Saudi Arabia - Expansion Background.
In September 1990, a month after Iraq invaded Kuwait and oil exports from these two states were suspended, SA advanced its target to end-1995. The 10m b/d level was reached in June 1995 with completion of SA's programme. It already had the potential to pump up to 10m b/d in late 1994. The costs of expansions, the Petromin/Samarec refineries (later absorbed by SA), SABIC and base/lube oil projects were in late 1991 put at $34-50bn. But actual costs came to much less than that. Some projects were scaled down and others were cancelled in response to falling oil prices.
SA's programme offered big opportunities to firms operating in services and building sectors, with US firm being the main winners. The focus was on bringing back shut-in facilities, construction of additional GOSPs and massive water-injection facilities to maintain reservoir pressures. New water treatment facilities included tankage, filtration, chemical treatment, pumps, piping, metering and controls. The plan called for the drilling of 226 development wells and re-completion of 108 more.
E&P costs were $2-4bn/year in 1992-1994. It was estimated that spending for E&P, maintenance and support would range from $2.6bn to $4.3bn per annum in 1992-1995. The main SA upstream contracts had been awarded by late 1991. Their cost was estimated at $3.5 bn. The following were the main projects: