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Saturday paper presentations.

Section I: Biological Sciences

104 Lawson

Karen E. Franci, Presiding

9:15: IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF NHE2, NA+/K+-ATPASE, AND V-H+ATPASE IN A MARINE TELEOST, MYOXOCEPHALUS OCTODECIMSPINOSUS, Justin S. Catches and James B. Claiborne, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Transepithelial movement of acidbase relevant ions across the gill is essential for maintenance of pH and, accordingly, metabolic flux. Three transporters responsible for this balance, sodium/ hydrogen exchanger (NHE2), sodium pump (Na+/K+-TAPase), and electrogenicvacuolar proton pump (V-H+-ATPase), have been identified in the long-horned sculpin using immunohistochemical staining. Sculpin were caught in Frenchman's Bay, Maine and gill tissue samples were fixed, sectioned (7pm) and stained with antibodies against NHE2, Na+/K+-TAPase and V-H+-ATPase Multiple cells demonstrate diffuse staining of NHE2 in the epithelial layer of the interlamellar region. Proton pump appears less frequently at the base of lamellae. Multiple cells show diffuse staining of sodium pump, with possible co-localization with NHE 2. Future studies will determine antibody co-localization and if NHE2 is up-regulated during metabolic acidosis.

9:30: DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF CHEMOKINES BY CHLAMYDIA-INFECTED EPITHELIAL CELLS, G. Ananaba (1), C. McFarland (1), Gentry (1), E. Okwandu (2), Y Ogunkoya (1), FE. Eko (2), K. Rame (2), L. McMillan (2), T. Moore (2) and J.U. Igietseme (2), CCRT, Clark Atlanta University', Atlanta, GA 30314 and Morehouse School of Medicine (2), Atlanta, GA 30310. Chlamydial infection causes numerous oculo-genital and respiratory infections in both the industrialized and developing nations. Depending on the route of acquisition, Chlamydia infects the resident epithelial cells to cause diseases with different manifestations in these locations. Specific cytokines and chemokines are elaborated by resident epithelial cells after chiamydial infection and the expression profile of these molecules may influence the disease outcome. Using cervical and pulmonary epithelial cell lines, we analyzed the cytokine and chemokine profiles of infected epithelial cells from different anatomical locations that are portals of entry for chlamydi a. We observed differential stimulation of RANTES and MCP1 in the cervical and pulmonary cell lines. The results suggest that the activity of resident epithelial cells at the route of infection may influence the course of the infection as well as the elicited local immune response against Chiamydia.

9:45: TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE DIVERSITY REVEALED BY LONG TERM DRIFT FENCE STUDIES IN SOUTHWEST GEORGIA, Bob Herrington, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 31709. Drift fences equipped with buried bucket and funnel traps are frequently used to assess the diversity of amphibians, reptiles and small mammals of a particular area. This study examines trapping data collected over a five-year period (1995-2000) in Marion County, Georgia. The greatest number of species of amphibians (77.3%), reptiles (57.1%) and small mammals (66.7%) were recorded during the first year. However, new species were trapped with each additional year of effort. The total number of species recorded for the first time during the second, third, fourth and fifth years were 8, 7, 1 and 5, respectively. The data indicate that short-term drift fence studies may fail to adequately represent the species composition of the study area.

10:00: Section Business Meeting

11:00: TRAIL FOLLOWING BEHAVIOR OF SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES IN SOUTH GEORGIA: IN SEARCH FOR ECOLOGICALLY SOUND STRATEGIES FOR TERMITE CONTROL, William A. Said, Marsha R. Dyer, K. Chase Altman, Gwen L. Oglesby, Lesha T Blount and Daniel A. McMaster, Brewton-Parker College, Mount Vernon, GA 30445. Subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes are the most economically important pests in Georgia; yet, little attention has been given to their behavior and field ecology. It has been known that termites follow odor trails that serve mainly for nest preparing and mass foraging. This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the efficiency of ballpoint ink as a termite trail-following substance. Reticulitermes flavipes termites were collected from the Brewton-Parker College's woodlands, Montgomery County, GA, and were used within two weeks of collection. The effect of laboratory maintenance, trail shape, cold stress, termite staining with lipophilic dyes, and antennae amputation on trail-following behavior were ex amined. A Reticulitermes termite worker can still orient itself along a trail with only one antenna, after exposure to short-term cold shocks, and after staining with the lipophilic dye, Sudan Red.

11:15: HYDRIDIZATION WITH WOODHOUSE'S TOAD, BUFO WOODHOUSII, AND INTROGRESSION IN ARIZONA TOADS, BUFO MICROSCAPHUS, ALONG THE BEAVER DAM WASH IN SOUTHWESTERN UTAH, Terry D. Schwaner, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. Bufo microscaphus and B. woodhousii are reported to hybridize along the Virgin River in southwestern Utah, based on morphology and sonograms of breeding males. I took toe-clips from toads at four sites in the Beaver Dam Wash, at its junction with the Virgin River to its origin in spring-fed headwaters 100 km upstream. I detected hybrids from isozyme patterns for marker alleles at the AAT locus. I determined parentage of toads by amplifying the mitochondrial 16S rRNA locus from genomic DNA, restricting the PCR product with Tsp5091, and viewing marker restriction fragment patterns on agarose gels. The junction location is a hybrid swarm and hybrids backcross less frequently to B. woodhousii than to the more common B. microscaphus. Mitochondrial markers for B. woodhousii in B. microscaphus populations upstream from the junction are evidence for introgression.

11:30: TAXONOMY AND CLASSIFICATION OF AN UN-DESCRIBED SPECIES OF HETEROSTERNUTA (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE), G. William Wolfe and E.H. Barman, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. An enigmatic un-described species of Heterostermuta is illustrated. Character states associated with the aedeagus suggest a close relationship with H. pulcher (LeConte). Four species groups are recognized for the 13 species currently placed in Heterostermuta: H. wickami group, H. ohionis group, H. laetus group, and H. pulcher group. Several species are difficult to place: H. alleghenianus and H. diversicornis.

POSTERS

COMPARISON OF PROPRIETARY AND STANDARD BAIT FORMULATIONS FOR ATTRACTING THE YELLOW JACKET (HYMENOPTERA: VESPIDAE), Ashley Beasley, Pamela Bell and Jimmy Wedincamp Jr., East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401. Comparisons of bait formulations were conducted in order to develop environmentally safe and effective baits for the yellow jacket. We utilized the randomized block design to compare proprietary and standard bait formulations. Individual traps were placed at 10 to 15 ft intervals and 4 to 5 ft above the ground. The trapping location was located at the East Georgia College Nature Trail in Emanuel County, Georgia. Yellow jackets were removed from the traps and identified to species level. We found statistical differences in the number of yellow jackets trapped when we compared proprietary lure formulations among themselves. However, when we compared the standard baits to the proprietary lures our preliminary data suggests that the standard baits attracted statistically more yellow jackets.

SEASONAL CHANGES IN THE PHYTOPLANKTON OF LAKE LOUISE, PR. Jones, S. W Burroughs, TEE. Nienow and J.A. Nienow, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. We began monitoring the phytoplankton of Lake Louise on a regular basis beginning May of 2002. 25-ml samples taken at 20-cm intervals for the first 2 meters and 500-mI samples taken at 1-mi intervals from the surface to a depth of 5 meters were preserved with Lugol's iodine, concentrated by settling, and examined by light microscopy. Particle size distributions in the 500-ml samples were determined using SALD. Additional samples were collected at 1-in intervals for chlorophyll analysis and for the examination of live material. Vertical profiles of light, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity were also measured. The lake was stratified throughout the summer, with the boundary between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion at a depth of 1 to 2 meters. The epilimnion was dominated initially by a bloom of Anabaena cf. planktonica. However, the chloroph yll maximum occurred below 2.5 meters, at a light level less than 0.01% of incident. Major phytoplankters at this depth included members of Oscillatoria, Microcystis, and Scenedesmus. All populations decreased dramatically by fall.

EXAMINATION OF A GOPHER TORTOISE COLONY ON A PROPOSED BUILDING SITE IN EMANUEL COUNTY, Jody Underwood (1), James McRaken Jr. (2) and Jimmy Wedincamp Jr. (1), QORE Property Sciences (2), Greenville, SC and East Georgia College (1), Swainsboro, GA 30401. A study was performed to examine and describe the status of a Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) colony at the site of a proposed technology park adjacent to the East Georgia College Campus in Emanuel County, Georgia. We recorded 42 tortoise burrows of which 13 were actively used. Additionally, height and width burrow entrance measurements of the active burrows suggest a population consisting of sub-adults and adults. This may suggest that reproduction is occurring in this colony.

QUANTITATIVELY ASSESSING THE ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF CRUDE ONION JUICE AGAINST EPIPHYTIC BACTERIA OF CERTAIN VEGETABLES, Jason Sanders, Chase Altman, Marsha Dyer, Courtney Purvis Alissa Vogt and William Said, Brewton-Parker College, Mount Vernon, GA 30445. Antimicrobial activities of crude juice of Sweet Vidalia Onion, Allium cepa against epiphytic bacteria of broccoli, celery, and cucumber were quantitatively assessed. The standard plate count technique was employed to estimate the epiphytic bacteria population. Percentage reduction of population of epiphytic bacteria as a result of exposure to crude onion juice at (1:1 vol./vol.) for 15 minutes ranged between 65 and 81. The lethal time required to kill 50% of epiphytic bacteria of broccoli (LT50 value) was estimated at 11.4 minutes.

SPIROPLASMA BACTERIA OF COSTA RICAN HORSEFLIES, Amy C. Gray and Frank E. French, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. A total of 64 cultures of Spiroplasma were isolated from 100 flies (Tabanidae) in Costa Rica, representing 19 species distributed in 6 genera of Tabanidae. Isolates were dilution cloned and/or serocloned, then serologically tested for deformation by antibodies. Ten isolates were triply-cloned and prepared for antibody production and subsequent genomic analysis. A total of 31 isolates were identified by serology, including representatives of 5 U.S. species and 10 putative new species known only from Costa Rica.

