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Saturday paper presentations. (Abstracts of Presented Papers and Posters).

Section I: Biological Sciences 250 Herty Hall Andrew Penniman, Presiding

9:00 FAUNA OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, ECUADOR, Clinton C. Ready and John Pasto, Middle Georgia College, Cochran, GA 31014. From May 13 to May 21., 2001, a group of faculty and students from Middle Georgia College, as well as members of the community, went to the Galapagos Islands. The Galapagos Islands are volcanic and mostly arid islands 600 miles (965 kin) off the west coast of Ecuador, South America. They are well known for having influenced Charles Darwin's development of the Theory of Natural Selection. Many species and varieties of animals were observed including Galapagos Tortoises, Marine Iguanas, Land Iguanas, many species of finches, Lava Lizards, Sea Lions, Blue Footed Boobies, Masked Boobies, Waved Albatrosses, Penguins, Frigate Birds, Flightless Cormorants, Argiope Spiders and the Galapagos Snake. One of us (Ready) took over 400 digital photographs of the Galapagos Islands, and the other (Pasto) took nearly 1000 digital photographs. A very small proportion of these photographs will be shown and di scussed. Another trip is planned from June 5 - 14, 2002.

9:15 FISH DIVERSITY IN BARTOW COUNTY, GEORGIA, William E. Ensign, Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. As part of a countywide watershed assessment during Summer 2000, fish diversity and abundance were quantitatively assessed at 22 sites in 14 separate watersheds in Bartow County, Georgia. Watershed area above the sites ranged from 585 to 47,555 hectares. A total of 54 species of fish from 14 families were obtained from the 22 sites. Representatives of Cyprinidae, Centrarchidae and Percidae accounted for the majority of diversity with 16, 12 and 8 species, respectively. Species richness at individual sites ranged from 7 to 26. No species was found at all 22 sites, but Hypentelium etowanum and Lepomis auritus were both found at 21 sites and Cottus carolinae, Percina nigrofasciata and Campostoma oligolepis were found at 20 sites. Seven species were found at only one site and six species occurred at only two sites. Regression of watershed area on species richness explained 24% of the variance in the species richness data. Residual variance in the regression relationship is accounted for, in part, by differences in habitat quality among sites. Sites suffering from environmental perturbation typically had lower species richness, given watershed area, than sites that were less perturbed.

9:30 FIRST ISOLATION OF SPIROPLASMA (MOLLICUTES: SPIROPLASMATACEAE) FROM SOUTH AMERICAN TABANIDS (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE), Jimmy Wedincamp Jr.(1) and April Murphy(2), (1)East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401 and (2) Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. This preliminary study reports the first isolations of tabanid associated spiroplasmas from South America. The study was conducted at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in Napo Province, Ecuador during July 2001. The 650 hectare research station is situated 300 km from Quito on the north bank of the Tiputini River in eastern Ecuador. Tabanid hosts were collected using the Gressitt-Malaise flight interruption trap. The trap was baited using 1-Octen-3-O1 and a 1 M square black panel attached to the center panel of the trap. We found a 58.8% infection rate among tabanids at Tiputini Station with Spiroplasma. We isolated Spiroplasma cultures from 5 genera and 8 species of tabanid host.

9:45 Coffee Break

10:00 SECTION BUSINESS MEETING

10:30 (Please see the poster presentations)

POSTERS

A COMPARISON OF ALDOSE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN WILD-TYPE AND MUTANT STRAINS OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, Jamila Belgrave (*), Denise Saunders and Jann P. Primus, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314. In recent years, biochemists studying the metabolism of a wide variety of organisms (including humans) have focused their interest on a class of monomeric NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductases that are thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin ([H.sub.4]B) and in the development of diabetic complications such as blindness. Previous studies in our laboratory have established the existence of aldose reductase in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The present study centers on comparing the enzymatic activity of aldose reductase in populations of wild-type Drosophila and Drosophila populations with mutations in or near the proposed region of the aldose reductase gene (chromosome 3; locus 84E5-84E6). Spectrophotometric assays were used to analyze crude protein extracts prepared from wild-type, Or egon-R and mutants, 1320 and P272 strains of segregated female and male populations, since previous studies have indicated differences in activity related to sex. Current results indicate that males show greater aldose reductase activity than females. Studies of aldose reductase activity in genetically altered flies will help clarify the role of aldose reductase in the [H.sub.4]B pathway.

BIOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS TO REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN POPULATIONS OF COASTAL AND INLAND REDBAY (PERSEA BORBONIA), R. Brooke Hastings (*) and Lissa M. Leege, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. The sand dunes of Georgia's barrier islands support a unique assemblage of plants threatened by coastal development. To understand the consequences of development, we must first investigate natural limitations to plant reproduction. To this end, we examined the reproductive biology of redbay (Persea borbonia), a tree species infested with insect galls, found in island and inland sites. We compared fruit production, gall load, and frequency of seed predation for individuals from four populations: island sun and shad, and inland sun and shade sites. We found that more trees produced fruit in sun than shade, but there were no differences between island and inland sites. Twice as many leaves had galls in inland sites, where fruits weighed 1/2 as much as island fruits. Also, 50% of seeds from inland trees experien ced predation compared to 37% on islands. These results suggest that island trees are less susceptible to insects than inland trees, thus resulting in higher reproductive success on islands. This leads us to believe that island redbay populations are an important source of redbay seeds and should be protected in the face of coastal development.

HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REDUCTION BY BACILLUS SPHAERICUS IN A LIQUID SUSPENSION MEDIUM, Bernessa E. Rawls (*)(l), Bibekananda Mohanty (1) and Ben Oni (2), (1) Paine College, Augusta, GA 30901 and (2) Tuskegee University, AL 36088. Bacillus sphaericus 2362 cells were grown in a liquid fermentation medium. Hexavalent chromium(Cr-VI) was added to the culture aseptically at the time of inoculation. When the medium was inoculated with B. sphaericus seed culture, there was a lag period of 4 hours, after which time the cells grew rapidly up to 12 hours of growth. Thereafter, the growth rate slowed down and the cells attained stationary phase between 32 and 48 hours of growth. The biomass of cells did not seem to decrease as compared to control when either 5 or 10 ppm Cr-VI was added to the culture. The growth rate of cells for 15 ppm Cr-VI addition was found to be significantly lower than the growth rate for 5 or 10 ppm Cr-VI treatment. B. sphaericus cells were able to reduce Cr-VI in an increasing order 5 ppm > 10 ppm > 15 ppm. When Cr-VI was monitored during 48 hours growth, it was found that the bacteria could reduce higher amounts of CR-VI (25, 30 and 45 ppm) if the amount is provided as successive intervals during growth. Higher biomass density is related to a faster rate of Cr-VI reduction. Supported by NASA/PAIR of Tuskegee University.

SOURCE WATER USE BY LOBLOLLY (PINUS TAEDA L.) AND VIRGINIA (PINUS VIRGINIANA MILLER) PINES, Allison L. Martin (*) and Paula C. Jackson, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. We used stable hydrogen isotopic compositions ([delta]D) to determine the water acquisition patterns of Loblolly and Virginia pines growing in a mixed deciduous forest in N.W., GA. We compared [delta]D signatures of xylem samples from trees of each pine species with the [delta]D signatures of various potential water sources on our study site (e.g. soil samples at various depths, rain samples, well-water, and lake water). In order to determine of pines switch water sources depending on water availability, we collected samples during both the spring and the late summer of 2001. Concurrent measurements of mid-day and pre-dawn leaf water potentials, as well as gravimetric water content with increasing depth in the soil profile were also determined. Results from the stable isotope analysis towards the determination of source water use are still pending. However, midday water potentials indicated that on average Virginia Pines presented a more favorable water status (-5.5 bars) compared to loblolly pines (-8.5 bars; t-test, p<.05), and that soil moisture increased with depth in the soil profile.

HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF THE ENDOCRINE STRESS RESPONSE BY FISH PITUITARY CELLS, Peter Goodnight(*), Kris Griffith (*), Victoria Barron (*), Rehema Muhindo (*) and Lynelle Golden, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. The objective was to study the relationship between pituitary heat shock protein (HSP-70) expression and pituitary regulation of adrenal cortisol secretion in fish. Primary cultures of sunfish (Lepomis sp.) pituitary cells were grown for 3 days at 27[degrees] and divided into a heat stress group (HS) and a control group (CON). HSP-70 expression was increased in the HS group by incubating cells at 32[degrees] for 1-2 hours. CON cells and HS cells were each divided into cells exposed to different levels of cortisol and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) to determine if inhibition (by cortisol) or stimulation (by CRH) of pituitary corticotropin (ACTH) secretion is affected by HSP-70 expression. HSP-70 was measured in cell homogenates by immunoblotting. ACTH from cu lture media was measured by chemiluminescence. The working hypothesis is that increased HSP-70 will modify the pituitary response to stimulation by CRH and inhibition by cortisol.

FERAL HORSES IN DUNE AND SALTMARSH HABITATS ON CUMBERLAND ISLAND, GA., Peter Dolan and Lissa Leege, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Herbivory by large mammals has been shown to have major effects on the structure, function, and composition of plant communities. This study served to quantify non-native horse impacts on dune and saltmarsh plant communities on Cumberland Island, GA, by comparing plant community differences found in, and adjacent to, 42 x 42m horse exclosure sites. A total of 25 randomly selected 1 x 2m plots were sampled in each control and exclosure site on a monthly basis from June 2001 to October 2001. Three exclosure sites were located in the interdune subhabitat, one of the foredune and two in the saltmarsh. Variables measured in each 1 x 2m plot included: species composition, species richness, percent cover, heights of grazed and ungrazed plants, rank of grazing intensity, and presence of reproductive structures. Results of the study will be presented.

WATER RELATIONS IN THE RESURRECTION FERN POLYPODIUM POLYPODIODES (L.) WATT, Laura M. Pittman and James A. Nienow, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Members of the desiccation-tolerant fern Polypodium polypodio ides can survive the loss of over 95% of their normal water content. Furthermore, the recovery of metabolic activity after severe desiccation does not require immersion in liquid water, but can occur through the uptake of water vapor directly from the air. This ability was investigated in the laboratory using pulse-modulated fluorescence techniques. Leaves were dried by exposure to air with a relative humidity of 50%. Then, over the course of several days, leaves were equilibriated with air of successively higher relative humidity. At each step, the photosynthetic yield was determined in dark-adapted leaves using Mini-PAM portable fluorometer. Absorption of water and photoxynthetic yield were minimal at relative humidities below 80%. Thereafter, photosynthetic yield increased linearly with the hydration status of the leaf, up to a hydration state equivalent to about 50% of full hydration. These results are consistent with measurements of the photosynthetic yield of drying leaves.

