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Saturday presentations.

Section I: Biological Sciences

ACAD 141

Mark S. Davis, presiding

9:00 INVESTIGATIONS OF CELL WALL STRUCTURE AND EASE OF CHLOROPHYLL EXTRACTION IN SUB-AERIAL MICRO-ALGAE**, J. Griner*, J. Trull, and J. A. Nienow, Valdosta State University, Valdosta GA 31698. Subaerial algae are a diverse group of microorganisms able to survive on open surfaces in environments where liquid water is scarce. The physiological adaptations that enable them to live in these environments are not clear. Two factors that might be important have been suggested. First, many subaerial algae have hydrophobic cell walls, a fact which seems in conflict with a need to obtain water quickly. Second, chlorophyll is difficult to extract from many subaerial algae using standard methods. We want to see if these two features are correlated by simultaneously testing different strains of subaerial algae and cyanobacteria for hydrophobicity and ease of chlorophyll extraction. To determine hydrophobicity, we are using the standard microbial adherence to hydrocarbons (MATH) method, whereby cells suspended in buffer are mixed vigorously in the presence of hexadecane. Hydrophobic cells adhere to the hexadecane droplets and remain in the upper phase. The degree of adherence is determined photometrically. Chlorophyll is extracted either using cold acetone (the standard method) or hot DMSO followed by cold acetone. The amount of chlorophyll in the extract is determined using standard equations. Our preliminary results indicate that hot DMSO can extract more than twenty times the amount of chlorophyll from some subaerial algae than can be extracted by cold acetone.

9:15 PhIP INDUCED DNA DAMAGE AND INHIBITORY EFFECT OF NAC AND GHS. Ashok Jain*, Department of Natural Sciences, Albany State University, Albany, GA. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths for women. There are many environmental chemicals that are estrogenic and are believed to be associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer. The diet of highly industrial nations, such as the United States, consists heavily of meats. However, Asian diet consists of more fruits, vegetables, and soy products. Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are formed when meat products such as beef, chicken, pork, and fish are cooked at high temperatures. These amines have been shown to be carcinogenic and are considered major risk factors of cancer initiation. 2-Amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazol [4, 5-b]-pyridine (PhIP) is the most abundant HCA found in well-done and grilled meats Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the beneficial effect of antioxidants, present in fruits and vegetables, to prevent the toxic effects of PhIP. The culture of breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A) was initiated and treated with PhIP for 3 hours. After treatment cells were harvested and DNA strand breaks was quantified by measuring the mean olive tail movement following single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). To investigate a possible role of antioxidants in the protection from PhIP toxicity, the ability of three antioxidants (ascorbic acid [AsA -- 10mM], Glutthione [GHS -- 10mM], and N-acetyl-cysteine [NAC -- 10mM]), were examined. GHS and NAC show protective effects in MCF 10A cells as the olive tail movement was short, indicating GHS and NAC are capable of repairing DNA strand breaks. On the other hand, AsA did not show protective effect in MCF 10A cells. Further studies in this area will uncover the interaction of genotoxic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and chemopreventive effects of dietary supplements.

9:30 MYCOPLASMA AND SALMONELLA IN GOPHER TORTOISES FROM MOODY AIR FORCE BASE, GEORGIA, J. Mitchell Lockhart* (1) and Gregory W. Lee (2), (1) Department of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia, 31698 and (2) Department of the Air Force. Since 1999, we have studied a population of gopher tortoises at Moody Air Force Base, Lowndes and Lanier Counties, Georgia for the presence of Upper Respiratory Tract Disease. This study has subsequently branched into studies of plasma chemistry/protein electrophoresis, the analysis of approximately 100 plasma samples for 20-25 plasma chemistry variables, genetic relatedness of subdivided populations. Salmonella and Mycoplasma presence, and basic demographics in regard to the military mission. Our findings indicated five tortoises were suspect and one positive for Mycoplasma, and 3 tortoises were positive for Salmonella. Recently, we have begun tracking tortoises using a relatively novel remote frequency identification technique, which will be presented.

9:45 RESTORATION OF THE FEDERALLY ENDANGERED GEORGIA ENDEMIC BAPTISIA ARACHNIFERA (FABACEAE) AT THE LAKE LOUISE BIOLOGICAL STATION, LOWNDES COUNTY, GA, John B. Pascarella, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. An experimental ex situ population of the federally endangered Georgia endemic legume Baptisia arachnifera (Fabaceae) exists at the Lake Louise (LL) Biological Field Station in Lowndes County, GA. I investigated the restoration success of B. arachnifera using seeds and transplants in enhancement plantings. While greenhouse germination typically averages over 70%, seed germination in the wild was 15.5% (fall 2004) and 16.5% and 19% in two trials (spring 2005). Seed germination was highest in open, no litter treatments followed by buried, no litter treatments. Seedlings in unburned areas from 2005 had 0% survival in a shaded woody area (unburned since 1998) and 6% survival in a previously burned area (2005). The 256 five-month-old seedlings transplanted in spring 2005 had 86.2% survival over the next year (2005-2006). No plants flowered in either 2005 or 2006. The 49 two-year-old plants planted in the fall 2004 had 85.7% survival during the 1st year following transplant and 97.6% survival the second year. Percent flowering increased from 14% the first year to 38% the second year. To maximize population size in minimal time, this study suggests collecting seeds from multiple plants, germinating them in a greenhouse, and planting either <1 yr or 1-2 year old seedlings.

10:00 Section business meeting

10:30 Poster session

POSTERS

INTRASPECIES VARIATION IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN GEORGIA PEANUTS, Deaton Thomas* and Premila N Achar, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Aspergillus flavus can invade peanuts in the field before harvest, and during harvest, storage, and transportation. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus species and are carcinogenic in humans. Several strains of A. flavus exist in peanut growing areas in Georgia, however, their virulence varies with geographical distribution. A number of molecular techniques are currently available for studying genetic relationships between fungal populations. In the present study we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to establish genetic diversity among isolates of A. flavus from peanut growing areas in Georgia. For cultural characterization, isolates were transferred onto PDA plates and incubated at 30YC. After 7 days of incubation, potential colonies were screened for A. flavus based on morphology and colony character. Monoconidial colonies were checked under stereomicroscope, then transferred onto PDA plates and incubated at 25YC in the dark. All strains were stored on either PDA slants or Petri dishes. Fungal DNA was isolated using standard protocol with slight modification whenever necessary. PCR amplification of genomic DNA was performed using universal (ITS) 1 and (ITS) 4 primers. PCR amplification of ribosomal DNA from A. flavus revealed one common band of approximately 600 bp for all the isolates, although 2 of the isolates showed a slight variation. This variation appeared only in the toxigenic forms of A. flavus used in this study. Restriction digestion of PCR products with specific enzymes and sequencing of the same may give additional information about the molecular relatedness of different isolates of toxic and the non-toxic forms of A. flavus in Georgia peanuts.

DEVELOPMENT OF MDCC-PBP AS A REAL TIME SENSOR FOR CHROMATIN REMODELING**, Rosa Wright* (1) and A. Nagaich (2), (1) Albany State University, Albany GA 31705 and (2) National Institutes of Health, Division of Protein Therapeutics, FDA, Bethesda, MD 20892. ATP hydrolysis was used to carry out nucleosome remodeling. The exact molecular mechanism regarding the coupling of ATP hydrolysis to nucleosome remodeling is not clear. The first step in devising a real time sensor for chromatin remodeling is through development of a biosensor protein N-{2-(1-maleimidyl)ethyl}-7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carboxamide labeled phosphate binding protein (MDCC-PBP) that can be used to monitor the rate of ATP hydrolysis during the process of chromatin remodeling reaction in vitro. The biosensor will be utilized to develop a kinetic framework of chromatin remodeling reaction in real time. To develop this biosensor, an E. coli strain (PSN518/7) carrying phosphate binding protein (PBP) was inoculated in Luria Broth in the presence of tetracycline. The plasmid DNA was extracted using a Hi-Speed Plasmid Midi Kit. The presence of plasmid was confirmed using agarose gel electrophoresis. The purified plasmid was digested with Pstl and EcoRI to liberate cDNA of full length. The pET 28a expression vector was grown in LB media and purified using an Qiagen plasmid purification kit. The pET vector was digested with appropriate restriction enzymes, purified on the gel and ligated with the insert DNA. The recombinant vector was then induced with IPTG to overproduce the recombinant protein and transformed into E.coli. The purified PBP was then derivatized with MDCC. By coupling the MDCC-PBP assay with an Ultrafast UV laser test, a real time assay for chromatin remodeling will be developed.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON BOVINE LIVER AND ONION CATALASE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE EFFECT OF pH ON ENZYME ACTIVITY, John Lattier* and William Said, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. Several methodologies available to estimate the kinetic parameters of catalase are mostly laborious and costly. We used a simple, inexpensive, and efficient method to investigate catalase kinetics. The enzymatic activity of onion pulps, as a source of catalase, was compared to the activity of purified bovine liver catalase. We used the Lineweaver-Burk plot to extrapolate the kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, for computer-generated Michaelis-Menten graphs. Blended and centrifuged onion pulp separates into three distinctive layers. The "foamy" layer yielded a Vmax = 0.009 ml [O.sub.2].[sec.sup.-1], a Michaelis Constant, Km = 0.349 M. The supernatant layers provided almost no measurable catalase activity, but the precipitant, "whole-cell" layer provided relatively high catalase activity (Vmax = 0.033 ml [O.sub.2].[sec.sup.-1]; Michaelis Constant, Km = 0.151 M). Purified catalase from bovine liver, in comparison, exhibited a substantially greater catalase activity (Vmax = 0.518 ml [O.sub.2].[sec.sub.-1]; Michaelis Constant, Km = 0.29 M). The pH dependence of catalase activity was tested over a wide pH range. A pH of 6.34 and [[H.sub.2][O.sub.2]] of 0.11M, gave a velocity of catalase reaction of 0.122 ml [O.sub.2].[sec.sup.-1]. Higher or lower pH values resulted in reduced rates of the enzymatic reaction.

PREVALENCE OF GNATHOSTOMA PROCYON IS (NEMATODA: GNATHOSTOMIDAE) IN RACCOONS IN NORTH FLORIDA AND SOUTH GEORGIA, J. Mitchell Lockhart, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. From 2001-2006, the United States Department of Agriculture-Wildlife Services, in coordination with the University of Georgia, Auburn University, Tall Timbers Research Station, and The Jones Ecological Research Center, lethally removed mesomammalian nest predators of bobwhite quail from four sites in north Florida and south Georgia. Valdosta State University participated in this project from 2003-2006. I began examining collected raccoons for the presence of Gnathostoma procyonis, a nematode found in the stomach of its definitive host, from 2004-2006. A total of 511 raccoons was examined and 141 (27.6%) were infected with G. procyonis (2004-29.0%, 2005-37.7%, 2006-17.2%). Male and female raccoons were infected equally (males - 27.5%, n = 335, females - 27.8%, n = 176), and worm burdens did not differ significantly (males - mean = 2.88, range 1-17; females - mean = 2.78, range 1-10). Infections peaked in spring with maximum prevalence occurring in March (43.4%, n = 120) and declined to a minimum prevalence in September (5.4%, n = 37).

ASPECTS OF LAKE FERTILIZATION IN SOUTH GEORGIA, J. A. Nienow, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Fertilization is one practice used to control the growth of filamentous benthic algae and submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes and ponds. A local lake manager was concerned that the addition of fertilizer to control algal mats was having an impact on the pH of Mission Lake. To test this hypothesis, algal growth and pH over the course of a growing season were monitored, while normal lake-management practices, including fertilization, were continued. A temperature/pH recorder was placed in shallow water at one end of the lake, set to record at 30-minute intervals. Water samples were collected at roughly two-week intervals, from which chlorophyll concentration and dominant phytoplankton species were determined. Algal mats were sampled to determine the major component species whenever macroscopic changes were observed. Fertilizer was applied in mid-March, mid-April, and mid-May. During this period a dense growth of the planktonic species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed, and chlorophyll concentrations in excess of 300 [micro]g/L were recorded for April. Phytoplankton numbers declined in May and remained low for the rest of the growing season. Floating mats of filamentous algae, composed primarily of Plectonema (Lyngbya) wollei, but also including Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum, developed during the summer. Lake pH showed a marked diurnal fluctuation throughout the growing season, with diurnal fluctuations of 3 pH units not uncommon. The pH fluctuations continuing after fertilization was halted in mid-May were apparently related to photosynthetic activity, not the fertilization regime.

COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT TREADMILL TRAINING STRATEGIES ON THE REGENERATION OF AXONS IN INJURED PERIPHERAL NERVES, Natalie Redmon* (1) and Arthur English (2), (1) Albany State University, Albany GA 31705 and (2) Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322. Poor functional outcomes after peripheral nerve injuries result from slow growth of regenerating axons in the injured nerves. Prolonged treadmill training (one hour, 10 m/min) leads to enhanced growth, but mice do not exercise in this way, voluntarily. The effectiveness of short duration, high intensity (interval) treadmill training, which mimics the natural pattern used by mice, was compared to that of prolonged training. We used mice carrying the thy-1-YFP-H transgene, marked by the presence of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in a sample of axons in peripheral nerves, to study the growth of individual regenerating axons with confocal microscopy. We cut common fibular nerves and repaired them using nerve grafts from non-fluorescent littermates. After two weeks, we checked for regenerating YFP+ axons in images of optical sections through nerves harvested from euthanized mice. We measured lengths of fluorescent axon profiles in mice trained for four, ten, and 15 two-minute intervals at a treadmill speed of 20 m/min, and compared them to lengths of axon profiles from mice exposed to prolonged training, as well as to a group of unexercised (control) mice. In mice exercised in four intervals daily, the lengths of regenerating axons were significantly longer than those in unexercised controls, and similar to those axons in mice exercised continuously, more than four times longer each day. In mice whose exercise consisted of more than 4 intervals daily, no significant enhancement was found. Thus, interval training could be an effective way of promoting axon regeneration in peripheral nerves, but the number of intervals used must be considered carefully. This project was support in part by the MBRS-RISE program at Albany State University, NIH Grant #GMO71415.

INTERSPECIES VARIATION IN THREE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF ASPERGILLUS IN GEORGIA PEANUTS, Ibijoke Akinjobi* and Premila N Achar, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Detection of fungal infection is important before peanuts reach market, especially the detection of aflatoxin producing Aspergillus. Although several methods have been developed for the detection of fungal infection in peanuts, most have limitations and can result in misidentification. Molecular approaches are now being developed to provide a more rapid and objective identification of fungi compared to traditional phenotypic methods. Protocols for the DNA-based diagnosis of Aspergillus species have recently been developed. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the detection of certain pathogens from field samples, including potentially aflatoxin producing Aspergillus species. In the present study our aim was to develop PCR based protocols in order to investigate interspecies variation at the molecular level among three species of Aspergillus: A. flavus, A. niger, and A. parasiticus from contaminated peanuts in Georgia. DNA was isolated by use of a commercial kit. A comparative analysis at the molecular level between aflatoxin vs. non-aflatoxin producing strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus was also performed. The utility of the large-subunit RNA gene D1-D2 region, and internal transcribed spacers 1 and 4 (ITS1 and ITS4) as targets for the molecular comparison of A. flavus, A. niger, and A. parasiticus was assessed. Our results indicate that interspecies variation among the three isolates is minimal in their ITS1 and ITS4 sequences, and at the molecular level there is no significant difference between aflatoxin vs. non-aflatoxin producing strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus.

EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO CIGARETTE SMOKE ON BAKER YEAST CATALASE**, Kieu-Nhi Bui*, Vladislav Zima, Elizabeth Stanford and William Said, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. Cigarette smoke (CS) has long been recognized as a major environmental pollutant and is considered the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. Worldwide, greater than 90% of lung cancers (the leading cause of cancer death) are CS-related. Although much is known about the type of the damage caused by CS, little is known about the effect of short-term exposures to CS on kinetics of cellular anti-oxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase. The present work attempts to employ a simple, inexpensive yet reliable, method to investigate kinetics of yeast catalase in relation to CS exposure. Yeast cells pre-exposed to 15 minutes of CS exhibited a higher rate of catalase activity compared to that of the control [mean = 0.51 + 0.012 mM [O.sub.2] x [s.sup.-1] (n = 3 trials)] and [0.44 [+ or -] 0.046 mM [O.sub.2] x [s.sup.-1] (n = 3 trials)], respectively (P < 0.05). Although deactivation of yeast catalase was observed over time in both CS-treatment and controls, CS-pre-exposed yeast cells (for 30 min.), as well as yeast cells dispensed in glass vials pre-exposed to CS (for 15 min.) exhibited lower percent reduction of catalase activity compared with those of the controls. Our preliminary data suggest that short-term exposure to cigarette smoke caused both activation and a "prolonged deactivation" of yeast catalase. The initial results suggest that early stages of CS-induced cellular events can be elicited using the yeast as model organism and should contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of CS-induced damage.

IMPACT OF ESTROGEN AND SOY ON BEHAVIORAL RECOVERY FROM STROKE IN FEMALE RATS, Danielle Butler* (1), Tara L. Swan (2) and Derek A. Schreihofer (2), (1) Paine College and (2) Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA. Phytoestrogens, naturally occurring compounds that mimic some of the effects of estrogen, are often used as an alternative to treat menopausal women. This lab has shown that a high soy diet, high in phytoestrogens, reduces stroke size 24 hours after blockage of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in female rats. The present study was designed to establish measures of long term functional recovery from stroke and determine whether estrogen or a high soy diet improves stroke outcome. Adult female SD rats were placed on a soy-free diet and ovariectomized to remove their endogenous source of estrogen (E). Rats were divided into two groups: soy free + placebo (SFP), soy free + E (SFE). These groups underwent sham surgery or left MCAO (stroke) for 90 minutes. Three, 7, and 14 day post surgery, rats were tested for behavioral recovery. Preliminary experiments (n=4/group) suggest that the Cylinder test (sensory/ motor) and the Open Field test (anxiety/activity) may be most sensitive in detecting improvement in behavior during the recovery period. During the Cylinder test, stroked SFP rats favored their left paw on day 3, but had no lateral bias by day 14. In the Open Field test, both groups increased total movement over time, but only the SFE rats increased the number of vertical movements. These preliminary data show that estrogen improves the functional recovery following stroke. Ongoing studies are evaluating the ability of a high soy diet to mimic estrogen's functional neuroprotective effects.

THE EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ON PLANTS, Ayala Gray* and Ashok Jain, Department of Natural Sciences, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. The 2005 hurricane season caused water and soil contamination. Petroleum spills were of particular concern on the Gulf Coast following hurricanes Katrina and Rita. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of petroleum on plants. Yellow corn, Bermuda grass, mustard, and lima bean seedlings (fourteen days after germination) were divided into nine groups, one serving as the control. The other groups were each treated with a different amount of 86-octane gasoline (1, 2, 3 or 4 mL) or a gasoline/motor oil mixture (1:1, with 1, 2, 3 or 4 mL). Five days after the first treatment, the treatment was repeated. Seedlings were harvested two days after final treatment. The results of a chlorophyll content analysis, along with the observed appearance of the plants, showed a definite trend. The groups treated with the mixture looked healthier than those treated with gasoline alone. As expected, each group looked less healthy as the amount of treatment increased. Bean appeared more resistant than all other plants. Although the yellow corn plants were more resistant than the Bermuda grass and mustard plants, at least one corn plant died in each of the gas treatment groups. The chlorophyll content of mustard and Bermuda grass was not measured because all of these plants died quickly. An additional experiment was conducted to determine if germination would occur in soil contaminated with gasoline or the gas/oil mixture. Those plants followed the same trend as the previous experiment. Fewer plants germinated in the gas group and the plants from the mix group appeared to be significantly healthier than those from the gas group.

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN GEORGIA PEANUTS USING RAPD AND PCR, Julia Wand* and Premila N. Achar, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. The mold Aspergillus flavus is a common contaminant of peanuts and produces aflatoxins known to be carcinogenic and toxic, threatening humans, livestock and crops. While the US already has in place regulations to monitor aflatoxin contamination levels, many poor nations either do not have or fail to comply with regulations. As a result, aflatoxins can enter the market. While many techniques for fungal detection exist, it is important to find quick and accurate methods that yield readable results. In this study, we compared PCR and RAPD to detect A. flavus in contaminated peanuts from Georgia. Peanuts from supermarkets were plated on potato dextrose agar and incubated at 30[degrees]C. After 7 days of incubation, based on morphology and colony character, potential colonies were screened for A. flavus and confirmed by PCR and RAPD. Fungal DNA was isolated using standard methods. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified using polymerase chain reaction with the universal primers, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and (ITS) 4. For RAPD reactions, UBC primers 226, 245 and 300 were used. PCR results showed that ITS amplicons for A. flavus ranged from 600 to 650 bp. We predicted that the RAPD results of ITS region of A. flavus would be consistent with those of PCR; however, the sequences amplified in RAPD were random and thus lacked the specificity and sensitivity of PCR. Furthermore, large amounts of DNA fragments were required for RAPD compared to PCR.

BIOMINERALIZATION OF URANIUM BY BACTERIAL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY USING PHYTIC ACID AND RAHNELLA SP. (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), Stephanie Murray* (1), Melanie Beazley (2), and Martial Taillefert (2), (1) Paine College, Augusta, GA and 2Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. Uraninite, the solid reduced form of uranium, is not very stable in the presence of dissolved oxygen. Precipitation of soluble U (VI), as uranium phosphate in oxygenated systems via microorganisms with phosphatase activity, may be an effective bioremediation method. Our goal was to use a Gram-negative bacterium with phosphatase activity, Rahnella sp. from a contaminated waste site, to determine the removal of uranium from solution. At 0.1mM and 20 mM G3P, 38-40% U (VI) can be biomineralized. The buffer capacity of IP6 was experimentally determined to have two buffering regions (pH<2.6 and pH>11.9). Incubations were conducted with Rahnella sp, IP6, and uranium. Uranium was detected using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. Extent of phytic acid hydrolysis and subsequent release of phosphate was estimated by determining the phosphor-molybdenum-blue complexation reaction. At pH 5.5, 12.5% more U (VI) was precipitated in the presence of phosphatase activity compared to chemical control. However, at pH>5.5, the biological precipitation of uranium could not be distinguished from the chemical precipitation. Therefore, at contaminated sites with low pH, the use of IP6 to biomineralize U (VI) may be possible particularly due to its occurrence in natural systems.

PURIFICATION OF HUMAN TRM9: A PUTATIVE METHYLTRANSFERASE USED IN RESPONSE TO CELLULAR STRESS, TaRhonda Moore* (1), Thomas Begley (2), (1) Paine College, Augusta, GA; (2) Department of Cancer Genomics, University at Albany, Albany, New York. Yeast trm9 protein is responsible for methylation of the wobble bases in tRNA. If this protein is removed, cell sensitivity increases. Increased sensitivity suggests that the yeast cell is under stress. Therefore, trm9 protein may play a role in preventing cellular stress. Our goal is to determine if human trm9 prevents cellular stress. If so it could alleviate the harsh effects of chemotherapeutics on cancer patients. Human trm9 protein had to be expressed and purified. XL-10 and BL21DE3 strains of E. coli were transformed with a trm9 gene cloned into the pET28 vector and plated. From mini-preps a working stock of plasmids was treated with EcoRI and Ndel and the restriction digests run on an agarose gel to check for correct enzyme restriction. SDS PAGE was performed to verify expression of trm9 in the pET system and solubility of proteins expressed at 30kd. The protein was not soluble, possibly because the bacterial cells formed inclusion bodies that held the protein inside. If trm9 protein can be made soluble, it can be purified and tested for effects on cellular stress.

IDENTIFYING SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS (SNPs) IN THE MAIZE INBREDS B73 AND Mol7: A STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH, Afriyie B. Dankwa*, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. No abstract submitted.

Section II: Chemistry

ACAD 143

Kenneth Martin, presiding

8:15 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF TETRAMETHYLAMMONIUM 3-NITROPHENOLATE, Stephanie E. Bettis* and Kenneth L. Martin, Department of Chemistry, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. The stoichiometric addition of a solution of tetramethylammonium hydroxide to a solution of 3-nitrophenol followed by slow evaporation led to orange-red crystalline plates. 12664 Mo-[K.sub.[alpha]] reflections were measured at 173 K via Bruker SMART 2-K CCD single-crystal diffractometer. The unit cell was found to have the following parameters: a = 23.543(4) [Angstrom], b = 5.636(1) [Angstrom], c = 16.387(3) [Angstrom], [alpha] = 90Y, [beta] = 128.513(3)Y, [gamma] = 90Y, and V = 1701.16 [Angstrom] (3). The space group was determined to be C2/c, and it appeared that there were eight 3-nitrophenolate anions but only four tetramethyl ammonium cations per unit cell. However an electron density peak 1.220 [Angstrom] away from the two phenoxide oxygen atoms related by the two-fold rotation axis reveals that a 1:1 complex of 3-nitrophenol : tetramethylammonium 3-nitrophenolate was actually synthesized. The structure was solved and refined by full-matrix least-squares method via SHELXTL V 5.1 and led to an R-factor of 0.0402 for the strongest 1368 reflections.

8:30 REDUCTION OF KETONES ON SILICA SURFACES AND MOLECULAR MODELING, Sam Zipperer*, Laura Francis, Kristen Francis and John Barbas, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. The reduction of several cyclic and bicyclic ketones was carried out with sodium borohydride on dry activated silica surfaces. The stereoselectivities were compared with predictions obtained from molecular modeling and from the corresponding reductions in solution with various reducing agents. Surprisingly, reductions on silica proceeded rapidly indicating molecular mobility on the surface. Typically, half-lives were less than one hour. Small reducing agents approach the ketones from the face of the carbonyl moiety with the more accessible LUMO site whereas bulky reducing agents approach the carbonyl from the less sterically hindered site. In cases of severe steric hindrance even small reducing agents approach the carbonyl from the less hindered site regardless of LUMO accessibility. Thus, 3,3,5-trimethylcyclo-hexanone, when reduced with sodium borohydride adsorbed on silica, gave a ratio of axial/equatorial alcohols of 62:38, whereas the less hindered 4-tert-butyl-cyclohexanone gave a ratio of axial/equatorial alcohols of 10:90. Work is continuing with chiral reducing agents adsorbed on silica.

8:45 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS OF POTENTIAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN TEM, OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND SERS DATA USING GOLD AND SILVER IGG AND A-IGG NANOPARTICLE CONJUGATES**, Brittany Gutzman* (1), Caryn S. Seney (1) and Robin M. Bright (2), (1) Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207 and (2) Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA 31030. Monodisperse gold nanoparticles were synthesized using published sodium citrate reduction methods and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy. For the Au nanoparticle[s.sub._max] occurred at 518 nm with a peak width at half the maximum of 78. Using these monodisperse Au nanoparticles, antibody/gold (IgG/Au) and antigen/gold (a-IgG/Au) conjugates were synthesized. Binding conditions for the IgG/Au and a-IgG/Au conjugates were determined to be optimal at 25[degrees]C and pH 9. 33 [micro]L of IgG and 22 [micro]L of a-IgG were required for complete coating at a binding time of at least 15 minutes. Synthesis of SERS-active silver nanoparticles is currently underway. The silver nanoparticles are being tested for SERS activity using pyridine. TEM will then be used to analyze the Au and Ag nanoparticles, IgG/Au conjugates and a-IgG/Au conjugates, gold nanoparticles Ag sandwiches, and to examine the interaction of IgG/a-IgG/Au conjugates. The TEM, SERS and UV-VIS data will be studied in order to make potential correlations between SERS activity, size/shape of the nanoparticles and their correspondin[g.sub._max]. We gratefully acknowledge funding received from the National Science Foundation--RUI award # 0406138 and from the Mercer University Department of Chemistry without which this project would not have been possible.

9:00 Break

9:15 SIMULATED DOCKING STUDIES BETWEEN ARTIFICIAL LIGANDS AND AN EXPRESSED MEMBRANE PROTEIN OF ERYTHROCYTES INFECTED WITH THE MALARIA PARASITE PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM**, Brian Krieg* and Bridget G. Trogden, Mercer University, Macon, GA 32107. The dominant species of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, evades immune system detection in the placenta of pregnant women by binding to placental syncytiotrophoblast cells. Specifically, a membrane protein of P. falciparum, PfEMP1, binds to the syncytiotrophoblast membrane carbohydrate chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). It is believed that this binding interaction takes place in a specific domain of the protein that is conserved among a larger family of P. falciparum proteins. Our purpose is to investigate artificial ligands that we theorize to be of high affinity for PfEMP1; if the protein cannot bind CSA, the infected erythrocytes will be kept circulating through the bloodstream where antibodies can act upon them. To investigate the binding of these CSA mimics, the crystal structure of a protein within the family is used with a computer based docking program called AutoDock. The ligands showing the lowest free energy of binding indicate the best candidates for developing a pharmacophore upon which future CSA mimics can be based. Sites of ligand binding have been discovered which feature several prominent hydrogen bonds. Further docking studies at these and other sights with different ligands will advance the understanding of interactions between PfEMP1 and its ligands.

9:30 CATHODIC ELECTRODEPOSITION OF SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILMS**, PaviElle M. Lockhart* (1), Stephen B. Osiro* (1), Russell H. Goddard (2), and Linda de la Garza (1), (1) Department of Chemistry and (2) Department of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31605. Electrochemical methods were used to prepare thin films of Ti[O.sub.2] on indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass slides. The deposition bath reagents for Ti[O.sub.2] were studied using cyclic voltammetry and UV-absorption spectroscopy to understand the mechanism of the reaction and to improve deposition. The deposition bath contained 0.02 M TiOS[O.sub.4], 0.03 M [H.sub.2][O.sub.2], 0.05 M [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4], and 0.1 M KN[O.sub.3]. A potential of -1.1 V was applied to the ITO electrode for 1 hr. The initial anodic current is usually 10-12 mA, but it drops to about half after 30 min. The slide is then heated at 400 YC for 1 hr and the absorption spectrum recorded. The transmittance spectra show a decrease in transmittance in the 250 nm wavelength after deposition; this confirms the UV light absorption by the electrodeposited Ti[O.sub.2]. The effects on the growth of the films under different conditions of temperature, concentration of reagents, and deposition time were determined by SEM. At a temperature of 8 YC the Ti[O.sub.2] appears as a network of approximately 150-nm particles while at room temperature independent larger particles are grown at a size of about 250 nm. Further characterization is being carried out by cyclic voltammetry. Experiments are being performed towards electrodepositing ZnO and to introduce a mixed-semiconductor thin film.

