Saturday paper presentations.
115 Science Building
Robert L. Jarret and Terry Schwaner Presiding
8:00 IMPACTS OF EXOTIC INVASIVE VINES ON A POPULATION OF THE ENDANGERED TRILLIUM RELIQUUM, Christopher D. Heckel* and Lissa M. Leege, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Trillium reliquum Freeman is an endangered plant native to Georgia that is imperiled by encroachment form the exotic invasive vines, kudzu (Pueraria lobata Ohwi) and Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb). This study examines the impact of Kudzu and honeysuckle on T. reliquum populations. A recording was constructed for the number of T. reliquum individuals, their current life stage, understory and overstory cover, and species richness in sample plots from three different pre-existing habitats (natural, kudzu, and honeysuckle) at Montezuma Bluff Natural Area in Macon County, GA during March and April of 2003. Invasive vines were found to be associated with low T. reliquum population density and low ratios of cotyledons to reproductive plants. Invasive vines were also associated with higher understory cover and lower overstory cover in invasive vine habitats, and lower native species richness in the kudzu habitat.
8:15 INFLUENCES OF WATER QUALITY AND WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ON THE DISTRIBUTUION OF HYMENOCALLIS CORONARIA (LECONTE) KUNTH, Scott H. Markwith*, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Two disjunctions occur in the middle of the range of Hymenocallis coronaria due to the absence of populations from the Upper Ocmulgee and Upper Oconee drainage basins together, and the Saluda drainage basin. Water quality and stream flow characteristics were obtained from stream gage data sampled in both inhabited and uninhabited drainage basins and analyzed to determine what factors may be responsible for the absence of populations from uninhabited drainage basins. Turbidity and water temperature were significantly different between inhabited and uninhabited drainage basins. Twenty one out of 65 populations, but only 3 out of the 14 largest populations are found downstream of hydropeaking hydroelectric generating dams. Hydropeaking dams are also found upstream of uninhabited shoals in the Ocmulgee and Saluda drainage basins. A combination of factors could be responsible for the disjunction in the range of H. coronaria, and further research is warranted.
8:30 DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES IN THE OHOOPEE RIVER SYSTEM, GEORGIA, Michael A. Weis* and Christopher E. Skelton, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Current distributions of fishes in the Ohoopee River system were assessed from June to November 2003. Collections were made at 37 sites using seines and a backpack electroshocker. We typically shocked a 100 m shallow section of a stream and then seined deeper areas until no new species were found. Specimens of each species were placed in 10% formalin for at least one week, rinsed with water, and transferred to 70% ethanol for permanent storage. Preliminary results included 37 species in 15 families. The family Centrarchidae was the dominant group encountered during the survey, with 10 species collected. An unusually rainy summer precluded collections in the larger portions of the Ohoopee River and thus we failed to capture any large catostomids. We collected several species previously unreported from the system, including Fundulus lineolatus. Heterandria formosa, Centrarchus macropterus, and Trinectes maculatus.
8:45 SMALL VERTEBRATES INHABITING A CENTRAL GEORGIA BOTTOMLAND HABITAT, Brian Lowe* and Dennis Parmley, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Beginning in July, 2003, a study was initiated to document the small vertebrate fauna of a central Georgia bottomland habitat interfaced with a swamp. Drift fences equipped with pitfall and funnel traps captured 822 small vertebrates. Thus far, 16 species of amphibians, 16 species of reptiles, and at least 10 species of mammals (mice, rats, and shrews) have been documented in the habitat. In terms of individual captures, the fauna has been dominated by juvenile Bufo terrestris (50% of all captures). Two species, Clemmys guttata and Farancia abacura, represented occasional visitors to the bottomland habitat from the nearby swamp. The presence in the terrestrial habitat of juvenile Agkistrodon piscivorus may be directly linked to the availability of a potential food supply of frogs, with are common in the habitat.
9:00 ESTIMATION OF BODY WEIGHT OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) FROM BONE MEASUREMENTS, Brandi T. Morris* and Alfred J. Mean, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. The distal forelimbs and mandibles of 350 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia, were used to determine osteometric correlations between metacarpal dimensions vs. body mass and ml dimensions vs. body mass. Males exhibited greater average body mass in each age class as compared to females. Females attained 95% of total body mass by 2.5 years of age, at least 2 years sooner than males. Males appeared to not only grow faster, but to also grow for a longer period of time. Linear regression analyses indicated that only a minor body mass correlation may be inferred among females using metacarpal proximal areas. When males and females were grouped, none of the regressions yielded significant correlations. The results indicate that it is prudent to estimate body weight from sex-specific regressions.
9:15 CAPTIVE FEMALE MANATEE BEHAVIOR AND ESTROUS CYCLES**, Chifuyu Horikoshi*, Iske Larkin and Bruce A. Schulte, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Basic scientific information is essential in the management of endangered marine mammals such as the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). The long-term conservation of the Florida manatee requires a better understanding of the manatee life history parameters. These parameters include aspects of reproductive success that can be monitored through reproductive behavior. We are determining behavioral correlates through changes in the estrous cycle in captive manatees and are documenting the manatee estrous cycle and verifying that the cycle can be determined from fecal and urine samples and blood serum. The current study tracked the behavior and hormone levels of two captive manatees through behavior observations and opportunistic fecal collections at Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park. This information should improve our ability to model species survival and assist management strategies applied to specific instances of need.
9:30 THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC CHEMOTACTILE BEHAVIOR IN AFRICAN ELEPHANTS, Helen Loizi*, Maureen Correll, Amy Gray, Thomas Goodwin, L.E.L. Rasmussen and Bruce A. Schulte, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Chemical and tactile signals play vital roles in the social and reproductive interactions of African elephants. Elephants live in a matriarchal society, where males and females show different patterns of maturation. Females start calving in their early teens while males begin siring in their early twenties. For the first nine months of 2003, a study was conducted in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa to determine the development of chemical communication in African elephants. The park is 103 [km.sup.2] and contains approximately 400 elephants. Observations of all trunk tip behaviors were recorded from elephants of all ages. The results show a difference in the degree and rate of development between male and females in these behaviors. An understanding of such behaviors will improve our ability to manage elephants and thereby control human-elephant conflicts.
9:45 MALE AFRICAN ELEPHANT ASSESSMENT OF CONSPECIFIC FEMALE URINE AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMO-TACTILE BEHAVIORS**, Kathryn Bagley*, Lauren Stanley, Thomas Goodwin, L.E.L. Rasmussen and Bruce A. Schulte, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. In many species, chemical cues, such as pheromones, aid in reproduction. Asian and African elephants live in a matriarchal society in which adult males primarily seek out females for reproduction. Male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) perceive a preovulatory pheromone excreted in female urine. An estrous pheromone was unidentified in the savanna African elephant (Africana loxodonta). African male elephants do not demonstrate significant chemosensory behavior towards the Asian estrous pheromone. We examined the ability of African male elephants to distinguish between luteal and follicular phase urine from female conspecifics. Biological assays were performed using captive elephants in the United States. In addition, the development of male chemo-tactile behaviors was examined in an observational field study conducted at Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Preliminary results of these two investigations will be discussed.
10:00 Section Business Meeting
10:30 IF YOU BUILD IT, THEY WILL COME (BRINGING BLUEBIRDS BACK TO BERRY), Renee E. Carleton, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. A 2002 census revealed only 5 or 6 breeding pairs of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) on the campus of Berry College. Lack of nesting sites was identified as the most likely reason for the low numbers. Prior to the 2003 breeding season, 50 wooden nest boxes were placed on power poles, fence posts and trees across campus. Boxes were monitored for evidence of nesting activity from February to August. Eighty-three unique nesting attempts by at least 37 pairs produced a total of 303 eggs. Two hundred forty-four eggs hatched and 201 chicks fledged, representing a reproductive success of 66.3%.
10:45 INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIORS IN THE CLONAL HERMAPHRODITIC FISH RIVULUS MARMORATUS, David L. Bechler and John F. Elder, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. In a previous presentation we reported on the development of a timidity-boldness continuum used to analyze four clones of adult Rivulus marmoratus with respect to timidity versus boldness. Results indicated that timidity verses boldness were clonally related and were likely innate. We have now tested juveniles to determine that a similar pattern of timidity and boldness is present from hatching time or develops over time. Data indicate that timidity/boldness behavior seen in adults exists from time of hatching. Situations involving learning (habituation) in adults were also tested. The rate at which a particular clone learned was different from its timidity/boldness level, which suggests that timidity/boldness level and learning are not necessarily interdependent.
11:00 IMPACT OF DRYING/REWETTING CYCLES ON METHANE FLUXES OF FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS, William A. Said and Sidney A. Crow, Jr., Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. Wetlands represent a large source of methane, but the dynamics of methane evolution from drying wetlands are poorly understood. Sediment microcosms were allowed to dry under defined laboratory conditions. At waterlogged conditions, sediment samples were a net source of methane with variations in emission rates ranging from 0.22 to 8.53 ng methane/microcosm/min. A significant correlation (P<0.05) was found between sediment-organic content and moisture retention. A positive and significant correlation coefficient (P<0.001) was found between moisture retention and methane relative flux (calculated as flux on d6/flux on [d.sup.1]). A mathematical model was developed that uses sediment-water retention as indicator of methane dynamics. The applicability of the developed model to in situ methane flux was tested. The model explained 67% of the variation in methane fluxes in terms of variations in sediment-water retention.
11:15 PUTATIVE IMPRINTING SIGNATURE OF BOVINE INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 2 GENE, Ikhide Imumorin, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. The IGF2 gene encodes a polypeptide growth factor and was one of the earliest imprinted genes identified in mice and latter in humans. It is paternally expressed in sheep and pig but is yet to be experimentally tested for genomic imprinting in cattle. A preliminary computational analysis of five bovine cDNA sequences of IGF2 downloaded from GenBank to gain some insight into its putative imprinting signature was performed. A total of 2,451 nucleotides were analyzed. This cDNA sequence set was searched for motifs that might be common with genomic sequences of human and mouse IGF2 genes using MEME analysis and the motif weight matrix output was subjected to analysis by the MAST program. The MAST analysis identified 3 highest scoring motif sequences with the longest of 200 bases analyzed by EMBOSS-CpG Plot program. This sequence contained a 61-base CpG island, with a modest GC content of 57% and an observed/expected CpG ratio of 0.62. This might indicate a differentially methylated region (DMR), a common signature of imprinted genes. A more accurate and robust analysis requires the full bovine genomic sequence compared with conserved non-coding but regulatory sequences of the mouse and human orthologs of IGF2.
11:30 DO STOCHASTIC EVENTS DETERMINE EARLY FISH DIVERSITY IN BARROW PITS? David L. Bechler, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Twelve barrow pits along two roadsides in Southeast Georgia were seined from February to July 2001 in order to assess the fish communities occupying the barrow pits and the factors that might control species composition and community structure. Seventeen species of fish in nine families were collected. Centrarchidae with seven species was the most collected family followed by the Fundulidae with three species and the Elassomatidae with two species. The Poeciliidae, Esocidae, Ictaluridae, Catostomidae, Percidae and the Amiidae had one species each. Analysis involving barrow pit structure, location and position (volume, surface area, depth, vegetation structure, juxtaposition to other barrow pits and distance from local streams) revealed no relationship between the variables measured and the structure of the fish communities. These results suggest that community structure may be primarily determined by stochastic events involving colonization, drought and anthropogenic activities.