SCREENING CAPSICUM SPP. FOR CAPSAICINOIDS USING EIA, Robert L. Jarret (1), Brian Perkins (2), Titan Fan (3), Alison Prince (3) and Kelly Guthrie (2), (1) USDA/ARS, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, GA 30223, (2) Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 and (3) Beacon Analytical Systems, Inc., Portland, ME 04103. HPLC is routinely used for the quantification of capsaicinoids in pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruit. We evaluated an alternative approach - an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Total capsaicinoids were methanol-extracted from fresh or previously frozen fruit tissue of 15 genotypes representing five Capsicum spp. Extracts were assayed using HPLC and a commercially available capsaicin immunoassay kit. Correlation of capsaicinoid values obtained using the two techniques was significant. Capsaicinoid values among samples ranged from 0 ug/g F.W. in Bell pepper to > 5,000 ug/g F.W. in a small-fruited Capsicum frutescens from Guatemala. Capsaicinoid values varied widely within and be tween species. The data presented indicate that capsaicinoids can be accurately quantified in Capsicum fruit using EJA.

STEM SINUOSITY IN PLANTED GEORGIA PINES, M. Boyd Edwards (1), Terry S. Price (2), and Timothy B. Harrington (3), (1) Southern Research Station, Athens, GA 30602, (2) Georgia Forest Commission, Macon, GA 31218 and (3) University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. In 1996 and 1998, loblolly and slash pine seedlings were hand planted at five locations in Georgia. At each site, trees were planted with J-shaped, L-shaped or straight taproots. In 2000, each site was visited and each tree was classified according to presence or absence of stem sinuosity. Of the nine populations of trees that were inventoried, five of them clearly show increased incidence of stem sinuosity (% of trees) for pines planted with bent taproots versus those planted with straight taproots. These results indicate that effects of taproot handling on stem sinuosity can become apparent early in stand development. The results of the study identify a correlation between taproot handling at planting and subsequent stem quality of loblolly and slash pin es. Survival and growth were not affected greatly when seedlings were planted with bent taproots, but decreased when seedlings were planted with trimmed taproots.

DETERMINING PARAMETERS USEFUL FOR THE STUDY OF HYDRAULIC ARCHITECTURE IN SWEETGUM (LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA), Paula C. Jackson, Dale L. Vogelien and Heather D. Sutton, Kennesaw State University, Ken nesaw, GA 30144. Seven sweetgum trees were assessed for stem diameter, total leaf number, total leaf area, and proportion of active xylem. Total leaf number was obtained by multiplying the total number of leaf clusters on a tree by the average number of leaves per cluster. A t-test indicated that this method was an efficient and accurate alternative to hand counting individual leaves ([alpha] = 0.96 for n = 21). An exponential relationship was found to exist between stem diameter and total leaf area. Indigo carmine dye was introduced into tree stems and the amount of stained sapwood used to estimate the proportion of active xylem for given tree. Between 98 and 100% of the xylem was stained (all cases), and stain was detected above and below the application point. Microscopic examination of sapwood indicated that tr acheids, vessel members and rays were stained. The significance of this baseline data in defining sweetgum hydraulic architecture and its relevance to water transport trees will be discussed.

KINETICS OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE CLEAVAGE AND OXYGEN EVOLUTION BY ONION CELL SUSPENSION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON ENZYME ACTIVITY, William A. Said, Sharie J. Smith, Derrick A. Green, Jennifer L. Cox, Emily A. Smith and Monica J. Squires, Brewton-Parker College, Mount Vernon, GA 30445. The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by onion cell suspension conforms to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Using the double reciprocal, Lineweaver-Burk Plot, the apparent Michaelis-Menten Constant and the maximal velocity were calculated. A multiphasic S kinetic model has been suggested to explain the behavior of hydrogen peroxide cleavage activity. To examine the inhibitory effect of salinity on velocity of oxygen evolution, solid NaCl was added to the onion cell suspension at 10% (wt/vol.), and the enzymatic activity was measured within 3 minutes of salt addition. The velocity of reaction decreased between 43% and 84% at 251 and 880 mM [H.sub.2][O.sub.2], respectively.

Section II: Chemistry

304 Herty Hall

Marina Koether, Presiding

8:25 INTRODUCTION

8:30 A SUPPORT ELECTROLYTE FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF METAL IONS IN FOOD SUPPLEMENTS, Segmia Kenna Tata and Huggins Z. Msimanga, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30344. Pulsed voltammetry-based electrolytic techniques are sensitive, but lack a common support electrolyte for analyzing several components in a mixture. Thus, the scanning mode of these techniques which is capable of carrying out multi-component analysis, is not utilized. In this study, a method, based on square-wave voltammetry, was sought and developed to analyze heavy metalions ([Zn.sup.2+], [Cu.sup.2+], [Cr.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.3+]) in food supplements. The peak potential dependence of the target analytes on support electrolyte composition was studied. A linear model was assumed, and the goodness of the model was tested by analysis of variances (ANOVA). Data were collected via Amel 433A Trace Analyzer, using a hanging mercury drop as a working electrode versus a Ag/AgCI reference electrode. S atisfactory calibration curves of the metal ions, with Pearson's coefficient of 0.996 or better, were obtained using 0.08-0.1M [CH.sub.3]COOH/[CH.sub.3]COONa at pH range 0.35-4.00.

8:45 SYNTHESIS AND UV-VISIBLE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW WATER-SOLUBLE PORPHYRIN, TRIKIS (PENTAFLUOROPHENYL)-4 SULFONATOPHENYL PORPHYRIN, Adegboye O. Adeyemo (1) and Albert N. Thompson, Jr. (2), (1) Savannah State University, Sovannah, GA 31404 and (2) Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314. This new porphyrin was synthesized by reacting pentagluorobenzaldehyde and benzaldehyde (3:1 ratio) with pyrrole in refuxing propionic acid for five hours. The crude porphyrin was isolated by cooling the reaction mixture and adding saturated sodium acetate solution. The precipitate so obtained was washed thoroughly with water and then dried in the over for 6 hrs. The dried crude porphyrin was dissolved in chloroform and passed through alumina column. The pure porphyrin was obtained by evaporating the eluent to dryness. The water-soluble derivative was obtained by the literature method. Water solution of the porphyrin shows absorbance maxima at 414, 515, 556, 557, and 640 nm. Zinc(II) and Cadmium(II) derivatives showed absorbance maxima at 423 and 556 nm. Mercury(II) derivative showed broad absorbance maxima at 467 and 597 nm. This observation is perhaps due to the fact that mercury(II) derivative is dimeric. The diacid form of the porphyrin showed absorbance maxima at 435, 588 and 640 nm. This new porphyrin can incorporate all kinds of metal ions.

9:00 FREE RADICAL KINETICS ON SURFACES, John T. Barbas (1), Mike E. Signman (2) and Reza Dabestani (2), (1) Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698 and (2) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. Three free radical clocks have been synthesized and used to study a broad range of fast free radical reaction rates on surfaces. Kinetic studies have been done by attaching the free radical clocks along with p-hydroxybenzophenone and phydroxybiphenylmethane on activated Cab-O-Sil. Typically samples were evacuated and sealed in pyrex tubes and in turn the benzophenone carbonyl was irradiated. This triggers a cascade of competing free radical reactions leading to stable products. Product yields and kinetic plots were then utilized to estimate the rate constants of these competing reactions.

9:15 WHY IS CALCULUS NECESSARY TO PROPAGATE ERROR? James M. LoBue, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. The propagation of error is a rather challenging concept for the undergraduate student in physical or analytical chemistry. In most physical chemistry lab manuals a highly intimidating equation is presented that involves the square root of the sum of squares of various derivatives. Standard analytical chemistry texts list the functions one would use to propagate errors of a particular form. In either case, the student must treat this very important concept as a "black box." The presentation here describes a graphical depiction of the propagation of error as a mapping. This mapping necessarily and obviously suggests that error propagation is dependent on the slope of the function through which the error is propagated, thus establishing the need for a derivative. However, in developing this argument the author has "discovered" an apparent shortcut that allows approximation of propagated error wi thout actually calculating a derivative.

10:00 SECTION BUSINESS MEETING

10:30 Break

10:45 STUDENT STUDY METHODS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY AT GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY, Denise Shaw and Michael O. Hurst, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. In a followup to earlier work we have done studying the relationship between student background and performance in chemistry, we have developed a new survey with a variety of questions. The survey contained a total of 18 questions about student study habits and methods for preparing for tests. The surveys were administered to a number of chemistry classes. The results were compared to the student grades from the course, obtained from the registrar with the students' permission, to seek explanations for the students' class performance. Things that improved student performance included completing homework (by 0.4 grade points on average), never being absent (by 0.6 grade points), and coming to class on time (by 0.25 grade points). These and other results will be discussed.

11:00 TEACHING GENERAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INTEGRATED LECTURE-LABORATORY COURSE, Christopher Wozny, Waycross College, Waycroos, GA 31503. In the practice of science, experiment is supposed to precede theory; but in the teaching of science, the situation is usually reversed with explanation often preceding experience. This is particularly true of General Chemistry textbooks where atomic theory is usually introduced immediately, well before it is needed to explain any real-world data, such as the behavior of gases. For this reason, we have restructured the content and presentation of the CHEM 1211-1212 sequence to more accurately reflect the conceptual and contextual development of important chemical principles. We have assumed a constructivist model of knowledge and learning which has resulted in a course that is both student-centered and activity-based. The traditional textbook has been replaced with electronic formats and about one-third of the classroom activities employ computer-based data acquisition. Practic al aspects of implementing this teaching method and discuss student response to it will be discussed.

11:15 STUDENTS AS ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS IN SPECTROSCOPIC INSTRUCTION, Suzanne Carpenter, Richard Wallace and Yvonne Hizer, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. As a result of the recent conversion to the semester system, the organic chemistry sequence at AASU has undergone several major changes. A shift in contact hours from lecture to lab resulted in a re-evaluation of the topics covered in lecture and lab and innovative ways have been sought to modify the content of these courses and maintain the academic integrity of the sequence. A logical topic to examine in addressing this shift in contact hours was spectroscopy since it was already intimately linked to the laboratory portion of the sequence. New lab exercises have been developed and implemented which uniquely present the theory and application of spectroscopy. These exercises and student feedback data will be presented.