9:45 COMPARATIVE CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF "INFINITE" HELICAL COORDINATION COMPOUNDS**, Carolyn S. Anderson* (1), Abigail V. Hunter (1), Kenneth L. Martin (1), S. Russell Seidel (2) and Russell G. Baughman (3), (1) Berry College, Mt. Berry, GA 30149, (2) Dowling College, Oakdale, NY 11769 and (3) Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501. Three coordination compounds having the general formula M(hfac)[.sub.2](dtdp) (where hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate, dtdp = 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, and M = Mn, Cu, or Zn) have been synthesized and crystals have been grown. Mn(hfac)[.sub.2](dtdp) is yellow, Cu(hfac)[.sub.2](dtdp) is green, and Zn(hfac)[.sub.2](dtdp) is colorless. Each of these compounds exists in the solid as a racemate of right- and left-handed helices, in which the M(hfac)[.sub.2] units are bridged by a dtdp having a C-S-S-C torsion angle of ~90[degrees]. X-ray diffraction data sets collected at room temperature on a Bruker P4 single-crystal diffractometer revealed that all three compounds crystallize in the P[2.sub.1]/c space group having four "molecules" per unit cell. The compounds have the following unit cell dimensions: for Mn(hfac)[.sub.2](dtdp), a = 7.902 [Angstrom], b = 16.253 [Angstrom], c = 20.902 [Angstrom], [beta] = 91.47[degrees], and V = 2684 [Angstrom] (3); for Cu(hfac)[.sub.2](dtdp), a = 7.935 [Angstrom], b = 16.034 [Angstrom], c = 20.374 [Angstrom], [beta] = 91.30[degrees], and V = 2591 [Angstrom]3; and for Zn(hfac)[.sub.2](dtdp), a = 7.835 [Angstrom], b = 16.368 [Angstrom], c = 20.642 [Angstrom], [beta] = 91.46[degrees], and V = 2646 [Angstrom]3. These data help explain why the crystal of one compound may act as a "seed crystal" in the solution of another compound, thus forming zonal systems.

10:00 Section meeting

10:45 USING SPARTAN IN THE PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY QUANTUM MECHANICS LABORATORY, Kenneth L. Martin, Department of Chemistry, Berry College, Mt. Berry, GA 30149. Spartan, the chemistry computational software package released by Wavefunction, Inc., is versatile in that it may be used both as a tool for performing research and as an instructional technology in the classroom. Students of physical chemistry learn about various aspects of quantum mechanics, including molecular orbital theory, computational chemistry, molecular symmetry, and group theoretical applications to chemistry. Therefore laboratory exercises have been developed in order to increase the student's understanding of (1) chemical bonding and commensurate molecular shape and (2) the symmetry of molecules and their molecular orbitals and vibrational modes. Over the course of the semester, students perform molecular mechanics, semi-empirical, and ab initio calculations, and they are taught the differences and the relative merits in these techniques. An overview of each experiment and strategies for their implementation will be presented.

11:00 DEVELOPING A CHEMISTRY TEXTBOOK WITH HAVANA UNIVERSITY (InSTEC. CUBA), Thomas J. Manning (1), Aurora Perez Gramatges (2), and Geyser Fernandez Cata (2), (1) Chemistry Department, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698 and (2) Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), Havana, Cuba. In the summer of 2001 a 2.5-week trip organized by the Ga. Board of Regents throughout Cuba started collaborations between American and Cuban faculty members. Recently (Oct. 2006) a return trip took place in which TJM traveled with a delegation from the American Chemical Society to deliver presentations at the Latin American Chemical Conference (FLAQ). In line with the Regents' and VSU's globalization efforts, we have started a joint endeavor between VSU and Havana University (InSTEC). Specifically we are developing a computational lab manual with twenty-four exercises that are based on Excel and Spartan. Each module is self sufficient--or it can be handed to a student with little expertise on the software and they can follow the three-hour exercise with little instruction. In addition to teaching and reinforcing many concepts taught in general chemistry, it also improves a student's computer and report presentation skills. Students from VSU and InSTEC are directly involved in this endeavor and communicate electronically. This manual addresses an international problem in general chemistry labs: more students with the same resources (lab space, supplies and instructors). This presentation will discuss student evaluations (from VSU and InSTEC) and some of the educational and logistical barriers being encountered.

11:15 DIAMETER AND ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE DEPENDENCE OF NONCOVALENT INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CYTOSINE AND SWCNT: QM/MM STUDY, Yixuan Wang, Albany State University, 504 College Dr., Albany, GA 31705. Noncovalent interactions widely exist in CNT-bio conjugates, and play very important role on their performance in terms of solubility in aqueous solution and internalization of CNT into living cells. To well understand such weak interaction, 2-layer ONIOM method (PW91LYP/6-311++G(d,p):AM1) was employed to extensively investigate the non-covalent interactions between cytosine and a variety of SWCNTs with different diameters and electronic structures. It was found that binding energies for two parallel complexes become more negative with increasing nanotube diameter; while those for three perpendicular complexes have a weaker dependence on the curvature, slightly exhibiting less negative. At the PW91LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level, two parallel complexes are less bound than perpendicular complexes. However, these exist as significantly different electron correlation effects on parallel and perpendicular complexes that an opposite fact was turned out: two parallel complexes become more stable than three perpendicular complexes at the MP2/6-311G(d,p) level.

11:30 IDENTIFICATION OF OVER-THE-COUNTER MEDICINES BY FTIR/ATR AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS, Huggins Z. Msimanga and Qyuni T Handfield, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kennesaw State University, 1000 Chastain Road, Kennesaw, Georgia 30144-5591. Crime labs are usually faced with discerning various batches of illicit drugs with a purpose to trace their origin. In such cases the drug must be analyzed along with any possible concoctions, without involving clean-up steps that are often required in a conventional analysis. As initial steps in developing methods for analyzing seized illicit drugs, we have used various pain relievers (Migraine Formula, Headache Relief, Excedrin, etc) with different brand names as our samples. These formulations contain similar active ingredients (aspirin, caffeine, and acetaminophen) and excipients that are combinations of cellulose, stearic acids, glycols, providone, among others. In addition to these formulations we have prepared control mixtures consisting of the active ingredients and varying percent compositions of the mentioned excipients. Spectral data were obtained using a Perkin Erlmer FTIR/ATR system. The ATR allows obtaining the spectra directly on the solid powder of the formulations. The acquired spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (Simca ver 5.1b). Results for both the control mixtures and over-the-counter formulations showed distinct classification of the spectra, with Euclidean distances more than unity between the formulations.

Section III: Earth and Atmospheric Science

ACAD 185

Tim Chowns, presiding

7:45 REFINED MORPHOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF TITANIS WALLERI USING BUCKLING AND TORSIONAL ANALYSIS**, Carl Garofalo*, Robert M. Chandler and William P. Wall, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. The morphology of the phorusrhacid Titanis walleri has been the subject of much debate. Two competing camps have established alternate hypotheses for the structure of Titanis' wings. Gould and Quitmyer have proposed that Titanis had a small, relatively useless vestigial wing much like that of an ostrich. Chandler proposed that Titanis had a highly modified wing that is a forward extending arm and a flexible claw on Digit I. The weight of this extinct bird is also in question. Some researchers think that Titanis weighed as much as 500 pounds. Using biomechanical analysis, the breaking strength of the humerus and toe bones of Titanis walleri has been estimated in compression and torsion. The values found from these estimations coupled with the morphology of known fossils have been used to determine which of the proposed theories regarding Titanis' physical makeup is correct.

8:00 A PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF THE MARINE UNIT UNDERLYING CLARK QUARRY, BRUNSWICK, GEORGIA**, Kelly Clark* and A.J. Mead, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. For the past several years, excavations at Clark Quarry near Brunswick, Georgia, have yielded abundant Pleistocene-aged vertebrate fossils. Recent radiocarbon dating on Giant Bison (Bison latifrons) bone produced a corrected age of 12, 350 [+ or -] 70 YBP. Clark Quarry is a cut and fill fluvial deposit overlying a marine sand. The marine unit is characterized by a well-sorted, subrounded, low sphericity, fine-grained quartz arenite representing sediments of the Princess Anne terrace. The common fossils of the marine unit at this locality are abraded and complete mollusks, drum teeth, shark teeth, ray dental plates, and fish scales and spines. The most common of the molluscan fauna is the oyster Crassostrea virginica. Other bivalves include the genera Chione and Anadara. Gastropods are represented by the genera Polinices, Busycon, and abundant Ilynassa. Also present are many steinkerns, most likely of Ilynassa. The mollusks identified thus far at this locality match the previously described molluscan fauna of the Satilla Formation, and seem to represent a subtidal or shallow marine environment.

8:15 TAPHONOMY OF LARGE MAMMALIAN FOSSILS OF CLARK QUARRY, Joshua Clark* and A.J. Mead, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Since 2001, excavations carried out at Clark Quarry, Brunswick, Georgia, have produced an abundance of late Pleistocene-aged mammalian fossils. Many of these fossils, specifically of the large herbivores such as the Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi). the long-horned bison (Bison latifrons), and the white-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), exhibit a variety of taphonomic alterations. These include weathering damage, trampling damage, and gnaw damage. Carnivore damage appears to be present on fossils of both M. columbi and B. latifrons. While no carnivore fossils have been obtained from Clark Quarry, fossil localities in Chatham Co. and Bartow Co. have yielded a variety of late Pleistocene carnivore taxa that could have produced this damage (e.g., Canis sp., Ursus americanus, Tremarctos floridanus, Panthera onca, Felis inexpectata, Lynx rufus, and Leopardus, a type of jaguarundi). In addition to carnivore gnaw evidence, rodent gnaw is present on fossils of O. virginianus, most noticeably on antler fossils. Trampling damage is also present on many of the fossils and is mostly seen as linear scratches caused by sand abrasion. This taphonomic signature, in addition to the presence of freshwater vertebrate fossils and a sandy fossiliferous matrix, suggests a slow-moving, riverine habitat with high traffic of large vertebrates and active carnivore scavenging and/or predation.

8:30 ANALYZING GRAIN SIZE AND ORIENTAION OF PROTERZOIC CARBONATE FABRICS USING EBSD**, Michael Bucari-Tovo* and Julie K. Bartley, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a potentially powerful tool for interpreting sedimentary textures. EBSD detects and analyzes the pattern produced when electrons are diffracted by a crystalline substance. Once the instrument has detected the bands, the computer matches their size and position to a database of known crystal structures. This method has been applied successfully to crystalline silicate rocks to examine small-scale crystallographic patterns, but its utility has not been tested on limestones and dolostones. Because carbonate textures are produced by both crystal orientation and grain arrangement, EBSD shows promise for interpreting carbonates. We examined a series of Proterozoic carbonates with a variety of textures, using the EBSD. Our focus has been a type of carbonate fabric called molar-tooth structure. This cement fabric is formed by the precipitation of microscopic vaterite crystals in synsedimentary voids, followed by the inversion of vaterite to calcite and later-stage porosity occlusion by calcite. Other types of fabrics that we hope to successfully map include herringbone cements and radial fibrous calcite cements. We expect that we will eventually be able to use EBSD to effectively map the crystallographic orientation of various carbonate fabrics and perhaps use this technique to detect traces of original crystal orientation in carbonate textures that have been recrystallized or replaced.

8:45 PRESERVATION OF PREDATORY DRILL HOLES IN MISSISSIPPIAN BRACHIOPODS**, M. Tressa Cooley*, Julie K. Bartley, and Philip Novack-Gottshall, Department of Geosciences, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossil record provides abundant evidence of predator-prey interaction in the form of preserved predatory drill holes in prey mollusks. Such predator-prey interactions are rarely observed in the Paleozoic fossil record, although a few studies have verified that predation by drilling occurred as early as the Cambrian Period. Only a few studies have examined the distribution of Paleozoic predatory drill holes, leading to the conclusion that predation by drilling is rare and preservation of this interaction may be strongly affected by taphonomy. This study examined the frequency and morphology of predatory drill holes in Mississippian fossils from the Bangor and Monteagle formations of Alabama. As a preliminary investigation, UWG's Chesterian collections were examined for specimens that preserve definite or probable evidence of predation and likely specimens were examined visually, by light microscopy, and by SEM. This strategy produced approximately 20 candidates from the Monteagle and Bangor Limestones. All are brachiopods, and the majority of drilled individuals are Cleiothyridina. Based on the current observations it appears that the Cleiothyridina specimens are most frequently predated. Future work with field-collected grab samples will seek to verify this tentative conclusion and to quantify predation rates in these assemblages.

9:00 THE PRESERVATION OF MICROBES AND CHANGES THAT OCCUR PRIOR TO FOSSILIZATION**, Ashley Manning* and Julie K. Bartley, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. We do not always know how to classify preserved microbes because of their relatively simple morphology. Also, little is known about the processes that lead to their preservation or destruction. We are attempting to discover how microbes are preserved and to quantify post-mortem changes that occur prior to fossilization. Cultures of cyanobacteria and algae were grown in sterile environments, which were maintained in Alga-Gro either freshwater or saltwater medium according to the species of algae. A culture of heterotrophs was produced using culture broth and lake water. These cultures were stored in a dark incubator to prevent photosynthesis. The cultured pond heterotrophs were added to fresh cultures of cyanobacteria (Gloeocapsa) or eukaryotic algae (Vaucheria sessilis). These infected cultures were also kept in the incubator, in darkness, so that no new photosynthesis occurred. Decomposing cultures were checked at regular intervals to evaluate morphological change occurring because of decomposition. Evaluation was based on characteristics such as cell and sheath morphology. Individual cells were examined by moving the microscope stage at random intervals and scoring cell morphology. The electron microscope can be used to evaluate changes in sheath or cell wall ultrastructure. We are looking for comparable morphologies in modern and fossil microbes to explain how microbes enter the fossil record.

9:15 A PALEOSOL FROM THE BANGOR LIMESTONE (MISSISSIPPIAN) NEAR COLLINSVILLE, ALABAMA, J. Brian Stogner*, Timothy M. Chowns, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. A thin (0-0.6 m) impersistent reddish-gray mudstone within ooid grainstones in the Bangor Limestone, approximately 1100 feet above the base of the Mississippian section, is interpreted as a paleosol (B horizon) and a possible sequence boundary. Limestone beneath the mudstone (C horizon) is micritized, melanized, brecciated and deformed into pseudo-anticlines. Laminar calcrete is absent. Thin sections show tubular root casts with cloudy cutans partly infilled by graded, geopetal calcite-silt, and micrite replaced by diffuse spherulitic calcite. In the lower part of the weathering profile primary ooidal textures have been destroyed by dolomitization and small doubly terminated quartz crystals have developed through silicification. Insoluble residues from this dolostone yield a black clay that is interpreted to have infiltrated from above and to be responsible for melanization. Maximum thickness of mudstone and altered limestone is about 1m. Above the mudstone, low areas between pseudo-anticlines are capped by about 0.3 m of micritic limestone with a lag of partly silicified bryozoans encrusting gastropod debris. Overlying limestones are strongly cross-bedded ooid grain-stones. The presence of a reddish clay residue underlain by diffuse unlaminated calcrete suggests a mature paleosol developed under slightly arid conditions.