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON NEST BOX SELECTION BY ESTERN BLUEBIRDS (SIALIA SIALIS)**, Melanie K. Belk* and Renee E. Carleton, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. Several factors affect the selection sites by Eastern Bluebirds, including surrounding habitat and condition of the nest cavity or nest box. To determine if humidity and temperature levels influence nest box selection, data loggers were attached to the interior lids of 6 nest boxes prior to the 2002 and 2003 breeding seasons. The nest boxes were all of the same design, wood type, and age. Boxes were placed on paired power poles, at a height of 6 feet, and each pair of poles were approximately 0.5 km from the nearest pair. Within a pair, the two poles were approximately 4.5 m apart. For each pair of boxes, one was placed facing due east and the other facing due west. Data loggers were set to record temperature and humidity hourly for 3200 hours. At the end of the study, data loggers were removed and the data downloaded and analyzed using Microsoft Boxcar Pro software.
AN ANALYSIS OF STANDING FUEL LOADS WITHIN THE BERRY COLLEGE LONGLEAF MANAGEMENT AREA, FLOYD COUNTY, GA**, Melanie Belk*, Carly Donahue*, and Martin Cipollini, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. In order to obtain an accurate assessment of available fuel prior to planning prescribed burns or when assessing wildfire risk, it is necessary to measure duff, litter, and herbaceous, live woody, and dead woody materials in an efficient and reproducible manner. Standard methods have not been generally established for forests in the southeast United States. Adopting a U.S. Forest Service point-sampling technique for western U.S. forests, fuel conditions were assessed within an area on campus designated for prescribed burning, including the estimation of parameters that reflect local conditions (e.g. biomass/basal area relationships for local shrub species). This area is in the heart of a newly established management area where remnant longleaf stands are being restored via the reintroduction of prescribed fire. Our hope is that this approach may prove generally useful to the public and private landowners concerned with the estimation of ground-level fuels in southeastern forests, particularly those in the Mountain Longleaf region.
SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES AS A DRUG DELIVERY VEHICLE**, John A. Cole*, Nancy Singletary*, Thomas Manning, and Linda Chamberlin, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. A protocol was developed to open single-wall carbon nanotubes and fill them with vancomycin solution. One mg of nanotubes was suspended in 10 ml of 10% nitric acid and boiled for 1 hour. Nanotubes were collected, washed with water by centrifugation to neutral pH, and dried. One ml of 0.25 mg/ml vancomycin solution was added to dry nanotubes and sonicated for several minutes. The suspension was centrifuged and absorbance of the supernatant checked for free vancomycin. Tests are being conducted to determine conditions for release of the vancomycin from the nanotubes. The nanotube-vancomycin preparation is also being tested for effectiveness in killing E. coli and other bacteria, as it is not transported across the outer membrane. Encapsulation of the drug may improve transport. This work was supported by NSF Nanotechnology in Undergraduate Education, grant #0303668.
UTILIZATION OF BLUEBIRD NEST BOXES BY INSECTS AT DIVERSE SITES IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA, Samuel J. Conn*, Renee Carleton, Bethany R. Daniel and David Bruce Conn, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. As part of a larger study of nesting of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis), we examined whether insects utilize the nest boxes of this species, and whether there is a taxonspecific utilization pattern. During January, 2003, 50 nest boxes were deployed on the 28,000 acre Berry College land tract. The identical boxes, constructed of unpainted white pine, were deployed adjacent to various habitats. Between March and August, we determined which boxes were occupied by bluebirds. After the chicks fledged, or the box was abandoned, all nests and other material were examined in the laboratory. Of 64 nests (some boxes used more than once), 20 (31.25%) contained insects, with a mean number per inhabited box of 6.05. Most were beetles of 4 families: species of Scarabaeidae inhabited 17 (26.56%) boxes; species of Elateridae inhabited 6 (9.38%) boxes; species of Staphylinidae inhabited 3 (4.69%) boxes; species of Carabidae inhabited 2 (3.13%) boxes. These data demonstrated widespread use of the nest boxes by a selective assemblage of beetles.
POPULATION ANALYSIS OF ENTEROCOCCI ISOLATED FROM POULTRY SOURCES, Antoinette Debnam* (1), Charlene R. Jackson (2) and Charles L. Hofacre (1), University of Georgia 1 and USDA-ARS2, Athens, GA 30605. The potential for transfer of antimicrobial resistant bacteria from animals to humans is cause for concern. Commensal bacteria such as enterococci may be reservoirs of resistance, thus it is important to characterize the strains isolated from animals and their environments. This study analyzed enterococci from three different poultry farms. Two control houses on each farm did not use antimicrobials, while two other houses on each farm used antimicrobials. Litter, chick box-liners, feed and poultry carcasses were obtained from each house and cultured for the presence of enterococci. Enterococcus faecalis (1303/3487; 37.4%) and E. faecium (1155/3487; 33.1%) were isolated most often from all farms and houses regardless of antimicrobial treatment. Higher numbers of E. faecalis were isolated from untreated houses (728/1794; 40.6%) than from treated houses (575/1693; 33.9%). In contrast, less E. faecium were isolated from untreated houses (576/1794; 32.1%) than from treated houses (579/1693; 34.2%).
EDAPHIC ARTHROPOD COMMUNITIES IN A MOUNTAIN LONGLEAF PINE STAND: VARIATION RELATIVE TO CONTROLLED BURNING, Kathleen M. Eady* and David Bruce Conn, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. A comprehensive management program for Mountain Longleaf Pine, Pinus palustris, has been established recently on the Berry College land tract in northwest Georgia. In an effort to establish baseline data on this site, and to examine responses to controlled burning, we initiated an inventory of edaphic (i.e. litter, duff, and soil) arthropod communities. Following a controlled burn in spring 2003, we collected litter and soil samples from adjoining burned and unburned plots. Samples collected on 5 dates from June 9 to July 11, 2003, were extracted in the laboratory through Berl se funnels. Arthropods were fixed in 70% ethanol and identified. Dried litter and soil samples were weighed to determine arthropod diversity and abundance per kg of sample. Arachnids recovered included oribatid and other mites (Acarina), spiders (Araneae), and pseudoscorpions. Insects recovered included various springtails (Collembola), beetles (Coleoptera), and ants (Hymenoptera). Some myriapods (Diplopoda and Chilopoda) were also recovered.
QUANTIFYING CHANGES IN METABOLITE POOLS AS A FUNCTION OF ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER STRESS IN RED OAK SEEDLINGS**, Micah D. Munden*, Joshua W. Gutierrez and Patricia T. Tomlinson, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. Northern red oak seedlings were raised in growth chambers under interacting conditions of controlled atmospheric levels of C[O.sub.2] and soil water status. Recent photosynthate accumulated in source leaves and roots in plants grown in elevated C[O.sub.2]. Under water stress, root biomass increased without accumulation of more recent photosynthate compared to well-watered controls. Growth was increased by elevated C[O.sub.2] and decreased by water stress. We hypothesized that changes in starch content contributed to the carbon retention and changes in sink strength observed. We are modifying methods to quantify major metabolite pools in these seedling tissues to determine metabolic changes associated with changes in growth and allocation. Our methods quantified 9 pools: Lipids plus pigments, amino acids, total and reducing sugars, phenolics, organic acids, protein, starch, and structural carbohydrates in leaves, stems and root tissues. Methods and proof of their application to our tissues will be presented.
INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION IN SOLANUM FRUIT PULP CHEMISTRY: WHY ARE SOME FRUITS TOXIC WHEN RIPE?**, Rebecca Neal* and Martin L. Cipollini, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. Some ripe fleshy fruits contain secondary metabolites at concentrations potentially toxic to vertebrates. This has drawn the attention of those interested in understanding the adaptive roles of fruit traits. A prevailing theory holds that the fruit chemistry of any one species is a compromise resulting from selection pressures favoring traits that attract seed dispersers, and those that defend against pests and pathogens. However, few studies have addressed the possible roles of phylogenetic constraints in influencing fruit traits. This concern is being addressed by focusing on fruit traits of a single genus, Solanum. A summary will be presented on the fruit and leaf chemistry of about 100 species of Solanum, including total glycoalkaloids, protein, carbohy-drates, and phenolics. Results thus far suggest that phylogenetic effects do not strongly constrain quantitative fruit chemistry within the genus, suggesting that fruit secondary chemistry is relatively responsive to recent evolutionary pressures.
CHARACTERIZING DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES IN THE FRESHWATER PRAWN MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII**, Ginny Parker* and Michael B. Morgan, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is known to establish social hierarchies based on claw color and morphology. Representational difference analysis (RDA) was previously performed to isolate 48 differentially expressed genes expressed in antennules of blue-clawed (dominant) and yellow-clawed (subordinate) individuals. Behavioral responses were examined and manipulated using aminergic neurotransmitters/modulators, serotonin and octopamine. In this investigation we used Reverse Northern blots to characterize these unknown genes. Shrimp were given injections of serotonin (3mg/500[micro]l) or octopamine (7.5mg/750[micro]l) to determine if any of the differentially expressed genes are associated with changes in levels of these neurotransmitters.
USE OF WAX, SILICON, AND SOAP AS DETERENTS TO THE USE OF NEST BOXES BY NATIVE WASPS**, Amanda E. Watkins* and Renee E. Carleton, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. Native wasp species often utilize song-bird nest boxes as nest-building sites. Birds avoid or abandon boxes with active wasp nests. In order to deter wasps without using insecticidal compounds, the interior lids of wooden nest boxes were treated prior to the onset of the 2003 bluebird breeding season as follows: 5 boxes treated with candle-type wax, 5 boxes treated with silicon spray, 5 boxes treated with Ivory soap, 5 boxes with no treatment. Boxes were monitored on a weekly basis for the presence of wasps or wasp nests and the condition of the treatment.
Section II: Chemistry
113 Science Building
John Barbas, Presiding
9:00 POSTER SESSION (Posters will be on display from 9:00 to 12:00 p.m.)
10:00 Section business meeting
10:45 WEB-BASED LEARNING IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Suzanne R. Carpenter*, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. Now is an exciting time to be teaching and learning chemistry!! The plethora of resources available to students and teachers is almost overwhelming in its magnitude and diversity. One such resource, a commercially available web-based homework distribution and grading system, was explored in Organic Chemistry I spring semester 2003. The level of student persistence was surprising: for the first chapter, over 60% of the students completed at least 50 drill questions with two students completing 190 questions! Student enthusiasm and use of the system waned, however, as the semester progressed. For the last chapter, only 36% of the students used the system and only 14% of the students completed at least 50 drill questions. The mean percent correct on the ACS Organic Chemistry Exam for the spring 2003 class was similar to that for the fall 2002 class. Further analysis of this data is required before conclusions can be drawn concerning any relationship between individual use of the system and individual performance on the ACS exam.
11:00 DIRECT AIR OXIDATION OF AN AROMATIC HYDROCARBON: HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS, Gary G. Stroebel and Rebecca E. Key, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA 30904. Due to the high toxicity of many traditional oxidizing agents, the development of more benign methods has become a priority in synthetic organic chemistry. As part of our efforts to bring "green" chemistry to our instructional laboratories, we have sought to improve an experiment in which fluorene (dibenzoycyclopentadiene) is oxidized by gaseous oxygen at 1 atm and room temperature. Unfortunately, complete conversion to 9-fluorenone had required continuous stirring for about one week in a biphasic alkaline system. Recently we have found that significant decreases in the conversion time (to about 2 days) in open air at 1 atm occur with the use of such inexpensive and readily available materials as kaolin, pumice, or granular alumina. The degree of rate enhancement is highly dependent on the particle size of the specific material used, and is consistent with reversible catalyst-oxygen binding.