11:30 ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES MINOR AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY OPTION AT KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY, Marina C. Koether, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Two new environmental programs have come to fruition. The environmental studies minor is University-wide and the environmental chemistry option utilizes courses across the science disciplines. The environmental studies minor is targeted to both science and non-science students whereas the environmental chemistry option is targeted to the chemistry majors. Due to non-duplication of course material, chemistry majors are able to earn the environmental studies minor, in addition to the environmental chemistry option. Both programs use ample lab- and field-work and thus are truly applied programs. Their evolution and description as well as specific course assessments are provided.

POSTERS

STUDIES INVOLVING POLYFLUOROPHENYL PORPHYRINS, Luan V Tran (*l), Adegboye O. Adeyemo (1), Olarongbe O. Olubajo (1), George N. Williams (1) and Albert N. Thompson, Jr (2), (1) Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404 and (2) Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314-4399. We have embarked on the preparation of a number of polyfluorophenyl porphyrins in an attempt to understand their behaviors in aqeous and organic solutions. We have successfully isolated these porphyrins in high yields: meso-tetrakis (pentaluorophenyl) porphyrin, meso-(trikis(pentafluorophenyl)phenyl) porphyrin, meso-tetrakis (2,4-difluorophenyl) porphyrin, meso-tetrakis (2,5-diflurophenyl) porphyrin, meso-tetrakis (3,4-difluorophenyl) porphyrin, meso-tetrakis (2,6-difluorophenyl) porphyrin, mesotetrakis (2,3,4-trifluorophenyl) porphyrin. The uv-visible spectra of these porphyrins have been recorded in chloform, DMF and acetonitrile. Similarities and differences in these spectra will be discussed. Metal ions incorporation into these porphyrins i n various solvents and at room temperature are being investigated. The motivation and future plan for this investigation will be discussed.

SYNTHESIS OF CONFORMATIONALLY RESTRICTIVE MEFLOQUINE DERIVATIVES, Al M. Panu and Travis P. Albright (*), Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Mefloquine is an effective methanol quinoline anti-malarial compound, which is widely used to fight chloroquine-resistant Plasmodia falciparum strains of malaria. The current structure of Mefloquine is not conformationally constrained about the ethanolamine and little is known about the conformational requirements of this class of compounds at the binding site. The purpose of the experiment is to synthesize conformationally restricted derivatives of Melfoquine, which would help define the conformational requirements of this class of drugs at the receptor site. The target compounds (8 stereoisomers) incorporate conformational rigidity about the ethanolamine fragment of the molecule without adding to the steric bulk. Once synthesized and tested, a ligand-ligand molecular modeling approach will be used to define conformational requirements for binding.

THE CHEMISTRY CHANGES OF KELLOG CREEK AND LAKE AC WORTH WATER DUE TO SEASONAL CHANGES, Lynn Frock (*), Paul Holder (*), Daniel Murphy (*) and Marina Koether, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Studies of turbidity, pH, and metal concentrations were made of water samples taken during the summer of 2001 and the late fall of 2001. Comparisons indicate that the lower water level causes an increase in the concentrations of metals as well as turbidity. Variations do occur with storm events. The metals were determined by GFAAS and FAAS after filtration through a 0.45-micron filter. Comparisons of the two sites, both used for recreational activity, are strikingly different. A discussion for these results will be presented.

THE ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANTIMALARIAL COMPONENTS OF THE PLANT, ZEBA PIQUE, AIM. Panu and Laura M. Lemmers (*), Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. An investigation of a plant indigenous to Trinidad and Tobago and commonly referred to as zeba pique tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, steroids and/or limonoids. These constitutents are thought to be responsible for the anti-malarial properties of the plant. We will report on isolation efforts underway including pH gradient extraction, the use of the chromatotron and early structural elucidation by NMR methods and other spectroscopic techniques.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A BRIEF SURVEY OF SELECTED SITES IN BARTOW COUNTY, GEORGIA, Ryan Barrett (*), Kaci Bowers (*), Barbara Foster (*), Tami Dobbs (*), Daniel Sadler (*), Andrew Tartaglia (*), Donald McGarey, Mark Patterson and Daniel Williams, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Habitat bio-assessments, water quality analysis and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to indicate and analyze the degree to which a stream has been impacted. Bio-assessments are based on the premise that the community of plants and animals living in and around a stream reflect the health of a stream. The availability of satellite imaging and GIS software has made land use determination an invaluable resource. Water quality analysis encompasses both chemical and microbial parameters. The current impact assessment project provided sufficient data to distinguish the water quality, ecology, and invertebrate counts between the three sampling sites.

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF TURREAE HET, Michelle D. Hall (*), Ali Nikkhah and Al Panu, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Initial investigation, by chemical testing and by GC/MS, of the methanolic extract of bark of Turreae het plant obtained from West-African region (Ghana) has indicated the presence of limonoid triterpenes. We will report on isolation efforts underway including the use of High Speed Countercurrent chromatography and other types of chromatography. Progress made toward structure elucidation of some of the purified fractions will also be discussed.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF SODIUM 3-NITRO-PHENOLATE DIHYDRATE, Michael W. Mathias (*) and Kenneth L. Martin, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149 The crystal structure of 3-nitrophenolate was determined by X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallized in the monoclinic system with the space group [P2.sub.1]/n and the cell parameters are a=6.8141(14)Angstrom, c18.2056(36)Angstrom, and [beta]-94.456(30)[degrees]. The number of molecules in the unit cell Z-4, volume 809.32(1)[Angstrom.sup.3], and the density = 1.618g/[cm.sup.3] The structure was solved using SHELXLT V.5.1 and refined by the full matrix of least sqares method by SHELXLT V.5.1. The process involved in determining the crystal structure involved growing crystals, collecting a data set, and analyzing the data set, each will be discussed in the presentation. Furthermore, 3-nitrophenolate exhibited many strange characteristics during its crystal growth, and during the refinement of the data set. The R-factor was 0.0740, indicating that there may have been some thermal decomposition and the crystals of this compound will have to be regrown.

Section III: Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

104 Herty Hall

Deborah Freile, Presiding

7:45 USING LANDSAT IMAGERY FOR GEOLOGIC MAPPING IN REMOTE DESERT REGIONS, SAHARAN WEST AFRICA, M. B. McInnish (*l), R. Dodge (1), J. Bartley (1) and L. Kah (2), (1)University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118 and (2) University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996. The Proterozoic Atar Group, East-Central Mauritania, preserves a reef-to-basin transition. This transition represents a rapid facies change, from a stromatolite-dominated carbonate reef to organic-rich basinal shales (20% TOC), devoid of carbonate. Success of future field study depends on the timely identification of promising outcrops for section measurement and sample collection, and definition of logistical access routes. Existing maps of this area are at a scale of 1:5,000,000 and are of poor quality. Using LANDSAT 7 imagery, we are creating a 1:200,000 scale geologic map of the reef-basin transition, using a mosaic of portions of two scenes. The high-definition images produced by LANDSAT 7 permit differentiation among geological units -- the carbonate-shale facies change is particularly evident after standard image processing. By identifying significant basin features in a remote, unstudied region, geologic mapping using satellite data is proving to be a critical part of comprehensive geologic field studies.

8:00 REMOTE SENSING AND GIS-ASSISTED ANALYSES OF LAND USE PATTERNS AND THEIR AFFECTS ON STREAMS IN WEST GEORGIA, Crystal G. Wilson (*), Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Johnny A. Waters and Julie Bartley, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The need for a land-use nutrient load analysis as part of the West Georgia Watershed Assessment requires up-to-date classifications of land-use patterns in Carroll and Heard Counties, Georgia. Using ERDAS Imagine 8.5, a supervised classification was conducted using Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery from September 2001. Results were field checked for accuracy. The newly classified land-use maps were then imported into ESRI ArcView 3.2. Using the hydrologic analysis extension, calculations were performed to determine the percentage of land-use types contributing to sample stations within select watersheds of the two counties. Statistical analysis methods are applied to determine possible contributing variables to nutrient concentrations at these sites. Nu trients of interest include nitrite-nitrate-N, ammonia, TKN, and phosphorus. Analysis shows elevated levels of nitrite-nitrate-N, ammonia, and TKN in urban watersheds. Phosphorus levels are correlated with rainfall.

8:15 CARBON ISOTOPE CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE UPPER AVZYAN FORMATION, SOUTHERN URAL MOUNTAINS, RUSSIA, Julie L. McWilliams (*1), J. K. Bartley (1) and L. C. Kah (2), (1) State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118 and (2) University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996. Recent examination of Mesoproterozoic carbonates from three continents indicates that the carbon isotopic composition of seawater changed from approximately 0 permil, prior to 1300 Ma, to about +3.5 permil by 1250 Ma. Yet, no single succession has yet been found that records the transition. Carbonate strata from the Ural Mts. may capture this geochemical transition. This study focuses on the Revet Member, upper Avzyan Formation. Carbonates were collected for C-isotopic and elemental analysis. Samples were analyzed petrographically and by cathodoluminescence to establish a paragenetic sequence, and individual phases drilled for geochemical analysis. Least-altered phases were used to construct a C-isotopic profile for the Revet Member. Ne w data show values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 permil, permitting more accurate placement of the Revet Member into a global geochronologic framework.

8:30 SEDIMENTOLOGY OF A CAROLINA BAY SAND RIM, BIG BAY, SOUTH CAROLINA, Andrew H. Ivester, Kimberly M. Burns and Jacqueline I. Reed, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. At Big Bay, a Carolina bay in Sumter County, SC, a series of sand rims representing former bay shorelines are visible in aerial photographs of the southeastern portion of the bay. Samples were collected from two of these rims and analyzed for soil texture. Rim #1 is closest to the center of the bay and rim #2 is the next sand ridge to the southeast. Both landforms have textural characteristics similar to knwn eolian deposits - mean particular size is 1.3 to 1.6 [phi] with a sorting of 0.7 to 0.8 [phi]. Both rims are sandy (>96% sand) with <0.1% coarse sand, also consistent with an eolian origin. These values are similar to riverine dunes and other Carolina bay rims in Georgia. Rim #2 has a higher clay content than Rim #1, consistent with an apparently greater age. We conclude that the sand rim is an eolian feature, the sand s having their source in an adjacent former beach along the shoreline. Additional fieldwork and age dating may further clarify the environmental history of this landform.