9:30 A WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE ALAPAHOOCHEE RIVER WATERSHED**, Kyle Turner*, Can Denizman*, and Eric Brevik, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. The Alapahoochee River watershed was selected for this project based on the high level of citizen concern about water quality and public health in this area. The watershed includes a high recharge area for the upper Floridian aquifer, from which most people in the area get their drinking water. This project is intended to create an educated and motivated watershed citizen group in the Alapahoochee River watershed that is instrumental in reducing pollution loads and increasing biodiversity in the area. Biweekly water samples were collected and analyzed for 10 sampling points between August 2005 and August 2006. Based on the results of the first year's sampling campaign we focused our studies on particular stretches of the Mud Creek-Grand Bay-Alapahoochee River system and included more chemical parameters to better assess the water quality in the study area. Particularly, we are interested in determining the impact of the water treatment plant on Mud Creek on water quality. High pH and low Dissolved Oxygen values observed downstream from the treatment plant during the first year of the study may indicate a problem. To address this concern we have added nitrate and chlorine analysis to our second year testing program. Results from both years of the study will be presented and discussed.

9:45 A TWO YEAR STUDY OF WATER QUALITY IN WEST GEORGIA**, Jennifer Beth Blaise* and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA, 30118. Turbidity, total suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, and nutrients are good indicators of water quality. In the west Georgia area road construction, housing developments, increased water withdrawals, treated sewage discharge, and farming are contributing to potential water quality problems. We are conducting a two year water quality study on the Tallapoosa River, the Little Tallapoosa River, the Chattahoochee River and a small creek on the University of West Georgia (Central Campus Branch) that compares correlations between water quality parameters and flow, rainfall, basin size, and human activity. The sample sites are tested for turbidity up to 5 days a week. Results show that turbidity is very sensitive to rain events and flow. Weekly sites are tested for Nitrate-Nitrite-N and Total Phosphorus. Results show that nutrient levels are a direct effect of land use. Fecal coliform is a new parameter that we started testing in April 2006, we sample three days a week and plan to determine the relationship between land use, turbidity, flow, rainfall, and fecal coliform colonies. Early minimum, median, and maximum results for the Little Tallapoosa are: 20, 800, 5200 colonies/dL; Central Campus Branch: 9.0, 450, 40000 colonies/dL; Chattahoochee: 27, 240, 3100 colonies/dL, and Tallapoosa: <10, 130, 23000 colonies/dL. In October 2006 we started testing Total Suspended Solids in order to predict quality of water and sediment load being transported to reservoirs downstream.

10:00 Business meeting

10:30 TEACHING STRATIGRAPHY BY POGIL (PROCESS-ORIENTED GUIDED INQUIRY LEARNING): SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES, Julie K. Bartley, Department of Geoscience, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) is a teaching and learning technique developed by chemistry educators to improve critical thinking and problem solving in science courses. In POGIL, the instructor acts as a facilitator for students who explore processes that underlie natural phenomena. Students construct an understanding by conducting experiments, making observations, and articulating explanations of phenomena. In the Stratigraphy/Geochronology course at UWG, students struggle with terminology and typically articulate understanding poorly. During Fall 2006, I reorganized this course to focus on the fundamental processes that underlie stratigraphy. Students spent class time doing hands-on work that guided them through constructing explanations of facies change, stratigraphic pattern, and sequence architecture through the lens of fundamental physical processes. This "lectureless" approach resulted in greater understanding of stratigraphic concepts and improved performance on examinations. However, students displayed decreased confidence in their mastery of material and performed somewhat more poorly on quantitative elements (e.g., radiometric dating). Overall, POGIL instruction represents an effective approach to teaching stratigraphy, and the benefits outweigh the challenges.

10:45 QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES IN SOIL, David C. Edwards, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. Organic macromolecules, such as humic substances, siderophores, and derivatives from decaying plant material are ubiquitous in soil environments. Their physical and chemical properties (functional group types, charge, and size) determine their reactivity with mineral surfaces, free ions, and other organic molecules. However, due to the varying structures of these compounds, traditional instrumentation methods do not give complete information about the functional group characteristics of organic macromolecules. In recent years X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been utilized to identify these compounds' functional groups. Because XAS is relatively new, progress in assessing functional group characteristics, particularly at the nitrogen K-edge, is lacking. In order to solve this problem, smaller organic molecules with environmentally relevant functional groups have been evaluated at the nitrogen K-edge with experimental and theoretical methods. These results will aid in the qualitative assessment of organic macromolecules and increase the understanding of their reactivity in soil environments.

11:00 AFRICAN DUST IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S.: CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCE, Brian H. Bossak, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. In recent years, dust emanating from the Sahara desert has been linked to coral die-offs and increased asthma rates in the Caribbean, as well as suppression of North Atlantic hurricanes. Evidence suggests that overall atmospheric dust levels are increasing in concert with desertification in the Sahel (southern Sahara). As part of a cooperative dust sampling effort, bimonthly samples of airborne dust have been collected on the Valdosta State University campus and analyzed for mass and composition. Sample masses are associated with pulses of greater and lesser dust concentration. Optical comparison suggests varying composition and scanning electron / optical microscopy indicates myriad sizing within dust loads. Comparison with local EPA Air Quality data for PM2.5 suggests that the observed increased dust loads occurring during the North Atlantic hurricane season are likely a result of pulses of African dust traveling along the trade winds from western Africa, across the Atlantic, and into the southeastern U.S. This possibility raises public health implications in light of recent findings regarding the viability of organisms and chemicals that return to earth when the fine dust particles settle. This research was supported, in part, by Project Skydust, based at the University of Rhode Island.

11:15 MERCURY IN WATERSHEDS IN GEORGIA: USING PUBLIC DATABASES TO ESTABLISH RELATIONSHIPS IN MERCURY CONCENTRATION AND SIZE IN LARGEMOUTH BASS, Randa R. Harris and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. When mercury is found in its methylmercury form it is dangerous for humans, especially young children and women that are pregnant or nursing. Approximately 6%-8% of women of childbearing age have blood levels of mercury that are higher than the EPA's reference dose of 0.1 microgram/kg/day. Methylmercury bioaccumulates to a greater degree than other forms of mercury and is found in increasing concentrations in large fish at the top of their food chain. Concentrations in these fish are on the order of four magnitudes greater than those found in water. The EPA maintains a database of mercury research conducted by various states and tribal organizations. This 2004 National Listing of Fish and Wildlife Advisories (NLFWA) data set can be accessed on their website, providing a treasure trove of underutilized data. Throughout the nation, over 62,000 samples were obtained of mercury levels in fish, collected at 7,617 sites during 9,266 sampling events. This research focused on the state of Georgia, and particularly on mercury in tissues of the largemouth bass. Of 824 Georgia samples the maximum recorded concentration was 3.1 ppm Hg, from a fish 16.71 in long. The largest fish, 21.9 in, contained 2.64 ppm Hg. Mercury concentrations tend to increase with fish size (a proxy for age), which is expected due to its bioaccumulation tendencies.

11:30 LATE PLEISTOCENE TO HOLOCENE ALLUVIUM AT COFFEE BLUFF ON THE OCMULGEE RIVER, TELFAIR COUNTY, GEORGIA, Donald M. Thieme* (1), Dennis Blanton (2) and Frankie Snow (3), (1) Georgia Perimeter College, Lawrenceville, GA 30043, (2) Fernbank Museum of Natural History, Atlanta, GA 30307 and (3) South Georgia College, Douglas, GA 31533. The Fernbank Museum of Natural History has been conducting a search for archaeological sites associated with the Spanish mission Santa Isabel de Utinahuca at the Forks of the Ocmulgee River. Shortly after the conclusion of fieldwork last summer, the stratigraphy of a riverbank with over three meters of alluvium was described and sampled. The section at Coffee Bluff in Telfair County represents a nearly complete section through the Holocene back to the late Pleistocene. Beneath cross-bedded sands which represent a braided stream depositional environment, an organic mat rich in plant macrofossils has been radiocarbon dated to 38,690 +/- 420 yr B.P. The well-preserved plant macrofossils in the dated deposit are dominated by species familiar in the area's contemporary floral communities. Laboratory analysis of a column of twelve samples from the overlying profile shows rapid changes in both mean grain size and sorting for the lower half of the profile, consistent with deposits of a braided stream. At approximately 1.2 m below the land surface there is a change to fining-upward depositional cycles in which both clay accumulation and sediment chemistry indicate a period of landform stability roughly coinciding with the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary at 10,000 yr B.P.

11:45 AN "IN-DEPTH" LOOK AT THE KNOX DOLOMITE, Joel M. Sneed, Fellow, National Speleological Society. The Knox Group underlies large areas of the Valley and Ridge province in northwest Georgia but it is generally poorly exposed. The Knox Dolomite, a massively bedded, partially crystalline, gray magnesian limestone of Cambrian and Ordovician age, is some 3500 feet thick in this area. The process of dolomitization has largely destroyed primary textures as well as fossils. Caves in Bartow County provide an opportunity to examine the fresh rock and weathering features. These features include original sedimentary structures (algal stromatolites), diagenetic structures (collapse breccias and chert replacement), and weathering features (tripoli). One feature rare in caves of the southeastern U.S. but found in caves in the Knox of Bartow County is boxwork. These thin, intersecting fins of calcite that protrude from wall and ceiling have traditionally been considered petromorphic but in some instances have been shown to be speleothemic. The boxwork could be related to brecciation and in at least one of the caves these features are found in close proximity to each other. Of the three rock formations in Bartow County where caves are found, the Knox produces those that are most developed, both in horizontal and vertical extent.

Posters

THE HISPANIZATION OF GEORGIA**, Caroline Cripe*, Michael G. Noll and Eric C. Brevik, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. Approximately 102 Hispanics move to Georgia every day. Thus, Hispanics are more prevalent in Georgia now than at any time in its history, and a continuing demand for more workers has made the state one of the top destinations for Hispanic immigrants. Between 2000 and 2002 the Hispanic population increased by 17%, faster than in any other state in the country. In 2002 Hispanics already made up 6% of the total population in Georgia, and the number is steadily increasing. Consequently, Georgia is greatly affected by this continuing wave of immigrants as they not only bring with them a unique culture but also some special needs. Schools and businesses, for example, are in desperate need of bilingual employees to better accommodate these newcomers and their children. Since Georgia statistics also show that the number of Hispanic births in the state grew by 643%, from 2,263 in 1990 to 16,819 in 2002, the process of Georgia's Hispanization will continue to increase in the coming years. Focusing on Hall, Echols, and Whitfield counties, this research will analyze the impact of Hispanic immigration on Georgia in the last decade or so, and will also explore the question of why so many Hispanics have made our state their new home.

NORTH ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES AND US HURRICANES: PEAK MONTHLY CORRELATIONS, 1981-2005**, Lisa A. Fulton* and Brian H. Bossak, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia 31698. This research focuses on Atlantic basin SSTs and their relationship with US landfalling hurricanes. The investigation examines North Atlantic SSTs during the months of August, September, and October from 1981 to 2005 (a 25-year dataset). These months represent the peak activity of any Atlantic hurricane season. Only the tracks of Atlantic basin hurricanes that made landfall in the United States (US Hurricanes) are examined. Prior research suggests that hurricane activity, in general, is enhanced over waters that are warmer. However, the location of the oceanic regions of the warmest SSTs changes throughout any particular hurricane season. This should affect the origin of North Atlantic tropical cyclones, their development, and eventual US landfall. Hurricane data was derived from the National Hurricane Center's Best-Track dataset, and SSTs were obtained from NOAA's National Operational Model and Distribution System (NOMADS). ArcMap and other GIS applications and programs have been utilized to analyze and display the possible correlations. Maps are generated for these peak months which depict US Hurricane tracks, along with average SSTs in the Atlantic basin during this specific time period.

EFFECTS OF LEAF LITTER ON SOIL DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH GEORGIA**, Henry Mimms and Eric C. Brevik, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. Accumulation of organic matter is one of the first typical steps in soil formation. We have established a study at the Valdosta State University Lake Louise field station to investigate the influence of leaf litter on short-term soil formation. The study site is an abandoned sand borrow pit. It was excavated and abandoned in 1961 without any remediation efforts. To investigate the influence of leaf litter, 16 catch baskets have been placed in the study site. Four baskets are placed in each of four subdivisions of the study site. These subdivisions are the pit bottom (deepest part of the pit), the sparsely vegetated area (very little vegetative growth even after 45 years), the pit edge were grasses are growing, and a natural control outside the borrow pit. Leaf litter samples are collected once a month. The study will compare amounts and types of leaf litter to soil formation within the borrow pit and to litter amounts and types in the natural setting outside the pit.

FERTILITY OF DEVELOPING SOILS IN AN ABANDONED BORROW PIT, LOWNDES COUNTY**, Jordan Brown, Henry Downs, and Eric C. Brevik, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. Soil fertility is important for proper plant growth. Common soil nutrients include N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, and Mn. This study is investigating the nutrient status of new soils developing in a borrow pit excavated and abandoned in 1961 and comparing nutrients in these new soils to nutrients in a nearby native soil. The borrow pit was not reclaimed, so any soil development and nutrient accumulation has occurred through natural processes. Soil nutrient levels are being tested using a LaMotte soil test kit. Testing with the LaMotte kits is based on colorometry, a technique that uses chemicals that will react with substances in the soil to give a known color. The color is then compared to color standards to determine nutrient levels. Results of the study will be presented.

EFFECTS OF TRAFFIC ON SOIL COMPACTION IN SANDY SOUTH GEORGIA SOILS**, Matt Williams and Eric C. Brevik, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. Soil compaction is one of the largest problems faced by modern mechanized agricultural and forestry operations. This makes research in the area of soil compaction critical. This study was undertaken to see how different types and levels of traffic have influenced soil compaction in sandy soils at the Valdosta State University Lake Louise field station south of Valdosta, GA. Four different traffic patterns are investigated in this study. The first area has relatively high vehicular traffic, the second more moderate vehicular traffic, and the third area a relatively low level of vehicle traffic. The fourth area has experience foot, horse, and ATV traffic, but full sized cars/vans have not been used in the area. To study compaction, soil cores of known volume have been taken at the soil surface and at 30 cm depths. These cores were taken both in the trafficked area (road, trail) and alongside the trafficked area at three locations for each treatment. Average soil bulk density values for the trafficked and untrafficked areas will be statistically compared to determine the effects of traffic patterns on soil compaction.

AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN VALDOSTA, GEORGIA**, Brittaney Van Vliet* and Brian H. Bossak, Valdosta State University, Valdosta GA 31698. This research focuses on an examination of Valdosta's air quality. The research was conducted in an effort to determine if Valdosta's ambient air pollution exceeds federal health limits. We tested for the gaseous pollutants sulfur dioxide, sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, carbon monoxide, and chlorine. In addition, the amount of ground-level ozone, a respiratory irritant, was monitored throughout the testing period. Air samples were gathered biweekly via the use of a battery-powered air sampler and a liquid impinger containing individualized reagent per pollutant being measured. Ground-level ozone concentrations were determined with a Zikua ozone test strip reader. Preliminary results indicate that, for the most part, Valdosta's air quality exhibits levels of pollutants far below those of larger cities such as Atlanta or Charlotte, and rarely exceeds miniscule levels of pollutant concentration. This research was supported through a grant from the Center for Applied Research at Valdosta State University.