GROWTH KINETICS AND CHROMIUM REDUCTION POTENTIAL IN BACILLUS SPHAERICUS CELLS GROWN IN SUSPENSION CULTURE, Shakeema Griffin (1) Bibekananda Mohanty (1) and Ben Oni (2), Paine College (1), Augusta, GA 30901 and Tuskegee University (2), Tuskegee, AL 36088. Bacillus sphaericus 2362 cells were grown in a liquid fermentation medium. Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) was added to the culture aseptically at the time of inoculation. The growth kinetics of cells showed rapid growth up to 24 hours followed by a stationary phase between 24 and 32 hours and a slight decline in growth rate towards 48 hours. The biomass of cells in 5 or 10 ppm Cr-VI treatment was found to be essentially same to that of control, whereas, there was s significant decrease in biomass of cells in 15 ppm treatment. The rate of Cr-VI reduction by the bacteria was found to be in an increasing order: 5 ppm > 10 ppm > 15 ppm. Chromium monitoring studies indicated higher amounts of Cr-VI (25, 30 and 45 ppm) could be reduced by the bacteria if the amount is provided at successive intervals. B. sphaericus grown with 5, 10 or 15 mM nitrate in fermentation medium showed similar Cr-VI reduction rate as compared to control. Supported by NASA/PAIR of Tuskegee University, Alabama.

ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND IMPORTANCE VALUES OF FOUR TREE SPECIES IN THE MARGARET & LUKE PETTIT ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVE, Eric M. Johnson, Shannon B. Cutler, Heather D. Sutton and Paula C. Jackson, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. In order to gather baseline data for a newly formed environmental preserve in Bartow Co. Georgia, a vegetative analysis was performed. Spatial distribution and importance values were determined for four tree species in a second growth forest area. The trees studied were loblolly pine (Pin us taeda), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), red maple (Acer rubum) and blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica). A total of eight 50 m transects were run. Transects were established every 20 m at increasing distances from a small lake, up to 140 m away from the lake. Three quadrats of 10 x 10 m were laid out at random points along each transect. The initial results indicate that the total number of species increased with distance from the lake up to the 40 m transect, and then started to decrease. The relative densities of both pine species and of black gum trees increased with distance from the lake, whereas the relative density of red maples decreased with increasing distance from the lake.

PKI RESTORES MOTILITY TO CHALMYDOMONAS CELLS DEFECTIVE IN A FLAGELLAR AKAP, J. Rhea, A.R. Gaillard and W.S. Sale, North Georgia College and State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. Genetic and biochemical studies in Chlamydomonas have revealed that a protein in the Chlamydomonas flagellar axoneme, radial spoke protein 3 (Rsp3), is an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). To determine if the PKA-anchoring properties of Rsp3 are required for normal flagellar motility, pfl4, an Rsp3 mutant that lacks radial spokes and has paralyzed flagella, was transformed with an Rsp3 gene containing a mutation in the PRA-binding domain. The transformant cells exhibit partial motility in that only 20-30% of the cells swim normally. The remainder of the cells spin in place, twitch, or are immotile. We performed reactivation experiments with ATP to determine if the mistargeting, and therefore misregulation, of PKA is responsible for the abnormal motility of the transformant cells. When PKI (a specific inhibitor of PKA) was added jus t prior to reactivation with ATP, the proportion of transformant cells that exhibited motility increased approximately two-fold, while no significant difference was observed for wild-type cells.

T CELL INTERACTIONS WITH THE DEGENERATING TASTE SYSTEM, Joiet Wesley (1), J. Derek Stone (1), Linda S. James (1) and Lynette McCluskey (2), Paine College (1) and Medical College of Georgia (2), Augusta, Georgia 30901. Taste occurs through groups of taste receptor cells that form taste buds. The chorda tympani (CT) nerve innervates these receptors. If the CT nerve is cut, the outcome is the degeneration of taste receptor cells. During degeneration there is an increased immune response in other sensory and neural systems. in the current study, the relationship between degenerating taste receptor cells and the immune system was examined. It was hypothesized that after unilateral CT nerve section, the number of t cells in the tongue will increase. In order to test this hypothesis, the antibody R73 was used to stain alpha beta T cells in cryosections of rat tongue. Alpha beta T cells are the major type of T cell and are primary regulators of the immune response. T cells were stained so that they could be counted in a standard region of interest on the cut and uncut sides of the tongue. In this study, it was found that there were no differences in the number of T cells / standard area after cut compared to control rats. It is projected that other immune cells such as macrophages regulate taste after degeneration.

BACTERIAL FLORA OF THE UPPER CHATTAHOOCHEE WATERSHED, Michael W Reeves and Robert G. Thornton, Georgia Perimeter College, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. Using standard microbiological methods, we examined water samples taken from the Chattahoochee and Soque rivers prior to their entrance into Lake Lanier. Samples were taken at two-week intervals from late September to late November, 2002. Total bacterial counts averaged from 100 to 1000 colony-forming units (CFU) per mL per site, of which, 0% to 50% were hemolytic species. The lower counts were found at the northern-most areas of both rivers. Higher counts were found in the Soque river just south of Clarkesville and in the area of the combined rivers before they enter Lake Lanier. Coliform levels (including Escherichia coli) ranged from 0 to 60 CFU/mL/site; Enterococcus species from 0 to 12 CFU/mL/site; Salmonella species from 0 to 90 CFU/ mL/site; and Staphylococcus aurus from 0 to 160 CFU/mL/site. Data suggest this watershed area does not appear to have a bacter ial flora load greater than would be expected for rivers surrounded by human habitation and extensive farming. The level of coliforms do not appear to exceed current Environmental Protection Agency standards.

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PHYTOTOXICITY OF SOME SELECTED HEAVY METALS, Craig Young, Joseph Todd, Jeffrey Delise, M. Potts, J. Afolabi, Siva Paramasivam and Kenneth S. Sajwan, Savannah State University, Savan nah, GA 31404. A study was conducted to determine the accumulation of soil applied Beryllium (Be), Cadmium (Cd), Thallium (T1), and Vanadium (V) in bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants as well as their distribution in the soil profile. The results of this study indicated that soil treated with metals showed stunted growth of bush bean plants and intervenial chlorosis of lower leaves, which ultimately resulted in the reduction of both shoot and root biomass. Plant tissue analysis data suggested that all of these metals tended to accumulate in the roots, while only low concentrations of metals were accumulated in the foliar portion of the plants. The greatest concentration of metals occurred at the soil surface. Below 15 cm depth, only background levels of metals were observed.

Section II: Chemistry

110 Lawson

Marina Koether, Presiding

9:00: POSTER SESSION (Posters on display from 9:00 to 10:00)

10:00: Section Business Meeting

10:30: SAT-MATH SCORES AND PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY, Todd J. Hizer and Suzanne R. Carpenter, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. Experience indicates that students fail General Chemistry I due more to their lack of mathematical ability than to the rigors of the chemical principles. SATM data for the 1097 students enrolled in General Chemistry I since Fall 1998 were analyzed. Students scoring less than 500, had a 50% chance of earning at lease a C. The likelihood of success increased to 72% for SATM 500-600 and further improved to 85% for SATM greater than 600. While not subjected to rigorous statistical analysis, these data indicate a connection between SATM scores and success in General Chemistry I. To provide additional support to students with SATM <500, the Department of Chemistry and Physics developed CHEM 1211R, General Chemistry I Recitation. The Recitation was first offered during the summer of 2002 and is required for students who have SATM <500 or have not already passed College Algebra. The SATM data, the structure of the Recitation and the Department's plans for its continued use will be discussed

10:45: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY VIDEO TUTORIAL ON CD, Richard H. Wallace and Suzanne R. Carpenter *, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. During the summer of 2002, the authors produced video tutorials for the laboratory portion of Organic Chemistry I. Video tutorials demonstrating the fundamental techniques used in the first three weeks of the course, an explanation of each and still photos of the glassware involved were placed on a CD. The student use of the CD and its usefulness were assessed weekly. Two-thirds of the students viewed the applicable techniques the first week. By the second week, 80% had viewed the technique video. The fourth week of the lab course was the first for which there was not a technique video. Before lab that week, approximately 70% of the students reported that not having a video adversely affected their preparation for lab and their confidence about performing the experiment. After lab that week, almost 70% reported that their ability to perform the exper iment was compromised. These data, student suggestions for improvement, information regarding the production of the CD and portions of the CD itself will be presented.

11:00: HYDROGEN BONDING THROUGH MOLECULAR MODELING, John T Barbas * and Amy Feldman, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Hydrogen bonding in the gaseous state of symmetrical organic acid dimers, mixed acid dimers, and enols has been investigated using molecular modeling. Our calculations show induced resonance through hydrogen bond formation for various dimers of substituted acetic acid. The computations include the effect of substitution on hydrogen bond energies and hydrogen bond lengths, isotope effects, and changes in the vibrational spectra. Typically, hydrogen bond lengths vary from 2.00 A for the enol from of acetylacetone to 1.77 A for the dimer of acetic acid. Hydrogen bond strengths range between 5.3 kcal/mol for the dimer of fluoroformic acid and 4.5 kcal/mol for the dimer of acetic acid. The vibrational frequencies of the hydroxyl groups of the acid monomers come around 3390 [cm.sup.-1] whereas those of the dimers are shifted to frequencies around 3300 [cm.sup.-1]. Similarly, the carbonyl bond lengths and the hydroxyl bond lengths are elongated as a result of hydrogen bonding in the dimers whereas the C-O single bonds are shortened.

11:15: SQUARE-WAVE VOLTAMMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CATECHOLAMINES USING CARBON FIBER MICROELECTRODES, Suw-Young Ly * (1), Yong-Hwan Kim (1), Sam-Young Jung (1), Hyun-Jin Sin (1), Myung-Hoon Kim * (2), Department of Fine Chemistry, School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology (1), Seoul 139-743, South Korea and Department of Science, Georgia Perimeter College - Dun woody Campus (2), Dun woody, GA 30338. Behavior of catecholamines, including epinephrine, on a carbon fiber micro-electrode was studied in a phosphate buffer with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and a square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in order to find optimum conditions for their analysis. The optimum conditions for epinephrine were found to be a pH of 7.5, a deposition potential of -0.50 V (vs. Ag/AgC1), a final potential of +0.55 V, a deposition time of 90 sec, a SW amplitude of 45 mV, a SW frequency 20 Hz, and a step potential of 5mV. Linearity was found in the concentration range of 0.05 mg/L ~ 1.25 mg/L with t he 90 sec of a pre-concentration time. The detection limit was 0.0095 mg/L. Relative standard deviation was 0.18% (n-12) at a level of 0.2 mg/L.

