Printer Friendly

Salt glands in the Poaceae family and their relationship to salinity tolerance.

Introduction

Soil salinity is an important abiotic stress factor that affects crop productivity all over the world (Ashraf, 1999; Borsani et al., 2003; Chinnusamy et al., 2005; Yadav et al., 2012; Brini & Masmoudi, 2012; Jouyban, 2012). Globally, it has been estimated that more than 800 million hectares of land are affected by salt (Munns & Tester, 2008).

Saline soils are characterized by a high concentration of various soluble salts (Tester

& Davenport, 2003), which impose both water-stress and ion-specific limitations that in turn can result in ion imbalances and plant toxicitys, as outlined in the pioneering review by (Greenway & Munns, 1980). Sodium and chlorine salts are commonly associated with salinity conditions, with most plants being sensitive to excess concentrations of those ions (Tester & Davenport, 2003). Plant adaptation to saline conditions include mechanisms that contribute to access restriction of these and other potentially deleterious ions to metabolically active sites, both at organ (Zhang & Blumwald, 2001; Davenport et al, 2005) and subcellular levels (Sottosanto et al. 2004; Tester & Davenport, 2003), osmotic balance provided by organic or inorganic molecules (Zhang et al, 1999) and reactive oxygen species detoxifying mechanisms (Mittova et al., 2002; Buchanan et al., 2005; Taleisnik et al., 2009)

In some species, excess ions are secreted through structures that have evolved on the surface of the aerial parts (Thomson & Healey, 1984). Salt secretion (also referred to as recretion or excretion) through salt glands plays a significant role in reducing ion concentration in shoots (Waisel, 1972). Saline solutions crystallize above the cuticle and crystals are either blown away or washed off by rain, thus providing an efficient mechanism for removing ions from shoots.

This review focuses on salt glands in the Poaceae family. Structural, ultrastructural and physiological features are summarized and discussed and the use of salt glands as potential target features for improving salt tolerance of crops is discussed.

Salt Gland Occurrence and Evolution in Plants

Halophytic species, which are adapted to grow in highly saline areas, represent about 1 % of the world's flora (Flowers & Colmer, 2008). They can be grouped into three types according to morphological features, ecological behavior and physiological mechanism of tolerance: euhalophytes, pseuhalophytes and recretohalophytes (Breckle, 1995). The latter are characterized by structures that can either excrete salt (salt glands; exo-recretohalophytes) or sequester it (salt bladders; endo-recretohalophytes) and thus remove excess salt from metabolically active tissues (Zhou et al., 2001). In halophytes, these structures play an important role in regulating ion balance, contributing to salinity tolerance (Zhang et al., 2003). Yet, salt glands are not exclusive to halophytes. In Spartina Schreb., for example, salt glands occur in both salt marsh and freshwater species, indicating that they may be an ancestral trait in this genus (Flowers et al, 2010).

The evolution of salt glands is uncertain, and it is unclear whether salt glands evolved from glands that originally performed some other function (Ramadan & Flowers, 2004). As they are found in halophytic species that are not closely related taxonomically, convergent evolution of a common adaptive feature has been suggested (Fahn, 1979; Wahit, 2003).

Three types of glands have been described: the bladder cells of the Chenopodiaceae; the multicellular glands observed in dicotyledonous species of the families Acanthaceae, Aizoaceae, Aveceniaceae, Combretaceae; Convolvulaceae; Frankiaceae, Plumbaginaceae and Tamaricaceae (Waisel, 1972; Wahit, 2003; Kobayashi, 2008; Flowers et al, 2010); and the bicellular glands found in species of the Poaceae family (Liphschitz & Waisel, 1974; Fahn, 1979; Wieneke et al., 1987; Mauseth, 1988; Thomson, 1975; Marcum & Murdoch, 1994; Somaru et al., 2002; Wahit, 2003). In addition, unicellular hairs with salt secretion ability have been observed in some Poaceae, such as Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka and Oyiza sativa L. (Bal & Dutt, 1986; Flowers et al., 1990; Balakrishna, 1995; Latha et al., 2004; Kobayashi, 2008). Bicellular and unicellular glands co-exist in the same leaf in P. coarctata and O. sativa. However, in O. sativa the bicellular glands seem to have low ability to secrete ions, due to the absence of partition membranes (Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988).