INTRA-ANNUAL AEROSOL VARIABILITY IN VALDOSTA, GEORGIA**, Debbie Hinds* and Brian H. Bossak, Valdosta State University 31698. Aerosols may be transported over great distances and can have a large impact on people, the ecosystem and some weather systems. Dust from the Sahara Desert has been found in aerosol samples from Europe, the Caribbean nations, the southeast United States and even as far north as southern Canada. Saharan dust plumes regularly reach the southeastern United States, particularly during the summer months. Saharan dust has been linked to a rise in asthma rates in children, coral reef die-off, and is a factor in suppressing North Atlantic hurricane development. Dust from agricultural fields and aerosols from periodic, planned burning also contribute to particles in the air. Biological aerosols, like pollen, can cause human health problems, especially in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, anything that decomposes has the potential to become an aerosol and a component of the air we breathe. This research project focuses on determining if the aerosol load in Valdosta, Georgia, varies seasonally or with some variable of local weather conditions. The aim is to characterize aerosol loads by mass in biweekly air samples. Additionally, small portions of some samples will be observed with a scanning electron microscope to observe whether the composition of airborne particles in Valdosta's air changes over time. Samples were collected on the campus of Valdosta State University. Based on past research activities, aerosol mass is expected to vary seasonally, with the largest mass occurring during the summer months--likely linked to Saharan dust flux in the southeastern U.S. We also expect to demonstrate a perceptible change in the optical density and color of individual dust samples as the composition of the aerosols changes. This research is supported, in part, by Project SkyDust, based at the University of Rhode Island.

THE EFFECT OF COAL COMBUSTION GASES ON METAL MOBILITY IN CENTRALIA, PENNSYLVANIA**, Cristiana Baloescu*, Maria G. Georgieua*, Stacey-Ann Y. Benjamin*, David C. Edwards, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. This research investigates the effect of elevated levels of C02 and other coal combustion gases on metal mobility and bioavailability in soil samples originating at the site of Centralia, Pennsylvania, with implications for geologic carbon sequestration. Centralia, a former prosperous town located in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania has been the site of an underground coal fire that has spread uncontrollably since May 1962. Centralia represents a real life example of leaking underground CO2 deposits, relevant to evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration in underground storage, a current global warming reducing measure. Soil is central to the environment as it stores and recycles nutrients and water, provides the medium for plant and bacterial growth and acts as a buffer between the atmosphere and aquatic ecosystems. Metal content and bioavailability influence plant metabolism and in turn, the entire ecosystem due to trophic relations and the process of bioaccumulation and biomagnification. The scheme for extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia developed by the International Organization for Standardization, the Soil Quality Committee was used to determine the total metal content of the soil samples. The chemical distribution of metals was determined by using the European Union's Standards, Measurements and Testing Program (SM & T) sequential extraction procedure. The solutions corresponding to the total metal, the acid soluble phase, the reducible, oxidisable phase and residual/inert phase were analyzed using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Initial results indicate that exposure of soil to elevated levels of combustion gases and primarily CO2, increases the availability of metals and can have detrimental effects on the ecosystem.

SEDIMENT METAL CONCENTRATIONS AT THE RODEO LAGOON AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE SURROUNDING ECOSYSTEM** Karen L. Butler* (1), Shanice D. Dyer* (1), Maria G. Georgieua* (1), Darren Fong (2) and David Edwards (1), (1) Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210 and (2) Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Sausalito, California 94965. The Rodeo Lagoon Watershed (RLW), part of the Marin Headlands, is located in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, about 5 miles north of San Francisco. For over 70 years the RLW has been subject to human impact, most notably the building of a weir (dirt wall) during the 1930's that divided the area into a lagoon and a lake. Due to the ecosystem alteration, sediment accumulation has been higher than normal in the lake and previous studies have found high aqueous concentrations of several toxic metals. The National Parks Service is exploring the possibility of removing the weir to help restore the area to its original state, and this study will aid in analyzing the condition of the ecosystem. The objective of the project is to determine the concentrations of metals in the water and sediment to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors contributing to pollution in the RLW. These results will facilitate procedures for removing and cleaning the contaminated sediments. Initial water and sediment samples were taken in July from several locations within the lagoon and the lake. Using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS), the water samples have been analyzed for Cu, Pb, Cd, and Mn. High concentrations of Pb and Cd have been recorded, while Cu and Mn were normal. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Na, and Cr will be evaluated in January. In the spring semester the sediment samples will also be evaluated to see if their concentrations correlate with the water samples. This work was partially funded by the Pacific Coast Science and Learning Center, part of the National Parks Service. Additional funds came from a generous donation from the Munroe family, who are patrons of Wesleyan College.

TURBIDITY AND FECAL COUFORM BACTERIA LEVELS OF THE TALLAPOOSA RIVER IN HARALSON COUNTY, GEORGIA, Curtis L. Hollabaugh and Jennifer Beth Blaise, Geosciences, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The Tallapoosa River heads in rapidly developing Paulding County, flows across more rural Haralson County, and then into Alabama. With two dams on the Tallapoosa River in Alabama the section of the river in Georgia is recognized as relatively good for fish and invertebrate habitat and as a drinking water supply. However, since 1999 the Tallapoosa River has been named by American Rivers during three separate years as one of the ten most threatened rivers in America. Problems occur because of poor management of the dams in Alabama and rapid development of the headwaters in Paulding County, Georgia. Additionally, an off-line 2,300 acre drinking water reservoir that would pump water from the Tallapoosa River has been proposed for Haralson County. Our research beginning on 7-7-2005 has focused on frequent measurement of turbidity and fecal coliform bacteria at one site upstream of the proposed reservoir in Haralson County. During some rainfall events measurements are made at 12-hour intervals. Results of 347 turbidity measurements (min = 5.2 NTU, 50 percentile = 10 NTU, and max = 150 NTU) show correlation with flow ([r.sup.2] = 0.51). Limited fecal coliform bacteria (35 measurements starting in 2006) minimum, median, and maximum results are less than 10, 160, and 23,000 colonies/100ml.

A STUDENT PERSPECTIVE: "GEO-LOGIC: BREAKING GROUND BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY AND THE EARTH SCIENCES," Ellie Busse*, Ashley Manning*, Mark Tietjen, and Julie K. Bartley, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Robert Frodeman expresses the necessity for philosophy and geology to work together in his essay 'Geo-logic: Breaking Ground between Philosophy and the Earth Sciences.' Science is typically associated with physics and other laboratory sciences that focus on experiment and reproducibility. Frodeman suggests that there is a philosophy to field science, and that it needs to be associated with the philosophy of humanities. Science depends on facts, while the humanities are identified by meanings. Though science and humanities are different, if humanities and science are joined, science can be humanized to express the meanings of science. Philosophy is used in the field sciences when a geologist views an outcrop and interprets the language of the Earth. It is necessary for geology to be united with the field of philosophy in order to form a much-needed bridge between the sciences and humanities. By the philosophy of field science, the critical thinking used in geology, and the integration of geology and philosophy in politics, the answer to combining humanities and science can be solved. At the University of West Georgia, professors are teaching geology--philosophically. The combination allows for an innovatively realistic interpretation of geology. In order to successfully train a geologist, the department must take students to outcrops to study the language of the Earth, not a laboratory.

Section IV: Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science and Technology

ACAD 187

Solomon Fesseha, presiding

7:30 COMPARISON OF EVAPORATIVE RATES OF THREE DROPLETS ON WHITE INDIAN HAWTHORN (Raphiolepis indica)**, Kofi Atta-Boateng*, Yunjie Mi, Scott Pierce and K.C Chan, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. Evaporative rates of three different droplets; HPLC grade water, 0.05% X-77 surfactant and 0.01M thiabendazole/acetone/water, on the leaf of white Indian Hawthorn, Raphiolepis indica, were investigated. The evaporative rates of 15[micro]L of these droplets were observed of 25[degrees]C and a relative humidity of 46%. Mass-loss data over time curves for these three droplets were collected and compared. Results indicate that the evaporative rate of thiabendazole is the highest in a controlled environment chamber at a temperature and that of the HPLC grade water, the lowest. It was found out that even though the mass loss curve for the blank leaf was gradual, the curves for the three liquids on the leaf assumed different patterns. The mass-loss over time curve for the water droplet followed a similar pattern to that of the blank leaf while that for the thiabendazole decreased sharply initially before assuming the gradual pattern of the blank leaf. The mass-loss over time curve for the X-77 surfactant was in between the water and the thiabendazole. Tiny deposits of solid residues were observed on the leaf after the evaporation of the thiabendazole. The patter of these deposits will be reported. Subsequent research work would be on the effects of surface morphology on evaporation.

7:45 A SITUATION IN WHICH A LOCAL NON-TOXIC REFUGE PROMOTES PEST RESISTANCE TO TOXIC CROPS, Jemal Mohammed-Awel* (1), Karen Kopecky (2) and John Ringland (3), (1) Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Valdosta State University, GA 31698, (2) Dept. of Economics, University of Western Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C2 and (3) Dept. of Mathematics, Sunny Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260. In order to delay the development of pest resistance to genetically engineered insecticidal crop varieties, it is current practice to grow refuges of nontoxic plants close to insecticidal crops. We model such a toxic/nontoxic crop complex as an open system with a small stream of toxin susceptible immigrants. We find that, for intermediate values of the dominance of a pest gene for resistance to the toxin, the local refuge can spoil the benefit that is provided by the immigrant stream. We provide formulas for some important boundaries in parameter space.

8:00 A MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DESIGN OF A MOTOR VEHICLE SUSPENSION SYSTEM, Michael A. Higgins**, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. A mathematical analysis, using MATLAB, for different vehicle's sprung-to-unsprung weight ratio is considered. The suspension system composed of dampers and springs is designed to achieve optimal ride characteristics of balance and stability under a wide variety of driving conditions including random inputs for road disturbances applied to the vehicle. A feed back control system is incorporated in the design to adjust for the irregularities in the roads traveled and changing of the weight condition. Ride comforts and road handling characteristics are achieved for different parameters selected in the design process.

8:15 NUMERICAL AND ASYMPTOTIC SOLUTIONS FOR THE NONLINEAR OSCILLATOR Y + [t.sup.2]Y (1 + [t.sup.2])[.sup.-1] = 0, Kale Oyedeji (1), S.A. Rucker (2) and R.E. Mickens (3*), (1) Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA 30314-3773, (2,3) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. We investigate the properties of a nonlinear oscillator whose frequency is a function of time. First, we show that for sufficiently large times, all solutions are oscillatory. Next, a generalized version of the WKBJ method is used to construct an analytical approximation to the oscillatory solution. An advantage of this method is that essentially only algebraic procedures are needed to obtain the desired results. Finally, a nonstandard finite difference scheme is formulated and used to calculate numerical solutions to the second-order, nonlinear differential equation. Our major conclusion is that all of the characteristic features of the nonlinear differential equation are obtained by the mathematical and numerical methods that we used. This work was supported by funds from DOE and the MBRS-SCORE Program at Clark Atlanta University.

8:30 INTERPRETATION OF MASS DATA OF AN EVAPORATING SESSILE DROPLET, K. C. Chan and Scott Pierce, Albany State University, GA 31705. Gravimetric data of an evaporating sessile droplet exhibits a transition from linearity to quadratics in time. The transition is a result of the shrinking of the sessile droplet as revealed by video data taken simultaneously with the gravimetric data. Such a realization sheds new light on the interpretation of linear dissipation of mass as a function of time universally found in sessile drops. It is hypothesized that the evaporation is proportional to surface area exposed to the air. However, since the surface area of the sessile drop as a function of time is not yet known to the scientific community, the hypothesis has to be modified such that the evaporation rate is said to be proportional to the based area of the droplet in contact with the substrate. That is, dM/dt ~ A(t) where A is the based area in contact with the substrate and that A is a constant when t [less than or equal to] [t.sub.D], and is proportional to t when t > [t.sub.D], where [t.sub.D] is the onset of the droplet de-pinning time. The mass data has been fitted based on this hypothesis and results will be reported.

8:45 ALGEBRAIC REPRESENTATIONS OF THE VARIOUS IMAGINARY UNITS OF PHYSICS, Dennis W. Marks, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. In flat tangent spacetime, basis vectors em satisfy [e.sub.[mu]] x [e.sub.v] = _ ([e.sub.[mu]][e.sub.v] + [e.sub.v][e.sub.[mu]]) = [[eta].sub.[mu]v] I, where the [e.sub.[mu]] are orthogonal ([[eta].sub.[mu]v] = 0 for [mu] [not equal to] v) and normalized ([[eta].sub.[mu]v] = +1 for p space-like [mu] and [[eta].sub.[mu]v] = -1 for q time-like [mu]). The metric signature is s = p - q and the number of dimensions is n = p + q. Matrix products of the [e.sub.[mu]] form the basis elements [e.sub.m] = [e.sub.[m.sub.0][m.sub.1]] ... [m.sub.n-1] = ([e.sub.0])[.sup.m.sub.0] ([e.sub.1])[.sup.m.sub.1] ... ([e.sub.n-1])[.sup.m.sub.n-1] of geometric (Clifford) algebras. Of particular interest are pseudo-scalars [J.sub.n;s] = [e.sub.0][e.sub.1] ... [e.sub.n-1]. From the equation for [e.sub.[mu]] x [e.sub.v], we have ([J.sub.n;s])[.sup.2] = (-1) [n(n-1)]/2 (-1)[.sup.q][I.sub.n] = (-1) [n(n-1)]/2 [I.sub.n]. Thus, for certain n and s, [J.sub.n;s] can serve as an imaginary unit even for real geometric algebras [R.sub.n;s]. (We restrict our attention to real algebras to distinguish between space and time.) The even subalgebra of [R.sub.2;2], the geometric algebra generated by the x,y basis vectors of the Euclidean plane, is isomorphic to the complex numbers, so that [J.sub.2;2] is a representation of the imaginary number i. Likewise, [e.sub.0] of [R.sub.4;2] is the imaginary unit in ict of pre-MTW special relativity; [J.sub.4;2] = [gamma]5 is the imaginary unit in of quantum mechanics; and [J.sub.8;2] is the imaginary unit in i[eta] related to the Higgs field. After n = 8, Bott periodicity leads to factorization of the geometric algebra, interpreted as a 4-d hexadecimal spacetime lattice of signature +2, with additional internal coordinates at each spacetime point corresponding to the Standard Model of particle physics.

9:00 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF ALTERNATE METHODS FOR THE DISPOSAL OF FLUE GASES IN DEEP SEAS, P. Ramalingam, Department of Natural Sciences, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705, Globalization of the world economy has made such developing countries like India and China as power hungry tigers. It has been reported that these countries will treble the emission of the amount of green house gases such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide into the Earth atmosphere. Earth has visibly seen the ill effects of global warming, with acid rain and increased hurricane activity Presented herein are some preliminary results of a mathematical model for the disposal of such flue gases in deep seas. In sea water these gases dissolve harmlessly and are converted into sulfate, chloride and bicarbonate ions. The increase in the density from the dissolution of these gases creates transport phenomena deep towards the sea bed. Most of the modeling has used the Euler's approach which assumes that pollutants are concentrated at certain fixed points as in the case of coal fired plant chimney. A more appropriate Lagrange concept is being attempted along with the use of available Cornel mixing Zone Expert Systems (Cormix 3) from USEPA. Some parametric studies of the concentration with distance along the current are to be presented.