11:30: DETERMINATION OF EQUILIBRIUM MOLECULAR GEOMETRY BY SIMPLIFIED CUMULANT ANALYSIS OF REAL-TIME GAS ELECTRON (GED/RT), Seong S. Seo (1) and John D. Ewbank (2), Albany State University (1), Albany, GA 31705 and University of Arkansas (2), Fayetteville, AR 72701. The results of GED/RT investigations for [CF.sub.3]I and [CF.sub.4] are presented by comparing the simplified cumulant analysis (CA) and traditional analysis methods. The mean equilibrium distances of bonded C - F and C - I for [CF.sub.3]I are 1.3300 A and 2.1461 A, respectively. The mean equilibrium distance of bonded C - F for [CF.sub.4] by simplified CA is [r.sub.e] = 1.3158 (13 A. As expected, [r.sub.e] is essentially independent of temperature. The temperature dependent mean distance [r.sub.a] (1.3228 [+ or -] 0.0022) of CF for [CF.sub.4] and [r.sub.a] (2.1642 [+ or -] 0.0051) of F to F estimated by traditional methods increases with temperature. The increase of amplitudes [l.sub.a] and [l.sub.g] for F to F is much larger than for C - F, in ag reement with Bartell's result. The data analysis of this presentation has compared the results obtained by the traditional method and by simplified CA for [CF.sub.4]. The equilibrium molecular geometry for [CF.sub.4] was determined directly from the GED/RT data without information from spectroscopy.

11:45: THE BINDING EFFECTS OF GLUCOSE WITH SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS CONTAINING BORONIC ACID THROUGH ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS, Angela Allen and Christopher B. Gorman, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695. Recognition of sugars such as glucose with a phenylboronic acid- terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was the basis for designing and fabricating a biosensor. Self-assembled monolayers were formed on gold surfaces as proved by infrared spectroscopy. Different glucose concentrations were bound to the phenylboronic acid - terminated SAM as detected by impedance spectroscopy. The continuous, repeatable increase of the logarithm impedance measurements as the amount of glucose concentrations increase gave indication of binding. The resulting binding could be attributed to the literature knowledge of boronic acid ability to form relatively stable esters with sugars when the hydroxyl groups on the sugars contain the correct orientation. The binding effects between glucose and a phenylboronic acid- terminated SAM is promising for the development of a glucose biosensor.

POSTERS

IMPACT OF OZONE ON DENTAL POLYMERS, Jason Ames * and Thomas Manning, Chemistry and Biology Department, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Ozone (03) is a strong oxidizing agent. While not used in medical applications in the United States, it has found widespread acceptance in Europe for a variety of applications. In dentistry it is used as a disinfectant in the treatment of cavities and as a mouthwash when dissolved in water. Ozone is also known to attack carbon-carbon double bonds, but there is less data available on non-carbon based materials. The dental polymers we are studying contain strontium aluminum fluorosilicate glass, polymerizable dimethacrylate resin, and the ammonium salt of dipentaerythitol pentaacrylate phosphate. In this research we will report on the impact that ozone has on various dental polymers used as adhesives. Specifically FT-Raman, FT-IR and ICP-AES are used to study the dental resins as well as the by products of ozonolysis. We will outline the significant degradation of the resins.

EXAMINING PROTEIN QUATERNARY STRUCTURE IN AN UNDERGRADUATE BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY, Carla S. Andrews, Caroline St. Antoine * and Jennifer L. Powers, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Electrophoresis is a very valuable tool for biochemists, yet experiments using this technique are often not done in biochemistry labs due to time constraints. Protein structure is also a very important topic of interest in many disciplines, yet most undergraduate lab experiments focus only on primary structure due to time constraints and sophistication of techniques. However, preliminary information about quaternary structure can easily be determined using electrophoresis techniques in a 3-4 hour time period. In Fall Semester 2002, students examined four proteins with the following subunit compositions: [alpha], [[alpha],.sub.2], [[beta].sub.2] [[alpha].sub.4], and a2. By using a standard curve and examining samples in the presence and absence of [beta]-mercaptoethanol, stude nts were able to correctly determine that superoxide dismutase was the only protein examined with intermolecular disulfide bonds. Comparing the number and sizes of bands observed with literature values for molecular mass allowed students to determine the number of subunits in the protein.

THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON BRINE SHRIMP, Ruth Borchelt* and Thomas Manning, Chemistry Department, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Ozone ([O.sub.3]) is a strong oxidizing agent that is routinely used as a disinfectant to kill bacteria, viral infections and algae. Brine shrimp are routinely used in various aquaculture settings as feed for finfish. Typically brine shrimp eggs are hatched on site and fed to the stock after a few days of maturation. It is possible for the brine shrimp to transport some microbial infection to the stock. In order to eliminate the detrimental effects of infections from this process, we ran a series of mortality tests applying ozone to brine shrimp eggs. Time durations of ozone application ranged from 5 minutes to 24 hours. We will present results to support the claim that ozone can be applied directly to kill microbes found in brine shrimp eggs while allowing the brine shrimp to survive.

EFFECTS OF SUCROSE, SODIUM CHLORIDE, AND pH ON THE VISCOSITY OF OKRA GUM, Amanda Costantino* and Joelle Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. this laboratory is currently studying the feasibility of using okra gum as a fat replacer in ice cream. To maximize the thickness of ice cream, this study determined the effects of various sucrose and salt concentrations and pH on the viscosity of okra gum. Gum was obtained from fresh cut okra by boiling water extraction. Stock solutions of sucrose, NaCl, NaOH, or acetic acid were added to okra gum to achieve final concentrations of 0-450 mg/ml sucrose, 0-62.5 mg/ml NaCl or pH ranging from 3.5-11.2. Viscosity of okra gum, determined using a Zahn Viscosimeter, increased 1.3 fold at sucrose concentrations (210 mg/ml) currently used in the preparation of the fat-free ice cream. Higher concentrations of sucrose (to 450 mg/ml) further increased the gum's viscosity (2.2 fold). However, addition of NaCl did not alter the gum's viscosity. Maxi mum viscosity was also apparent at neutral pH and decreased 10-20% at pH < 4.0 and pH > 10.7. These results will be used to maximize the thickness of fat-free ice cream prepared with okra gum.

COMPARATIVE CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF SODIUM 4-NITROPHENOLATE AND AMMONIUM 4-NITROPHENOLATE, Madoka Hasegawa* and Kenneth L. Martin, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. Suitable single crystals of sodium 4-nitrophenolate had been procured and an X-ray diffraction data set was collected at low temperature. The crystal structure was solved, however there was a significant degree of disorder in the molecular structure of the 4-nitrophenolate moiety. Thus an investigation of the charge density distribution of the 4-nitrophenolate ion could not be performed. Recently ammonium 4-nitrophenolate was synthesized by volumetric addition of aqueous ammonium hydroxide to an aqueous solution of 4-nitrophenol. Suitable single crystals have been grown via slow evaporation of the water. The X-ray diffraction data set of ammonium 4-nitrophenolate at low temperature will be collected and the crystal structure will be solved. A comparison of the molecular structures of the nitrophenolate moiety in the sodium and ammonium salts wi ll be presented.

SYNTHESIS OF 3-[(2-BROMO(3-PYRIDYL1))METHYL]-2 METHYLQUINOLINE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID, Al M. Panu and Maxwell Merkle *, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. The title compound is needed as a precursor in the synthesis of conformationally constrained analogues of the antimalarial compound mefloquine. The strategy for the synthesis of 3-[(2-bromo(3-pyridyl))methyl]2-methylquinoline-4-carboxylic acid involves the use Pfitzinger reaction starting with suitably substituted isatin and 4-(2-bromo-3-pyridyl)butan-2-one, which was in turn synthesized which was in turn synthesized starting from 2-bromopicoline. The overall synthesis strategy and the characterization of the intermediate compounds by IF, NMR and MS will be discussed.

ADSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF COPPER, Ujuamara Umejiego * and Marina C. Koether, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Copper in the environment may be complexed, bound to clay or free ions. The environmental sink for copper in a waste stream is of interest due to its appearance in drinking water and its associated health risks. Protocols for the study of the adsorption of coppe onto kaolin clay and charcoal (typically found in drinking water plants) have been developed. Initial studies involved using an Ion Selective Electrode for free copper ions and a variety of substrates. Subsequent studies have utilized the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer for raster results. Adsorption characteristics differ depending on pH and ionic strength. These results will be presented.

IN VITRO BINDING OF BILE ACIDS TO ESTERIFIED PECTIN, Dontauious Ford and Louise Wrensford, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. The effect of esterification of pectin on the binding of bile salts was determined in vitro. Various degrees of esterified pectin (34%, 65%, 92%) was used and the results compared to that of pectin derived from citrus fruits. Binding was determined using a mixture of bile acids normally secreted in human bile at pH 6.3. The relative binding to individual bile acids was also determined. An in vitro digestion method using 0.1 N HC1 was used to simulate gastric digestion. Samples were then incubated in conditions that simulated the conditions in the small intestines, centrifuged to remove any bound bile acids and unbound bile salts in the supernatant quantified by a UV/Vis spectrophotometric assay. Cellulose and cholestyramine were used as negative controls (0% binding) and positive controls (100% binding), respectively. Bile acid binding of soluble and insoluble fiber is consider ed as a possible mechanism for reducing plasma cholesterol levels.

Section III: Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

205 Dobbs

Al Mead, Presiding

8:15: APPLICATION OF GIS TO SPATIAL VARIATION OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN ALBANY, GA AND SURROUNDING AREAS, Stephanie Fowler and Can Denizrnan, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. The purpose of this project is to show spatial variation of the groundwater quality in the Upper Floridan and Surficial aquifers and compare it with geologic, hydrologic, and demographic parameters. The study is based on the groundwater quality data of organics, inorganics, and metals from the Surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers collected by the USGS. The methodology followed is a grid (raster data) analysis in a GIS environment. Grids of important chemical parameters were prepared and classified by years. They were then compared with layers of land-use, hydrology, geology, population, and ground water recharge areas. By using the Spatial Analyst extension of ArcGIS, the results are presented as maps and statistical charts that can be easily read by an audience.