Salt Glands in the Poaceae Family

The Poaceae is one of the most important families among angiosperms in terms of morphological diversity, ecology and economic importance (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986; Grass Phytogeny Working Group, 2001; 2012). It includes about 10,000 species and over 700 genera spread all over the world (Tzvelev, 1989; Renvoize & Clayton, 1992; Watson & Dallwitz, 1992; Jacobs et al., 1999; Grass Phylogeny Working Group, 2001; 2012). Species within this family show a very wide variation in terms of salinity tolerance (Marcum, 2008).

Salt glands in grasses were first mentioned as such in the halophytic genus Spartina (Skelding & Winterbotham, 1939), but they had been previously described as hydathodes that secreted salt by Sutherland and Eastwood (1916). Microhairs have been observed in all grass subfamilies, except Pooideae (Liphschitz & Waisel, 1982; Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988; 1989; Kobayashi, 2008), but functioning salt glands are reported only in genera belonging to the Chloridoideae subfamily (Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988; 1989; Liphschitz & Waisel, 1974; Taleisnik & Anton, 1988; Marcum et al., 1998; Ramadan, 2001; Bell & O'Leary. 2003; Chen et al., 2003; Wahit, 2003; Koyro & Huchzermeyer, 2004; Marcum & Pessarakli, 2006; Kobayashi et al, 2007; Hameed et al., 2013).

Within Chloridoideae, salinity tolerance has been associated with excess ion exclusion, accompanied in some cases by ion secretion from leaf salt gland microhairs (Figs, le-f, 2 and 3c), and with accumulation of compatible solutes such as glycine betaine and proline (Marcum & Murdoch, 1994; Marcum, 1999). Chloridoideae is considered to be a specialized group in stressful environments (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986; Columbus et al., 2007; Peterson et al., 2010) and the occurrence of salt glands in this subfamily would support this role (Taleisnik & Anton, 1988).

Anatomical and Functional Features of Salt-Secreting Microhairs

Microhairs in grasses (Figs. 1-3) are small, bicellular structures, ranging from 15 to 70 pm (Marcum et al., 1998; Marcum & Murdoch, 1990; Marcum, 1999; 2008), with relatively thin walls (Metcalfe, 1960); they can be distinguished from macrohairs, which are large, thick-walled, unicellular trichomes. There are also tricellular microhairs in Chloris gayana Kunth (Waisel, 1972; Flowers et al., 1990; Ramadan & Flowers, 2004). These trichomes are termed microhairs by anatomists and salt glands by physiologists (Skelding & Winterbotham, 1939; Liphschitz & Waisel, 1974; 1982; Oross & Thomson, 1982a). Microhairs are found in leaf blades (Tateoka et al., 1959; Metcalfe, 1960; Somaru et al., 2002; Tivano, 2011), leaf sheaths (Somaru et al., 2002; Tivano, 2011), lemmas, paleas and lodicules (Tateoka & Takaji, 1967; Tateoka, 1976; Scholz, 1979; Terrel & Wergin, 1981; Liu et al., 2010; Tivano, 2011), culms (Arriaga, 1992; Tivano, 2011), inflorescence peduncles and inflorescence rachises (Tivano, 2011).

In leaves, salt glands are distributed in intercostal rows, between rows of stomates (Fig. 2a-e), and are normally found on both leaf surfaces (Liu et al., 2006; Barhoumi et al., 2008). The number of salt glands per unit leaf area was reported to be equivalent on the adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis in Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) Parl., Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin. ex Thwaites and Ochthochloa compressa (Forssk.) Hilu (Liu et al., 2006; Barhoumi et al 2008). In some species, gland density may differ between leaf surfaces. In the adaxial surface, it is approximately three times higher in Pappophoram philippianum Parodi than in Pappophorum pappiferum (Lam.) Kuntze (Taleisnik & Anton, 1988); on the abaxial surface, however, gland density is similar in both species. Density may increase in response to salt concentration in the substrate (Naz et al., 2009).

Salt gland basic structure is similar in all genera (Kobayashi, 2008). Each bicellular microhair is composed of a basal cell and a cap cell, attached to or embedded in the leaf epidermis (Levering & Thomson, 1971; Oross & Thomson, 1982a; Naidoo & Naidoo, 1998; Somaru et al., 2002; Barhoumi et al., 2008). The basal cell is the collecting cell whereas the upper cell is the excreting one (Liphschitz & Waisel, 1982). The cap cell commonly protrudes from the leaf surface and the basal cell is embedded in the epidermal cells, with its base in contact with the mesophyll cells (Barhoumi et al., 2008).