9:15 WIDE BAND PHOTOMETRY OF SATURN IN LATE 2006, Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, 419 College Dr. Barnesville, GA 30204. The writer measured the brightness of Saturn on October 30, 2006 with filters that were transformed to the Johnson B, V, R and I system. He also used an SSP-3 solid-state photometer along with a 0.09 meter Maksutov telescope to make the measurements. The selected magnitudes are: B = 1.50 [+ or -] 0.03, V = 0.48 [+ or -] 0.03, R = -0.24 [+ or -] 0.03 and I = -0.36 [+ or -] 0.03. The R-I color index is 0.12, which is much lower than the values measured between 2001 and 2005. The lower value of the R-I color index is consistent with measurements made when the ring tilt angle of Saturn was below 20 degrees. It is concluded that the R-I value drops as the rings of Saturn close up. It is also concluded that the measured magnitudes are close to their expected values based on the model published by Schmude.

9:30 SOUND PROPAGATION IN THE MIXTURES OF LIQUID AND SOLID AGGREAGTES; SIMILARITIES AT MICRO-AND NANOSCALES, Hasson Tavossi, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Sound propagation phenomena in certain liquid and solid aggregate mixtures, at micrometer scales, in some cases resemble the wave propagation behaviors of materials observed at nanometer and atomic scales. For example, it can be shown that the sound wave dispersion, attenuation, and cutoff-frequency effects depend on the same structural parameters as those observed at nano or atomic levels and are similar at both scales. Theoretical findings on sound propagation in the mixtures of liquid and solid particles at micrometer scales will be discussed. Experimental data on wave dispersion, attenuation, band-pass, and cutoff frequency effects, measured for sound propagation, in inhomogeneous materials consisting of mixtures of solid and liquid will be presented, showing the similarities of wave propagation behaviors at micro- and nano-scales. These results show the resemblance to the behavior of acoustic phonons, the lattice thermal vibrations of crystalline structures, at radically different scales. In conclusion, to investigate theoretical models of wave and matter interactions at nano-scales it is more convenient to use, as experimental tools, the readily analyzable models of wave propagation constructed at micrometer scales.

9:45 ON THE PERIOD OF A PENDULUM VERSUS INITIAL ANGLE**, J. E. Hasbun, Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The period of a pendulum for small initial swinging angles, [[theta].sub.0], of less than about 0.26 radians (: 15[degrees]) is reasonably described by [tau]0 = 2[pi][square root of (1/g)] (1). However, for larger angles the period deviates well above this and the general result [tau]=2([[tau].sub.0]/[pi]) [[integral].sub.0.sup.[TEXT UNREADABLE IN ORIGINAL SOURCE]] d[phi]/[1-[k.sup.2] [sin.sup.2] [phi]] (2), where k = sin([[phi].sub.0]/2), has to be used. In a previous work (1) we used the successive approximations results to the solution of the pendulum's differential equation where the approximation sin([phi]) : [phi]-[[phi].sup.3]/3! is made, and from which one obtains the simple formula for the period of the pendulum in the form [tau]=[[tau].sub.0]/[square root of (1-[[phi].sub.0.sup.2]/a)] (3). This suggests that one should analyze the data associated with the period of a pendulum in such a way that ([[tau].sub.0]/[tau])[.sup.2] must be plotted versus [[phi].sub.0.sup.2]. If (3) is to be useful in any way, the experimental data thus plotted should yield a straight line from which the value of can be extracted. Our experimental data indeed confirms this expected linear behavior. Thus we believe that (3) is an accurate and convenient way to describe the pendulum period for swinging angles in the full range of 0<[[phi].sub.0]<[pi]/2.

(1) J. E. Hasbun, GJS 63, 67 (2005).

10:00 Section meeting

10:45 APPLICATION OF TABLET PC TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE COURSES, Barry Hojjatie and Homa Hooshmand, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Recently, Valdosta State University has been awarded twenty Tablet PCs model TC4200 from the Hewlett-Packard technology for teaching grant to be used in engineering and science classes and to investigate on application of mobile technology in teaching and learning. The objective of this study is to report on initial findings corresponding to application of Tablet PC in engineering and science courses at VSU and a local school. Results obtained from an initial pilot study using Tablet PCs indicate that the mean student test grade in engineering and science courses were higher when the Tablet PCs were used in teaching and learning compared with the control methods of teaching in which Tablet PC was not employed. The study shows that application of Tablet PC in classroom can generate enthusiasm and interest in student learning. During some laboratory experiments with Tablet PCs students were taken outside the class room to perform assignments in the field. One Tablet PC was shared by three or four students and this allowed for more interaction and collaboration among the students. During lectures in some classes, the instructor used a Tablet PC to make annotations on Power Point slides and applied the Windows Journal program to teach spontaneously. The Vision program has also been used in some classes to interact with students. Currently, we are investigating on applications of some windows based program developed for Tablet PC in classroom.

11:00 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON SOIL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AS MEASURED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION USING THE GEONICS[R] EM-38, Andreas Lazari and Eric Brevik, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. The Geonics EM-38 has shown promise as a soil survey tool in American Midwest to replace or suppliment current techniques that are very expensive and time consuming. The EM-38 was tested on four different soils, Clarion, Nicollet, Knoke, and Canisteo. For each soil, a regression line was computed relating the electrical conductivity ([EC.sup.a]) measured by the EM-38 and the level of water in the soil. We found that the higher the water soil content the higher the [EC.sup.a]. For two types of soil, if the readings are different then the soils are different meaning that the EM-38 can differentiate these two types of soils. If the slopes are the same and the elevations are the same then the soils are the same meaning that the EM-38 can not differentiate these two types of soils. The final result is that the EM-38 can differentiate between the different soils except between the Knoke and the Canisteo.

Posters

CHARACTERIZATION OF DROPLET EVAPORATION-DRIVEN PATTERN FORMATION USING SURFACTANT SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE ON GLASS SUBSTRATES, Yunjie Mi, Scott Pierce and K.C. Chan, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. The evaporation of an aqueous Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) solution on glass substrates is investigated using two different methods: 1) An SDS solution droplet is deposited directly on a smooth glass substrate and allowed to evaporate through convection/diffusion until only solidification SDS remained. 2) A confined geometry is constructed, consisting of a spherical lens resting on a smooth glass surface, between which the SDS solution droplet is placed. Convection and evaporative flux is thereby restricted to the geometry. Resulting post-evaporation patterns are remarkably different. In the first case, a coffee-ring' forms at the drop's initial maximum diameter (or pin line). Thereafter, the droplet depins, hopping to a new location several times through the evaporation cycle, creating a series of rings. In the second case, a flower-like pattern deposit forms with three different shapes: The outermost region appears as a chain of 'mushroom' formations with a smaller 'mushroom-chain' immediately to the interior; a middle region with stick-shaped pattern formations; and a small inner region near the droplet center consisting of 'island' formations. The mechanism of the droplet pattern deposition and the structures of the different rings are investigated. The results indicate that the geometry can influence the ordered arrangement of SDS.

Section V: Biomedical Sciences

ACAD 189

Robert Thornton, presiding

7:30 CYTOKINES AND CHEMOKINES ARE IMPORTANT REGULATORY FACTORS IN PROSTATE CANCER PROGRESSION, Kereen S. Gordon* (1), G. Ifere (1), Q.He (2), L. Smith, E. Ekong (2), N. Klueva (1), F.O.Eko (2), J. U. Igietseme (3) and G. Ananaba (1), (1) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA.30314, (2) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta GA 30310 and (3) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. 30333. Cytokines and chemokines as well as their cognate receptors are essential in tumor progression. Th2 specific cytokines and chemokines in particular are generally immunosuppressive and have been reported to be elevated in many advanced tumors and are correlated with poor prognoses. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that Th2 specific cytokines IL-10, IL-4 and their cognate receptors and Th2 specific chemokine CCL-17(TARC) and its cognate receptor CCR4 are significantly up-regulated in prostate adenocarcinoma cell lines. RT-PCR was performed using primers specific for IL-10 and CCL-17. Preliminary results indicate that IL-10 and CCL-17 are expressed in DU145, LnCap and PC3 tumor cell lines. Real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA were performed to quantitate the levels of IL-10, IL-4 and chemokine CCL-17(TARC) and their receptors. The production of Th2 specific cytokines and chemokines by prostate tumor cell lines may explain a possible mechanism for them to negatively modulate the immune response and support their metastatic potential. Cytokines and chemokines may be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers for disease progression. Supported by NIH grants GM08247 and AI41231.

7:45 GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS DURING RETINOID INDUCED APOP-TOSIS IN PHM-1 HUMAN MYOMETRIAL CELLS**, Phayon Lee* and H. Boettger-Tong, Wesleyan College Department of Biology, Macon, GA 31210. Vitamin A has two major forms of biologically active derivatives, namely, retinal and retinoic acid. Alltrans retinoic acid (ATRA) is of importance to us because of the role that it plays in the regulation of growth and differentiation in a number of cell types. Recent studies have shown that human myometrial (PHM-1) cell proliferation responds to changes in the concentration of ATRA in a directly proportional manner and that higher concentrations of ATRA induced apoptosis, which is programmed cell death, as opposed to death via necrosis, a non-specific death associate with cellular toxicity. However, the exact time course and mechanism of this effect has yet to be determined. The current study is designed to verify the time course of apoptosis induction by ATRA and to begin assessment of gene expression patterns associated with this treatment. We will examine the cells at Omin, 30min, 1hr, and 1.5hrs post ATRA and control treatment to determine to time course of maximal apoptosis. To determine gene expression patterns during maximal apoptosis induction, we will extract messenger RNA from retinoid and control treated cells and assess gene expression patterns via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These studies will further our understanding of factors which may play a role in controlling programmed cell death in uterine smooth muscle cells.

8:00 EXPRESSION OF KERATINOCYTE TRANSGLUTAMINASE (TGASE 1) IN HUMAN CERVICAL (SQUAMOUS CELL) CARCINOMA**, Lauren C. Mitchell* and W.T. Schroeder, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. Keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGase 1) is a membrane-bound enzyme essential for terminal keratinocyte differentiation whose aberrant expression has been implicated in both hyperproliferative skin disorders and cutaneous epidermoid carcinoma. Although TGase 1 is an established differentiation marker in human epidermis, TGase 1 expression in other tissues, such as the estrogen-responsive epithelia of the lower female reproductive tract, remains a point of active research. Studies of immortalized normal human vaginal, endocervical, and ectocervical cultures and primary murine vaginal, endocervical, and ectocervical tissues suggest differential TGase 1 expression; TGase 1 is expressed in the vagina and endocervix but not in the ectocervix. To further investigate TGase 1 activity in estrogen-responsive epithelia and its potential role as a differentiation marker in these tissues, this project entails an immunocytochemical study of TGase 1 expression in five cultured human cervical carcinomas with an anti-human TGase 1 mouse monoclonal IgG (BT-621). These included three poorly-differentiated carcinomas (ATCC HTB-31, HTB-32, and HTB-35), a well-differentiated neoplasm (ATCC HTB-33), and a tumor of unknown grade (ATCC CRL-1594). This study may yield valuable insight into mechanisms involved in dysregulation of normal differentiation pathways in estrogen-responsive neoplastic epithelia.

8:15 THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN 1 (OMP1) IN LACTOBACILLUS SPECIES PLATFORM**, Angela Campbell (1) *, G. Ifere (1), T. Belay (1), E. Barr (1), F. O. Eko (2), J. Igietseme (3), C. Black (3) and G. Ananaba (1), (1) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314, (2) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 and (3) Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333. The severe complications and economic impact resulting from chlamydial genital infections demonstrate the need for a preventive vaccine. Our vaccine strategy utilizes a Lactobacillus species as a live delivery vehicle of chlamydial antigen, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Lactobacillus are of the normal flora of the female genital and gastrointestinal tracts. We hypothesized that a vaccine consisting of recombinant Lactobacillus, expressing OMP1, may induce a strong immune response. PCR amplified OMP1 was ligated with pGK12 plasmid, and the recombinant product, pGKOMP1, was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The selection of Lactobacillus transformants was performed using chloramphenicol supplemented media. Transformed Lactobacillus species with pGKOMP1 have the potential to produce an efficacious vaccine against genital chlamydial infection. The results show that a genetically engineered system consisting of pGK12 and OMP1 can transform Lactobacillus and that the recombinant pGKOMP1 in Lactobacillus species constitutes an efficient platform for the expression of OMP1. Supported by NIH grants GM08247 and A141231.

8:30 TARGETING TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI [Ca.sup.2+] CHANNEL HOMEOSTASIS SYSTEMS IN VACCINE DEVELOPMENT**, Kiantra Ramey* (1), F.O. Eko (1), N. Wilson (1), L. Nwankwo (1), Z. Kucerova (2), J.U. Igietseme (2) and J. K. Stiles (1), (1) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 and (2) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333. Trypanosoma brucei spp. causes Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness). HAT invades the central nervous system resulting in coma and eventual death, thus a vaccine capable of protecting against infection is needed. Past attempts to develop vaccines against HAT were unsuccessful because of the parasite's ability to evade the host immune system by antigenic variation. Previously, we localized [Ca.sup.2+] ATPases in the less dense flagellar pocket where they function to maintain cytosolic [Ca.sup.2+] ion levels, necessary for survival and proliferation. We have further targeted the [Ca.sup.2+] channel TBCC1 as a secondary strategy to interrupt the maintenance of [Ca.sup.2+] ion homeostasis in T. brucei. The [Ca.sup.2+] channel identified was evaluated in silico and immunogenic regions identified. A recombinant peptide, TBCC1, corresponding to this region was synthesized and used in an ELISA to test for immunogenicity of the TBCC1 peptide. Immunocytochemistry was performed to localize the [Ca.sup.2+] channel in the flagellar pocket, and quantitative PCR was used to determine TBCC1 transcript abundance in procyclic and blood stages of parasites. This rapid identification and validation of immunogenic protein targets is a novel strategy for developing vaccines against HAT in resource poor countries. This study was supported by NIH-NGM-MBRS/RISE (GM58268), and NIH-RCMI (RR033062).

8:45 Break

9:00 TARGETING CHLAMYDIAL ANTIGENS TO THE PERIPLASM OF THE VIBRIO CHOLERAE GHOST TO OPTIMIZE VACCINE DELIVERY AND EFFICACY, Daniel M. Okenu (1), Eno E. Ekong (1), Qing He (1), Godwin A. Ananaba (2), Carolyn M. Black (3), Joseph U. Igietseme (1,3) and Francis O. Eko (1), (1) Morehouse School of Medicine, (2) Clark Atlanta University and (3) National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA. A vaccine is needed to protect against infections of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major cause of sexually transmitted disease. We have described the contemporary immunobiologic paradigms guiding the design of an efficacious chlamydial vaccine to include delivery strategies that would promote mucosal immunity through the induction of specific T helper type -1 and accessory antibodies. The recombinant Vibrio cholerae ghost (rVCG) platform is a suitable delivery vehicle for targeting chlamydial antigens to the immune system leading to significant protective immunity. We hypothesized that targeting chlamydial antigens to specific cellular compartments on VCG will optimize their level of expression and their vaccine efficacy. Thus, chlamydial outer membrane proteins (OMP1, OMP2 and PorB) were expressed in the periplasmic space using the periplasmic targeting vector pMALp2x. Western blotting analysis confirmed the significant expression of chlamydial proteins by rVCG. Immunization of mice with rVCG expressing chlamydial proteins in the periplasm resulted in the induction of protective Th1 and antibody responses. The results indicate that optimizing the antigen delivery capacity of rVCG vaccines may enhance their ability to induce protective immunity.