8:30: LIFE DOWNSTREAM OF THE FECAL CAPITAL OF THE SOUTHEAST - THE CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER BEFORE AND AFTER METRO ATLANTA, FEATURING THE ROLE OF URBAN RUNOFF, SEWAGE DISCHARGE AND CHICKEN MANURE ON THE WATER QUALITY OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER, Jason Jackson, Chris Adams and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Our research consists of weekly water quality monitoring of the Chattahoochee River at McIntosh Park in Carroll County, Georgia. Comparison of our results to upstream USGS monitoring stations shows that Metro Atlanta's discharge of 350 MGD of treated sewage lowers dissolved oxygen and increases nutrients (ammonia-N, nitrite-nitrate-N, and total phosphorus), temperature, and specific conductivity. These factors coupled with runoff from pasturelands and chicken farms washing fecal coliform bacteria into and through tributaries feeding the Chattahoochee River cause degradation of the water quality downstream from Atlanta. Taking into account the added or mut ed impact on the water quality with seasonal variations in ambient temperature, water flow, and rainfall.

8:45: WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS FOR THE TRIBUTARY STREAMS OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER IN CARROLL COUNTY, GEORGIA, Chris Adams, Jason Jackson and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carroilton, Georgia 30118. The 4 principle Chattachoochee River tributaries are Wolf, Snake, Acorn, and Whooping Creek. All have at different times failed to meet the Georgia fecal coliform bacteria standard of 200 cobnies/100ml. The Wolf Creek watershed is impacted by a 2nd treated sewage sprayfield and Snake Creek is the site of a new 650-acre drinking water reservoir. During the West Georgia Watershed Assessment of 2001, Snake Creek had the overall highest turbidity and TSS; this continues in 2003. Whooping Creek is a baseline water quality stream for west Georgia and metro Atlanta. Our data indicates that Whooping Creek, due to extensive development at its headwaters, is no longer suitable as a water quality baseline stream. The Hillabahatchee Creek in Heard County appears to be better suited as a ba seline stream. Relative to the 4 Carroll County tributary streams, Hillabahatchee Creek has lower fecal coliform bacteria, turbidity, and TSS. We will monitor the 4 streams to determine their chief sediment sources.

9:00: WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND THE INFLUENCE OF RAINFALL ON WATER QUALITY: WHEN WET IS DRY AND DRY IS WET, Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Teddy D. Martin and Randa R. Harris, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Rainfall events can both improve (dilution) and degrade (wash sediment, fecal, metals and nutrients into stream) water quality. Most watershed assessments are conducted so that sampling includes both wet (0.1 or more inches of rain 72 hours before sampling) and dry (<0.1 inches of rain 72 hours before sampling) events. Our research focus is on refining what really is wet or dry. We have sampled at 12-hour intervals before, during and after rainfall on 3 different sized streams (Campus Branch on SUWG campus, Little Tallapoosa River, and Chattahoochee River in Carroll County). Results show that significant rainfall events affect water quality (elevated turbidity, DO, fecal coliform bacteria and lowered specific conductivity) much longer than 72 hours and that lesser rain events m ay not affect water quality parameters for 72 hours. The size of the stream is an important factor, with smaller streams strongly affected by 0.1-0.2 inches and larger streams not affected by the same rainfall.

9:15: Break

9:30: COMPARISON OF WATER QUALITY STANDARDS IN THE SOUTHEAST AND SOUTH CENTRAL UNITED STATES, Randa R. Harris and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carroliton, GA 30118. The EPA sets minimum water quality standards for surface waters. States then set their own standards and vary standards with their self-determined stream classification system, allowing for considerable variation in water quality parameters from state to state. The 15 Southeast and South Central GSA states were first ranked based on the stringency of nine of their water quality standards. Florida came in first, with the most stringent water quality standards. Next, the states were ranked based on how many of their streams were fully supporting their designated usages, rather than only partially supporting or not supporting their designated usages. North Carolina ranked first, with 93.3% of its streams designated as fully supporting. Further research will deal with the problem of some states, such as Alabama , that classify numerous streams as agricultural, which requires less stringent water quality standards. This results in a bias, as a greater number of streams support their designated usages due to lower requirements for those uses.

9:45: TRACE ELEMENTS IN MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE, Gian S. Ghuman, S. Paramasivam, Kenneth S. Sajwan and K. Chandra, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. A study was conducted on Savannah's Municipal Wastewater Facility to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment in the removal of trace elements and to compare with the efficiency measured a decade ago. The influent and effluent wastewater, and sewage sludge samples were collected from Savannah's President Street Wastewater Treatment Facility (March, June, October, and December 2001) were analyzed for Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and Cr. Values were compared with those during October and December 1984 and March and June 1985. The evaluation indicated that concentration of Mn, Zn, and Cu in both influent and effluent were comparatively lower in 2002. Concentrations of Cd, Ni, and Cr were non-detectable in 2002 samples compared to the samples collected in 1984. Similar trends were observed in concentrations of trace elements in sewage slu dge. The results suggest that the efficiency of removal of trace elements by the wastewater treatment facility has improved or the release of trace elements in waste materials has been substantially reduced.

10:00: Poster Section and Section Business Meeting

11:00: SINKHOLE ACCELERATION ON THE BERRY COLLEGE CAMPUS, ROME FLOYD COUNTY, GEORGIA: WHY?, Thomas J. Crawford, State University of West Georgia, Carollton, GA 30118. In 1990 sinkhole formation on the Berry College campus caused Victory Lake to drain overnight. Thus began an acceleration of surface collapse which lasted for several years. Sinkholes continue to form now, at a decreased rate. All of this in a semi-karst area that had experienced little subsidence since pre-1931. A deep limestone quarry on Berry's property was immediately designated by the public as being the "trigger." Natural and human-controlled events and geologic data strongly suggest otherwise. This paper presents a summary.

11:15: BEACH PROCESSES ALONG THE SOUTHERN END OF JEKYLL ISLAND, GEORGIA, Ntungwa Maasha, Coastal Georgia Community College, Brunswick, GA 31520. Beach processes along the southern end of Jekyll Island were monitored from 199 through 2002. While accretion is apparent along the south-east beach, erosion is predominant along the southern end of Jekyll Island. The trees along the beach that continue to fall after their roots are exposed by the eroding high tide evidence this. Observational evidence is also presented to show that erosion along this beach segment is gradually slowing down as the tidal waves are attenuated over the widening beach face.

11:30: A SUMMARY OF 50 YEARS OF ICE-MARGIN LOSS IN SELECTED GLACIERS OF THE BEARTOOTH PLATEAU IN SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA, Edward E. Chatelain, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Aerial and surface photographs from 1953 to 2001 reveal significant ice-margin loss in two of the largest glaciers of the Beartooth Plateau. The Grasshopper Glacier, 7.2 mi. northeast of Cooke City (elev. 7450) has dwindled from an estimated surface area of .21 sq. miles, to an estimated surface area of only .09 sq. miles. The Castle Rock Glacier, located 18 mi. SW of Red Lodge (elev. 5575) diminished from a 1953 estimated surface area of .53 sq. miles to approximately .254 sq. miles by 2001. Proximal SNOTEL sites operated by the USDA and the State of Montana are situated at elevations high enough to provide the needed maximum and minimum temperature and snowdepth data to estimate rate and timing of ice-margin loss as observed in the aerial photos. Fisher Creek (elev. 9100, 4.8 mi. from Grasshopper Glacier) and Beartooth La ke (elev. 9280, 9 mi. from Castle Rock Glacier) SNOTEL station data demonstrate the episodic nature of ice-margin loss, due to 1987, 1991, and 1994 El Nino events superimposed on a long-term regional drought.

POSTERS

SOIL PROPERTIES IN A SOUTH GEORGIA BORROW PIT FORTY YEARS AFTER EXCAVATION CEASED, T.L. Dixon *, E.C. Brevik, G.L. Davis and C.I. Barineau, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. The VSU Lake Louise property includes a sand borrow pit excavated in 1961. This pit has been allowed to revegetate naturally. The pit contains two tiers, a deep lower part and an upper terrace, with distinct vegetative zones within the pit. The deep lower part has mixed pine and deciduous trees with little underbrush and abundant leaf litter. Water ponds at the surface during wet periods and trees within this tier have features indicative of wet conditions. The upper terrace has sparse vegetation and the water table is deep. The edge of the pit along the upper terrace has mixed pine and deciduous trees with grasses; water ponds at the surface during wet periods but tree morphology does not suggest long-term saturated conditions. This study investigates soil formation in the pit since abandonment. Although soil formation over 40 years is slight, there are distinct differences between the three vegetative zones being studied. Soil differences are attributed to differences in topographically controlled access to water and vegetation type.

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN A 40-YEAR OLD ABANDONED BORROW PIT, Georgia Lee Davis *, Eric C. Brevik and Tammy L. Dixon, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. The VSU Lake Louise property includes a sand borrow pit excavated in 1961 to supply sand during the construction of I-75. This pit has revegetated naturally, with no attempts made at remediation. This allows us to investigate natural rates of carbon sequestration in the pit over the last 40 years. Three distinct areas have been identified in the pit based on vegetation: an area of mixed deciduous and pines in the deepest part of the pit, a sparsely vegetated area on the edge of a terrace in the pit, and an area with grass and mixed deciduous nd pines. Carbon was analyzed using total combustion. Carbon values range from 0.01 to 0.51% in the deep pit, 0 to 3.37% in the sparsely vegetated area, and 0.03 to 5.61% in the grassy area. High values in the sparsely vegetated area are limited to a very shallow (~0.5 cm) layer that includes moss and lich ens, otherwise virtually no carbon has been sequestered in this location. For the soil profile as a whole, carbon values are highest in the grassy area, intermediate in the deepest part of the pit, and lowest in the sparsely vegetated area.

CALIBRATION OF A SOIL MOISTURE TENSIOMETER IN SANDY SOUTH GEORGIA SOILS, M.T. Caverzasi, Eric C. Brevik and Judith L. Grable, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. Inexpensive methods of making accurate determinations of soil water content are needed, particularly for researchers working with small budgets. A number of commercial instruments aer available that attempt to fill this need, but each must be calibrated for the individual soils within which they will be used. We will calibrate a Model 2900 Fl soil moisture tensiometer manufactured by Soilmoisture Equip. Corp. of Santa Barbara, CA for use in the sandy soils of southern Georgia. Soils at several sites will be sampled for bulk density (BD) determination at 15, 30, and 60 cm depths. The Model 2900 will be used once a week to determine soil water content at these same depth intervals. At the same time, soil samples will be collected from these depths for gravimetric soil water (GSW) determination; BD times GSW gives volumetric water conte nt (VWC). Model 2900 soil water content values will be related to VWC using linear regression analysis and a model will be developed to determine VWC from Model 2900 data.