11:15 SQUARE-WAVE STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY OF PCR PRODUCTS OF HPV 58 DNA, Myung-Hoon Kim (1), Suw-Young Ly (2), Sung-Kuk Kim (2), Woon-Won Jung (3), Hyun-Sook Kim (3), Yang-Sam Jung (2), Georgia Perimeter College-Dunwoody Campus (1), Dunwoody, GA 30338 USA, Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology (2), Seoul 139-743, South Korea, MyGene Bioscience Institute (3), Seoul, 100-012, South Korea. Electrochemical behaviors of PCR products from HPV 58 genotypes were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square-wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV) using carbon-fiber micro working electrode (CFME) in phosphate buffer. An anodic peak due to electro-oxidation of HPV 58 DNA was detected at -0.6 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Optimum conditions for the square-wave stripping analysis were searched for a quantification of HPV 58, and found to be -1.0 V of deposition potential, 90 sec of the deposition time, 150mV of SW amplitude, 4 mV of a step potential, and 120 Hz of SW frequency. The linear curve was obtained in the concentration range of 0.01 ~ 0.23 mg/L for the peak currents from SWSV. The coefficients of variation of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.09 mg/L were 3.14, 2.65, and 5.34% (n=5) at optimum conditions. The detection limit (S/N=3) was found to be 0.006 mg/L. The method was applied to detect HPV 58 infection.
11:30 A PRACTICAL METHOD OF DERUSTING ARCHAEOLOGICAL ARTIFACTS, J. Huey, L. Boasso, B. Texas, R. Jones, C.P.H. Murphy and G. Stroebel, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA. The Augusta State University campus encompasses 72 acres of land on which arsenal facilities were maintained for 129 years. As a historic site the property, designated Augusta Arsenal Site (9Ri1045), is subject to Cultural Resource Management regulations and provisions. A university situated on an archaeological site provides unique opportunities for investigation, research, and preservation efforts. Removal of rust from iron, the most common metal recovered, often makes identification and dating possible. ASU Chemistry Department students devised a de-rusting process that appears to be safe, economical, non-destructive, and environmentally benign. The Archaeology Laboratory tested, and consequently utilized, the method. This easily controlled process can be confidently and safely used in a non-chemistry facility. Set-up requires little space and no special ventilation. A low current application, provided by an unmodified automobile battery charger, proved to be a safe and effective method of reducing red rust to gray rust on exposed surfaces of an object.
John Barbas, Presiding
DEVELOPMENT OF A CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION FOR THE ENRICHMENT OF A LOW CONCENTRATION IMPURITY, Anita Katti, Jennifer Carpenter and Caroline St. Antoine, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. AV430, a neuromuscular blocker, is in phase II clinical trials for the indication of a pediatric anesthetic. The objective of this project is to purify AV437, an impurity of AV430, for use as a reference standard. A chromatographic process is developed to improve the purity of AV437, having crude purities between 2-5% by HPLC area, to a purity >50%. This is achieved by the following steps: 1) Performing screening runs to identify conditions that optimize the separation of AV437 from surrounding impurities; 2) developing load and elution methods; 3) collecting fractions that contain AV437; 4) pooling and lyophilizing the fractions that contain AV437. The procedure for making enriched AV-437 will be presented along with the purity and amount produced.
PURIFICATION OF BOVINE A-CRYSTALLIN AND A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY CRYSTALLIN CONFIGURATION, April P. McDonald, LaChelle Campbell, Artrease Spann and Lisa B. Hibbard, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314. a-Crystallin, the major structural protein of vertebrate lenses, acts as a chaperone to repress stress-induced protein aggregation. It is thought to act by exposing its hydrophobic regions and binding to the damaged protein, thereby preventing aggregation and precipitation (or cataract formation.) In the present study, bovine acrystallin was obtained by extracting cortical fiber cell proteins from calf lenses and subjecting the homogenate to gel filtration chromatography. The a-crystallin obtained was then used to perform fluorescence studies in order to monitor the Trp residue microenvironment for the crystallin samples. ANS-binding fluorescence, acrylamide fluorescence quenching, and turbidity studies were also performed to observe changes in protein configuration caused by changes in solution ionic strength and temperature variations. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) studies observed the overall secondary structural changes in the protein samples.
SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF THE DITHIO-ANALOG OF ACETYLCHOLINE, Shamala L. Johnson and Louise V. Wrensford, Albany State University, Albany GA 31705. The dithio analog of acetylcholine has been synthesized by the trans-esterification of thiocholine with dithiophenol. In this study, the analog was purified by HPLC and characterized by UV-Vis Spectroscopy and NMR Spectroscopy. The compound has a max of 300 nm. The pKa was determined to be 10.76 [+ or -] 0.08. A stability study at various pHs revealed that the compound was least stable at pH 11 (t 1/2 = 56 minutes) and most stable at pH 3 (t 1/2 = 98 hours). The interaction of the dithio-analog with the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, from electric eel, is also being studied. Preliminary results show that the compound is an inhibitor of the enzyme.
SYNTHESIS OF [.sup.13]C-LABELED O-METHYL TYROSINE, Philip R. Nicovich, Andrew R. Bresseite, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. The synthesis of 13C labeled tyrosine has been investigated. Once synthesized, this amino acid will be used in NMR experiments probing the binding sites of anti-cancer drugs. We have developed a route to the labeled amino acid and are within one step of completion. The synthesis of this labeled amino acid will be discussed.
THERMODYNAMICS DETERMINED BY VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY: A PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LAB, Ricky Escobar and Ken Martin, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. The reaction Co([H.sub.2]O)[.sub.4][Cl.sub.2](aq) + 2 Cl(aq) [phi] Co[Cl.sub.4][.sup.2-](aq) + 4 [H.sub.2]O(l) was studied using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 692 nm. A 24% by mass NaCl(aq) was used to allow the reaction to lean towards a Co[Cl.sub.4][.sup.2-](aq) product for analysis. The temperature was altered between 23.0[degrees]C and 27.0[degrees]C allowing for concentration change and the calculation of the equilibrium constant (K). The heat of reaction ([DELTA]H) was determined to be 30.2 kJ/mol by means of a linear plot of lnK vs. [T.sup.-1]. The equilibrium constant at 25[degrees]C was used to determine that the change in Gibbs free energy ([DELTA]G) was -13.9 kJ/mol. Using these values for [DELTA]H and [DELTA]G (and assuming that [DELTA]H is independent of temperature), the change in entropy for the reaction was determined to be 148.0 J mo[l.sup.-1] [K.sup.-1].
PRESENCE OF TERPENES IN CERTAIN EVERGREENS, Faith Waldrop and Larry McRae, Berry College, Mt. Berry, GA 30149. Terpenes, the major components in aromatic fractions of evergreen plants, are hydrocarbons that are derivatives of isoprene, C5H8. The terpenes of several Pinus species will be extracted from the needles of the plants into an organic solvent and subsequently identified using GC/MS. This report will show the distribution of specific terpenes in the various species of Pine.
Section III: Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
111 Science Building
Mark Groszos, Presiding
8:30 CO-CRYSTALLIZATION OF TOPAZ, RED BERYL, HEMATITE, AND QUARTZ AT TOPAZ MOUNTAIN, JUAB COUNTY, UTAH, Ryan O. Roney* and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Topaz Mountain is well known to mineral collectors for the amber colored topaz within rhyolite. Crystals of red beryl in tabular hexagons, hematite in thin crystalline flakes, and quartz have grown with the topaz. In some cases, the accessory mineral crystals are surrounded by or on the topaz. Topaz Mountain is the mineral rich youngest rhyolite flow of the Thomas Range in western Utah. Vapor phase crystallization occurred as fluorine-rich vapors dissolved Si and Al, transported Be to open vesicles where crystals were formed. During fieldwork in 2003, samples were collected for examination at UWG. Macroscopic and microscopic examination show that the principle minerals were likely all crystallizing at nearly the same time. Many of the largest topaz crystals collected are 3.5 cm "sandy crystals" where euhedral crystals enclose "quartz sand." One of the questions we are trying to answer is the origin of these crystals. Further microscopic examination will determine if they are the result of chemical (etching) or physical processes.
8:45 HISTORICAL TRENDS IN NITRATE VALUES OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER AND PREDICTIONS FOR THE FUTURE. R. Josh Prince* and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The Chattahoochee River starts out as a small stream in northwest Georgia. The area upstream of Atlanta consists of forests and agricultural land. The river's water quality has historically been very poor downstream of Atlanta. Nitrite-nitrate-N values are among the highest of these parameters. Sources for nitrite-nitrate-N values include discharge of treated sewage, septic tanks, urban runoff, leaking sewer lines, and fertilizers. The levels of nitrite-nitrate-N levels have increased with population growth. We sampled nitrite-nitrate-N after rainfall events at a sample station 56 miles downstream of Atlanta near the city of Whitesburg. The current median level at our sample station is 1.81 mg/L. Using a linear regression graph we estimated that nitrite-nitrate-N will increase to 2.3 mg/L in 2010 and 3.1 mg/L by 2025. While phosphate and ammonia have been reduced by improvements in sewage treatment, nitrates have not. To improve the water quality of the Chattahoochee River and remove more nutrients will require Atlanta to spend $3 billion.
9:00 SURFACE-WATER/GROUNDWATER INTERACTION BENEATH A GEORGIA PIEDMONT FLOODPLAIN. Brian Cowan*, Ethan Smith and James Mayer, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. At a study site in the Georgia Piedmont river stage and hydraulic head in adjacent alluvium, saprolite, and bedrock respond quickly to rainfall. Rapid groundwater hydraulic head changes appear to be controlled primarily by stream stage although complex floodplain stratigraphy and topography result in a complex groundwater response. Amplitude and timing of hydraulic head fluctuations suggest an elastic response to stream stage changes rather than more commonly assumed piston-flow infiltration of surface-water. Geochemical data support this conclusion and detect negligible surface-water infiltration even in highly permeable, sand-dominated alluvium immediately adjacent to the river. The study was conducted on the campus of the State University of West Georgia on a riparian wetland adjacent to the Little Tallapoosa River.
9:30 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF GOLF COURSE PONDS**, S. M. Wells*, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 30106. Water samples were collected February through October 2003 from ponds on a golf course in central Georgia. The ponds located adjacent to putting greens were compared to ponds located adjacent to fairways. The physiochemical parameters that were tested were pH and temperature. Conductivity was tested using an Orion 160 Model conductivity meter. A Hach Surface water test kit was utilized to test for nitrates, ammonia nitrogen, and phosphorous. Water samples were analyzed in March, April, May and July for 4 pesticides (glyphosate, 2, 4-D, chlorothalonil, and thiophanate-methyl. The pesticides were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The physical hydrological components which affect overland flow and soil erosion were investigated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Each sub-watershed was delineated using a topographic map. A qualitative assessment of the vegetative buffer zones around each pond was performed. The results of this study will be placed in the context of incorporating environmentally sound measures in golf course design and management.
9:45 LAND USE/COVER CHANGE DETECTION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES: HOW TO IMPROVE THE ACCURACY, Zhiyong Hu*, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Post-classification comparison is often used to detect land use/cover change between two satellite images. However, the accuracy of this change detection technique is only as good as the result of the multiplication of the accuracies of each individual classification. This study combines NDVI images differencing and post-classification methods to detect land use/cover change from 1987 to 1997 for the Atlanta, Georgia area using Landsat TM images. NDVI (97) image is subtracted by NDVI (87), resulting in an NDVI difference map, in which positive values represent 'greening' and negative values represent 'browning.' The mask of no-change pixels from NDVI image differencing is multiplied with the first date classification and the mask of change pixels with the second date classification. The land-cover change map is produced by post-classification comparison of mask-enhanced land-cover map from the first date with the mask-enhanced land-cover map for the second date. The accuracy of change detection is 87.5% higher than 76.4% obtained from pure post-classification comparison.