Salt glands appear individually (Figs. 2-3), except in Zoysia tenuifolia Thiele, where they are clustered into groups of two or three (Marcum et al, 1998). They can be surrounded by papillae, as in the adaxial epidermis of A. littoralis (Marcum et al., 1998; Marcum, 2008). In the abaxial epidermis of this species, salt glands are protected by trichomes (Barhoumi et al., 2008). In Odyssea paucinervis (Nees) Stapf, each gland is protected by four epidermal trichomes; the salt gland and these four trichomes form the salt gland complex (Somaru et al., 2002). Salt gland microhairs may be located more or less deeply in the epidermis (Distichlis humilis Phil. (Fig. 1e-f), Spartina), with the basal cell semi-embedded (Diplachne fusca (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. (Fig. 2e-f), Cynodon Rich., Tetrapogon Desf.) or arranged above the epidermal cells (Bouteloua aristidoides (Kunth) Griseb. (Fig. 2a-b, Munroa argentina Griseb. (Fig. 2c-d) and Z. tenuifolia) (Liphschitz & Waisel, 1974; Marcum & Murdoch, 1994; Marcum, 1999; Marcum, 2008).

Within a common structural pattern, variations in form, ultrastructure and function of the salt glands have been described (Reeders, 1964; Liphschitz & Waisel, 1982; Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988; Taleisnik & Anton, 1988; Barhoumi et al., 2008). In general, three types of microhairs have been described in Poaceae (Fig. 1): the "Panicoid type" (Fig. 1a-b), the "Enneapogon type" (Figs, 1c-d and 3d) and a third, rare type, the "Chloridoid type" (Figs, le-f, 2 and 3a-c). The Chloridoid type is typical of the Chloridoideae subfamily; the Panicoid type appears in the Panicoideae, Arundinoideae and Bambusoideae subfamilies as well as in a few genera of Chloridoideae (Watson et al., 1985; Watson & Dallwitz, 1994). Different species of the genus Eragrostis Wolf.; however, may exhibit either the Panicoid or Chloridoid type of glands or intermediate forms between these two types (Tateoka et al., 1959; Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988). The Enneapogon microhair type appears in Enneapogon Desv. ex P. Beauv., Cottea Kunth., Kaokochloa De Winter., Schmidtia Steud. ex J.A. Schmidt. (Tateoka et al., 1959; Stewart, 1964; Tivano, 2011) and also in Amphipogon R. Br. (Johnston & Watson, 1976; Watson et al., 1985) and Neeragrostis reptans (Michx.) Nicora (Renvoize, 1985; Nicora & Rugolo de Agrasar, 1987). This microhair type is absent in all species of Pappophorum Schreb. (Stewart 1964).

Two types of microhairs can be distinguished in the Chloridoids, according to the presence of "partitioning membranes" in the basal cell (as in Chloris Sw., Dactyloctenium Willd., Eleusine Gaertn., Leptochloa P. Beauv., Sporobolus R. Br. and Zoysia Willd.) or their absence (as in Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch., Eragrostis parviflora (R. Br.) Trin. and Pogonarthria squarrosa (Roem. & Schult.) Pilg.) (Amarasinghe & Watson, 1989; Amarasinghe, 1990). Partitioning membranes are considered to be crucial for the salt secretion processes in Chloridoid grasses (Levering & Thoompson, 1972; Oross & Thomson 1982a; Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988; Barhoumi et al., 2008). Salt secretion was not detected in any of the microhairs lacking basal cell "partitioning membranes", whereas Chloridoid-type microhairs of Sporobolus elongates R. Br. and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. were not seen to secrete salt, despite the presence of partitioning membranes (Amarasinghe & Watson, 1989; Amarasinghe, 1990).