9:30 STEROL MODULATION OF APOPTOSIS SUPPRESSORS BY p53, Godwin O. Ifere (1), E. Barr (1), A. Campbell (1), N. Diala (1), K. Gordon (1), J. U. Igietseme (2) and G. A. Ananaba (1), (1) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta GA 30314 and (2) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333. The susceptibility of a cell to apoptosis is widely accepted to be mediated by the expression of a family of genes that include p53. The mechanism for cholesterol-dependent prostate cell growth and anti-apoptosis or that for phytosterol-dependent apoptosis is not known. We proposed that p53 may be the molecular link between sterol-dependent cell growth and apoptotic processes. This hypothesis was tested in prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC-3) by evaluating the link between these sterols and prostate cell growth, apoptosis and anti-apoptosis. We also, determined the effects of cholesterol on the expression of biomarkers of prostate cancer (NDRG1 and PCGEM1) in control and sterol-treated cell. To verify the anti-apoptotic nature of cholesterols, coexpression of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-XL and Bcl-2), and the trend in expression of p53 in all the cell lines were performed by RT-PCR. Our study revealed that cholesterol modulates the transcription of NDRG1 and PCGEM1 in different prostate cancer cell lines, and that phytosterols have a contrasting effect. Again, the mode of sterol regulation of apoptosis was revealed by dysregulation in p53 expression during cholesterol supplementation. Identifying the genes that are responsive to sterol homeostasis may help elucidate the mechanism of sterols effect(s) on prostate cell growth or apoptosis.

10:00 Section meeting

10:30 IMMUNIZATION WITH A CHLAMYDIAL POLYMORPHIC MEMBRANE PROTEIN GENERATES A TH1-BASED IMMUNE RESPONSE AND PROTECTION IN MICE, Francis O. Eko (1), E.E. Ekong (1), U. Singh (1), D.N. Okenu (1), Q. He (1), D. Lyn (1), G. Ananaba (2), C. M. Black (3) and J.U. Igietseme (3), (1) Morehouse School of Medicine, (2) Clark Atlanta University and (3) CDC, Atlanta GA. The novel recombinant V. cholerae ghost (rVCG) delivery platform is an effective carrier and delivery system for cloned C. trachomatis proteins, eliciting chlamydial-specific immune responses following immunization. The present study evaluated the protective efficacy of an rVCG-based chlamydial vaccine expressing the chlamydial polymorphic membrane protein (PmpD). We constructed an rVCG vector-based subunit vaccine expressing the N-terminal portion of PmpD (N-PmpD) and evaluated it in a mouse model of genital infection. Thus, groups of female C57BL/6 mice were immunized intramuscularly with the vaccine construct and humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated. The protective efficacy of the vaccine construct against genital challenge with live Chlamydia was also evaluated. Immunogenicity analysis indicated that Chlamydia-specific mucosal and systemic Th1-biased responses were induced following immunization. Immunization with rVCG-NPmpD also conferred significant protection against challenge. These results indicate that the chlamydial PmpD is a suitable antigen for inclusion in an efficacious chlamydial vaccine regimen.

11:00 HOST FACTORS REGULATE IMMUNE FUNCTIONS DURING GENITAL CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION, Godwin Ananaba (1), Erika Barr, Angela Campbell (1), Nehemiah Diala, Godwin O. Ifere (1), Kereen Gordon (1), Deborah Lyn (2), Qing He (2), Francis O. Eko (2), Carolyn Black (3) and Joseph U. Igietseme (3), (1) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta GA 30314, (2) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 and (3) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333. The mechanism(s) of action of sex hormones on the control of chemokines, cytokines and other costimulatory molecules in reproductive tissues during genital chlamydial infection is unclear. Our goal is to elucidate the effects of autocrine, paracrine and endocrine regulatory factors especially sex hormones, cytokines and chemokines on the ability of immune cells to clear genital Chlamydia infection. In vitro cell culture methods, in vivo mouse model, ELISA and RT-PCR were used to determine the effects of estrogen and chemokine deficiency on the expression of costimulatory molecules and the regulation of Th1 immune response during genital chlamydial infection. The results showed that estrogen and CCR 5 deficiency enhanced chlamydia infection by significantly reducing the expression of Th1 chemokines (IP-10, MIP-1 [alpha], MIP-1 [beta] and RANTES). In addition, the expression of ICAM-1, GM-CSF, IL1, IL6, IFN-[gamma] and TNF-[alpha] was altered by estradiol treatment. These results show that autocrine, paracrine and endocrine factors influence the cascade of biological processes that regulate the local recruitment and retention of chlamydial-specific T cells in the genital tract, and induction of long-lasting mucosal immunity against chlamydia.

11:30 SERUM AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID LEVELS OF INFLAMMATORY MARKERS AS PROGNOSTIC PREDICTORS OF CEREBRAL MALARIA MORTALITY IN GHANAIAN CHILDREN, Henry B. Armah* (1,2), Nana Wilson (1), Kiantra Ramey (1), Richard K. Gyasi (2), Andrew A. Adjei (2), Yao Tettey (2) and Jonathan K. Stiles (1), (1) Morehouse School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Atlanta, GA, 30310 and (2) University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana. Plasmodium falciparum infection is a leading cause of diffuse encephalopathy in young children and is associated with 1-2 million annual deaths (a 10-14% mortality rate). The balance between specific cytokines and chemokines mediates severity of CM and other forms of severe malaria. We evaluated postmortem serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples in Ghanaian children dying of CM, severe malarial anaemia (SMA), and non-malarial (NM) causes. Serum and CSF levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IP-10, TGF-beta [latent and bioactive], PDGFbb, sTNF-R2 and sTNF-RI, RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta were measured and the results compared between the 3 groups. After bonferroni adjustment IP-10 was found to be independently associated with CM mortality when compared to SMA and NM deaths. Seven (7) CSF biomarkers (IL-1Ra, IL-8, IP-10, PDGFbb, MIP-1beta, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2) were independently predictive of CM mortality when compared to SMA and NM deaths. The role of these inflammatory biomarkers in predicting mortality associated with CM will be discussed.

Posters

PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED PLASMA PROTEIN-A STRUCTURE AND IGFBP-4 LEVELS IN ABNORMAL PREGNANCY SERA, Julius Owens* and Oluseyi A. Vanderpuye*, Albany State University. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A(PAPP-A) is a Zn metalloprotease whose levels are increased in normal pregnancy blood. PAPP-A proteolytically cleaves and inactivates Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-4 (IGFBP-4), one of 6 IGFBPs that regulate activity of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I. PAPP-A serum concentrations are decreased in pregnancies carrying fetuses with extra chromosomes (trisomies). We proposed that lowered PAPP-A levels in abnormal pregnancy sera may arise from effects of structural changes in PAPP-A, and levies of IGFBP-4 in pregnancy serum may correlate with PAPP-A levels. Results are reported for ELISA measurement of paired PAPP-A and IGFBP-4 values in normal and abnormal pregnancy sera and for Western blotting analysis of sera by using monoclonal antibodies to PAPP-A's MBP subunit. For 13 donor pregnancy sera involving fetal trisomies, 10 normal pregnancy sera and 8 non-pregnancy sera, there was no correlation between levels of IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A. The MBP subunit of PAPP-A was detected in 3/4 normal pregnancy sera, 0/3 sera involving trisomies and 0/1 non-pregnancy sera. Although IGFBP-4 is one of two known substrates for PAPP-A protease, pregnancy sera IGFBP-4 levels were not correlated with those of PAPP-A. Studies are needed with larger numbers of sera to see if these observations hold. Supported by an award from the ASU Office of Research from NIH Grant no: 5P20M0001085-03

Section VI: Philosophy and History of Science

ACAD 183

Emerson T. McMullen, presiding

9:00 STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF THE NATURE OF SCIENCE: A SURVEY OF OVER 500 STUDENTS, John V. Aliff, Georgia Perimeter College, Gwinnett University Center, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. From readings of Intelligent Design creationist literature, the most common misunderstandings of science exploited for propaganda are as follows: 1) To believe the explanations of science requires faith; 2) theories are educated guesses of explanations; 3) science is an ideology or a religion; 4) it is unfair for science to exclude supernatural explanations; 5) science is only concerned with absolute facts; 6) science and scientists are hostile to other explanations of nature; 7) teaching the randomness of mutation and evolution, usually mistakenly equated with "Darwinism." is equivalent to teaching atheism; and 8) some believe that for their scriptures to be true, they must be scientifically correct (e.g., Biblical or Koranic inerrancy). A survey of over 500 students from 2005-present is compared with a Cleveland Plain Dealer survey of readers. GPC results indicate that 69% were confused about the definition of a scientific theory, 44% opine that it is unfair for science to exclude supernatural causation, and 48% of students believe that a [religious] "theory of intelligent design" should be taught in science classes.

9:30 THE GENESIS OF WAREA AND GARBERIA: A GLANCE INTO NINETEENTH CENTURY BOTANY, George A. Rogers (1), Vivian Rogers-Price (2), Cynthia J. Frost (1) and Marvin Goss (1), (1) Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 and (2) Mighty Eighth Air Force Museum, Pooler, GA 31322. Nathaniel A. Ware (1780?-1854) collected plants in northern Florida during the 1820s. His friend, Thomas Nuttall, published descriptions of them, applying the name Warea as a new genus. Abram P. Garber (1838-1881) collected plants throughout Florida in the 1870s. One of Ware's specimens, named Liatris fruticosa by Nuttall, was renamed Garberia fruticosa in 1879 by Asa Gray. Both genera are still valid.

10:00 Section meeting

10:30 THE FISH- LAND FOSSIL: EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION OR EXTINCTION? Tom McMullen, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. A team of scientists dicovered a new fossil, Tiktaalik. Because of some features, they claim it shows how fish gradually made the evolutionary leap to land. Or is it just another extinct fish? Consider this: 1) If descent from a common ancestor were happening now, then we would expect to see a multitude of fish-land intermediate forms. Yet, we do not see them among the huge numbers of fish harvested every year. Similarly, if descent from a common ancestor had happened in the past, then there would be billions of transitional fossils, not just a few so-called fish-land fossils. 2) If descent from a common ancestor were true, then we would expect to see unlimited variation in living beings. Studies on Fruit Flies and Darwin's Finches reveal some variation, but the flies remained flies, and the birds remained birds. Thus, there are limits to change. This matches genetic discoveries. Studies show that the information in Fruit Fly and Finch DNA was shuffled around, giving variations of the original, but nothing entirely new. 3) Lastly, the head of Tiktaalik is described as crocodile-like. However, Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism predict that fish evolve into amphibians, which in turn evolve into reptiles. There is no direct jump from fish to reptiles. Thus, if Tiktaalik is indeed reptile-like, then it does not fit evolutionary predictions. 4) For the above reasons, the fish-land fossil claims are basically theory-driven rather than true. Scientifically, Tiktaalik is best classified as an extinct fish.

11:00 RESTRICTIONS ON THE VALIDITY OF CLASSICAL PARTICLE DYNAMICS, R.E. Mickens, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. As a mathematical theory, classical particle dynamics has few a priori restrictions on its validity. However, the application of dimensional arguments to determine length, time, and mass scales can be used to suggest various limitations. The major difficulty is not the existence of scales, but the fact that several sets of scales exist. This non-uniqueness is a consequence of which sets of "fundamental" constants are used to calculate the various scales. Of related interest is the lack of known publications (during the 19th century) dealing with these issues. Our major conclusion is that the mathematical theory of classical particle dynamics has restrictions placed on it by constants arising from a "physical" analysis of the associated scale parameters. This work was supported by funds from DOE and the MBRS-SCORE Program at Clark Atlanta University.

Section VII: Science Education

ACAD 193

Bonita Flournoy, presiding

8:45 AN EXPERIMENTAL FOOD SCIENCE COURSE PROVIDES A UNIQUE INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING EXPERIENCE FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE UNDERGRADUATES, Joelle E. Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Nutrition and Food Science under-graduates at Georgia Southern University complete a senior-level, Experimental Food Science course that provides each student with research and presentation skills as they develop a new food product. This study examined pre- and post-course student perceptions of preparedness (1=not at all, 3=moderately, 5=very well) to review a research paper, write a research proposal and conduct the study, maintain a lab notebook, prepare and deliver lab presentations, conduct sensory and objective evaluation and statistical analysis of data, write an abstract, and create and present a professional poster display of their research. Mean ratings of preparedness (n=30, total enrollment-Fall '04 to Spring '06) ranged from 2.0 to 3.1, pre-course, and all increased to 3.8 to 4.5, post course (p<0.001). Greatest increases were seen in sensory and objective testing and statistical analysis of data. When surveyed about their plans to attend graduate school, the number of students (n=16) who planned to attend remained unchanged after completion of the course, while the number who planned to study Nutrition and Food Science increased 1.5 fold. These results suggest that NTFS 4537: Experimental Food Science provides an inquiry-based setting for students to develop research and presentation skills while encouraging pursuit of graduate education in Nutrition and Food Science.

9:00 WHAT DOES THE SQUARE ROOT OF (...) MEAN? MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS AND FUNCTION PLOTTING, Ronald E. Mickens, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. Recently, an experiment was performed requiring students in an advanced undergraduate mathematical physics class to plot curves, y = f(x), where f(x) involves rational functions of x and x raised to fractional powers. Students were asked to plot (by hand) the selected functions and explain how they obtained their particular results. For each student, this task consisted of redoing the initial assignment three separate times over two class sessions, but with increasing methodological details given (by the instructor and class discussions) regarding how to carry out the required plots. A detailed examination of the students' efforts indicated several fundamental difficulties arising from their failure to clearly distinguish between (for example) the "square root" as a mathematical symbol denoting an "evaluation" and its use as an operation appearing within a function. The work of selected students was analyzed to illuminate these issues and demonstrate that both mathematical learning and comprehension were enhanced for 80% of the students in this time-structured experiment.

9:15 DOES STUDENT SELF-EFFICACY EFFECT THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS?, Brooke Gladden* and Judith Archer, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. The purpose of this study was to examine how students' belief about their abilities in mathematics affects their performance, as measured by test scores. Does self-efficacy in mathematics differ between gender and race? This study was conducted with a sample of sixth grade mathematics students, of both genders, and of African American and Caucasian decent. The students were surveyed on their self-efficacy in mathematics as well as tested on specific mathematics concepts. Their survey and test results were compared using means, standard deviations, Pearson r, and t- tests to determine if a relationship existed between self-efficacy and performance. A positive correlation was found between self-efficacy and performance.