10:00 Section Business Meeting
10:30 Poster Session
11:00 A COMPARISON OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS AMONG THE AMERICAN RIVERS TEN MOST ENDANGERED RIVERS IN THE NATION FOR 2003, Randa R. Harris and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Since 1986, American Rivers, a national non-profit conservation group, has annually released a report of America's Ten Most Endangered Rivers. Rivers are included on the list if they meet the following criteria: they face an immediate large threat, such as dam construction or major pollution; decisions regarding a large threat to the river system are imminent; the river has regional or national significance. The Tallapoosa River of Alabama and Georgia ranked 9th, and it has been a common component of the list in recent years. An investigation was made to determine whether the 10 rivers considered the most endangered in 2003 actually possessed bad water quality. The USGS has long monitored national streams and their vast database was utilized. Numerous water quality parameters were examined and comparisons among the 10 streams were made. A new ranking of the 10 rivers was devised, this time based on the waster quality of the streams.
11:15 BIG CITIES AND BIG RIVERS: THE EFFECT OF BIG CITIES ON THE WATER QUALITY OF FIVE GEORGIA RIVERS AND ONE TENNESSEE RIVER, Curtis L. Hollabaugh and Randa R. Harris, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Weekly water quality monitoring of temperature, dissolved oxygen. Turbidity, specific conductivity, nutrients and fecal coliform bacteria in the Chattahoochee River 56 miles downstream of metro Atlanta in Carroll County was done for extended periods of time from 1999 to 2003. These results, coupled with analysis of USGS long term monthly monitoring show how metro Atlanta increases nutrient, sediment and fecal coliform bacteria levels in the river. For example, the present nitric-nitrate-N of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/L in the river at Carroll County is 5 times the values in the river upstream of metro Atlanta. The USGS sample site in Carroll County shows a ten fold increase in nitrogen concentration has occurred from 1971 to 2003 in the Chattahoochee River. Analyses of historic USGS data for other similar urban-river relationships are the Coosa River and Rome, Chattahoochee River and Columbus, Flint River and Albany, Ocmulgee River and Macon, Savannah River and Augusta, and the Tennessee River and Chattanooga.
11:30 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS FROM SELECTED LOCATIONS ALONG THE LOWER SAVANNAH RIVER, Gian S. Ghuman, S. Paramasivam, Kenneth S. Sajwan and Craig Young, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Fifteen soil samples collected along the terminal course of lower Savannah River were analyzed to determine their current chemical composition. The pH of all samples was uniform (7.0-7.2) and the electrical conductivity and water extractable cations varied with the distance of each location from the Atlantic Ocean. Low concentrations of Mn, Fe, and Pb were detected. However, concentrations of P, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Ni were below the detection limit of the ICP-OES analysis. Manganese present in only one sample had a concentration of 20.8 mg/kg, while Fe and Pb found in five samples each ranged 10.3-4.4 and 0.3-2.4 mg/kg, respectively. A comparison with an earlier study indicated the same low level of radioactivity in these samples. Prevalence of uniform characteristics of these soils conforms to the Principle of Uniformity.
PROPERTIES OF NATIVE SOILS SURROUNDING A SAND BORROW PIT IN LOWNDES COUNTY, GEORGIA, Timothy Couch* and Eric C. Brevik, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. The Valdosta State University Lake Louise field station includes a sand borrow pit excavated in 1961. This pit has been allowed to re-vegetate naturally. Recent studies have been conducted to investigate soil formation and carbon sequestration in the borrow pit. However, to fully understand soil formation processes in the borrow pit we must also understand the native soils. This study investigates selected morphological, physical, and chemical properties of the soil found around the pit. Soil morphological descriptions were done using standard USDA procedures. Bulk density samples were collected using a sampler of known volume. Bulk samples were collected for particle size, pH, carbon, and nitrogen analysis. Results from this study will be compared to results from the same analyses conducted on developing soils in the borrow pit.
EROSION RATES IN LOWNDES COUNTY DRAINAGE DITCHES THAT DISPLAY HEADCUTS. Rob E. Edmisten*, Eric C. Brevik and Judith L. Grable, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. Erosion rates in drainage ditches exhibiting headcuts were explored at five sites in Lowndes County, GA during the spring and summer of 2003. Distance from established base points to the headcut and ditch cross-sectional area along established profiles were tracked to quantify erosion rates and amounts. Variables including depth of the headcut, ditch slope, vegetative cover, soil compressive strength, and rainfall frequency and intensity were compared to erosion values. Three of the five sites experienced headward erosion during the study period, and profile changes occurred at two of the sites. Variables controlling these changes will be discussed.
GEOLOGIC CONTROLS ON THE FORMATION OF VERNAL POOLS IN THE APPLING GRANITE, HEGGIE'S ROCK, COLUMBIA COUNTY, GEORGIA, Leah J. Vandenhuerk and Richard C. Capps, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA 30904. Heggie's Rock is a unique environment of high biodiversity hosting rare plant species and is currently under the protection of the Nature Conservancy. The environment is dependent on shallow pools weathered into the coarsegrained Appling granite flatrock that are intermittently filled with water by precipitation. This study will compare the distribution and shape of the pools to the lithologic texture and structure of the host granite. Geologic samples cannot be taken in the conservancy area, so the study must rely on geologic field observations. This study will produce detailed maps of small but representative areas including: (1) detailed topography to a small contour interval; (2) mapping of lithologic textures including megascopic mineralogy, xenoliths, flow foliations, and phenocryst morphology and distribution; (3) mapping of structures such as joints, fractures, and faults; and (4) surface weathering textures.
Section IV: Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science And Technology
233 Science Building
A. Lazari, Presiding
8:00 SPECIFIC GRAVITY MEASUREMENTS OF RHYOLITE ROUND ROCKS FROM NUT MOUNTAIN, NEVADA, Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. The writer has collected over 100 rhyolite rocks near Nut Mountain. Whole, round rocks that were collected had masses of between 0.371 g and 44.460 g; however, fragments were collected of rocks that may have had masses exceeding 1000 g. The specific gravity of 12 whole rocks is 2.431[+ or -]0.011. There does not appear to be any relationship between the specific gravity and mass. Samples of these rocks will be shown to the audience.
8:15 AN INVESTIGATION OF POSSIBLE IMPACT CRATERS NORTH OF ELKO, NEVADA, Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. Three craters within the Elko crater field were studied in May 2003. These three craters are about 30 miles north of Elko, Nevada. One crater (Crater #1) lies on the side of a small hill and is 43 meters across (east to west) and 60 meters across (north to south). This crater had a possible raised rim on its east and west sides. A second crater (crater #2) lies a few hundred meters from crater #1 and is in a flat area. This crater did not have a raised rim and it appears to be two craters joined together like a figure eight. A third small crater (crater #3) did not have any raised rims and it had a diameter of about 16 meters. It is concluded that these craters were not formed by a meteorite due to the lack of obvious raised rims.
8:30 PHOTOELECTRIC POLARIMETRY OF MARS IN 2003, Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. The amount of polarized light reflected by Mars was measured several dozen times between March and November of 2003. The percentage of polarized light increased with decreasing wavelength in mid-November. With few exceptions, the polarization measurements indicated that there was little or no suspended dust in the Martian atmosphere. Preliminary data also shows that the amount of polarized light does not depend on Mars' longitude.
8:45 CLOCK-COMPARISON TESTS OF RELATIVITY ON EARTH AND IN SPACE, Charles D. Lane, Charles D. Lane, Berry College, Mt. Berry, GA 30149-5004. A general Standard-Model Extension for describing violations of special relativity will be described. This model will then be used to analyze various clock-comparison experiments, whose extraordinary sensitivity could allow detection of minuscule relativity-violating effects. It can be concluded that space-based clock-comparison experiments possess both potential advantages and disadvantages compared to experiments attached to Earth.
9:00 CALCULATION OF THE MAGNETIC MOMENT OF A CHARGED VECTOR MESON USING PROPER NORMALIZATION, Julie L. Talbot, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30117. Renormalization has been the standard technique used in quantum field theory for 50 years, despite relying on perturbation theory. However, since quantum field theory is intrinsically nonperturbative, it is clear that other techniques for solving Feynman diagrams should be used. Proper normalization is a non-perturbative technique which can be used to solve problems in quantum field theory. Instead of using cut-off masses and renormalized charges, proper normalization includes a proper normalization factor for each propagator. This makes the calculation necessarily finite. In this calculation, proper normalization is used to determine the anomalous magnetic moment of a charged vector meson, such as the rho meson. The result of this calculation is:
[I.sub.i,j,k] = [[-1/27](1 + [b.sub.ph][[lambda].sup.2])[.sup.10](1 + [b.sub.VM][m.sup.2])[.sup.20]][[[e.sup.3]([q.sub.i] - [p.sub.i])[[epsilon].sub.j](q)[[epsilon].sub.k](p)(0.0001377708114)]/[3(2[pi])[.sup.2][m.sup.2][[lambda].sup.56][b.sub.ph.sup.10][b.sub.VM.sup.20][p.sub.0][q.sub.0]]]
9:15 FOURIER TRANSFORM BASED DECONVOLUTION OF DATA, Frank A. Flaherty, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Limitations on the resolutions of physical measurements due to convolutions are ubiquitous in the physical sciences. A considerable amount of research has been devoted to methods for deconvolving data in order to obtain a more accurate representation of the actual signal. The basic idea behind this method is the well-known strategy of making use of a-priori information about the data, usually the positivity of the measured quantity. A new method based on properties of the Fourier Transform for implementing this has proven to be effective and highly efficient since the Fast Fourier Transform can be employed. This work was supported in part by a Valdosta State University Faculty Research Grant.
9:30 A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF A NONLINEAR OSCILLATOR EQUATION, Kale Oyedeji. Ronald E. Mickens, and Sandra Rucker, Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA 30314 and Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. We perform both analytical and numerical investigations of a novel type of van der Pol (vdP), the second-order differential equation:
(**) [d.sup.2]x/d[t.sup.2] + x = [epsilon](1 - [x.sup.2])sign(dx/dt), where sign(z) = + 1 if z>0; 0, if z = 0; and -1 if z<0. An analytical approximation to the solution was calculated using the method of slowly varying amplitude and phase, while numerical solutions were determined from a nonstandard finite difference scheme. Our preliminary results indicate the possible existence of a limit-cycle, i.e., a unique periodic solution having an amplitude and frequency independent of initial conditions. The direct application of phase-space methods of analysis to equation (**) turns out to be rather complicated and, seemingly, not consistent with the analytical and numerical results. We suggest a possible resolution to this difficulty.
9:45 EXTRACTING CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTE IN GEL DURING EVAPORATION PROCESS, Anthony Middleton and K. C. Chan, Albany State University, Albany, GA 331705. Solute in a thin slab of gel tends to form ramified dendrites when the gel is left to dry. The challenge is to determine the global concentration of the solute in gel when solidification occurs. Once the solidification is triggered, the dendrite spreads rapidly to cover up the gel. Knowing the concentration of the solute near the solidification point is the first step toward understanding the dendrite formation process. The concentration of solute in gel could be monitored using gravimetric methods. The weight of the gel loaded with solute of various initial concentrations was measured as a function of time. The data was then transformed, using a simple model, into concentration as a function of time. To test this idea, N[H.sub.4]Cl was used. Four sets of N[H.sub.4]Cl data with different initial concentrations were collected. With the help of the concentration-v-time plot, it is now possible to extrapolate the concentration of a solute in gel and a probable time of solidification. Such a plot is very useful for guiding future in vestigations.