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PHYTOTOXICITY OF SOME SELECTED HEAVY METALS, Craig Young, Joseph Todd, Jeffrey Delise, M. Potts, J. Afolabi, Siva Paramasivam and Kenneth S. Sajwan, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. The effects and interactions of heavy metals in the environment is a worldwide problem. The problem posed by increased amounts of metals demands an understanding of their phytotoxic effects in a soil-plant system. Most research involving metal phytotoxicity has been conducted with fly ash or biosolids. Information on the application of these metals in inorganic form to soils and their availability to plants is lacking. We conducted a study to determine the accumulation of soil applied Be, Cd, T1, andV in bush bean (Phseolus valgaris L.) plants and their distribution in the soil profile. Results indicate that metals treated soils showed stunted growth of P. valgaris and intervenial chlorosis, which resulted in the reduction of both shoot and root biomass. Plant tissue analysis suggests that th ese metals tended to accumulate in the roots, while only low concentrations of metals accumulated in the foliar portion. The greatest concentration of metals occurred at the soil surface. Below 15 cm depth, only background levels of metals were observed.

GEOCHEMICAL AND X-RAY ANALYSIS OF ARAGONITE MUDS, SAN SALVADOR, BAHAMAS, Justin Edge, Christopher Faulkner and Deborah Freile, Berry College, Mt. Berry, GA 30149. Moon Pond is a hypersaline lake on San Salvador. Unlike other nearby ponds, with a molluscan shell debris substrate, this pond contains a fine carbonate mud. Davis (1990) speculated that the mud in the pond is inorganically precipitated. We measured Sr (ppm) content and aragonite (%) of the muds and compared it with Sr (ppm) in calcareous algae, molluscs, and ooids (inorganically precipitated). Atomic absorption and x-ray diffraction quantified the chemistry and mineralogy of the samples. The muds are >90% aragonite with Sr values close to 1.0%, this indicates an inorganically precipitated origin (Milliman, 1974; Loreau 1982). The Acetabularia of the pond (97% arag. and 0.9% Sr) could also contribute to this size fraction. The coarser fraction of the pond has a lower aragonite value and a much lower Sr value than the clay-size indicating input from the molluscan assemblage (100% aragonite, 0.26% Sr). High Sr content of the aragonite within the <63[micro]m fraction is consistent with an inorganically precipitated origin. The lower Sr content of the silt and fine sand indicates a breakdown product of shell material.

IS IT WARM IN HERE?, Lindlee J. Harrelson, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Atmospheric concentrations of [CO.sub.2] are rising at a rate of 0.4% per year, with developed countries contributing nearly half of the world energy-related carbon emissions. Among the seven most developed countries of the world, greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. are more than double the combined total emissions for the other six countries. Within the US, energy consumption and carbon emissions vary spatially, temporally, and by economic sector. This study focuses on the spatial-temporal relationship between economic development and carbon emissions in the U.S. Central to this study is the question: "Have population growth and economic development in the Sunbelt exacerbated or improved our energy use and carbon emissions?" Using GIS technology, this study provides a comparative analysis of greenhouse gas emissions attributed to electricity generation and transportation activity for selected cities of the "old-no rth" and the "new-south." Included are measures of urban compactness, average commutes, availability of public transportation, use of electricity, and EPA emissions data.

Section IV: Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science and Technology

120 Lawson

A. Lazari, Presiding

8:00: EFFECT OF DILUTE NITRIC ACID AND SULFURIC ACID SOLUTIONS ON MARBLE SAMPLES, Tommy Sheffield and Richard W Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, 419 College Drive, Barnesville, GA 30204. A series of experiments was carried out at different temperatures to investigate the effects that dilute solutions of nitric acid and sulfuric acid have on the erosion of marble samples. The experiments were carried out at temperatures of between 90[degrees]C and 20[degrees]C. The average activation energy for sulfuric acid (pH = 2 to 4) reacting with Italian white marble samples is 28.9kJ/mole. The activation energy for nitric acid is about 10% below what it is for sulfuric acid.

8:15: GENERAL MORPHOLOGY DIFFERENCES IN MARTIAN GULLIES, Jessica K. Dunaway, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Martian gullies are rare, provocative landforms suggestive of fluid erosion. In this study they were investigated for overall differences that may lead to insight as to their origin. They are recognized from their basic morphology by the presence of an alcove, deep channel(s), and an apron of debris. However, there are differences in the basic morphology that set them into two main classes. The first class has smaller alcoves and smaller fan-shaped aprons with significant separation between the two as the whole gully progresses down slope. The second class has larger alcoves and larger more lobate aprons with little or no separation between alcove and apron. There are several theories attempting to explain their existence. Supported by the Georgia Space Grant Consortium -- NASA.

8:30: NEW FIELD-MOBILE STREAM MONITORING SYSTEM, Heidi Lesser, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. We have set up and tested a system for monitoring the water quality of local streams. Two field portable LabPro interfaces * collect data on pH, temperature, flow rate, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ion concentrations of ammonium, chloride, nitrate, and calcium. The interfaces store the data, which are analyzed in the lab using LoggerPro software *. The interfaces have a 12-bit A/D conversion rate and can sample at 50,000 readings/second. Up to 10,000 data points can be stored in each unit, making the system ideal for time-dependent studies. This system allows for quick collection of data and analysis of the results. We are testing the water quality in the Little Tallapoosa River basin. Results are compared to those obtained in the West Georgia Watershed Assessment, a larger year-long project using conventional methods. * Vernier Software, Inc. Supported by the Georgia Space Grant Consortium -- NASA.

8:45: EXPERIMENT ON RESPONSE OF RC CIRCUITS TO AC SIGNALS, George E. Keller, J.E. Hasbun and Daniel Serrano, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. A series of RC circuit is a frequency dependent voltage divider and depending on whether we choose the output across C or R we get a low pass filter or a high pass filter circuit respectively. We use a DMM to read true RMS voltages, frequency, and capacitance. Also a dual trace oscilloscope is used to measure phase angles with the Lissajous Method. Our signal is produced by a hand held oscillator. We made measurements of voltages [V.sub.C] across the capacitor, [VR.sub.R] across the resistor, and [V.sub.S] across the circuit. From these voltage values, the voltage gains [A.sub.C] and [A.sub.R] were experimentally obtained. Phasor analysis theory predicts that at a frequency of [f.sub.th] = [1/2.sub.[pi]RC], [A.sub.C] = [A.sub.R] = 1/[square root (2)]. The data was analyzed by plotting the experimental voltage gains versus the frequency and nonline ar fits were made. From the fits we found experimental results of [f.sub.exp] at which [A.sub.C] = [A.sub.R]. Our results indicate a reasonable low percent error. The experiment is suitable for introductory physics classes to verify concepts like capacitive reactance and inductive reactance, which can only be derived using calculus.

9:00: INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH TO DETERMINE SUCCESS OF LEARNING SUPPORT MATHEMATICS COURSES, DeWitt Moore and Teresa Betkowski, Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. Statistics collected and analyzed from Summer 1999 through May 2002 to examine the performance of former Learning Support Mathematics Students at Gordon College. The study focused on how Learning Support Math Students performed in Math 1101, Introduction to Mathematical Modeling and Math 1111, College Algebra. A comparison of the grades of Learning Support Math Students with the grades of non-Learning Support Math Students was made.

9:15: TEACHING COLLEGE ALGEBRA USING SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTION, Andreas Lazari, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Discussed in this paper are the advantages of using Supplemental Instruction (SI) to teach college algebra. Supplemental Instruction Leaders (SI Leaders) are not a new concept in teaching college algebra. According to current literature, a feasible use of an SI instruction class is one where the class meets 5 days a week, three with the instructor and two with the SI Leader (a student that has been successful in mathematics). In the model, the students meet with the SI Leader twice a week and work on extra problems. It is not mandatory for the students to attend the SI sections. At Valdosta State University we have introduced SI with some changes. During the SI section students are put into groups to work on extra problems. The SI Leader facilitates the section and gives help to individual groups. It is mandatory for the students to attend these SI sections. A preliminary study shows t hat students with lower SAT scores attending the SI sections perform on the average as well as students with higher SAT scores on the departmental final exam.

9:30: PROPERTIES OF THE SOLUTIONS TO A NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION, Kale Oyedeji (1), Ronald Mickens* (2) and Sandra Rucker (2), Morehouse College (1), Atlanta, GA 30314 and Clark Atlanta University (2), Atlanta, GA 30314. We study the properties of solutions to an ordinary differential equation modeling a nonlinear oscillator for which the force consists of two terms. The first is given by the dependent variable (DV) raised to the 1/3 power, while the second is proportional to the 2/3 power of the derivative of DV. Writing the original equation in first-order system form and examining the trajectories in the 2 dimensional phase space, we prove that all solutions are periodic. The method of harmonic balance is then used to calculate an analytic approximation to the period of oscillations. We also show how higher-order corrections can be made to determine more accurate solutions. This work is supported by research grants from DOE and NIH/MBRS-SCORE.

9:45: ON A NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE BOLZMANN TRANSPORT EQUATION, J.E. Hasbun, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The speed of a charged particle, under an applied electric field, in a conducting media, is, usually, simply modeled by writing Newton's 2nd law as

m d/dt v = qE - m v/[tau] (1), where v is the speed, E is the applied electric field, q is the

charge, m is the mass, and [phi] is the inverse of the scattering frequency. In this paper, we investigate a numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation,

[partial]/[partial]t + v [[nabla].sub.r]f + F [[nabla].sub.p]f = [partial].[partial]t [\.sub.coll], (2) where in general, the Boltzmann distribution function, f = f(r, p, t), depends on position, momentum, and time. Our numerical solution is made possible by neglecting the 2nd term on the LHS, and

by modeling the RHS collision term as [partial]/[partial]t f[\.sub.coll] = - 1/[tau]. With these approximations, in addition to considering only one dimension, we find, through, our numerical solution of (2) that the use of (1) is indeed justified.