Taleisnik & Anton (1988) described salt glands in two species of Pappophorum (P philippianum and P. pappiferum). The microhairs present in Pappophorum are Chloridoid type (Caceres, 1958; Renvoize, 1985). The bicellular hairs of Pappophorum (Fig. 3c) are somewhat different from those found in other members of the Pappophoreae (Figs, 1c, d and 3d) (Reeder, 1964). On the basis of these and other characters, this author proposed to locate Pappophorum in a different subtribe from the other genera of the Pappophoreae tribe. It has been widely accepted that the tribe Pappophoreae s.l. is polyphyletic (Columbus et al., 2007; Reutemann et al., 2011). Peterson et al. (2010) proposed the division of this tribe into two subtribes: Cotteinae within Eragrostideae and Pappophorinae within Cynodonteae. The Cotteinae subtribe shows the Enneapogon microhair type (Figs, 1c d and 3d).

Panicoid type microhairs (Fig. la-b) have long, narrow cap cells with a relatively high length/width ratio. The Chloridoid type has a hemispherical cap cell with a relatively low length/width ratio (Figs, le-f and 2 c). Tateoka et al. (1959) characterize the Enneapogon microhair type (Figs, 1c-d and 3d) as having a delicate basal cell with highly varying length and an oblong cap cell of constant length.

Partitioning membranes are an intricate membrane system in the cytoplasm, being the most prominent features of salt gland basal cells (Oross & Thomson 1982a). These irregularly shaped structures are more or less elongated and show no defined orientation (Levering & Thomson, 1971; Oross & Thomson, 1982a; b; 1984; Oross et al., 1985; Naidoo & Naidoo, 1998; Somaru et al., 2002; Barhoumi et al., 2008). They form open channels in the direction of ion flow (Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988). Oross & Thomson (1982b) suggested that they are extensive invaginations of the plasmalemma, so the space between them is actually apoplastic. These authors described an apoplastic continuum between the leaf mesophyll cells and a system of membranous extracellular channels, suggesting that this continuum may function in the absorption of solutes from the apoplast (Oross & Thomson, 1982a; Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988). In Spartina, partitioning membranes extend from wall protuberances that project into the basal cell from the wall between the cap and basal cell (Levering & Thomson, 1971), but such protuberances are absent in Cynodon, Distichlis Raf. and A. littoralis salt glands (Oross and Thomson 1982a; Barhoumi et al., 2008). Partitioning membranes are usually observed in close association with microtubules and resemble endoplasmis reticulum. This led Barhoumi et al. (2008) to hypothesize that partitioning membranes may be modified endoplasmic reticulum rather than an infolding of the plasmalemma, as previously suggested. The basal cell of the Chloridoid microhairs with partitioning membranes has few vacuoles, a large nucleus, a relatively dense cytoplasm with a rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes and numerous mitochondria. Microtubules usually run in parallel with the "partitioning membranes". Compared with basal cells having partitioning membranes, the basal cells of Chloridoid microhairs that lack partitioning membranes show a prominent nucleus but relatively few mitochondria (Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988).

Plasmodesmata are not detected between the basal cell and the neighboring epidermal cells; however, numerous plasmodesmata occur in the common walls between the basal and mesophyll cells in Spartina foliosa Trin. (Levering & Thomson, 1971) and in A. littoralis (Barhoumi et al., 2008). These plasmodesmata are located in restricted and relatively thin zones of the common walls, termed the "transfusion area" (Barhoumi et al., 2008). In Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. cultivar 'Cavalier', a symplastic connection is observed between the salt gland and the neighboring epidermal cells, suggesting a role for the epidemial cells as a reservoir for salt storage before it is transported to the salt glands (Rao, 2011).

As in epidermal cells, salt gland microhairs have cutinized cell walls; the basal cell wall is thicker and more cutinized than the cap cell (Taleisnik & Anton, 1988). The cuticle overlying the microhair is continuous with the adjoining epidermal cells. This cuticle does not fully cover the basal cell (Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988). No cuticular layer was observed between the mesophyll and the basal cell (Levering & Thomson, 1971; Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988). The portion of the cuticle above the cap cell is thicker than that along the sides (Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988). In some genera, the cuticle in the cap cell has numerous pores. In D. fusca, each gland is provided with a centrally located pore (Joshi et al., 1983) through which salt may be secreted.

In the distal end of the microhair, the cuticle is always detached from the cap cell wall, forming a large chamber. This chamber has been observed mainly in Chloridoid type and Enneapogon-type microhairs (Levering & Thomson, 1971; Oross & Thomson, 1982a; Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988; Naidoo & Naidoo, 1998; Somaru et al., 2002; Barhoumi et al., 2008). In salt secretory microhairs, the cuticular chamber functions as a collecting compartment in which salt accumulates before being secreted via the cuticle (Campbell & Thomson, 1976; Fahn, 1979; Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988). In A. littoralis, the collecting chamber is covered by a cuticle about 130 nm thick. Above the protruding portion of the cap cell cuticle, there is an electron-dense layer that is about one half the thickness of the cuticle, which has been suggested to play a protective role (Barhoumi et al., 2008).