10:00 Section business meeting
10:30 A LOOK AT LEARNING SUPPORT MATHEMATICS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND COLLEGE ALGEBRA, DeWitt Moore and Teresa Betkowski, Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. An overview of the course objectives to achieve success in Learning Support Math, Mathematical Modeling, and College Algebra will be presented. Statistics collected to examine the performance of former learning support and non-learning support math students in college level math classes indicated an increase in the mean grade point average of all students taking College Algebra over the past three years.
10:45 USING THE TI-83 CALCULATOR TO DEMONSTRATE THE CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM, Andreas Lazari, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Discussed in this paper is the use of the TI-83 calculator to help students understand the Central Limit Theorem. A program for the TI-83 was written that randomly selects 30 numbers from 1 through 6 and computes the average and stores it in L1. This process is repeated N times. Each time a new mean is computed, the program graphs the histogram of the means in L1. The students can follow step by step the formation of the bell shape. Finally, we can compute the mean and standard deviation of the means in L1 and compare it to E(X) = [mu] and [[sigma].sub.x] = [sigma]/[square root of (n)].
11:00 ATTITUDES TOWARD MATHEMATICS OF STUDENTS IN INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICS COURSES, Martha Tapia, and Carla C. Moldavan. Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30165. Research about gender differences in mathematics has produced conflicting results. Original studies indicated males had higher achievement scores, with the differences being more pronounced in the higher grades. Girls were better at calculations, while boys excelled at problem solving. Recent studies bring these conclusions into question. Attitudes might have played an important role. The Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory (ATMI) was developed t; measure students' attitudes toward mathematics. The initial pool of items was submitted to an explanatory factor analysis and four factors were identified: self-confidence, value, enjoyment, and motivation. This study examined differences in attitudes toward mathematics of undergraduate students due to gender and to the mathematics course they were enrolled. The instrument was administered to students enrolled in introductory mathematics classes (Pre-Calculus and Calculus) at a private liberal arts college in the Southeast. The subjects of the study were 89 college students. Forty-six students were Pre-Calculus students and 43 were Calculus students. General linear analysis of the data revealed no significant differences between male and female students in any of the four factors. Further analysis of the data revealed significant differences between students enrolled in Pre-Calculus and students enrolled in Calculus in three of the factors, with Calculus students scoring significantly higher than Pre-Calculus students in self-confidence, enjoyment, and motivation.
11:15 NOW I SEE! ILLUSTRATING MATHEMATICAL IDEAS WITH MAPLE, J. A. Ziegler. Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, GA 30060. The Classroom Demonstration Experiment has always played an important and often memorable part of instruction in the sciences. Today the graphic capabilities of MAPLE make it possible for lecturers in mathematics to provide similar experiences for their students. Most of the illustrations presented are from calculus, but samples will be given that range from elementary algebra to undergraduate analysis. Students seem to find these genuinely helpful.
11:30 TEACHING CHAOS THEORY TO UNDERGRADUATE PHYSICS MAJORS, Todd K. Timberlake, Berry College, Mt. Berry. GA 30149. Chaos theory is one of the most important developments of Twentieth Century physics, but few undergraduate physics majors are exposed to this fascinating subject. A general-purpose computing program such as Mathematica can be used to illustrate the concepts of chaos theory in one- and two-dimensional maps. This approach helps students to quickly acquire the tools they need to carry out their own studies of chaotic systems.
11:45 A NEW APPROACH TO CALCULUS LIMITS, Gary Lewellen, Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. It is shown that the overwhelming host of definitions of various limits in the traditional approach to basic calculus can be consolidated into a single universal, comparatively simple definition by employing "infinite arithmetic" and a generic version of "closeness." Infinite arithmetic is treated as a natural arithmetic involving the two infinites, and closeness is pre sented as an intuitive notion at the heart of calculus. It is concluded that the teaching of basic calculus can be greatly simplified and clarified.
KILL THE MONKEY EXPERIEMENT, Christian J. Gines, Matthew Mikell, Jarred Tipton and Sean Scott, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. Kill the Monkey is an experiment that is used to demonstrate to students that the horizontal velocity of a projectile is unaffected by gravity. A projectile is fired from an air cannon towards a stuffed animal target at the same instant that a stuffed animal target drops. An infrared sensor is used to trigger the release of an electronic switch, which in turn cuts the current of an electromagnet holding up the target. The project started in October 2003 and is still being tested throughout December 2003.
Section V: Biomedical Sciences
106 Science Building
Carl F. McAllister, Presiding
7:30 THE EFFECTS OF EPIANDROSTERONE AND p-FLUOROPHENYL-HYDROXYLAMINE ON G6PD DEFICIENCY INDUCTION IN ERYTHROCYTES, Rinata Daniel*, Elissa Purnell, Melva Coles Bostick and Harpal Singh, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency is a hereditary, sex-linked enzyme defect that results in the breakdown of red blood cells upon exposure to the stress of infection or certain drugs. This enzyme is present in all cells but is required in the red blood cell to make NADPH and glutathione, which protect the cells from oxidative damage. Whole blood was collected from a healthy male Labrador via venous puncture. Cells were washed (x3) with phosphate buffered saline supplemented with glucose (PBSG). Aliquots (400 [micro]l) of packed red blood cells were treated with 100, 200, or 300 [micro]M of Epiandrosterone (Epi) alone, or a combination of various concentrations of p-fluoro-PHA and Epi. Total hemoglobin levels and G6PD enzyme activity were determined using diagnostic kits. The results showed that 300 [micro]M of p-fluro-PHA and higher levels of p-fluoro-PHA with Epi reduced G6PD activity.
7:45 A COMPARISON OF CARRIAGE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STREPTOCOCCUS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS IN HUMAN THROAT CULTURES OF TOBACCO USERS VERSUS NONUSERS, Erin E. Klein* and Dorothy Don Davis, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Carriage of antibiotic resistant Staphylococci and Streptococci was studies using throat cultures from 250 healthy adults to determine if there was a significant difference between tobacco users versus nonusers. Cultures were tested for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Isolates were characterized for penicillin, oxacillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin resistance using NCCLS techniques and Difco Zone Diameter Interpretive Standards. A significant difference was found in carriage of antibiotic resistant Strep and Staph between tobacco users and non-users. Data was also reviewed for carriage of multiple species and of those species, and how many shared resistance to one or more antibiotics.
8:00 CCR-5 AND RANTES ARE ESSENTIAL IN THE REGULATION OF IMMUNITY AGAINST CHLAMYDIA INFECTION Erika Barr* (1), Edith Okwandu (1), Qing He (2), Godwin Ifere (2), Francis O. Eko (2), Deborah Lyn (2), Joseph U. Igietseme (2,3) and Godwin Ananaba (1), Clark Atlanta University (1), Atlanta, GA, Morehouse School of Medicine (2), Atlanta, GA 30310 and CDC (3), Atlanta, GA 30333. Chlamydia-infected epithelial cells secret chemokines, particularly RANTES that recruit Chlamydia-specific T cells to the genital mucosa during infection. Interactions between the T cells and the epithelial cells lead to the acquisition of immunity or onset of disease. We investigated the hypothesis that RANTES and CCR5 + cells are required for effective clearance of Chlamydia trachomatic. RANTES expression was determined by RT-PCT of total RNA and ELISA of supernatants from antigen-stimulated T cells. IFN-[gamma] secretion and status of infection were determined. There were significant differences in the levels of RANTES between the uninfected and infected animals. The CCR5 animals have compromised ability to recruit Th1 cells, which resulted in the high intensity of chlamydial infection. This shows that RANTES and CCR5 ar two of the molecules that influence the outcome of genital chlamydial infection.
8:15 EXPRESSION AND LOCALIZATION OF RANTES. CCR1, CCR3 & CCR5 IN POST-MORTEM CEREBRAL MALARIA TISSUE SAMPLES, Bismark Y. Sarfo*, R. K. Gyasi, A.A. Adjei, I. Irune, S. Singh, J. W. Lillard Jr., P. Jolly, A. Quarshie and J.K. Stiles, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, University of Ghana School of Medicine, Accra, Ghana, and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. Malaria infects 500 million people causing over 1 million deaths globally per year. 15% of fatal malaria cases are caused by cerebral malaria (CM) resulting in coma, convulsions and other neurological complications. Though the role of adhesion molecules and cytokines in CM is well established, the role of chemokines remains unclear. We hypothesize that chemokines and their corresponding receptors modulate malaria-induced brain inflammation. Our objective was to characterize the role of chemokines in malaria brain pathology. We analyzed chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression in cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem and hippocampus from CM and nonmalaria (NM) brain autopsy tissue samples using qRT-PCR and Western Blot analyses. Results: RANTES. CCR3 and CCR5 but not CCR1 expressions are unregulated in cerebellum and cerebrum of CM tissue samples.
8:30 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM THE FECES OF PET BIRDS, Michael W. Reeves and Dianne LaCole, Georgia Perimeter College, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. We measured the level of resistance to the activities of 21 antibiotics in bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci families that had been isolated from the feces of finches, canaries, and parakeets. An isolate from river water and one from horse feces were included as controls. Among the penicillin-like drugs, amoxicillin and cephalothin were the most effective in stopping bacterial growth. A surprisingly high level of resistance was found to ampicillin, methicillin, oxacillin, and penicillin among isolates from all the birds and the controls. Among the non-penicillin-like drugs, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin were the most effective, whereas resistance to vancomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampin, and clindamycin was found in almost all the isolates regardless of the source. These results illustrate the alarming level of antibiotic resistance that is common in bacteria from domestic animals, and the potential for these bacteria to contaminate groundwaters.
9:00 SUPPRESSION OF TUMOR GROWTH IN MICE BY IL-10 KNOCK-OUT DENDRITIC CELLS PULSED WITH TUMOR ANTIGENS EX-VIVO, Godwin A. Ananaba (1), Whitney Bennet (1), Erika Barr (1), Qing He (2), Godwin Ifere (2), Francis O. Eko (2), Joseph U. Igietseme (2,3), Clark Atlanta University (1), Atlanta, GA and Morehouse School of Medicine (2), Atlanta, GA and CDC (3), Atlanta, GA 30333. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are important for inducing T cell immunity. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that negatively regulates Th1 cells. We tested the hypothesis that suppression of cancer development will be more effective if the APCs are preexposed to the tumor antigens under IL-10 deficient conditions. Tumor antigens (TA) were collected by centrifugation from freeze-thawed confluent S1509a cells (spinal tumor cells). DCs from wild type or IL-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mice were pulse ex vivo with TA and used for immunization. One week later the mice were challenged with living S1509a cells. Tumor growth was assessed every 48 h, and cytokines levels measured by ELISA. Higher levels of Th1 type of cytokines and reduced tumor growth were seen in the animals immunized with IL-KO DC pulsed antigens.