10:00: Section Business Meeting

10:30: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GUN SHOT RESIDUES FROM LEAD BASED AND LEAD FREE AMMUNITION, Zachariah Oommen * and Scott Pierce, Albany State University, Albany, GA. A comparative study is carried out to identify the gun shot residue particles (GSR) discharged by firearms. Lead based and lead free primers are selected for the work. The study is performed by scanning electron microscope combined with energy dispersive X-ray. GSR particles of both primers are characterized by spherical shape due to the condensation of vaporized and molten primer particles. Lead based GSR mainly contains lead, barium and antimony whereas lead free GSR selected in this work mainly contains potassium and magnesium. The composition and percentage of elements in the non-spherically shaped particles vary from shape and size. The number of particles identified is depends on distance from the firearm. Attempt has also been made to co-relate the observations in the investigation of shooting cases.

10:45: THE SARA AGN MONITORING PROGRAM: SOME RESULTS FOR AKN 120, AKN 564, AND MRK 509, Kenneth S. Rumstay (1) and Sarah L. McGregor (2), Valdosta State University (1), Valdosta, GA 31698 and Saint Michaels College (2), Colchester, VT 05439. Since July 1995 the SARA 0.9-m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory has been used on an irregular basis to monitor the continuum emission from a sample of twelve active galaxies. Two of these are broad line radio galaxies; the remainder are type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Since spring 2000 we have been able to operate the telescope remotely from the Valdosta State University campus, and these objects have been observed on an approximately monthly basis. Light curves in the B, V, R, and I Johnson photometric bands spanning the 2000-2002 time interval are presented for the Seyfert 1 galaxies Akn 120, Akn 564, and Mrk 509. This work is supported by National Science Foundation grant AST-0097616 and by faculty development and research grants from Valdosta State University .

11:00: ROTATION PERIODS OF PRIMITIVE ASTEROIDS, Martha A. Leake and Melissa K. Williams, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. We present photometry of 8 primitive asteroids in support of a low-resolution, spectroscopic search for water of hydration. To better define the region on the asteroid from which the spectroscopic signature is detected, i.e. to rind the rotation period, phase, and shape, we need photometry conducted over several hours and several times per year (to sample various phase angles). Only those C, D and P asteroids (and their subclasses) in the mid-to-outer belt, which would be bright enough to be tracked with our spectroscope optics (V mag 12.5 - 14.5) were monitored by differential CCD photometry in the Johnson V filter. On five dates during the fall of 2002, the asteroids 252, 501, 506, 537, 585, 663, 702, and 907 were observed remotely, for two to four hours each, from the SARA 0.9m f7.5 telescope at KPNO, Arizona. Light curves or light-curve fragments have been calculated, de termining periods where possible. Observations of these asteroids will continue in spring 2003.

11:15: BRIGHTNESS, COLOR AND BEHAVIOR OF JUPITER IN LATE 2002, Richard W. Schmude, Gordon College, 419 College Dr., Barnesville, GA 30204. Eight measurements of the brightness and color of Jupiter were made between Nov. 8 and Nov. 24, 2002. The normalized magnitudes on Nov. 8 at a solar phase angle of 10.8[degrees] were: B(1,[alpha]) = -8.42, V(1,[alpha]) = -9.28, R(1,[alpha]) = -9,78 and I(1,[alpha]) = -9.67. If a solar phase coefficient of [c.sub.V] = 0.0095 magnitudes/degree is used (which is the average value for the three previous apparitions) then a normalized magnitude in the V filter based on all measurements is -9.36 which is 0.04 magnitudes dimmer than for the 1999-2001 apparitions. This dimming may be due to the bright zones becoming dimmer. The Great Red Spot had a strange hook in it on Nov. 23, 2002 at 10:40 UT. This hook may be a storm that was swallowed up by the Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot has also become darker between October-November, 2002. All of these changes will be summarized in the talk.

11:30: BRIGHTNESS AND COLOR OF SATURN IN LATE 2002, Richard W. Schmude, Gordon College, 419 College Dr., Barnesville, GA 30204. Twenty measurements of the brightness and color of Saturn were carried out between Oct. 31, 2002 and Nov. 26, 202. The solar phase angle of Saturn changed from 4.9[degrees] to 2.5[degrees] during this time. Preliminary values of the normalized magnitudes of Saturn for a ring tilt angle of 26.5[degrees] are: B(1,0) = -8.76, V(1,0) = -9.75, R(1,0) = -10.43 and I(1,0) = 019.69, while preliminary values for the solar phase angle coefficient are: [c.sub.B] = 0.052, [c.sub.V] = 0.031, [c.sub.R] = 0.034 and [c.sub.I] = 0.039 magnitudes/degree. The normalized magnitudes are a bit brighter than last year and this is due to the rings being more open in 2002.

11:45: URANUS OBSERVATIONS IN 2002, Richard W. Schmude, Gordon College, 419 College Dr., Barnesville, GA 30204. Several people have measured the brightness and color of Uranus over the last year. Preliminary normalized magnitudes of Uranus for 2002 are: B(1,0) = -6.63[+ or -]0.01, V(1,0) = -7.14[+ or -]0.01, R(1,0) = -6.73[+ or -]0.01 and I(1,0) -5.56[+ or -]0.04. The B and V filter magnitudes are close to values measured in previous years but hose made in the R filter are fainter than in previous years. Other people have reported seeing detail on Uranus and at least two people have imaged irregularities on that planet. This talk will summarize recent brightness, color and visual observations of Uranus.

POSTER

EVAPORATION RATE OF WATER IN AGAROSE GEL, Anthony Middleton and K.C. Chan, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31763. Dendrites formation can be observed if a thin slab of a solution loaded gel is left to dry in ambient condition - the salting out process. An attempt is made to elucidate the concentration of the solution during the process. A crude way to do it is to quantify the amount of water left inside the gel during the evaporation process. This can be done by measuring the weight of a small sample of gel as a function of time using an electronic balance that has at least [+ or -] 0.1 mg resolution. Before the actual concentration could be extrapolated, one needs to characterize the evaporation process of pure water in gel. Our experimentation found that water droplet evaporates linearly in time; but in a gel, water with compatible size as the droplet evaporates as a quadratic function in time. The linearity of evaporation of water droplet came as a surprise. The quadratic behavior of water evaporating from gel presumably has to do with addition adhesiveness of water molecules to the gel scaffolding. The exact reason for quadratic behavior is, however, unknown at this stage. Data and analysis will be presented to demonstrate this behavior.

Section V: Biomedical Science

Tarpley 213

Carl F. McAllister, Presiding

10:00: Section Business Meeting

10:30: ELUCIDATION OF CASPASE 8 IN ORAL CANCER, Baldev Singh, James Borke, Gretchen Caughrnan and George Schuster, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912. We previously reported on the role of Bcl-2 and its congeners in programmed cell death (POD). However, the final steps of POD (apoptosis) via intrinsic or extrinsic pathways are mediated by caspases. Therefore, we examined the expression of Caspase 8 (C-8), an upstream caspase in oral carcinomas. 5pm thick sections of tumors from archival paraffin blocks were examined using polyclonal antibodies to C-8. Immunoreactivity was primarily observed in the cytoplasm of 75% (n=20) of these tumors. The differentiated tumors (n= 17) exhibited a zonal 0-8 reaction, whereas the poorly differentiated lesions displayed a heterogenous reaction and focal granularity. We had previously reported expression of 0-3 in oral tumors. Our current findings support ehc concept that 0-8 is involved in activating 0-3, an effector of POD. The expression of these caspases suggest s a role for them in oral cancer progression.

11:00: DEVELOPMENT OF A TRYPANOSOMAL [Ca.sup.2+]-ATPASE SUBUNIT VACCINE BASED IN THE VIBRIO CHOLERAE GHOST DELI VERY SYSTEM, Francis 0. Eko *, J.U. Igietseme, B.Y Sarfo, L. McMillan, I. Irune, G.O. Ifere and J.K. Stiles, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA. African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a fatal victor-borne disease cause by Trypanosoma brucei spp. Lack of appropriate strategies for vector control has resulted in reemergence of trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Novel strategies, including the development of protective vaccines, are urgently needed to control the disease. Trypanosomal [Ca.sup.2]-ATPases involved in cation homeostasis are potential candidates for vaccine development. We hypothesized that effective delivery of the cloned outer membrane domain of T brucei [Ca.sup.2+]-ATPase, TBCA2 will induce protective immunity in susceptible mice following challenge. A Vibrio cholerae ghost (VCG)-based trypanosomal subunit vaccine expressing TBCA2 was designed and evaluated in a murin e model of T burcei infection. Intramuscular immunization of naive mice with rVCG-TBCA2 resulted in a Thi-type response as measured by an increase in interferon-gamma production. Moreover, immunization resulted in a 25-fold reduction in parasitemia. These results suggest that rVCG expressing TBCA2 may constitute a suitable subunit vaccine for immunizing against African trypanosomiasis.

11:30: VACCINES AGAINST CHLAMYDIA , Joseph U. Igietseme, Frances Eko, Terri Moore, Godwin Ananaba, LuCinda McMillan, Kiantra Ramey, Qing He, Deborah Lyn and Carolyn Black, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30333. Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiologic agent of major sexually transmitted diseases in the United States and several developed nations. In addition of cervicitis and urethritis as primary manifestations, complications include pelvic inflammatory disease, fallopian tub scarring, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. An estimated four million reported yearly cases require over $2 billion in healthcare management. An efficacious will be the best prevention strategies against genital chlamydial infection. We have developOed several vaccine strategies using a mouse model of genital chlamydial infection. The results reveal that a strong mucosal T cell response is required for protective immunity. Besides, intranasal and intramuscular delivery of subunit an d live vaccines resulted in protective immunity. Finally, specific immunomodulatory approaches, including activation or suppression of certain cytokines and chemokines culminated in better vaccine effect. These results support the growing optimism that an efficacious vaccine is feasible against Chlamydia.