9:30 GENDER ISSUES: SHORT-CHANGES IN THE SCIENCE CURRICULUM, Patricia Spenard* and Bonita Flournoy Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. This research examined the relationship between attitudes toward science, self-beliefs, and science achievement among boys and girls in the physical sciences with the introduction of gender equitable instruction and materials. Data were obtained using a 47-item Likert scale addressing issues of confidence, subject matter, interest, and teacher expectation at the beginning and end of the semester. Additional data were obtained from focus groups, personal interviews, student portfolios, and personal journals. Results from this study demonstrated a strong relationship between attitude and achievement in mathematics and science. Another important finding was that girls who received gender equitable instruction received higher grades.

9:45 AN ACTION RESEARCH STUDY TO DETERMINE HOW TO HELP INCREASE THE ACHIEVEMENT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES IN SECONDARY SCIENCE**, Jessica Beck* and Bonita Flournoy, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of peer-centered instructional strategies for promoting achievement in secondary science among African-American males. The research questions for the study included the following: What are African-American males' attitudes towards science? What characteristics of teaching promote African-American males' comprehension and retention of science content? What methods of assessment do African-American males prefer for measuring science content knowledge? What strategies promote African-American male achievement in learning science content? Surveys indicated that students felt peer-focused activities were beneficial. As a means of intervention, peer-centered work was used in everyday problem-solving situations beyond the normal group activities used in a lab science class. As a result, African-American male students felt a higher level of confidence in science, desired more group activities, and experienced greater academic performance in higher level science classes.

10:00 Section meeting

10:30 Break

10:45 IMPLEMENTING "EXPERT GROUPS" IN THE MATHEMATICS CLASSROOM. Sandra Rucker, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. Students in introductory college mathematics courses often enter with diverse mathematics backgrounds. The development and implementation of pedagogical strategies designed to empower all students and guide them towards becoming "experts" within the mathematics classroom were investigated in this study. The results indicate that the use of "expert groups" can lead to enhanced learning and higher achievement in the mathematics classroom.

11:00 A STUDY OF THE QUALITY OF SCIENCE TEACHING AS PERCEIVED BY TEACHERS AT AN URBAN CHARTER SCHOOL, Ollie I. Manley, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. Highly qualified science teachers are fully certified in their teaching discipline and are capable of developing meaningful and challenging lessons for their students. The core for any science education program is directly linked to the quality of the teachers; therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze teachers perceptions of the quality of science teaching at an urban charter school. The independent variables are teaching experience, gender, and race. The dependent variable, quality of science teaching, was divided into the following seven categories: Teacher attendance, classroom strategies, attitude toward students, teaching skills, the classroom environment, total school involvement, and parental involvement. Participants completed a survey to determine their perception of the quality of science teaching. Data showed that teachers had strong perceptions about their teaching skills, classroom procedures, the classroom environment, and total school involvement. Their perceptions of teacher attendance, the students and parental involvement were very low. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated to determine if there was a correlation between dependent and independent variables. Analysis showed statistically significant correlations (p<.05) between classroom strategies and race, and between support of the total school and race. Participants believed that preparation and delivery of lessons were the key components of a quality science program.

11:15 EFFECT OF PREPARING STUDENTS FOR ACTIVE LEARNING ON THEIR ATTITUDE TOWARD THE EXPERIENCE, William A. Said and Lisa Martin-Hansen, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. Several forms of "active learning" (AL) have been incorporated into various courses offered at diverse educational institutions across the nation. During the years of 2004-06, a self-learning experience was implemented for instructing a parasitology course offered by the Biology Department at Georgia State University. Nearly 50% of the material covered in the course was presented in the form of the (AL) practice, as opposed to the traditional lecture format. In the 2004-2005 year, unsolicited feedback from the students revealed that students were somewhat dissatisfied with the (AL) experience; 56% of the comments about the (AL) were unfavorable. Prior to the 2005-06 academic year, faculty received specialized training through PRISM's "Faculty Academy", which enhanced their ability to implement (AL). As a result of this training, faculty were more successful at convincing students to move from passive to active learning. The 2005-2006 students' comments displayed a clear change of students' attitudes toward active learning. Moreover, there was a clear improvement in the important categories of motivation, thinking skills and discipline insight. While this strategy is far from perfect, guiding students to understand the basis of (AL) favorably influenced students' attitude toward the experience.

11:30 TWO APPROACHES TO COMMON MISUNDERSTANDINGS OF SCIENCE INHERENT IN INTELLIGENT DESIGN CREATIONISM COMPARED, John V. Aliff, Georgia Perimeter College, Gwinnett University Center, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. A 2005 to present survey of over 500 student opinions at Georgia Perimeter College on the nature of science reveal that a plurality want the teaching of a religious "theory of intelligent design" in science classes. Two approaches to teaching about the nature of science were compared: 1) teach the principles, but not the issue; and 2) teach the principles and issue. Results indicate that the latter approach is much more successful in delineating the methods of knowledge and goals of religion and science. This approach may satisfy the requirements of certain laws requiring a "critical analysis" of the theory of evolution. Numbers of students supporting the teaching of intelligent design, confusing the belief systems of science and religion, and wanting science to study supernatural causation declined significantly. However, there remains a significant amount of confusion over the meaning of the term "scientific theory."

Posters

A VIDEO INCLUSIVE PROGRAM FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF LABORATORY EXERCISES**, James D. Thornton*, Frederick B. Ivey and Oluseyi A. Vanderpuye, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. This project involved the production of manuals and video recordings of laboratory exercises to facilitate teaching of laboratory techniques in molecular life science. The products will be disseminated to the faculty of various institutions across the country. The methods include: (1) surveys of students in the host institution on the efficacy of the learning exercises, videos and manuals; (2) obtaining evaluation and feedback on the products from faculty in other institutions; (3) continued modification of content to incorporate new laboratory techniques and instrumentation; and (4) hosting a laboratory-based workshop at Albany State University for a small number of faculty from various universities. The workshop will be a forum for review and dissemination for teaching laboratory techniques as well as their application in research. Invited experts will focus on current methods of DNA analysis by electrophoresis and PCR. In addition, the project aims at collating and disseminating information on career and training opportunities related to different laboratory methods, and examples of successful minority scientists. Fifteen new laboratory exercises have been pre-tested and incorporated into a manual and the laboratory classes taken by students. Fifty one students including Forensic Science, Chemistry, and Biology majors have experienced and completed surveys on one or more of the new or improved laboratory classes. Funding for this workshop was made possible by a grant from the Department of Education MSEIPR/Award No.P1201050026.

Section VIII: Anthropology

ACAD 191

Terry Powis, presiding

8:00 THE YALAHAU REGIONAL SETTLEMENT PATTERN SURVEY: AN EXAMINATION OF ANCIENT MAYA SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION, Jeffrey B. Glover, Georgia State University, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Anthropology P.O. Box 3998 Atlanta, GA 30302-3998. The Yalahau Regional Settlement Pattern Survey (YRSPS) addresses the complex negotiations that constituted ancient Maya society through an investigation of the distribution of settlement across the Yalahau region of northern Quintana Roo, Mexico. The relational approach views the built environment as an active backdrop upon which human actions unfolded. I explored how monumental architecture, through its size and the rituals conducted in and around it. materialized an enduring sense of community identity. I conclude that tensions were present between community level processes and the more hierarchical strategies associated with polity formation. Funding for this research was made possible by generous grants from NSF, UC MEXUS. FAMSI, and the Baker Family Foundation.

8:15 PRE-HISPANIC SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN PERU'S NORTHEASTERN ANDEAN CLOUD FOREST, Warren B. Church, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. This paper presents the results of archaeological research designed to test traditional theories bearing on population origins and cultural development in the inhospitable eastern Andean cloud forests. Models rooted in frameworks of Andean political economy, cultural ecology, and climatic determinism attribute settlement to late pre-Hispanic migrations and colonization originating in the adjacent central highlands. Our survey focused on the Pataz highlands bordering the forested Abiseo watershed where large settlements with monumental architecture like Gran Pajaten have been documented since the 1960s. Evidence of sparse and dispersed settlement indicates correspondingly low and non-centralized highland populations. These data undermine published migration and colonization theories, while new paleoecological proxy records from the upper forest suggest the unlikelihood that that regional climatic and environmental change spurred eastward population movements. Finally, we delineate alternative theoretical frameworks and research questions to investigate population dynamics and cultural processes in the eastern Andean cloud forests. Funds for fieldwork were generously provided by the Foundation for Exploration and Research on Cultural Origins (FERC), Orono, ME.

8:30 MAKING SENSE OF A WPA EXCAVATION: AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL REASSESSMENT OF COLLECTIONS FROM THE DEPTFORD SITE (9CH2) IN CHATHAM COUNTY, GEORGIA**, Victoria G. Dekle*, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. During the 1930's, archaeologists from the Works Projects Administration conducted excavations at the Deptford site in Chatham County, Georgia. The large, multi-component site sat atop a bluff of the lower Savannah River, and lent its name to one of the most common ceramic phases on the Georgia Coast. Despite this exposure and extensive excavations at the site, no report was ever written on the WPA-era efforts there. Analysis of the Deptford collections by the University of Georgia and archival research of the original field notes has provided a wealth of previously unknown data. This paper will discuss recent attempts to reconstruct the original excavations through field records, digital mapping of cultural components at the site through artifact densities, and some preliminary conclusions regarding the occupational history of the Deptford site. Support for this project provided by the UGA Laboratory of Archaeology.

8:45 CHIEFDOMS OF THE LOWER SAVANNAH**, M. Jared Wood*, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. A.D. 1250 to 1350 marks a great transformation among native peoples of the lower Savannah River Basin. During this interval, numerous large communities were established, earthen mounds were constructed, and the area experienced a florescence of "Mississippian Culture." New data from a cluster of Mississippian sites in the lower valley encourage a critical evaluation of these settlements and their relationships; specifically, what variables may have influenced the spatial and sociopolitical organization of chiefdoms on the landscape, and how do they compare/contrast with those of "classic" Mississippian chiefdoms? Archaeological survey, mapping, and test excavations are brought to bear on these questions, with the ultimate goals of identifying regional variation in expressions of Mississippian Culture and reconstructing the settlement and political histories of these polities. This project was funded by the UGA Laboratory of Archaeology, the UGA Center for Archaeological Sciences, and the Archaeological Society of South Carolina.

9:00 VARIABILITY IN ANIMAL USE AMONG THE WOODLAND AND MIS-SISSIPPIAN INHABITANTS OF THE CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI VALLEY: THE ROLE OF ANALYTICAL SCALE. J. Matthew Compton*, Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-1619. This paper examines the relationship between analytical scale and archaeological interpretation through a multi-scalar analysis of animal use strategies of the Woodland and Mississippian inhabitants of the Central Mississippi Valley (ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 1550) Two distinct levels of analysis are employed. The large-scale analysis interprets zooarchaeological data from 65 Woodland and Mississippian sites from the Central Mississippi Valley and adjacent regions. The second, finer-scale analysis focuses on three sites located in the same ecological region in northeastern Arkansas. Large-scale regional analysis points to site location as the primary driver behind variation in animal use. However, finer-resolution analysis indicates not all variability in animal use can be attributed to environmental factors. This suggests that temporal shifts in animal use occurred at the local scale and are only observable when local environmental conditions are carefully considered. Funding provided by grants from the Arkansas Natural and Cultural Resources Council to the Arkansas Archeological Survey.

9:15 ASSESSMENT AND MAPPING OF THE SINGER-MOYE MOUND SITE. STEWART COUNTY, GA**, M. Jared Wood*, Mark Williams, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Singer-Moye (9SW2) is a Mississippian-era site located in the southern stretch of the Chattahoochee River basin in south-central Stewart County, GA. This eight-mound site undoubtedly held prominence as a major civic-ceremonial center, but little is known of its history and use. Investigations by the Columbus Museum in the past forty years have provided a basic chronology and data on mound construction, but no accurate map of the site has been created. The University of Georgia, Athens is currently in the process of acquiring the site to ensure its protection and establish a research program for systematic investigations. This paper will describe recent efforts to assess the site's condition and present the results of initial site mapping through the use of Total Stations and digital software. Support for this project provided by the UGA Laboratory of Archaeology.

9:30 ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT A CIVIL WAR ERA HOUSE SITE AT THE PICKETT'S MILL STATE HISTORIC PARK, PAULDING COUNTY, GEORGIA**, Mary Lumsden* and Terry Powis, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. During the Civil War, Union forces attacked Confederate lines in the vicinity of Pickett's Mill in late May of 1864. Several small farms were scattered throughout the area. Today, there are ten historic homesteads within the boundary of the state park. In 2006, archival and archaeological research began at one of the homesteads located at the southern end of the park, along Confederate lines. According to oral history and military records, this house was standing but abandoned at the time of the battle. The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to investigate through archival research the chain of title and the land use history; second, to produce through archaeological testing a detailed site map that includes all of the structures and features associated with the house; and third, determine to what extent the house was utilized by the Confederate army in the battle of Pickett's Mill. This project was funded by the Department of Geography and Anthropology, Kennesaw State University.

9:45 THE MECHANICS OF UNEARTHING A CIVIL WAR SITE: RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE PICKETT'S MILL STATE HISTORIC PARK, PAULDING COUNTY, GEORGIA**, Jason Whatley* and Terry Powis, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, 30144. Recent investigations at the Pickett's Mill State Historic Site have yielded new insights into the Civil War battle that occurred in May 1864. Military and historical sources have documented that the major battle took place in a ravine, but that skirmishes also occurred in adjacent areas, including a large, open wheat field. Some reports have suggested that Confederate soldiers had forced Union troops out of the ravine into this field where they became exposed. In the summer of 2006 a variety of different archaeological techniques were employed to determine what role the wheat field played in the battle. This paper describes the archaeological techniques that were used and their effectiveness in identifying and recovering military items associated with the battle. Among them, metal detectors proved to be the most effective tool with hundreds of artifacts being recovered from the site. This project was funded by the Department of Geography and Anthropology, Kennesaw State University.

10:00 Section meeting

10:30 Poster session

Posters

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE RECENTLY EXPANDED WARING ARCHEOLOGICAL LABORATORY PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM**, Frances Colon*, and Susan Fishman-Armstrong, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The Antonio J. Waring Jr., Archaeological Laboratory significantly expanded its public education program in Fall 2002 and began its promotion in Fall 2005 for the education of 3rd-12th grade students in Central and North Georgia. An innovative feature of the expansion was the creation of the teaching trunk, a device consisting of a trunk containing various instructional materials. The instructional materials include archeological artifacts and educational activities that not only promote knowledge about archeology, but involve other skills associated with the core curriculum of the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS). Thus, this innovative program, which is not currently offered at any other institution in Georgia, offers the opportunity for students to learn not only archeology, but other disciplines across the curriculum as well. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the Waring Laboratory Public Education Program. Methods utilized to measure the effectiveness of the program include teacher surveys, interviews, personnel observations of classroom use, and enumerating the students who utilize the 26 educational activities in the trunks. Results indicate that use and availability of the four year old program has increased by 116 percent; additional results are pending. Acknowledgment for funding goes to the Student Research assistance Program at the University of West Georgia.

*Denotes student presenter

**Denotes student "in progress research"
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Title Annotation:Georgia Academy of Sciences
Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Article Type:Conference notes
Geographic Code:1U5GA
Date:Mar 22, 2007
Words:22162
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