9:30 TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI FACTOR (TAF) MEDIATES APOPTOSIS IN BRAIN, Jonathan K. Stiles, Mike E. Powell, Joseph Whittaker, Bismark Y. Sarfo, Winston E. Thompson and Craig V. Bond, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) caused by infection with Tryanosoma brucei ssp, which invades the CNS and induce meningoencephalitis, apoptosis, blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, and perivascular infiltration. We hypothesize that characterization of the repertoire of cellular responses of the brain due to T. brucei infection will reveal relevant pathways associated with Trypanosome-induced brain pathology. Using cDNA micro-array, RT-PCR, Northern analysis, SDS-PAGE, immunohistology, and mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF) we determined the effects of T. brucei infection on brain and specifically focused on the role of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred mainly in cerebellum and brainstem of infected mice. Furthermore differential expression of Caspase-3, occurred in brain during HAT. Analysis of parasite products revealed that a trypanosome-derived factor (TAF, Mr~8500 Da) is associated with the cerebellar apoptosis. We conclude that TAF plays a major role in HAT-induced brain pathology, which may affect gait and ataxia during trypanosome infection.
10:00 Section business meeting
10:30 MEMBRANE TARGETING OF MULTIPLE CHLAMYDIA ANTIGENS IN NONLIVING VIBRIO CHOLERAE AS A VACCINE DELIVERY STRATEGY, Godwin O. Ifere1, F.O. Eko (1), Q. He (1), E. Barr (2), G. Ananaba (2), D. Lyn (1), C. Black (3) and J.U. Igietseme (1,3), Morehouse School of Medicine (1), Atlanta, GA 30310, Clark Atlanta University (2), Atlanta, GA 30333, and CDC (3), Atlanta, GA 30333. The targeting of proteins to cellular locations using specific vector sequences is attractive for producing recombinant antigens of vaccine interest. Genes E' and L' of vector pKSEL5-2 are targeting sequences that form fusion proteins with anchored genes. The procedure involved the insertion of omp1 and PorB intopKSEL5-2 by C-and N-targeting to generate pOMPB followed by its introduction into V. cholerae 01 to yield H1(pOMPB). The proteins were induced for expression by addition of IPTG to the growing culture and confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Co-transformation of H1(pOMPB) with the lysis plasmid, pDKLO1 encoding gene E and subsequent induction with 3-methylbenzoate (3MB) led to cell lysis. The recombinant V. cholerae ghost (rVCG) technology enabling membrane targeting of OMP1 and porB proteins is useful for delivering multiple antigens in nonliving vaccines.
11:00 BACTERIAL GHOSTS AS DELIVERY VEHICLES IN BIOMEDICINE, Francis O. Eko, Qing He, Godwin O. Ifere. Deborah Lyn, Godwin A. Ananaba, LuCinda MacMillan, Carolyn M. Black and Joseph U. Igietseme, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 and National Center for Infectious Diseases (CDC), Atlanta, GA 30333. The bacterial ghost system is a novel vaccine delivery system endowed with intrinsic adjuvant properties as well as carrier and targeting functions. Bacterial ghosts are non-living cells devoid of cytoplasmic contents that retain the morphological characteristics and structural integrity of their living counterparts. They are produced by the controlled expression of PhiX174 protein E and have a high capacity to simultaneously carry and present multiple antigens to the immune system. Ghosts are stable at room temperature as lyophilized preparations, have no "cold chain" or refrigeration requirements and provide a simple method for packaging various antigens for effective delivery. Bacterial ghosts represent a novel approach in vaccine development and offer an exceptional opportunity to develop multiple or combination vaccines.
11:30 EFFICACY OF VACCINES AGAINST CHLAMYDIA, Joseph U. Igietseme, Qing He, Francis O. Eko, Deborah Lyn, Godwin A. Ananaba, LuCinda MacMillan and Carolyn M. Black, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, and Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. An efficacious vaccine would be cost effective and likely to make the greatest impact in controlling the morbidity and hugh healthcare cost of chlamydial infections in the human population. We have designed several vaccines against Chlamydia and evaluated their efficacy in a murine model of the genital infection. The results revealed that a cellular vaccine consisting of IL-10 knockout dendritic cells pulsed with chlamydiae conferred long-term protection against genital Chlamydial infection. In addition, vaccine design strategies consisting of the delivery of Chlamydiae with antibodies, immune-stimulating complexes or Vibrio cholerae ghosts conferred protection. The level of protection obtained with each vaccine correlated with the intensity of genital mucosal T cell response induced. These results revealed that an efficacious vaccine can be designed against Chlamydia.
AN IN VITRO EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXICITY OF VARIOUS ENDODONTIC IRRIGANTS ON HUMAN GINGIVAL FIBROBLASTS, Brian D. Barnhart, Frederick Liewehr, Anthony P. Joyce, S. Roberts and J.J. Dalle Lucca, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, GA. The cytotoxicity of six endodontic irrigants on cultured gingival fibroblasts was measured by the CyQuant" assay. The cells were grown in DMEM + 10% FBS at 36[degrees] C & 5% C[O.sub.2]. Confluent cultures were split, plated in 96-well plates & incubated for 24-hours to allow attachment. Irrigants tested at various concentrations were: Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCL); Chlorhexidine (CHX); lodine Potassium-lodide (IKI); Betadine Scrub (BDS); Calcium Hydroxide (CaO[H.sub.2]); & Chlorine Dioxide (Cl[O.sub.2]). Experimental groups were compared by the distance of the LD50 (per 10-fold) for each irrigant from their respective clinical dose. One-way ANOVAs were performed on ranks followed by Dunn's test for all pair-wise comparisons (with p<0.05). The results showed that IKI and Ca(OH)[.sub.2] were significantly less cytotoxic than NaOCl, CHS and BDS. In conclusion, further studies are needed to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing IKI and Ca(OH)[.sub.2] clinically.
ROOT CANALS: EFLUX OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE (CH) AND INHIBITION OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS (Ef), Thomas Buxton, Kim Cater and Gene Cauley, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon, GA. Bacterial number is significantly reduced by CH in root canal treatment, yet Ef remains a pathogen in retreatment cases. Virulence may relate to tolerance of high pH of CH. We measured CH diffusion through simulated root canals and determined the minimal inhibitory CH concentration to Ef. This was done distal to the CH-efflux site using pipette-tips placed in BHI-agar seeded with Ef. The agar contained o-cresolphthalein dye which turns purple and creates an agar cloud with Ca++. Ef in the cloud was measured by microbiologic plate technique. Saturated solutions of CH (0.25%, pH 9.9) did not inhibit Ef, but did inhibit oral streptococci. Supersaturated CH ([greater than or equal to]0.5%) inhibited Ef growth (agar pH. 12.7). [Ca.sup.++] from insoluble CH, diffused from the simulated root canal into the media at inhibitory levels to Ef. While insoluble CH pellet did not efflux, it too was also inhibitory vs. Ef.
THE GROWTH OF FIBROBLASTS IN DIFFERENT CULTURE MEDIA, Henry Chuang, D.S. Walsh and Carol Lapp, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905 and Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912. A consistent, relevant, and cost effect culture media is an important issue in studies of cell biology. This study compared the growth of human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) in various amounts of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and NeuGem (NG), an engineered complex of animal sera. hGFs were cultured from explants of healthy tissue during routine periodontal procedures. Three-nine thousand cells were plated in 96 well plates for 72 hrs in Gibco phenol red-free DMEM containing 4% FBS or 4 or 6% NG, 15 mM HEPES, 7.5 ug/ml insulin, 7.5 ug/ml transferring, 5ng/ml selenium, 6.4 ug/ml oleic acid, 1.25 mg/ml bovine serum albumin and antibiotics. The growth was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) or crystal violet (CV) assay. MTT and CV results showed that the growth rate of hGFs in media containing NG is comparable to that containing FGS. NG may be substituted for FBS in growth media for hGFs.
THE EFFECT OF NICOTINE AND CYCLICAL MECHANICAL STRAIN (MCS) ON HUMAN GINGIVAL FIBROBLASTS (hGF) IN AN IN VITRO WOUND HEALING MODEL, Michael E. Dinos, J.L. Borke, H.A. Chuang, G.D. Swiec and J.J Dalle Lucca, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. We investigated the rate of wound repopulation by hGF in the presence of nicotine under MCS. To confluent hGF, on 6-well flexible-bottomed plates, we created a 3mm wide wound using a rubber-tip instrument and a sweeping motion. The cells were exposed to: 0 (control), 1mM, 2mM, or 4mM, nicotine and placed on a Flexercell MCS of 3 cycles/min (10 sec strain-10 sec relaxation) at 24% elongation. Non-flexed cells served as controls. The cells were stained at 1, 2, 4, and 6 days with H & E and microscopic images analyzed for wound repopulations. A significant delay (p<0.05) in wound repopulation by hGF exposed to both nicotine and MCS at days 4 and 6 was noted compared to control. In contrast, hGF under CMS filled the wound area significantly faster than non-CMS hGF regardless of nicotine concentration (p<0.05). CMS may initially stimulate hGF in the early stages of wound healing.
THE GROWTH RATES OF GINGIVAL FIBROBLASTS AND PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT FIBROBLASTS IN CELL CULTURE, Jason D. Hodam, A. Chuang, J.C. McPherson, III, L. Dalle Lucca and D. Walsh, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. Both gingival fibroblasts (GF) and periodontal ligament cells (PDL) play very important roles in oral wound healing after surgical procedures. This study compared the growth rates of GF and PDL in an in vitro cell cultural condition. The primary cultural cells of GF and PDL were obtained from Dr. Carol Lapp of Medical College. 50,000 cells of GF or PDL each were seeded in T-75 flasks with Bigco DMEM medium containing penicillin-streptomycin, gentamicin, fungizone and 10% fetal bovine serum. The growth was examined daily microscopically and photographed every 2 days for 3 weeks. GF reached confluence in 12-14 days while the proliferation rate of PDL was 3-5 times slower than that of GF.
ESTABLISHMENT OF A CRITICAL SIZE DEFECT (CSD) MODEL OF BONE HEALING IN MICE: INCREASED RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES, Jurandir J. Dalle Lucca, R.R. Runner and James C. McPherson, III, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. The CSD, defined as a bony defect that will not heal spontaneously is well established in the rat. The conception of a calvarial CSD in mice will enable the use of several transgenic and knockout mice to study the mechanisms of bone healing under normal and disease state. In 12 anesthetized adult male mice, we created a 4 mm diameter cranial defect, placed a PTFE Millipore membrane below the defect, and sutured the skin closed. Mice were sacrificed at 12 weeks. A Faxitron X-ray instrument and Scion Image Analysis software were used to evaluate the calvaria. At 12 weeks the defect in the mice were 63.8% filled vs 73.1% filled in the rat 8 mmCSD, p=NS. The 4 mm mouse defect resembles the 8 mm CSD established in the rat. Once characterized, the mouse calvarial CSD will be instrumental to study bone healing in disease states such as diabetes and atherosclerosis.
THE EFFECT OF RGD BINDING SEQUENCE ON FIBROBLASTS WOUND HEALING, James Lyons*, A. Chuang, M. Peacock, G. Schuster and C.A. Lapp, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon. GA 30905, and Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912. Argine-glycine-apartate (RGD) is the binding site of fibroblasts and other extra cellular matrix molecules. The present study investigates the promotion of a faster wound healing following surgery in an in vitro would healing model using human gingival fibroblasts (hGF). A 3 mm wound was created in a synchronized confluent layer of hGFs in 12 well plates. 5 [micro]l of RGD at 1,4,8, and 12 ng/ml were transferred by pipette into the wound area and allowed to stand for 5 min. Each well was then covered with 2 ml of serum-free medium containing RGD at specified concentrations. The cultures were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The wound healing was evaluated microscopically using Scion Image Analysis Software. The results indicated that all concentrations of RGD tested provided an early improvement in fibroblasts migration into the wound area up to Day 4, when compared to the control. No difference was observed after Day 4.