POSTER

ANILINE ANALOGS INDUCED CHANGES IN THE ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERNING OF SKELETAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS IN DOG ERYVHROCYTES, Harriet King, Melva Coles Bostick, Elissa Purnell and Harpal Singh, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Hemolytic anemia, the uncompensated loss of red blood cells from the circulation, has been recognized as a side effect of arylamine drugs and other environmental chemicals. The response is best associated with the administration of certain antimalarial drugs, such as pamaquine and primaquine. Whole blood was collected from a health male Labrador via venous puncture. Cells were washed (x3) with phosphate buffered saline supplemented with glucose (PBSG). Red blood cell ghosts were prepared from 2 ml aliquots of packed red cells that were incubated with 100, 200, or 300 [micro]M of para-substituted alogenated aniline analogs for 2 hours at 37[degrees]C. After incubation, the cells were washing with PBSG then lysed with 5P8 buffer. The supernatant was aspirated and the ghosts were repe atedly washed with buffer until opaque homogenous cells were obtained. Analysis of membrane proteins was performed by SDS-PAGE.

Section VI: Philosophy & History of Science

And

Section VIII: Anthropology

Tom McMullen, Presiding

8:30: A PREVIEW OF "FERMAT'S ENIGMA" (SIMON SINGH, 1997), Steve Whittle and Hyon Ko, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA 30910. In 1637, Pierre de Fermat claimed to have a proof that the pythagorean theorem cannot be generalized for integer exponents greater than two. Fermat made no record of this proof, and as a result numerous mathematicians sought in vain to find the proof Fermat alluded to. It was not until May, 1995 that the mathematician Andrew Wiles published the first correct proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. In 1997, Simon Singh published "Fermat's Enigma," which may be described as a history of Fermat's Last Theorem. A critical assessment of this book reveals that the author achieved the objectives as stated in the preface. In particular, Singh demonstrated the logical strategy underlying Wiles' proof in a manner accessible to the general reader, and why mathematicians have been obsessed with Fermat's Last Theorem. It can be concluded that the book is appropriate for a wide audience, including schol ars outside of mathematics, teachers of mathematics, and mathematicians.

9:00: THE LIFE AND CAREER OF EDWARD A. BOUCHET, Ronald E. Mickens, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. Edward A. Bouchet was the first African American to receive the doctorate in any field of knowledge in the United States and that area was physics. He was granted the degree in 1876 from Yale University making him at that time one of the few persons to hold the physics doctorate from an American university. Bouchet played a significant role in the education of African Americans during the last quarter of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century through his teaching and mentoring activities. He was one among a small number of African Americans who achieved advanced training and education within decades of the American civil war. The year 2001 marks the 125th celebration of his receiving the doctorate degree. This presentation gives a summary of his life and career.

9:30: THE MOON AND THE MIDNIGHT RIDE OF PAUL REVERE, Amy Richards and Bob Powell, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. According to various accounts of April 18, 1775, Paul Revere was crossing the Charles River between Boston and Charleston, Massachusetts as the Moon rose. The location of the moonrise reportedly helped to prevent his being spotted by sailors on a British warship. Others recorded that the Moon seemed unusually bright later than night. In fact, Paul Revere was spotted in the moonlight and captured by a British patrol after warning John Hancock and Samuel Adams in Lexington. The computer software The Sky has been used to simulate the night of April 18-19, 1775 in Boston. The time of moonrise (9:32 p.m. current standard time) verifies the time of the crossing of the river. Explanations for the other lunar effects, such as the position of the Moon in the sky and its nearness to the Earth, are also examined in this simulation.

10:00: Break and Section Business Meeting

10:30: THE SPANISH EXPEDITION TO CHILE AND PERU (1777-1788) LED BY HIPOLITO RUIZ AND JUAN PAVON, THE DOMBEY AFFAIR AND L'HERITIER, Vivian Rogers-Price (1), George A. Rogers (2) and Cynthia J. Frost (2), The Mighty Eighth Air Force Heritage Museum (1), Pooler, GA 31322 and Georgia Southern University (2), Statesboro, GA 30460. The Spanish King planned four scientific expeditions in the late eighteenth century: Peru and Chile, New Granada, Mexico and the Philippines. For one, "Travels of Ruiz, Pavon and Dombey in Peru and Chili (1777-1788)" by Hipolito Ruiz records day-by-day details. The French naturalist, Joseph Dombey, returned in 1784 with a large herbarium but was prevented from quick publication by his agreement with the Spanish government. L'Heritier acquired the herbarium, carried it secretly to England and ultimately published a few in "Sertum Anglicum." Ruiz published an account of the genus Cinchona and with Pavon issued "Florae peruvianae et chilensis prodromus" (1794), "Systema vegetabilium" (1798 ) and four volumes of "Flora peruviana et chilensis" (1798-1802). The specimens collected by Ruiz, Pavon and Combey are seldom used and almost unknown.

11:00: CHARLES-LOUIS L'HERITIER de BRUTELLE (1746-1800), AN AMERICAN PLANT (HYMENOPAPPUS SCABIOSAEUS L'HERITIER) IN PARIS, L'HERITIER'S PUBLICATIONS AND HIS LIFE, George A. Rogers (1), Vivian Rogers-Price (2) and Cynthia J. Frost (1), Georgia Southern University (1), Statesboro, GA 30460 and The Mighty Eighth Air Force Heritage Museum (2), Pooler, GA 31322. Seeds of this native plant were sent by Andre Michaux to Paris, Prance where they produced flowering plants in the Jardin du Roi. In 1788 L'Heritier published the name, a description and plate. L'Heritier was an amateur botanist, an administrative official and a judge. He was murdered in 1800. His publications include "Stripes Novae," "Sertum Anglicum," "Geraniologia," "Cornus" and nine others. His acquisition of the herbarium of Joseph Dombey led him to James Edward Smith and Joseph Banks of England and a controversy involving two Spanish botanists, Hipolito Ruiz and Juan Antonio Pavon.

11:30: EVOLUTIONARY EVIDENCE AND INTELLIGENT DESIGN, Emerson Thomas McMullen, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. No one has observed descent from a common ancestor, and no scientist can test this evolutionary idea in the laboratory. Evolution predicts transitional forms like fish with feet, yet there are hundreds of millions of fish fossils, but none with feet. Similarly, there are no recognized fossil transitional forms from one type of plant to another, from fish to amphibians, from amphibians to reptiles, and from reptiles to mammals. As for humans, various scientists from Alfred Russell Wallace to the present say that we are distinct from animals. Michael Behe, a biochemist, points out that no one has satisfactorily explained how a bacterium's flagellum and other complex biochemical systems, such as the immune cascade, evolved. This is because, he says, they are irreducibly complex and could never have evolved. Further, biochemists are now involved in designing biochemicals and so know wh at intelligent design looks like. Thus, Behe infers that irreducibly complex systems had to have an intelligent designer. This is a troubling concept for some people, in spite of the fact that scientists from Newton to Einstein have written about God.

Section VII: Science Education

Tarpley 211B

Mary Lue Walser, Presiding

9:00: INTRODUCTIONS

9:15: USING CASE STUDIES IN TEACHING SCIENCE COURSES, John V. Aliff (1), Daphne Norton (2) and Paulos Yohannes (1), Georgia Perimeter College (2), Lawrenceville, GA 30043 and Georgia Perimeter College (2), Dunwoody, GA 30038. Using case studies, instructors can help students understand the multiple issues involved in the explanation of natural phenomena. Students can experience open-ended problem-solving where the student scientists, working individually and in teams, consider competing hypotheses and use deduction and induction over a long series of experimental observations, and may arrive at multiple solutions. Step-wise, case studies should be designed to allow the students to recognize multiple issues, research background on what we know about the issues, brainstorm for connections, pose specific questions, and investigate the questions using the scientific method. The paper will review case study work done in the teaching of Chemistry and Biology Sciences at Georgia Perimeter College. This paper is base d upon the work by M. Waterman and E. Stanley, Investigative Cases and Case-Based Learning in Biology: BioQuest Library VI, Academic Press, 2002.

9:30: IMPLEMENTING CASE STUDIES IN CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY COURSES, Daphne Norton (1), Paulos Yohannes (2) and John V. Aliff, (2) Georgia Perimeter College (1), Dun woody, GA 30038 and Georgia Perimeter College (2), Lawrenceville, GA 30043. As students make a connection between textbook knowledge and everyday life, they have a greater appreciation for the field of science and the opportunity to apply the scientific method to a practical problem. This paper will discuss how to prepare students to use a case, how to provide the resources necessary for students to work independently, how to assess student projects, and review the three components of a case study involving the chemical processes of photography. Part I: Research and identification of the problem and development of a hypothesis. Part II: Experimental investigation of the hypothesis. Preparation of a laboratory procedure and testing of that procedure. Part III: Written report of the experimental findings and supporting literature research. This speci fic case introduced a laboratory investigation into the introductory chemistry lecture course. Student feedback and case evaluation will also be discussed.

9:45: THE USE OF LARGE GENE FAMILIES AS POTENTIAL VACCINES AGAINST CHAGAS DISEASE, Archana Govindan, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605. Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is most prevalent in Latin America causing approximately 50,000 deaths each year. Current drug therapies are inadequate and an effective vaccine is lacking. T cruzi possesses a number of large gene families, including the dgf-1, trans-sialidase (TS) and mucin families. Individual members of the trans-sialidase large gene family have proven to be partially effective in DNA vaccination studies, but an analysis of the protective effect of vaccinating with many or all members of these gene families has not been conducted. enU sequences of family members were gathered by performing a blast search on a local T cruzi database using a known member sequence, and the resulting sequences were aligned. These alignments were used to create degenerate primers which could amplify multiple members within the famil ies of interest. The gene products obtained were cloned into the Gateway[TM] system (Invitrogen), enabling insertion into a wide variety of vaccination vectors. These vectors will be used in DNA vaccination studies, where it is predicted that multi-allele vaccinations will give better protection than a single allele.

10:00: Section Business Meeting - Please Attend!

10:30: RESEARCH INTEGRATION IN SCIENCE EDUCATION AT BREWTON-PARKER COLLEGE, Laurie A. Jossey and William A. Said, Brewton-Parker College, Mount Vernon, GA 30443. Recently, Brewton-Parker College took a first step in integrating research into science education by implementing the SURE (Students with Undergraduate Research Experience) Program. Two goals of the SURE Program are (i) to involve students and faculty in the diverse areas of the research enterprise, and (ii) to disseminate the interdisciplinary research findings and their practical implications important to BPC's community. The present paper assesses the outcome of SURE Program implementation during 1998-2002. The research projects reflected the unique combination of BPC's interests and capabilities; they linked research findings with their potential use in service of BPC's community.

10:45: OCCULTATIONS IN THE LABORATORY, Richard Summers, Reinhardt College, Waleska, GA 30183. Astronomers gain most of their information by means of observation rather than experiment. Considerable information about astronomical objects is obtained during the occultation or eclipsing of one body by another body. The actual abstract reasoning involved in this process can be lost on students, particularly if they are non-science majors. This presentation proposes the simulation of these occultations in the laboratory to aid student understanding. Sources used include lasers, incandescent bulbs and spectrum tube sources. Different objects mounted on a meter stick arranged perpendicular to the source beam are used as the occulting object and the intensity of the light as the occulting object is moved across the path of the beam is measured using a foot-candle meter. In this way planetary transits, occultations of stars by planets, eclipsing binary stars and other phenomena can be simulated. The presenter assessed the effect of this laboratory simulation on student understanding using questionnaires administered before and after the simulation. Statistical analysis showed that the experience increased student understanding markedly.

11:00 BREWTON-PARKER COLLEGE'S "SURE" PROGRAM: A MODEL FOR RESEARCH INTEGRATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION AT GEORGIA'S PRIMARILY UNDERGRADUATE INSTITUTIONS, William A. Said, C. Dean Williamson, Brewton-Parker College, Mount Vernon, GA 30445. Brewton-Parker College is one of the private, primarily undergraduate institutions in the United States that provide students with opportunities to conduct undergraduate research. The SURE (Students with Undergraduate Research Experience) Program, while newly established, offers BPC's students many benefits equivalent to similar programs at larger institutions and research universities. Students gain handson-research experience and have the full supervision of research-active faculty investigators with established records of supervising undergraduate research. The SURE Program services ethnically diverse populations of students and is particularly interested in students from underrepresented groups. The students in the BPC-SURE Program have persisted at a higher rate than non-p articipants, and the program has been identified as an important initiative for student development and retention.

Section IX: Genetics Society of Georgia

Tarpley 211A

David J. Crowley, Presiding

9:15: INVESTIGATION INTO AN INDUCIBLE RESPONSE TO DNA DAMAGE IN THE HALOPHILIC ARCHAEAN HALOBACTERIUM NRC-1, Lacy K. George and David J. Crowley, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. All organisms must protect or repair their genome from damage due to environmental conditions such as ultraviolet light. Eukaryotes and bacteria respond to DNA damage by upregulating certain genes necessary for repair. Using northern blotting techniques, we seek to determine if Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, an extremely halophilic archaean, also exhibits an inducible response to damage. H. sp. NRC-1 has several genes that share sequence homology to genes involved in an inducible repair response in E. coli, including uvrA and recA. Portions of these H. sp. NRC-1 homologs were cloned into a plasmid for chemifluorescent probe synthesis. Cells were subjected to varying doses of UV-light, their RNA extracted, and then separated on a gel. Northern blots were performed and analyzed with a Storm Imaging System to note any upregulation of the g enes in response to DNA damage. Detection of upregulation would be an initial indication of a damageinducible response in H. NRC-1.

9:30: OPTIMIZATION OF GENE TRANSFER AND REGENERATION PARAMETERS TO PRODUCE TRANSGENIC SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA, Trenis Palmer, Whitney Palefsky, Terry Kobs and Chandra Franklin, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Extensive regions of the wetland ecosystems in the eastern and gulf coasts of the U.S. are dominated by smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. An in vitro regeneration system for S. alterniflora is being developed so that it can be integrated with a gene transfer system for future genetic manipulations to produce transgenic S. alterniflora plants. A long-term objective of this study is to genetically engineer S. alterniflora with suitable promoter-reporter gene fusions, so that it can be used as a biosensor to detect heavy metal contaminants in salt marshes. Several factors controlling particle bombardment mediated DNA transfer to S. alterniflora and the influence of various auxincytokinin concentrations on the induction of regenerable callus from different explants have teen tested. Resul ts indicate that foreign DNA can be transferred to a variety of S. alterniflora tissues and that extensive in vitro manipulations are necessary for the induction and maintenance of callus from S. alterniflora explants.

9:45: THE USE OF TRANSPOSON MUTAGENESIS TO "KNOCK-OUT" ELASTASE ACTIVITY OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA, Ted Sarkis, Jodra Lambert and Donald J. McGarey, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Aeromonas hydrophilia is a gram-negative bacterium that causes hemorrhagic septicemia and ulcer diseases in fish, and acute bacterial diarrhea, septicemia, and would infections in humans. It is reported that several factors contribute to the pathogen's virulence. A. hydrophila strains isolated from ulcer-diseased fish were shown to possess many virulence-associated factors. Because the pathology of this disease included erosion of skin, muscle and cartilage, it was shown that A. hydrophila produced enzymes able to degrade components that were vital to tissue structure and integrity. To better characterize the genes of the putative virulence factor elastase, mutants demonstrating a loss of enzyme activity were produced by electroporation of the EZ::TN transposome (Epicentre[TM]) into A. hydrophila 1135. Although elastas e activity was lost, the mutants retained all other enzyme activities tested (hemolysis, lipase, DNAse, caseinase, hyaluronidase). The elastase-associated gene is currently being located, amplified by PCR and sequenced.

10:00: Section Business Meeting

10:45: FLY PROJECT: A GENETICS LABORATORY TEACHING TOOL, Jennifer J. Davis, Shorter College, Rome, GA 30173. Undergraduate genetics students are given two unknown mutant Drosophila melanogaster cultures. They are asked to determine the mutant trait of each and the mode of inheritance of the mutant trait. A specific protocol is provided for their investigation. This protocol is a modification of a method published by Dwayne Wise and Kenneth Shull. Advantages of using this lab project include: 1) students experiencing a scientific discovery; 2) students working with a living research organism; and 3) students practicing scientific research skills such as maintaining a research organism, collecting virgin female flies, making genetic crosses, anesthetizing flies, scoring progeny for mutant traits, recording data, keeping a log, analyzing and evaluating data, formulating conclusions, and writing a formal scientific report. This laboratory project benefits student learning, develops research laboratory skills, and provides the student with a discovery experience; however, it is time consuming for the instructor and becomes prohibitive with a class exceeding 30 students.

11:00: POTENTIAL CELL CYCLE CONTROL GENES REGULATED BY HEDGEHOG SIGNALING DURING ERYTHROID DIFFERENTIATION, Kristina Detmer and Angela J. Thompson, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA 31201. Treatment of early committed erythroid progenitors with cyclopamine, an inhibitor of hedgehog signaling, retarded erythroid maturation, and an analysis of the distribution of cells in the phases of the cell cycle suggested that cell cycle control genes are affected. Using small-scale microarray technology, a panel of 96 cell cycle control genes was screened for changes in expression in the presence of cyclopamine. Expression of several genes appeared to be down regulated, including FOXM1 , thought to be a direct target of hedgehog signaling; K167, function unkown; and Retinoblastoma (RB), E2F2, and E2F4. RB and E2F4 have been shown necessary for erythroid maturation in knockout mice, suggesting a partial mechanism for the cyclopamine-induced delay of erythroid maturation. Experiments are currently in progress to confirm the results of the microarray screening by complementary methods.

11:15: EXON-INTRON STRUCTURE OF THE F6.2 GENE IN CHIRONOMIDAE SPECIES, Vladimir I. Mayorov (1), Ekaterina Alieva (2), Eugene A. Elisaphenko (2), Alexander G. Blinov (2) and Linda R. Adkison (1), Mercer University School of Medicine (1), Macon, GA 31207 and Institute of Cytology and Genetics (2), Novosibirsk, Russia A complete sequence of the F6.2 gene from the C. thummi special lobe salivary glad cells in the Chromosome IV tissue-specific locus Bra was determined after screening a genomic library. This gene contains two exons (715 bp and 644 bp) and a 72 bp intron. Transcriptional activity of this gene was confirmed by RT PCR at different developmental stages in C. thummi and C. dorsalis. 46 species from the Chironomidae family were tested by PCR for the presence of the F 6.2 gene. It was demonstrated that 36 tested Chironomus species possessed the F6.2 gene. Partial nucleotide sequences and exon-intron borders of this gene were determined for several species. The F6.2 gene intron polymorphisms, associated wi th deletions in tandem 21 bp repeats, were found in tested Chironomidae species. Phylogenetic data suggest the F6.2 gene arose in the genus Chironomus after a separation of the most ancient group of species belonging to Latin America, Oceanic, and Southeast Asian fauna.

11:30: USE OF THE GENOGRAM IN THE PRACTICE OF FAMILY MEDICINE, Sylvia Shellenberger, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA 31207. The genogram, developed by McGoldrick, Gerson and Shellenberger (1999), is an adaptation of classic genetic pedigree diagrams used to assess and intervene with medical and psychosocial issues in individuals and families. Medical practitioners have found the genogram to be a useful adjunct to other tools in tracking influences on an individual's health profile and determining intervention strategies in the context of the patient's intergenerational environment. The technique has been found to be particularly useful in dealing with illnesses and disorders such as diabetes, alcoholism and depression. In this presentation, selected genograms from the book Genograms: Assessment and Intervention (1999) will be cited to illustrate the use of this tool.

POSTER

A COMPARISON OF M-134 TO FIVE OTHER CRISP MUTANTS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA USING SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, Gregory J. Digby, Wayne A. Krissinger and Sara Neville Bennett, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. M-134, a crisp mutant strain of N. crassa, was isolated in the Georgia Southern University Neurospora Laboratory following ultraviolet irradiation. Previous preliminary mapping of M-134 indicated that the mutant is in Linkage Group 1 and linked to lys -4 by 9% recombination. Differences in morphology among M-134, and other crisp mutants, cr-1, cr-2, cr-3, cr-4, cr-5, and wild type N. crassa were compared with scanning electron microscopy. The strains were grown on dialysis tubing coated with minimal medium, fixed, dehydrated, and sputter coated with gold palladium. Examination of the specimens showed that all six crisp mutants exhibited thin mycelia and altered conidiation compared to the wild type strain. Clusters of conidia were present in separated islands over the surface of the mycelia giving the characteristic crisp-like appearance of these mutants.

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Title Annotation:biological and ecological sciences
Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Date:Mar 22, 2003
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