability - 25.43 Landscape resource quality 0.64 80.49 [0.02] 1.90 Proximity - 348.01 Local resource quality and - 350.01 proximity Distribution - 749.29 Local resource quality - 1053.64 Null - 2010.65 ([dagger]) [Log.sub.10]-plus-one transformation applied ([double dagger]) Coefficient presented as 100 times its original value
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Denny, Catherine K.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Nielsen, Scott E.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2018|
|Previous Article:||Accuracy and performance of low-feature GPS collars deployed on bison Bison bison and caribou Rangifer tarandus.|
|Next Article:||Assessing patterns of barn owl Tyto alba occupancy from call broadcast surveys.|