EXCESSIVE BONE RESORPTION IN A MOUSE CALVARIA DEFECT: A SOURCE FOR OSTEOCLASTS? James C. McPherson, III, R.R. Runner and J.J. Dalle Lucca, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. Experimental models of bone resorption have not been reported in part due to the difficulty of isolating and growing osteoclasts. We have identified active bone resorption in a 6 mm mouse calvaria defect. We created a 6 mm diameter cranial defect in anesthetized mice. A PTFE Millipore membrane was placed below the defect and the skin sutured closed. Mice were sacrificed at 12 weeks. A Faxitron X-ray instrument and Scion Image Analysis software were used to evaluate the calvaria. Significant areas of active bone resorption were noted in the X-rays of the calvaria defects. The area of the defect was not significantly different from the initial 6 mm defect, 29.8 [mm.sup.2], p=NS. Significant bone deposition would have been expected. This new model for studying active bone resorption in vivo may also be a rich source for osteoclasts.
THE IN VITRO EFFECT OF PLURONIC F-108 ON RED BLOOD CELL OXYGEN DISSOCIATION, Royce R. Runner and James C. McPherson, III, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. Biomedical applications of Pluronic Polyols, non-ionic surfactants, include increased fibroblast growth rate and healing of incisional wounds. These effects could be explained by an increase in oxygen availability at the tissue level. An automatic blood oxygen dissociation analyzer was used to determine blood oxygen equilibrium curves. 50 [micro]l of rat blood was added to 5 ml of buffer and equilibrated at 37C. A control blood sample was obtained from five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and then given 8 ml/kg bd wt of a 12mM/l solution of Pluronic F-108 IV. Blood was drawn at 1, 24 and 48 hrs and p50 determined. Rats receiving saline served as controls. There was a significant increase in the p50 returning to baseline by 24 hrs in the F-108 treated rats. There was no change in the p50 with saline. Pluronic F-108 increases the availability of oxygen at the capillary level.
Section VI: Philosophy and History of Science
Section VIII: Anthropology
234-235 Science Building
Tom McMullen, Presiding
8:00 ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY THROUGH QUACKERY, Linda Chamberlin, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Dr. Ray Vaughn Pierce (1840-1914) was unarguably a complex and dynamic man. He moved to Buffalo, NY, to launch a successful and colorful medical career with his Golden Medical Discovery. In 1875 he published "The People's Common Sense Medical Adviser in Plain English or Medicine Simplified." A side benefit of this marketing ploy was to inform common people about the latest medical developments through constantly updated editions. Dr. Pierce also had a lot of enthusiasm for all kinds of inventions and scientific gadgets and used them in his medical practice. He built Invalids Hospital, a luxury hotel for the ill. The Hotel and associated World's Dispensary employed steam engines to drive mechanical manipulators, printing presses, bottle washers, pharmacy equipment as well as an elevator. There were electric generators, ozone generator, and X-ray equipment. The hotel featured electric lighting and a fire sprinkler system. His use of this technology exposed many influential people to the possibilities of new technologies and science.
8:30 JOHN EATON LECONTE, EARLY AMERICAN NATURALIST AND HIS RIVALRY WITH STEPHEN ELLIOTT, Vivian Rogers-Price (1), George A. Rogers (2), and Cynthia J. Frost (2), LeConte-Woodmanston Foundation (1), 117 Charlton Road, Rincon, GA 31326 and Georgia Southern University (2), Statesboro, GA 30460. John Eaton LeConte (1784 - 1860) was born near Shrewsbury, NJ. He attended Columbia College and, with his older brother, Lewis, was taught much about natural history by Dr. David Hosack, founder of Elgin Botanical Garden. One of LeConte's earliest publications was a catalog of plants found on Manhattan Island. His text was completely in Latin. An early ambition to publish an American flora was partially pre-empted when Stephen Elliott began "A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia." LeConte published a number of papers, each on a plant genus. In some, he was sharply critical of Elliott's work although he shared his notes on Utricularia with Elliott. After Elliott's death, LeConte published only an occasional paper on plants and in these muted his earlier criticisms of Elliott. LeConte's primary interests were zoological and he co-authored with Jean Alphonse Boisduval a book on insects and wrote on frogs, toads, small mammals, reptiles, and crustaceans.
9:00 A SPECIES OF IMMORTALITY AND THE URGE TO PUBLISH: STEPHEN ELLIOTT, WILLIAM BALDWIN AND JOHN EATON LECONTE, George A. Rogers (1), Vivian Rogers-Price (2) and Daniel V. Hagan (1), Georgia Southern University (1), Statesboro, GA 30460 and LeConte-Woodmanston Foundation (2), 117 Charlton Road, Rincon, GA 31326. The unpublished letters and published articles and books of Elliott, Baldwin and LeConte illuminate their ideas and relations with each other. The roles of John Lyon, John Brickell, Henry Muhlenberg, Thomas Nuttall and John Abbot are mentioned. The early difficulties encountered by Elliott in the writing of "A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia" are stressed. Macbride stressed the importance of including the entomological aspects (pollinators, herbivores, etc.) of the plants of the regions. William Baldwin's contributions to this work are emphasized. More than sixty persons contributed specimens and information; each contribution conferred a small touch of immortality. Examples of the generic names honoring the early plant taxonomists include: Elliottia, Lyonia, Brickellia, Balduina, Macbridia, and Lecontia.
9:30 THE DISCOVERY AND TAXONOMIC HISTORY OF A SMALL SPIDER LILY: HYMENOCALLIS PYGMAEA, Sue Brogdon (1), George A. Rogers (1), and Dorothy D. Simmons (2), Georgia Southern University (1), Statesboro, GA 30460 and Wiregrass Plantation (2), 898 Adabelle Road South, Claxton, GA 30417. Between 1722 and 1725, Mark Catesby, an English natural history explorer, visited South Carolina. One of his drawings was cited by Linnaeus in his "Species Plantarum." Thomas Walter of South Carolina used the Linnaean binomial, Pancratium carolinianum, in his "Flora Caroliniana" (1788) and in 1807 John Drayton cited illustrations by Catesby and Ehret. Andre Michanux grew P. mexieanum in his holding garden near Charleston. Elliott described the genus (with two species) in 1817 and John LeConte described four in 1830. The American species were given a new name (Hymenocallis) by Salisbury in 1812 and later studies by Herbert and Kunth were valuable. In 1962, Traub named, described and published H. pygmaea, based on collections in South Carolina by Mary Henry. Our plants were discovered by Frank Simmons on the bank of the Canoochee River in Bryan County, GA.
10:00 Section business meeting
10:30 PHYSICS AT FISK UNIVERSITY, Ronald E. Mickens (1) and Nelson Fuson2, Clark Atlanta University (1), Atlanta, GA 30314 and Fisk University2, Nashville, TN 37203. Fisk University was chartered in 1866 to educate former slaves at the end of the civil war. The physics department was started in 1931 under the chairmanship of Dr. Elmer Imes, Fisk 1903, a research physicist in the field of infrared (IR) spectroscopy. After Imes' death in 1941, one of his early physics major, James Lawson, became chair and soon obtained a research IR instrument from the University of Michigan. By the early 1950's Fisk IR research findings began to be published in the scientific journals and Fisk graduate students began to read the results of their M.A. thesis at the meeting of the Southeastern Section of the American Physical Society (SESAPS). This active participation in SESAPS in the mid-1950's was the impetus which caused SESAPS to switch its meetings from segregated to un-segregated facilities. During the next four decades physics at Fisk University expanded to included the annual Fisk Infrared Institute (FIRI) and the formation of strong research collaborations with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Vanderbilt University, Bordeaux University (France), and NASA. Our presentation will expand on these issues and also include a discussion of the "McCarthyite Problem" of the mid-fifties as it impacted both Fisk University and the physics department.
11:00 THE PEPPERED MOTH AND INDUSTRIAL MELANISM--IDEOLOGICAL FRAUD? E.T. McMullen, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460-8054. Much fraud in science, usually creating or twisting data, can be categorized either as having been done for personal gain, or as having an ideological motive. This is a motive that supports an idea or a worldview. The perpetrator of the Piltdown fraud and Ernst Haeckel's faked embryos involved an element of personal gain, but also data was created to support the idea of descent from a common ancestor. What sustained both these deceptions over time was this evolutionary ideological motive. A more complex case is the well-known story that the peppered moth and industrial melanism constituted "evolution in action." One could claim that this fraud was merely an example of theory-laden observation or interpretation. However, the peppered moth does not normally rest on tree trunksit hides from birds in the tree canopy. Thus, most moths pictured on tree trunks are there artificially, usually dead or frozen, and are either glued, pinned, or else attached in some other way. This, along with other evidence, indicates that one of the fraud's main motives was ideological, and this was what sustained it.
Section VII. Science Education
103 Science Building
Richard Summers, Presiding
8:00 THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL DISTRACTIONS, INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESS, AND THE LACK OF MOTIVATION ON MEETING INTENDED SCIENCE OBJECTIVES, Glennis R. Matthews* and Bonita E. Flournoy, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. This study investigated how the instructional process and the lack of motivation of middle grades science students influenced meeting intended teaching objectives. A sample of three urban, eighth grade science classrooms, consisting of 22-28 students each, were studied. The three classrooms, as described by their teacher, were labeled "the top class," "the intermediate class," and "the bottom class." The mastery levels of the students in these classrooms meeting the intended objectives were 90%, 60%, and 30%, respectively. Data was collected for each class through (1) covert observation; (2) survey questions that included motivational analysis, instructional delivery, and assessment practices; and (3) analysis of artifacts from curriculum materials. Analysis of data was performed by frequency calculations, triangulation, and induction. It can be concluded that student motivation and instructional delivery are factors that have a direct effect on whether the intended science objective is met.
8:15 THE STEINBECK-RUDLOE PAPERS, Ruth Borchelt*, Suzanne North and Thomas Manning, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. The famous author, John Steinbeck, wrote "Cannery Row" and described the life of a marine biologist that ran a lab near the ocean. In the early 1960's Jack Rudloe had a large number of correspondences with John Steinbeck about maters concerned with marine biology. Subsequently Jack Rudloe founded the Gulf Specimen Marine Lab (GSML) in Panacea, Florida. GSML has been in existence for over forty years and has supplied over 1300 colleges and universities with marine specimens for teaching and research and provides educational programs for 15,000 people, largely students, every year. GSML has also supplied the National Cancer Institute with organisrns that contain some of its most promising marine natural products. This paper will focus on how the early correspondence between Jack Rudloe and John Steinbeck influenced Rudloe and subsequently marine science education throughout the United States.
8:30 POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT AND STUDENT BEHAVIOR IN SCIENCE CLASSROOMS**, Lesia A. Adams* and Bonita Flournoy, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. The purpose of this study was to determine if positive reinforcement would affect student behavior. The study included fifty-seven sixth grade students from an urban middle school that were not motivated to behave and excel in science. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to examine factors involved in subjects' responsiveness to positive reinforcement. A positive reinforcement survey was designed and administered to the sample of students. Additional data were collected from semi-structured interviews. A random sample of the fifty-seven students was surveyed and interviewed. The survey solicited the type of awards and praises received by students. Results from the student survey indicated that the students did not receive a reward for excellent behavior. A reward system was created and implemented for good behavior; that included rewards ranging from a pencil to a free homework assignment. Midquarter progress grades were used to determine if behavior affected grades. As a result of adding a reward system to award and praise students for better behavior, students felt more valued and were more willing to perform.
8:45 AN EVALUATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PARTNERSHIP WORKSHOP, Rebecca A. Penwell, Brenau University, Gainesuille, GA 30501. This study consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. A pre-test was given to the teachers prior to the start of the Environmental Health Partnership (EHP) workshop and a post-test was administered at the end. Teachers were also asked to respond to questions on a written evaluation form in accordance to the goals of the workshop as a qualitative method of program evaluation. The study sample consisted of 18 teachers from all regions of Florida. There were 12 females and six males. Each of the 18 teachers showed increases in their knowledge of superfund and environmental health issues. The majority of the teachers were impressed with the program, had positive comments, and felt that the goals of the workshop were met. Only five teachers had suggestions for the program improvement and felt that the goals of the workshop were not completely met. The main issue that teachers had expressed was that they would like to see more activities and/or labs that they could take home, that were ready to use with their students. They expressed concern about some of the speakers "talking over their heads" and a lack of funding at their home institutions to be able to perform the labs and activities shown to them during the workshop.
9:00 INCREASING MIDDLE GRADES STUDENTS' INTEREST IN SCIENCE THROUGH INFUSION OF TECHNOLOGY AND HANDS-ON SCIENCE TEACHING, Bonita E. Flournoy, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. During an in-service teacher training professional development institute for enrichment in earth science, teachers were required to develop and teach a unit at their school work site. After training in using the Minorities in Science software program, five middle grade teachers taught a unit on earth science concepts in a physical science or earth science course to eighty-five students. Each lesson was aligned with National Science Education Content Standards and Georgia Quality Core Curriculum standards. Teachers were videotaped while giving instruction. After instruction of the unit, students were given a survey with questions that critiqued the instructional strategies of the teacher, as well as indicated their interest in science. Analysis of the data indicated that 89% of the students wanted more class-time instruction using technology, 95% wanted more time doing handson science activities, and 82% became aware of more science careers by using the Minorities in Science software. Data also indicated that these students wanted courses other than science to be taught using technology and hands-on activities.
9:15 SCIENCE TEACHERS' ATTITUDES TOWARD GEORGIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Paul Greene, Piedmont College, Demorest, GA 30535. A survey of elementary, middle and high school science teachers was taken to gain insight into their attitudes toward public schools in the state of Georgia. The teachers were enrolled in advanced degree programs and averaged 9.8 years of teaching experience. Ninety-five % of the responders indicated a need for education reform at the state level and 71% suggested that local curricula needed improvement. Seventy-nine % perceived the No Child Left Behind Act as having a negative impact on public education and 63% indicated the Federal Government should have a lesser role in public education. Other results indicated there was a general lack of knowledge of Home Schooling and Charter Schools in this group of educators with 63% and 76% "Don't Know" responses. The major school-level problems indicated by the participants included poor student attendance and motivation and an excessive amount of teacher responsibility.
9:30 THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN THE LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS, Sandra Rucker, Clark-Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. The historical development of mathematics lead to crucial linkages between its ideas and the language used to express these ideas. Consequently, those who are proficient in mathematics understand its subject matter via both the language and symbolism which forms its basic structure. We present preliminary data and case studies which demonstrate that often a student's lack of understanding of mathematics may grow out of their lack of comprehension of the mathematical language. Recommendations for positive interventions which might improve student understanding and performance in mathematics will be presented, along with how these results may be applied to the sciences.
10:00 Section Business Meeting
10:30 IMPLEMENTING GROUP RESEARCH PROJECTS IN AN UNDERGRADUATE ECOLOGY CLASS, Mark S. Davis, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. Ecology is a required course for biology majors in most undergraduate baccalaureate programs and usually includes a weekly laboratory to provide students with experiences that illustrate course concepts. For the past 3 years, ecology students at NGCSU have been required to conduct group research projects (~6 week duration) as part of their laboratory experience. Groups were required to identify a research question, write a proposal, submit a timeline, collect and analyze data, and communicate the results. For the past two years, students have been required to orally communicate their research in a formal program conducted in a format similar to that of scientific meetings. The protocol for group research and the evaluation process, the pros and cons of incorporating undergraduate group research as an upper division course requirement, and the results of a survey assessing student opinion about the research are described.
10:45 THE IMPACT OF A PEER TUTORING PROGRAM ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY IN AN URBAN HIGH SCHOOL, Ollie Irons Manley, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. The purpose of this study was to determine if peer tutoring was an effective method of teaching chemistry to urban high school students. The peer tutoring program was implemented in two of three Descriptive Chemistry classes at an urban high school for six weeks. Two of the classes were called experimental because of the special tutoring program, and the control class received no tutoring. There were a total of 91 students in the study. Tutors were selected, training and grouped with tutees. Students were administered a pretest prior to the implementation of the program and a posttest at the end of the program. The unit taught was reaction rates and chemical equilibrium. The results of the study showed that achievement in the chemistry classes was related to the method of instruction and that peer tutoring was the preferred strategy by the students rather than the traditional teachercentered method.
11:00 HOBBY TO HERITAGE, Joan B. Murray, Georgia Perimeter College, Clarkston, GA 30021. Two abandoned farms totaling 180 acres near St. Marys, Ontario, Canada were purchased in 1939 by Dr. R.S. Murray, a physician who was a forester at heart. The tract had farmland, a small mature deciduous forest, a stream, and wetland. Hardwood and softwood groves were planted and trails developed. In 1956 the property was sold to The Upper Thames River Conservation Authority. It is now used for recreation by visitors and by the UTRCA for outdoor education.
11:15 USE OF DATA COLLECTION TECHNOLOGY IN AN INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY LABORATORY, Brian W. Schwartz, Harlan J. Hendricks, Jeanne L. Dugas, Polly K. Adams and Vedran Gruda, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. We report first year outcomes of an NSF-DUE grant, "Technology to Enhance Learning in an Introductory Biology Laboratory" (NSF grant DUE-0126782), which funded purchase of computers and graphing calculators interfaced with an array of probes and sensors. This technology provided a foundation for the complete redesign of introductory biology laboratory experiences. By facilitating measurement, quantitative analysis and data presentation, the equipment has supported and maximized the impact of inquiry-based activities built around the learning cycle approach in science education. Students readily adapted to the technology and enjoyed using it. Simplified data collection procedures allowed them to design and repeat more complex, interesting experiments, and visualization of data collected in real time allowed them to view directly phenomena such as enzyme activity and diffusion of a substance across a membrane. During the presentation, the principle investigator will describe the nature of the laboratory redesign and its implementation, and the program evaluators will report the results of their Year 1 evaluation study.
GENDER BIAS: THE HIDDEN CURRICULUM, Darlene Herbert* and Bonita Flournoy, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. The purpose of this study was to investigate how teacher instruction can contribute to gender role stereotyping of female children in their academic achievement in mathematics. This study centers on a fourth grade mathematics class in Atlanta, Georgia. The school population is predominantly African-American and is comprised of 300 children in grades K-4. This qualitative action research study was prompted by interest on gender equity after observing a teacher's interaction with her students during a fourth grade mathematic s class. Based on these observations, inquiry on student performance in the areas of mathematics and science led the researcher to observe and conclude a disparity in achievement between males and females. These findings prompted further research on issues related to gender bias and implementation of strategies to increase female achievement in the area of mathematics. Primary data sources were classroom observations, journaling, studentteaching questionnaires, informal interviews and conversations. Data collection instruments were analyzed using the triangulation and induction methods. Results of the study indicated that teachers' perceptions and beliefs are not aligned with their teaching practices in the classroom.
Section IX: Genetics Society of Georgia
9:00 GENETIC KNOCKOUT OF BACTERIAL NER HOMOLOGS IN ARCHAEA, Monika L. Clark* and David J. Crowley, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. The extremely halophilic Halobacteria are ideal organisms for studying DNA repair mechanisms in Archaea. In their natural environment they are exposed to high levels of UV radiation and thus must have mechanisms to repair UV-induced DNA damage. Genomic sequencing reveals that the Halobacterium genome contains genes that are homologous to both eukaryotic and bacterial repair genes. Halobacterum NRC-1 contains homologs to all of the bacterial nucleotide excision repair genes, uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, and uvrD. In order to discover if these genes are true functional homologs we seek to knock them out. The gene knockout method involves the following: (1) the construction of a deletion construct; (2) transforming NRC-1 [DELTA]ura mutants with the construct and selecting for ur[a.sup.+] integrants; and (3) counterselecting for second crossovers using 5-FOA. Once the knockout has been confirmed with PCR, the sensitivity to UV light of the mutant strains will be characterized with survival curves and compared to wildtype cells.
9:15 COMPLEMENTATION OF BACTERIAL REPAIR MUTANTS WITH ARCHAEAL REPAIR GENES, Kristin K. Namenye* and David J. Crowley, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a general repair mechanism that is well defined in Bacteria and Eukaryotes but not yet in Archaea. Halobacterium NRC-1 is an extremely halphilic archaeon that contains homologs to the E. coli NER genes, uvrA, uvrB, uvrC and uvrD. This leads to a question of whether or not the uvrA gene from Halobacterium will complement an E. coli uvrA mutant. To determine if complementation of the E. coli uvrA mutant with the Halobacterium uvrA gene occurs, the Halobacterium uvrA gene will be cloned into an expression vector and used to transform an E. coli uvrA mutant. If the complementation is successful, we predict that the transformed cells will show increased resistance to UV light confirming that Halobacterium uvrA is a functional homologue to E. coli uvrA. It will also show that it is possible for a halphilic protein to function in a mesophilic environment.
9:30 THE EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ON TRANSCRIPTION IN ARCHAEA, Megan A. Rice* and David J. Crowley, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 thrives in high-salt, intense UV environments and constitutes an excellent model for studying ultravioletlight repair in archaea. The repair mechanisms of photoreactivation and nucleotide excision repair (NER) both function in NRC-1 cells, but little is known about the mechanism of these processes. Previous experiments have suggested that NRC-1 cells perform transcription-coupled NER repair, but direct measurements of transcription has yet to be established. This project attempts to provide evidence of transcription by measuring RNA expression of the rpoB RNA polymerase and rrlA ribosomal operons using Northern blot analysis. In addition, the project tests the effect of ultraviolet light on RNA expression by measuring the time post-UV exposure needed to observe both a decrease in RNA expression as well as subsequent recovery. The time sufficient to achieve recovery would theoretically correlate to the time needed to accomplish transcription-coupled repair.
9:45 LOOKING FOR VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE GENES IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, Laura Hughes* and Don Davis, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Primers known to amplify vancomycin resistance genes VanA, VanB, VanC1, and VanC2/3 in Enterococcal strains were used to determine if these genes could be identified in strains of Staphylococcus aureus exhibiting intermediate resistance to vancomycin using NCCLS disk susceptibility testing. PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis were successfully used to amplify and identify the genes in the known enterococcal strains to confirm that the primers would in fact isolate and amplify the Van genes. These primers were then used on four strains of S. aureus that were shown to exhibit intermediate resistance using standard disk susceptibility tests. When the PCR product was observed using gel electrophoresis, no bands corresponding to the enterococcal genes were seen. Therefore, the primers do not indicate the presence of the enterococcal vancomycin resistance genes in these strains of S. aureus. Further testing is ongoing.
10:00 Section Business Meeting
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|Title Annotation:||Georgia Academy of Science|
|Publication:||Georgia Journal of Science|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2004|
|Previous Article:||Friday paper presentations.|
|Next Article:||Georgia Academy of Science: affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science.|