8:45 BEACH RIDGES AT THE NORTHERN END OF JEKYLL ISLAND, GEORGIA, Timothy M. Chowns (*) and Bryan S. Schultz (*), Dept. of Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The northern end of Jekyll Island comprises a wedge-shaped area of Holocene sediments accreted onto Pleistocene sands of the Silver Bluff shoreline. At least four Holocene dune ridges are present, separated by tidal marshes. The oldest ridge occurs in the west with progressively younger ridges and marshes toward the present shoreline. The pattern implies accretion, but at present this part of the island is generally suffering erosion. Vibracoring in the beach ridges reveals retrogressive sequences with dune sands resting on marsh and lagoonal facies. It is inferred that the lagoonal sediments accumulated in the lee of spits that developed seaward of their present position, retreated landward and then accreted to the island. Because spit development is characteristic of the southern ends of islands, it is suggested that th ese spits were orriginally connected to St. Simons Island and accreted to Jekyll with the breaching of St. Simons Sound.

9:00 SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS IN STREAMS AND TRIBUTARIES OF HEARD AND CARROLL COUNTIES, GEORGIA, Teddy D. Mart in (*) and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Total phosphorus inputs have increased since the 1950s because of the use of phosphate in fertifizer and detergents. Use of phosphate detergents ended voluntarily in 1994. Total phosphorus concentrations in raw wastewater effluent contained about 3 mg/L of total phosphorus during the 1940s and increased to about 11 mg/L by the 1970s during the height of phosphate detergent use and have currently declined to about 5 mg/L. This yearlong study (West Georgia Watershed Assessment) covers 38 streams and 70 sample stations in west Georgia. The area contains point source and non-point source phosphorus loading areas in mostly rural areas, with lesser contribution from cities and towns. Effects of point sources are apparent along the Little Tallapoosa River, with total phosphorus increasing dow nstream of wastewater spray fields and again below a landfill (average doubles from 0.4 to 0.88 mg/L), followed by dilution downstream. Total phosphorus levels in this assessment lie between 0 to 6 mg/L.

9:15 BASELINE WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR POTENTIAL RESERVOIRS IN CARROLL AND HARALSON COUNTIES, GEORGIA, Bryan S. Schultz (*), Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Johnny A Waters and Randall L. Kath, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The four year drought coupled with population growth have necessitated the need for conservation and the search for additional sources of drinking water. The hunt for more drinking water includes finding potential reservoir sites. Locating a drinking water reservoir is a complex process that involves water quality analysis, flow measurements, politics, public opinion, environmental considerations, government regulations, economics, and supply and demand. A 650-acre reservoir is under construction on Snake Creek in southern Carroll County and a 2300-acre reservoir is being contemplated on Beach Creek in Haralson County. Our results (West Georgia Watershed Assessment) for 2001 show fecal coliform bacteria levels range from 0 - >2000 colonies/100 ml at Snake C reek. Snake Creek has the highest turbidity (900 NTU) and TSS (1120 mg/L) of the streams in Carroll County. Steep slopes that have construction, 4-wheeler trails, dirt roads, and a large juniyard cause the high turbidity.

9:30 RESULTS OF THE WEST GEORGIA WATERSHED ASSESSMENT: VARIATIONS OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS WITH SEASONALITY, LAND USAGE AND RAIN FALL, Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Julie K. Bartley, Randal L. Kath and Johnny A. Waters, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carroliton, GA 30118. A yearlong monitoring program by the West Georgia Watershed Assessment measured 21 physical, chemical, and microbiological water quality parameters at 70 sample stations in Carroll and Heard Counties. Results include 40,000 in situ and laboratory measurements. The data set generated allows determination of water quality variations with point source release, seasonality, land usage, and rainfall. Rainfall events strongly affect turbidity, TSS, and fecal coliform bacteria. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is affected by seasonality in all streams. Point source release and appearance of beaver dams in the fall that stagnate the streams significantly decrease DO. Land usage, rainfall events, and point source release affect nutrients (ammonia-N, nitrite-nitrate-N, and total phosphorus). Turbidity and TSS are strongly correlated with rainfall and land use.

9:45 AMMONIA IN THE STREAMS OF WEST GEORGIA: VARIATION WITH LAND USAGE, POINT SOURCE RELEASE, AND SEASON, James R. Griffin (*) and Curtis Hollabaugh, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Ammonia-N is an important surface water quality parameter. In well-oxygenated streams ammonia levels are usually low because it reacts rapidly with oxygen and is readily metabolized. As part of the West Georgia Watershed Assessment, ammonia was monitored at 70 sample stations on 38 streams for one year in Carroll and Heard Counties, Georgia. Results show that the highest ammonia-N levels (maximum of 3.8 mg/L) occur in a small tributary stream, Mud Creek, that heads in a large cattle pature and receives discharge of treated sewage. Runoff from farmland where cattle are fenced to have direct access to small creeks (Jumpin In Creek and Yellowdirt Creek) has the highest ammonia levels (> 1 mg/L ammonia). Averages of ammonia-N at all sample stations lie between 0.02 to 0.60 mg/L. When compared with the ammonia-N concentrations of the major rivers of the United States, these levels are generally lower.

10:00 SECTION BUSINESS MEETING

10:30 ASSESSING THE ASSESSMENT: HOW TO INVESTIGATE A WATERSHED BASED ON THE WEST GEORGIA WATERSHED ASSESSMENT OF CARROLL AND HEARD COUNTIES, GEORGIA, Randa R. Harris, Curtis L. Hollobaugh, Julie K. Bartley, Johnny A. Walters and Randal L. Kath, Geo-sciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The West Georgia Watershed Assessment is engaged in an intense yearlong project to monitor the water quality of 38 streams in west Georgia. This appraisal examines point and non-point sources, seasonality, flow conditions, hydrologic implications of growth and development, and land use. The assessment includes measurement of 21 physical, chemical, and microbiological water quality parameters at 70 sample stations. The Georgia EPD now requires a watershed assessment for all new or expanded wastewater discharge permits and the US EPA will require watershed assessments for renewal of permits. A successful watershed assessment must be designed to meet EPD requirements, include careful analysis of existi ng data and satellite images, combined with field checks to determine sample site locations, and establish baseline water quality in a yearlong study.

10:45 INSIGNIFICANT ICE-MASS LOSS IN SELECTED GLACIERS OF THE BEARTOOTH PLATEAU OF SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA FROM 1996-2001: GLOBAL COOLING? Edward E. Chatelain, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. An August, 2001 aerial survey of the Beartooth Plateau revealed only minor ice wastage to have occurred in selected glaciers since the initial survey of September 1996, and much less than that observed between 1974-1976. Deficient snowfall and elevated summer maximum temperatures for Cooke City, Mystic Lake, and Red Lodge, Montana in the last five years would suggest further significant ice-mass loss in the interval, which did not occur. Maximum average temperatures were elevated in early summer months, and depressed in August and September in three of the five years. Cool spring temperatures held snow at higher elevations later in these years as well. The timing of maximum summer average temperatures and late spring snowmelt better explain the contrasting effects of snowfall totals and temperature extremes on ice-mass balance of glaciers in the Beartooth Plateau throughout the last century.

11:00 NATURAL AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE IN COLOMBIA OVER THE PAST 51,000 YEARS, Jeffrey P. Blick, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Presence/absence analysis of 85 published pollen cores from Colombia reveals a long-term record of natural and human disturbance for the last 51 ka. Selected climate indicator taxa clearly mark cool-cold, cool most-wet, warm, and dry episodes to which vegetation communities were forced to respond. During colder periods, cryophilic species moved down slope into lower lying areas, while during warmer periods, thermophilic species moved up slope into highland areas in response to changing climatological conditions. Entire vegetation communities experiences average shifts in elevation of 860 m (range 50[degree]1650 m) in response to temperature variations on the order of -4.30 to -5.59[degree]C and +.73-.95[degree]C during colder and warmer periods, respectively. Shortly after the arrival of humans into Colombia during the 15-12 ka interval, the impact of human activity on the landscape becomes apparent. In later stages, human alteration of the landscape is clearly detectable due to the virtual explosion of cultigens, especially during the last 3 ka.

11:15 CHEMICAL ANALYSES INDICATE CORRELATIONS OF ROCK UNITS WITHIN THE UCHEE BELT, Tom Hanley (1) and Aditya Kar (2), (1.) Dept. of Chemistry and Geology, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907, (2.) Cooperative Developmental Energy Program, Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA 31030 and ACRES, Department of Geology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. An inventory of chemical analyses (major, trace and REE's) of Uchee belt rocks is accumulating due to the Atlanta Consortium for Research in the Earth Sciences (ACRES), and NSF-sponsored programs that involves undergraduate science majors with pre- or in-service teachers in geological research projects. Field relations and major element igneous trends indicate that Flat Rock Park lineated gneiss and associated meta-aplite (FRPgn) are the same unit as Motts gneiss. These rocks are distinct from other felsic gneiss in the area. The correlation between the FRPgn and Motts gneiss allows us to trace at least one, and possibly more, Uchee bel t units into the Goat Rock fault. Furthermore, this indicates that the lineated character of the Motts gneiss predates its association with the Goat Rock fault. The chemistry of other units will also be discussed.

Section IV: Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science And Technology

313 Herty Hall

A. Lazari, Presiding

7:45 A MODEL FOR THE MOTION OF KINETIC MOBILE, Brian Bockelman (*) and J. E. Hasbun, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. In this paper, we model the dynamics of a kinetic mobile. The model involves an intricate system of weights and rings in a particular geometric configuration. Its behavior is approximated by a simplified system of equations. The object is treated in such a way that coordinate transformations make it possible to describe its motion in a simple mathematical way. Parts of the equations are of a harmonic motion type. In this paper we will derive our equations and describe the results. In addition to the full system of equations, various limiting forms of the motion are considered. The techniques used in this paper are important because they can be applied to other complex systems. Even though, to our knowledge, no such mathematical description of the kinetic mobile exists, we find that it is possible to model its motion quite well. (Special acknowledgement goes to Dr. Scott Gordon for his assistance in the interpretation of the equations of motion.)

8:00 A RANDOM AMPLITUDE FORCED HARMONIC OSCILLATION, Eshwar Stalin (*) and J. E. Hasbun, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. A Random amplitude forced harmonic oscillation was investigated. The differential equation for the system has a random amplitude external force. This result is compared with a case which has a constant amplitude force. The results show that the behavior of the random force model is similar to that of the constant amplitude force. During our presentation, we will give these results and discuss further aspects of the system's motion.

8:15 THE MOON'S DISTANCE FROM EARTH BY PARALLAX METHOD, Daniel Serrano (*) and J. E. Hasbun, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. A parallax method is used to measure the Earth-Moon distance. The measurements are based on two different reference objects. One of these objects is Mars due to its currently favorable position in the performance of the measurements. The other reference object is the star Nunki in the constellation of Sagittarius. A comparison between both cases tells us that the parallax method works better when the star is used as the reference object. However, the highest average percent error we obtained is less than 3% in both cases.

8:30 ONLY ONE REAL CLIFFORD ALGEBRA CAN DESCRIBE BOTH THE EUCLIDEAN PLANE AND THE MINKOWSKIAN PLANE, Jason Looper (*) and Dennis W. Marks, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Despite the difference in the nature of their basis vectors, the real Clifford algebra generated by the basis vectors (both space-like) of the Euclidean plan and the real Clifford algebra generaged by the basis vectors (one space-like and one time-like) of the Minkowskian plane are isomorphic. On the other hand, the Clifford algebra generated to two time-like basis vectors is not isomorphic to these, so we exclude the possibility of more than one time-like dimension. We identify the time-like bivector formed by the basis vectors of the Euclidean plan with the time-like basis vector of the Minkowskian plane and identify the space-like bivector formed by the basis vectors of the Minkowskian plane with one of the space-like basis vectors of the Euclidean plane. Because the range of the hyperbolic cosine used to describe vectors i n the Minkowskian plane has only one point in common with the range of the cosine used to describe vectors in the Euclidean plan, the matrix representation of the Clifford algebra that can describe both the Euclidean plane and the Minkowskian plane is unique.

8:45 IMPACT OF ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE CAUSED BY ACID RAIN AND CARBONATE ROCK, Richard W Schmude, Jr. and Tommy A. Penley (*), Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. The rising level of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has become a major issue. One cause of this increase is the breakdown of carbonate bearing rocks by acid rain. Marble blocks of approximately 40.0 grams were placed in nitric acid solutions having different pH values and the mass loss of these blocks were measured at pH 2, 3, 4, 5, and distilled water to be between: (kg/[M.sup.2]s) pH = 5.0 (2.57x[10.sup.-8]) to pH = 2.0 (2.10x[10.sup.-6]). Studies were done to show that the amount of carbon dioxide released into our atmosphere from the breakdown of marble and other carbonate rocks by acid rain is having a significant environmental influence. We estimate that acid rain, at an average pH of 4.5, causes the release of 1.1 x [10.sup.12] kg of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere every year.

9:00 PHOTOELECTRIC MAGNITUDES OF MARS, Anthony R. Whitworth (*) and Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. The first step in photoelectric photometry is to measure a star of known brightness and then measure an object of unknown brightness. The star, called the comparison star, serves as a calibration object. The comparison star is used because the sky transparency changes from night tonight. The magnitudes of Mars for the V-filter were 20% higher than they were predicted in September 2001. This talk will focus on the method used in obtaining the brightness measurements of Mars.

9:15 WIDEBAND PHOTOELECTRIC PHOTOMETRY OF SATURN IN LATE 2001, Richard W Schmude, Jr. and Kelly Moore, Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. During late 2001, the rings of Saturn were tilted at an angle of 260 with respect to our line of sight. We have carried out an intensive study of Saturn's brightness and color between August 23 and Nov. 25, 2001. During this time, the solar phase angle changed from 6.3[degree] to 1.0[degree]. The solar phase angle is the angle between the Earth and the Sun measured from Saturn. Our normalized magnitudes for a ring tilt angle of 26.00 are: B(1,0) = -8.65[+ or -]0.01, V(1,0) = -9.70[+ or -]0.01, R(1,0) = -10.35 [+ or -]0.01 and 1(1,0) = -10.62[+ or -]0.01. The selected solar phase angle coefficients are: [C.sub.B] = 0.028[+ or -]0.003, [C.sub.V] = 0.028[+ or -]0.001 [C.sub.R] = 0.022[+ or -]0.001, and [C.sub.I] = 0 029[+ or -]0.001. The normalized magnitudes are close to the values measured in late 2000, but the solar phase angle coefficients are somewhat lower than those from late 2000.

9:30 MAGNITUDE AND POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS OF JUPITER IN LATE 2001, Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. Photoelectric magnitude measurements of Jupiter were made between Sep. 27 and Nov. 21, 2001. The preliminary normalized magnitudes of Jupiter for late 2001 are: B(1,0) = -8.51[+ or -]0.03 V(1,0) = -9 38[+ or -]0.03 R(1,0) = 9.86[+ or -]0.03 and 1(1,0) = -9.74[+ or -]0.03. These values are similar to those in late 2000; nevertheless, there are small differences, which are undoubtedly the result of changes taking place on Jupiter including the darkening of the north equatorial belt. The percentage of polarized light reflected by Jupiter was lower in 2001 than in previous years.

9:45 THE 2001 MARTIAN DUST STORM, Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. In mid-June of 2001, a major dust storm broke out on Mars. This storm was monitored by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and by the author. The MGS observations will relate to a specific area on Mars while the author's observations include the whole visible disc of the planet. The author and Anthony Whitworth collected measurements of the color, amount and polarization of the light reflected by Mars during the dust storm. The big surprise was that Mars was up to 35% brighter in July and August than what was predicted; this discrepancy was due to the planet-wide dust storm taking place during those months. We also found that the color of Mars was a few percent less blue during the 2001 dust storm. Measurements of the amount of polarized light reflected by Mars show that a major dust storm took place in July and August and that the dust settled out of the Martian atmosphere during September through mid-November. Trend s in the brightness and color of Mars throughout 2001 will be presented in this talk.

10:00 SECTION BUSINESS MEETING

10:30 USING MAPLE SOFTWARE AS A TOOL FOR TEACHING CALCULUS-BASED PHYSICS COURSE, Kailash S. Chandra, Department of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science Technology, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. In introductory physics, the simple harmonic motion, damped oscillations, and forced oscillations are discussed. It is relatively easy to solve the differential equation for Simple Harmonic Motion in the classroom. However, it becomes very difficult to solve the differential equations for Damped and Forced Oscillations in the classroom due to the limited time. Most textbooks just give the results of these equations. Maple software with its symbolic operations is used to solve these equations graphically and analytically. The use of Maple software enhances students' interest in the learning and students play with these equations by changing values of variables and graphic equations again and again to study effects of these variables. The use of Maple software will be presented during the presentati on.

10:45 USING QUANT SYSTEMS, AN INTERACTIVE MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE, TO DELIVER A COLLEGE ALGEBRA COURSE, Andreas Lazari, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Discussed in this paper are the advantages of using the QUANT SYSTEMS mathematical software versus other WEB interactive software. The most important advantage of the QUANT SYSTEMS software is that is is Internet free. It runs out of a local server, eliminating any problems due to Internet problems during class hours. The QUANT SYSTEMS software uses a better approach to teaching and testing students on mathematical concepts.

11:00 SKILL BUILDING TEAMS PROGRAM, Boris Peltsverger and Arvind Shah, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 31709. The Skill Building Team (SBT) program was started as an extracurricular activity to provide students with some skills in areas which are usually non covered in-depth in a degree curriculum. Under this platform, the students are encouraged to work in small groups on special projects. Several areas of interest are identified as Data Mining, Knowledge-Based Techniques, Advanced Java Programming, Network Security and etc. The students are provided with resources, guidance, and faculty support. Authors give an example of an implementation of the SBT program in the School of Computer and Information Sciences at Georgia Southwestern State University.

11:15 MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A PULSE VACCINATION MODEL FOR PERIODIC DISEASES, Ronald F. Mickens, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. Many childhood illnesses are called "periodic diseases" because of the regularity in which they occur. We construct a three variable discrete-time model for such phenomena and investigate its mathematical properties: the fixed-point, its linear stability properties, and the period of small oscillations about the fixed-point. Unlike previous continuous-time models, which assume constant total population, we allow the total population to increase and consider the effect of a pulse vaccination strategy on the long-term dynamics of the diseased population. Our general conclusion is that this policy can, under the proper conditions, drive the disease population to extinction. The results of this model are compared to previous work in this area. (This research was supported in part by the CAUMBRS-SCORE Program.)

11:30 A NUMERICAL SCHEME FOR A DUAL-SORPTION MODEL OF PERCUTANEOUS DRUG ABSORPTION, Kale Oyedeji (1) and Ronald E. Mickens (2), (1) Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA 30314 and (2) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. A nonstandard discrete model is constructed for the partial differential equation modeling pharmacokinetic profiles in percutaneous drub absorption. This work generalizes the previous study by Gumel, et. al. and extends to all PDE's taking the form [U.sub.t]=f(u)[U.sub.xx], where f(u) is a given function of u. The major constraint used to obtain the finite difference scheme is the imposition of a positivity condition, i.e. if the numerical solution is non-negative at discrete time [t.sub.k] = k[delta]t, then the solution computed at [t.sub.k+1] must also be non-negative. The proposed scheme is explicit, thus allowing for ease of implementation, and also provides a direct functional relationship between the space and time step-sizes. To illustrate the use of this scheme, we carry out the nume rical integration for the case of a "delta function" intitial distribution.

11:45 METHOD FOR HUMAN-OPERATOR ERROR ANALYSIS, Alexander Yemelyanou, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 31709. A method of describing and analyzing the causes for human-operator error is proposed. This method is based on casual analysis and essentially different from commonly used statistical means. On the basis of suggested method, a computer-aided system SAFE was developed which was implemented in civil aviation and considerably upgraded the flight safety level. The described system has been developed for use by accident investigation commissioners, safety officers, insurance companies and all others who analyze questions of safety and risk.

POSTER

NOZZLE SHAPE INFLUENCES ON THE MOTION OF A WATER PROPELLED ROCKET, Luis F. Benevides (*), Ceasar A. Taba, Miguel A. Munoz and Chad L. Davies, Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. An analysis of the motion of three water propelled rockets was conducted to determine if the nozzle shape affected the acceleration of the rockets. It was found that, in contradiction to the investigators' initial hypothesis, the rocket with the smoothest nozzle shape did not have the greatest acceleration but rather that the nozzle with an s-shaped profile exhibited the highest launch acceleration.

Section V: Biomedical Science

249 Herty Hall

Joseph U. Igietseme, Presiding

8:30 A COMPARISON OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS THAT SEE A MEDICAL DOCTOR FOR AN ALLERGY CONDITION AND HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS THAT DO NOT, Amy Walthour (*), Don Davis, Sandra Medina, Adam O'Bryant and Michelle Swann, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. A comparison was made of penicillin, oxacillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and vancomycin resistance in Staph. aureus isolates in pharyngeal cultures from healthy individuals who see a physician for an allergy condition and healthy individuals who do not. Of 180 people tested in the USA and Mexico, 10 of 50 individuals who reported seeing a medical doctor for an allergy condition carried the target species. Twelve of 127 individuals that did not see a medical doctor for an allergy condition carried Staph. aureus. Using NCCLS Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests, Staph. aureus isolates were tested for penicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin resistance. T he null hypothesis, that there would be no significant difference in antibiotic resistance in the two populations, was refuted based on chi-square analysis. Additionally, PRSA, ERSA and ORSA were significantly higher in the allergy population. CRSA and VRSA were higher in the allergy population, but the difference was not statistically significant.

8:45 THE CORRELATION OF AGE WITH PHARYNGEAL CARRIAGE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCI AND STREPTOCOCCI; SHARED RESISTANCE PATTERNS IN ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM THE SAME INDIVIDUAL, Don Davis (1), Sandra Medinal (*), Amy Walthou (1), Adam O' Bryant (1) and Michelle Swann (2) and Carlos Blazquez (2), (1) Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144 and (2) University of Veracruz, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. This study observes the resistance patterns of Staphylococci and Streptococci to chloramphenicol, penicillin, erythromycin, oxacillin, and vancomycin using NCCLS Standards for Antimicrobial disk Susceptibility Tests. The null hypotheses tested are: 1) Age will have no effect on whether or not an individual carries antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis. 2) Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae from the same individual will not have similar resistance patterns. Healthy adults were sampled in Xalapa, Mexico and Kennesaw, GA. This provided a total of 99 adults [g reater than or equal to]29 years and 101 adults [less than or equal to] 30 years of age. Results showed significant differences in carriage of resistant Staphylococci in different age groups. There are not enough data for analysis of the shared resistance traits.

9:00 COMPARISON OF EXPRESSION OF EPITHELIAL SPECIFIC ANTIGEN IN EPIDERMAL CARCINOMAS AND BENIGN EPIDERMALLY-DERIVED HYPERPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS, Elsa George (*) and Wanda T Schroeder, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. Epithelial specific antigen (ESA) is a 40 kD cell surface glycoprotein typically expressed in normal epithelial cells and is associated with epithelial carcinomas. Studies have not previously been performed comparing the expression of this epithelial protein in epidermal carcinomas and benign hyperproliferative epidermal disorders. Comparison of ESA expression was performed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (IIF) with a monoclonal antibody, NCL-ESA, specific for the epithelial specific antigen protein. Frozen sections of normal human skin, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, skin tags and keloids were incubated with the NCL-ESA antibody, followed by detection with a biotin-avidin horseradish peroxidase-linked color detection system. These studies demonstrate the differenc es in expression of the ESA protein in epidermal carcinomas and benign epidermal hyperproliferative disorders.

9:15 P-GLYCOPROTEIN LEVELS IN HEPATIC LIVER CARCINOGENSIS, Olatunde Okediji and Yormica Truitt (*) , Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. The present study was designed to determine the levels of pgp in the livers of rats exposed to liver promoting dietary regimens, (orotic acid) and tumor promoting regimens containing PSC-833. The rats utilized in this experiment were exposed to a diet that contains a basal diet (BD) regimen for the controls and a 2nd group that was fed a diet with BD+OA (liver tumor promoting regimen) in their diet. The 3rd group of rats was exposed to PSC-833, an inhibitor of pgp, in addition to the BD+OA. In experiment 1, results showed that there significant difference in the amount of pgp in each of the 3 groups. The control group averaged 0.77 units of pgp, group 2 averaged 0.365 units and group 3 displayed an introduction of PSC-833 an inhibitor of pgp. It should be interesting whether increased pgp in the PSC group is functionally active.

9:30 THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF ALBUMEN AS A HYPOTHESIS FOR THE EVOLUTIONARY BENEFIT OF AVIAN EGG ROTATION, Deanna Boyd (*), Hilda Ndirangu, Paul Kabiru, Yetsa Adadevoh, Fadeyemi Adelakun, Stephanie Sullivan and Army Lester, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. The rotation of chicken egg is believed to prevent the sticking of the vascular membrane to the eggshell. This study hypothesizes that egg rotation may have evolved as a means of preventing microbial contamination by exposing the pathogens to the lysozyme of albumen. Albumen from fertilized eggs was removed and placed in tubes and contaminated with bacteria or fungi using saline as a control. After 0-14 days of incubation, the albumen was streaked and assessed for bacterial/fungal growth. Results indicated that albumen effectively inhibits the growth of both microbes. It is proposed that when the embryo floats in the albumen, microbes must access the embryos from directly above or encounter the inhibitory effects of albumen. Rotation change s the position of the egg while the position of the embryo inside the egg remains the same. Microbes that start to enter the egg in a direct path to the embryo find themselves in the path of the albumen when the egg is rotated. Thus, the embryo is protected. Student research supported by a grant from the GA Space Grant Consortium.

9:45 INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SUPPORTS SHELL-LESS CHICK DEVELOPMENT, Deanna Boyd, Hilda Ndirangu, Yetsa Adadevoh (*), Fadeyemi Adelakun, Paul Kabiru, Stephanie Sullivan and Army Lester, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Shell-less embryos cultured in 30% 02 survive longer than embryos cultured in air, but both show signs of severe dehydration. We hypothesize that a pressurized chamber will support early survivability and decrease dehydration of cultured embryos. Chick embryos were removed from the eggshell, placed in a clear plastic culture vessel, and cultured in a clear plastic pressurized chamber at 38[degrees]C with or without constant airflow. Embryos were monitored daily for survivability, growth, development, and gross abnormalities. Preliminary results indicate that increased atmospheric pressure increases the early survival, growth and development of shell-less embryos with no increase in gross abnormalities. Constant airflow over the embryos led to rapid dehydration and early mort ality even when constant pressure was maintained. Embryos cultured in the presence of no airflow showed little evidence of dehydration. Student research supported by a grant from the GA Space Grant Consortium.

10:00 SECTION BUSINESS MEETING

10:30 A NUMERICAL SCHEME FOR A DUAL-SORPTION MODEL OF PERCUTANEOUS DRUG ABSORPTION, Kale Oyedej (1) and Ronald E. Mickens (2), (1) Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA 30314 and (2) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. A Nonstandard discrete model is constructed for the partial differential equation modeling pharmacokinetic profiles in percutaneous drug absorption. This work generalizes the previous study by Gumel, et. al. and extends to all PDE's taking the form [u.sub.t] = f(u)[u.sub.xx] (1) where f(u) is a given function of u. The major constraint used to obtain the finite difference scheme is the imposition of a positivity condition, i.e. if the numerical solution is non-negative at discrete time [t.sub.k] = K[DELTA]t, then the solution computed at [t.sub.k+1] must also be non-negative. The proposed scheme is explicit, thus allowing for ease of implementation, and also provides a direct functional relationship between the space and time step-sizes. To illustrate the use of this scheme, we carry out the numerical integration for the case of a "delta function" initial distribution.

10:45 GENDER IS A MAJOR FACTOR IN DETERMINING THE SEVERITY OF MYCOPLASMA RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN MICE, Anthony L. Yancey, Harold L. Watson, Sam C. Cartner and Jerry W Simecka, Department of Microbiology and Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN and Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science, Fort Worth, TX. Gender is a significant factor in determining the susceptibility to and severity of pulmonary diseases in both humans and animals. Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM), due to Mycoplasma pulmonis infection, is an excellent animal model for evaluation of the role various host factors on the development of acute or chronic inflammatory lung diseases. MRM has many similarities to mycoplasma respiratory disease in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether gender has a significant impact on lung disease due to M. pulmonis infection in mice. It was demonstrated that male mice consistently developed more severe disease in the lung parenchyma than did female mice. There was no gender difference in disease severity along the airways or any difference in mycoplasma numbers in lungs of male and female mice. Furthermore, surgical removal of reproductive organs reduced the severity of mycoplasma disease and the numbers of mycoplasma organism recovered from lungs. Thus, gender plays a significant role in determining the severity of M. pulmonis disease. In fact, the gender of the host was a major factor in determining whether an acute or chronic inflammatory lung disease developed after infection with M. pulmon is.

11:00 IMMUNOLOGIC REQUIREMENTS FOR CHLAMYDIAL VACCINE, Joseph U. Igietseme (1,3), Tern Moore (1), Quin He (1), LuCinda Macmillan (1), Godwin Ananaba (2) Deborah Lyn (1), Francis Eko (1) and Carolyn Black (3), (1) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, (2) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA and (3) NCID/ CDC, Atlanta, GA. To define the immunologic basis for the potency of a potentially efficacious chlamydial vaccine, we analyzed a surrogate mouse model of the genital infection. In this model, an IL-lOKO dendritic cell (DC)-based cellular vaccine confers a sterilizing, long-term protective immunity while two subunit vaccines (a MOMP-ISCOMS prep and Vibrio cholerae ghosts expressing MOMP) induce a partial, short-term protection. The ability to confer protection correlates with the induction of genital mucosal Th1 response. The DC-based regimen induced a greater (~ 5-fold) Th1 response than the M-ISCOMS vaccine. Even at 200 days post immunization, the frequency of specific Th1 cells in the recipients of M- ISCOMS were essentially reduced to the baseline naive mouse level; however, recipients of the DC-based cellular vaccine retained a relatively high Th1 response. The long-term protection from genital infection induced by the DC-based vaccine was associated with the preservation of high frequency of Th1 cells, marked by the presence in the genital mucosa of monomuclear cells bearing the alphaL/beta2, alpha4/belal, and alpha4/beta7 integrins, and specific antibodies, especially IgG2a. Finally, the dominant role of the Th1 cytokine, IFN-gamma, in protective anti-chlamydial immunity was revealed by the finding that the highly efficacious immune T cells from IL-lOKO DC-based vaccine immunized animals were ineffective in protecting IFN-gamma receptor knockout mice from the acute disease of genital chlamydial infection.

Section VI: Philosophy & History of Science

209 Herty Hall

Tom McMullen, Presiding

8:00 FROM SCIENTIST TO NOVELIST: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MOTIVE FOR C.P. SNOW'S CAREER CHANGE, Steve Whittle, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA. C.P. Snow was a British Scholar noted for accomplishments in both science and literature. During the time period 1928-1935, Snow functioned as both scientist and novelist, carrying out out research in the pioneering field of spectroscopy and publishing his first three novels. In 1935, Snow left a controversial career as research scientist at Cambridge University and continued writing, publishing numerous commercially successful novels. The purpose of this study is to determine Snow's motive for leaving science to pursue writing. Based on an analysis of what other scholars have reported about this issue, an examination of Snow's research record, and relevant biographical factors, it can be concluded that Snow did not leave science as a fesult of failure as a researcher, but rather because he foresaw greater opportunity for fame as a novelist.

8:30 MOSAIC OF A TRAVEL ACCOUNT, Michael G. Noll, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Prince Maximilian of Wied, a German explorer and naturalist, came to the United States in 1832 to study its natural history and indigenous population. Upon his return to Germany in 1834 Maximilian began the analysis of his North American experience which culminated in the two-volume Reise in das Innere Nordamerika (1839-41). Through the years numerous publications have celebrated aspects of Prince Maximilian's travel accounts and have praised his "meticulous observations" which were said to be characterized by "unreserved objectivity." However, this paper will demonstrate that the Maximilian report is much more than a simple arrangement of factual information. Instead, like almost all writing, his narrated landscapes present an interpolation of a variety of competing discourses. My deconstruction of Prince Maximilian's America reveals three significant aspects of a travel account, his Linnaean, Strategic and Ideo logical Landscapes.

9:00 GALILEO'S TWO TRIALS, Emerson Thomas McMullen, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30458. The events behind Galileo's forced recantation are not simple, but complex. He had shown that Ptolemy's system of epicycles, eccentrics and equants was wrong, but not that Copernicus' combinations of epicycles and eccentrics was right. Galileo's scientific proof (the tides) that the earth moves was incorrect. On the other hand, the most accurate parallax measurements of the day, including telescopic ones, indicated that the earth was not going around the sun. These results not only supported the Aristotelian and Thomistic thought taught in the universities, but also the geocentric planetary system proposed by Tycho Brahe. Galileo's scriptural interpretations, coming as they did during the heightened religious tensions of the Reformation, were untimely and not appreciated by Catholic theologians and authorities. Galileo's 1616 trial resulted in Cardinal Bellarmine's injunction that Galileo later violated. Ne vertheless, there is evidence that his public ridiculing of the Pope was the root cause of the verdict at his second trial.

9:30 THE YELLOW JESSAMINE (GELSEMIUM SEMPERVIRENS): ITS POLLINATORS, ITS COLLECTORS AND ITS TAXONOMIC HISTORY, George A. Rogers (1), and Daniel V. Hagan (2), Department of History and (2)Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Field work has identified two pollinators of G. sempervirens: a sulphur butterfly and a spider. The means will be traced by which specimens collected in colonial America, often accompanied by drawings and comments that reached European botanists, and the process by which the vine acquired its scientific name will be described. Commentary on illustrations will be made.

10:00 BREAK AND SECTION MEETING

10:30 JOHN S. COGDELL AND HIS BUSTS OF STEPHEN ELLIOTT, Vivian Rogers-Price (1) and George A. Rogers (2), (1.) The Mighty Eighth Air Force Heritage Museum, Savannah, GA 31402 and (2.) Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. By his death in 1830, Stephen Elliott's activities had extended into the cultural, literary, and artistic affairs of Charleston, SC, and his fame as a botanist had spread through the United States and into the European scientific community. John S. Cogdell, artist and sculptor of Charleston, preserved Elliott's likeness in a face mask from which he sculpted two or perhaps three busts of Elliott. Cogdell's connection with the Elliott family, the Medical College in Charleston, and Washington Allston will be examined to trace the subsequent history of the Elliott busts.

11:00 "BEAUTIFUL BLUE CURLS" (TRICHOSTEMA DICHOTONUM& T SETACEUM HOUTTUYN): A TAXANOMIC HISTORY, Diane M. Zimmerman (1), Cynthia J. Frost (2), George A. Rogers (3) and Frankie Snow (4), (1.) Botanical Garden, (2.) Henderson Library, (3.) Department of History, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 and (4.) Div. of Natural Sciences & Mathematics, South Georgia College, Douglas, GA 31533. Both species of "Blue Curls" occur at Broxton Rocks Ecological Preserve (GA) and elsewhere. The Georgia Southern Botanical Garden encourages their use and assembles their taxonomic history. The processes by which specimens collected in colonial America reached Europe and then were named by Linnaeus, Houttuyn and others are traced. The planned use at the Garden is described.

11:30 THE FOUNDING OF THE SOUTH GEORGIA SUB-SECTION/SOUTHWEST GEORGIA SECTION OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Jack Steele, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. It has been twenty years since the founding of the Southwest Georgia section of the American Chemical Society (ASC). This section came into being from the South Georgia Subsection of the Georgia Section. The Subsection was created due to the need for local interaction and the distance involved in travel to meetings in Atlanta. The article identifies the various individuals that made this change possible. In the final analysis, the successful formation of the section may have been due more to fortuitous circumstances than anything else.

Section VII: Science Education

Cathy MacGowan, Presiding

Room 370, Arts and Sci

9:00 AT-HOME ACTIVITIES FOR ONLINE PHYSICAL SCIENCE CLASSES, John M. Stanford, Mariam W. Dittmann, William H. Lahaise, Ulrike Lahaise and Miachael L. Denniston, Georgia Perimeter College, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. Laboratory exercises are difficult to arrange for online science courses, but activities conducted out at home offer the opportunity to allow the student to gain "hands-on" experience. We present a number of at-home activities designed for use in an online Physical Science course. These activities, aimed at students with minimal science background, utilize easily obtained materials to conduct safe, unsupervised demonstrations of physical principles. Activities designed so far explore simple concepts of measurement, free fall, circular motion, pressure, fluid flow, buoyancy, transverse and longitudinal waves, standing waves, resonance, interference, refraction, dispersion, static electricity, and electrical circuits.

9:15 EMISSION SPECTRUM GIVEN OFF BY AN ASTRONOMY STUDENT, Donna J. Mullenax, Armstrong Atlantic State university, Savannah, GA 31419. The astronomy curriculum at Armstrong Atlantic State University has been changed as a result of the type of students taking the courses and the knowledge they have before and after the class. Most education majors are required to take an upper level science course, and may took ASTR 3100. Unfortunately, this course did not provide the students with the needed information because only stellar astronomy was taught. It was discovered that the students would enter the course not knowing the nine major planets, why we have seasons, and the comparative sizes of the Earth, Moon, and Sun, among other topics. At the end of the semester, the students would still not have learned this material because it was not covered in this course. Many of these same students would then enter a classroom to teach astronomy to elementary students and not know the material themselves. After changing the astronomy curriculum such that three astronomy courses were offered: 2 two-semester sequence introductory courses (ASTR 1010 and 1020) and 1 one-semester upper level course (ASTR 3000). ASTR 3000 would be upper level in number only and would cover solar and stellar astronomy. This provided us with a way to present the necessary material for the future teachers. Now the students still enter the courses with the same misconceptions and wrong ideas, but leave knowing the nine planets, why there are seasons, and that the Moon is smaller than the Sun.

9:30 TEACHING STUDENTS ABOUT ENGINE EFFICIENCY, Richard Summers, Reinhardt College, Waleska, GA 30183. Students in college physics classes were first taken through a unit on the second law of thermodynamics and engine efficiency. Afterwards, they were asked to complete a questionnaire asking what they considered to be a reasonable value of engine efficiency for an actual automobile engine and what factors contribute to efficiency. Subsequently, the students were asked to drive their cars, estimate the work done to keep the car traveling at constant speed, calculate the heat generated by multiplication of heat of conbustion by amount of gas used and, finally, calculate the efficiency as work done divided by heat input. Students are then given another questionnaire on engine efficiency. The lab has a very marked effect on student perception about this topic.

9:45 CALORIMETRY: A 'SYSTEM'-ATIC APPROACH, Roy C. Wood, Armstront Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. Current physics textbook presentations of calorimetry talk about heat, but leave out work and internal energy, and their relation to the First Law of Thermodynamics (ELT). Textbooks always write Q = mc[DELTA]T (assuming no phase change) but this is not always true. It will be argued that the correct statement should be = mc[DELTA}T. Then, the FLT gives, W = [DELTA][U.sub.sys], Q = [DELTA][U.sub.sys], or 0 = [DELTA][U.sub.sys], depending on the choice of system.

10:00 SECTION BUSINESS MEETING

10:30 BRINGING "GREEN CHEMISTRY" TO ORGANIC INSTRUCTIONAL LABORATORIES, Gary G. Stroebel and Richard S. Jones, Augusta State University, Agusta, GA 30904. As part of our continuing efforts to reduce lab waste, as well as to model an important new trend in the chemical manufacturing industry, we have developed instructional experiments which feature: molecular recycling, electrophilic aromatic substitution in aqueous media, and the air oxidation of an aromatic hydrocarbon as a key part of a "closed-loop" of six redox experiments. We have shown the efficacy of this approach to organic synthesis instruction, and to a broadened view of the role of synthetic organic chemistry in today's world. Examples will be discussed, and copies of tested experimental procedures will be available.

10:45 SHOULD BUSINESS REFORM SCIENCE EDUCATION IN GEORGIA? John V. Aliff, Georgia Perimeter College, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. Into the "quality of public schools" issue step politicians with quick fixes - "proven" business practices rejected by experts Peter Drucker (Management by Objectives) and W.E. Deming (Quality Management). They are: 1) Determine product quality by inspection - hence, compare school quality by testing teachers and students. Deming opposed maintaining quality by inspection, instead focusing on design. 2) Assume that the quality of the product is not due to defective design, but due to incompetent personnel. Deming rejected making personnel the focus of problem solving. 3) Make schools authority oriented systems in which, paraphrasing Drucker, teachers are treated as unskilled production line workers with little autonomy or pay. 4) Apply a narrow focus on goals. In this case, they are economic. Public education has the long established purpose of educating citizens. Corporate America is c oncerned about the Math, Science and English skills of their prospective workers. An account of the recent history of educational reform led by business interests in Georgia will be presented.

Section IX: Genetics Society Of Georgia

Brice D. Ostrow, presiding

252 Herty Hall

8:00 The PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM PEBL PROTEIN AND PLASMODIUM REICHENOWI HOMOLOGUE, A RECENT EVOLUTIONARY DIVERGENCE, Michael Dillard (1)(*), Julian Rayner (2) and John W Barn well (2), (1) Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA and (2) NCID, CDC, Chamblee, GA 30341. DNA 1.5kB fragments towards the 5' end of the Plasmodium reichenowi PEBL gene were amplified using the primers 5-gatGTGGTTTATGTACATAC-3 and 5catATAATGCATTATTCTCAATC-3 utilizing High Fidelity PCR (Roche). The DNA fragments were restricted, purified, and subcloned into the pCR Script Amp SK(+) cloning vector (Stratagene). A BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing v2.O Ready Reaction Kit (ABI Prism) was used to sequence P reichenow PEBL DNA on a 3100 Genetic Analyzer (ABI Prism). P. reichenowi PEBL gene sequence was analyzed and compared to P. falciparum PEBL using MacVector 6.5 DNA/Protein analysis software (Oxford Molecular).

8:15 TRANSCRIPTION-COUPLED REPAIR OF UV-INDUCED DAMAGE IN THE EXTREMELY HALOPHILIC ARCHAEON, HALOBACTERIUM SP. NRC-1, Jarrod E. Dumpe (*) and David J. Crowley, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. Exposure of cells to ultraviolet light (UV) results in damage to their genome, mutations, and cell death. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) occurs in the Bacteria and Eukarya and is responsible for repair of UV damage as well as other DNA lesions. Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a sub-pathway of NER that results in faster repair of lesions in the template strand of an actively transcribed gene. TCR occurs in several bacterial and eukaryotic species and we seek to determine whether it occurs in the Archaea, an evolutionarily distinct domain of prokaryotes. We use the halphilic archaeon Halobacterium NRC-1 to measure the rate of repair of UV-induced damage in the two strands of the rpoB'B"AC operon. We are quantifying repair of the induced damage over time through the use of fluorescent strand-specific RNA probes and a n imaging system. Preliminary results indicate that repair of pyrimidine dimers does occur in Halobacterium. Evidence of an increased rate of repair in the transcribed strand of the rpo B'B"AC operon would be the first documented evidence of TCR in the Archaea. This result would imply that the Archaea employ a unique mechanism for TCR in which a eukaryotic-like RNA polymerase is coupled to bacterial NER homologs to complete the process.

8:30 ROLE OF THE RAD51/recA HOMOLOG radA IN UV-INDUCIBLE RESPONSES IN THE HALOPHILIC ARCHAEON, HALOFERAX VOLCANII, Lucy E. Davis (*) and David J. Crowley, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. Exposure of cells to ultraviolet light (UV) results in DNA damage, induction of mutations, and cell death. While research on DNA repair has been conducted with species ranging from bacteria to humans, little is known about these processes in the volutionarily distinct domain of prokaryotes called the Archaea. In Escherichia coli, the RecA gene is UV-inducible and required for the induction of the SOS response. Non-lethal doses of UV induce recA, activating SOS-regulated repair proteins that provide an enhanced UV-resistance when the cells are challenged with subsequent lethal doses. We study the extremely halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volanii, known to possess the ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage. We use the wild type strain WFD11 and its derivative, DS52, which lacks the radA gene, an archaeal member of the recA/RAD51 family of recombinases. We are investigating the response of radA to UV treatment and its role, if any, in regulating cellular responses to UV. We predict that pre-irradiated WFD11 cells will show an enhanced UV-resistance compared to DS52 cells receiving the same treatment. This result would demonstrate a role for radA in the UV-tolerance and repair systems of H. volcanii.

8:45 ISOLATION AND GENETIC ANALYSES OF COPPER UTILIZATION MUTANTS OFSACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, Joshua A. Fields (*) and Brian W. Schwartz, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. Although copper is essential as a trace element in yeast and other organisms, it is toxic in high concentrations. Therefore, elaborate mechanisms for establishing andmaintaining copper homeostasis have evolved. Several mutants defective in copper transport, distribution, and detoxification have been identified, demonstrating the utility of yeast as a model system for studies of copper homeostasis. To further characterize genetic mechanisms of copper homeostasis in yeast, we have isolated five new mutants that show various abnormalities when grown in the presence of copper. Four mutants develop abnormal colors ranging from tan to dark brown and are slightly to moderately sensitive to copper. Another mutant shows not growth at all in the presence of 1 mM copper. We are currently carrying out genetic crosses to determine modes of inheritance and allelic relationships among the new mutants. We are also further characterizing their phenotypes by growing the mutants in the presence of various concentrations of copper and other metals.

9:00 Break

9:30 ANALYSIS OF THE OSMOTIC-SENSITIVE MUTANTS, OS-9 (ALLELE SS-462) AND OS-l1 (ALLELE SS-18) OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA, DeWayne L. Adams (*), Sara Neville Bennett and Wayne A. Krissinger, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Osmotic-sensitive mutants of N. crassa are identified by their failure to grow on medium with elevated concentrations (4% or 6%) of NaCl. The degree of osmotic sensitivity of mutants isolated in our laboratory was compared to that of previously described osmotic mutants. On medium supplemented with NaCl, os-8, os-9, and os-1l were similar to the os-1 control. However, both os-9 and os-11 grew similarly to the wild type control when the media were supplemented with KCl or glucose. In order to obtain revertants of the os-9 and os-11 loci, both strains were crossed to the auxotrophic mutant trp-l, and double mutants from each cross were recovered. Presence of the trp-1 marker would assure that putative revertants were not wild type contaminants. Following UV irradiation and selecti on on complete medium with 6% NaCl, 51 and 47 putative revertants were recovered from os-9 and os-11, respectively.

9:45 ANALYSIS OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL MUTANT, CRISP-5, OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA, Heather Cathcart (*), Wayne A. Krissinger and Sara N. Bennett, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. The crisp-5 (cr-5) mutant (allele 123 CJ13-6A) of Neurospora crassa was isolated in the Georgia Southern Neurospora Laboratory. Results of reciprocal crosses of cr-5 and a pro-1 ad-4 marker strain support the gene order pro-1 ad-4 cr-5 with 17% to 19.6% recombination between pro-1 and ad-4 and 1.3% to 5% recombination between ad-4 and cr-5. Both cr-5 and wild type 74A were grown on minimal medium in which the carbon source was 2% sucrose, 2% glucose, 2% fructose, 2% lactose, 2% mannitol, 2% glycerol, or 2% sorbose. The cr-5 mutant grew better on glucose and fructose separately than it did no sucrose alone. Both the mutant and wild type grew very poorly on lactose, mannitol, and glycerol. Neither strain tested grew on sorbose as the sole carbon source. Observations utilizing SEM indicated that, compared to wild type 74, cr-5 has a reduced mycelium containing clusters of conidia formed by highly branched conidiophores carried on short aerial hyphae.

10:00 SECTION BUSINESS MEETING

10:30 OCCURRENCE AND GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-FERTILIZATION IN THE HOMOSPOROUS FERN CERATOPTERIS RICHARDII (C-FERN), Brian W Schwartz, Jacklon L. Morris, and Samandra T Demons, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. The C-Fern life cycle includes a diploid sporophyte phase alternating with a haploid gametophyte phase. Gametophytes occur in two sexes, hermaphrodites and males. Hermaphrodites can reproduce by self-fertilization, or they can engage in outcrossing by receiving sperm from a male or another hermaphrodite. Self-fertilization of a haploid hermaphrodite brings all gene pairs to homozygosity in a single generation with potentially harmful consequences for the diploid offspring. We have constructed artificial populations having various combinations of hermaphrodites and males to assess the occurrence and genetic consequences of self-fertilization. Preliminary results indicate that self-fertilization occurs at only a low frequency in young hermaphrodites. The presence of males and, to a lesse r extent, other hermaphrodites promotes out-crossing. We are currently testing the ability of older hermaphrodites to self-fertilize and the concequences of self-fertilization to progeny sporophytes.

11:00 THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER MUTATION PKN [DELOREAN] AFFECTS WING MORPHOLOGY AND MALE FERTILITY, Bruce D. Ostrow, Oxford College of Emory University, Oxford, GA 30054. We have isolated a recessive mutation named delorean. Flies with the delorean mutation have wings that stand up from the thorax and curve down, much like the open doors of a Delorean car. The phenotype also manifests itself in mechanosensory bristles of the anterior wiing margins. Furthermore, delorean males are sterile because they do not successfully complete the courtship behaviour. The delorian phenotype appears only when the mutation is homozygous; hemizygous flies are wild-type. delorian is caused by a P-element insertion in the first intron of the protein kinase N (PKN) gene. PKN is a protein required in dorsal closure of embryogenesis and shows homology to protein kinase C. Results from RT-PCR experiments indicate that in delorian flies the normal PKN transcript is present but in greatly reduced amounts, and a novel transcript is s ynthesised. Thus the delorean phenotype appears to be due to a recessive gain-of-function allele of PKN, designated [PKN.sup.delorean].

POSTERS

OPTIMIZATION OF GENE TRANSFER AND REGENERATION PARAMETERS TO PRODUCE TRANSGENIC SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA, K. Jackson, T. Palmer, W. Palefsky, T. Kobbs and C. Franklin, Department of Biology, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Extensive regions of the wetland ecosystems in the eastern and gulf coasts of the U.S. are dominated by smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. An efficient regeneration system and a gene transfer system are being developed for future genetic manipulations to produce transgenic S. alterniflora plants, which may be used as biosensors for heavy metal contamination in salt marshes. In this report, the influence of various auxin/ cytokinin concentrations and modifications of nitrogen content on the induction of regnerable callus from different explants, and various factors controlling particle bombardment mediated DNA transfer to S. alterniflora are presented. Results indicate that lack of ammonium and high cytokinin levels promote callus induction from young shoot explants of S. a lterniflora, and that gene transfer to fleshy young shoots and meristematic tissues of S. alterniflora can be achieved via particle bombardment-mediated DNA transfer.

DESCRIPTION OF MORPHOLOGY OF M-134, A CRISP-LIKE MUTANT OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA, Gregory Julian Digby, Wayne A. Krissinger and Sara Neville Bennett, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. The N. crassa mutant, M-134, was isolated in the Georgia Southern Neurospora Genetics Laboratory following UV irradiation. This mutant has a reduced mycelium and conidiates prematurely and profusely, thus resembling the described morphological crisp mutants of N. crassa. M-134 was mapped to Linkage Group I, linked to lys-4. Scanning electron microscopy is being used to more thoroughly examine the morphology of M-134 and to compare it to that of the wild type 74 strain. Both M-134 and 74 are grown on dialysis tubing which has been dipped in minimal medium and placed in petri dishes containing minimal medium. Following growth, the specimens are fixed, dehydrated, sputter coated with gold palladium and viewed with a ISI DS 30 scanning electron microscope. SEM photographs of M-134 will be compared to those of wild type 74.

((*.) Denotes Student Presentation)
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Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 22, 2002
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