Pathway of Ion Transport and Secretion

Ion transport pathways to the basal cell can be apoplastic (Oross & Thomson, 1982b; Oross et al., 1985; Naidoo & Naidoo, 2006) or symplastic (Kobayashi, 2008). The combination of apoplastic and symplastic pathways has also been suggested (Naidoo & Naidoo, 1999, 2006). The apoplastic movement is facilitated by the absence of cutin in the walls between the mesophyll cells and the basal cell of the gland (Levering & Thomson, 1971; Oross & Thomson, 1982a; Naidoo & Naidoo, 1999). Plasmodesmata in the transfusion area between the mesophyll cells and the basal cell may be part of a symplastic ion transport pathway (Levering & Thomson, 1971; Naidoo & Naidoo, 1999; Wahit, 2003; Barhoumi et al., 2008; Kobayashi, 2008). Ions are suggested to move symplastically from the basal to the cap cell, through the abundant plasmodesmata connecting them (Pollak & Waisel, 1970; Levering & Thomson, 1971; Barhoumi et al., 2008). This type of transport is not observed between adjoining epidermal cells and the basal cell, because they are not connected by plasmodesmata (Barhoumi et al., 2008).

Salt accumulation occurs in amorphous vacuoles in the basal and cap cells (Thomson & Liu, 1967; Thomson et al., 1969; Somaru et al., 2002; Barhoumi et al., 2008). These small vacuoles may fuse with the plasmalemma of the cap cell and release their content into the cuticular chamber prior to secretion (Naidoo & Naidoo, 1999; Wahit, 2003). Solutions accumulate in the cuticular chamber and then either they are secreted through the pores in the cuticle or the cuticle may eventually break, releasing the solution on the leaf surface (Naidoo & Naidoo, 1999; Levering & Thomson, 1971). In leaves of C. gayana, microhairs excrete salt continuously through the wax-free cuticle of the cap cell without rupturing the cuticlular structure (Oi et al., 2013a, 2014).

Composition of Secreted Salts

Salt glands of Poaceae secrete a wide variety of ions (Kobayashi, 2008). The type and concentration of secreted ions may vary according to the ion composition of the substrate (Oi et al., 2013b). Salt glands can secrete [Na.sup.+], [K.sup.+], [Ca.sup.+], [Mg.sup.+], [Cl.sup.-] (Thomson, 1975; Liu et al., 2006; Oi et al., 2013b). Salt glands can also secrete some organic substances, such as soluble sugars, amino acids and small proteins (Pollak & Waisel, 1970). Secretion of Na+ and CF is higher than that of other ions (Arisz et al., 1955; Scholander, 1968; Pollak & Waisel, 1970; Joshi et al., 1983; Somaru et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2006; Kobayashi, 2008; Marcum, 2008). The secretion mechanism has a low affinity toward the divalent cations [Ca.sup.+] and [Mg.sup.+] (Pollak & Waisel, 1970; Rozema et al., 1981; Joshi et al., 1983; Wieneke et al., 1987; Ramadan, 2001; Marcum, 2008). The secretion of S[O.sub.4] is scarce and N[O.sub.3] secretion has been observed only in a few species (Klagges et al., 1993; Kobayashi & Masaoka, 2008). A low amount of P04 was been detected in the secretions of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. and Aeluropus pungens (M. Bieb.) K. Koch (McGovern et al, 1979; Chen et al, 2003).

Some species (A. lagopoides) tend to secrete potentially toxic ions and retain physiologically beneficial ions like [Ca.sup.+] and [K.sup.+], whereas other species (O. compressa) excrete all ions, without discrimination between toxic or beneficial (Naz et al., 2009). The salt glands of Rhodes grass can secrete both [Na.sup.+] and [K.sup.+], but [Na.sup.+] secretion is higher (Kobayashi et al., 2007). The application of various ion transport inhibitors to detached leaves suggested different secretion mechanisms for [Na.sup.+] and [K.sup.+] (Kobayashi et al., 2007).

Metal ions, such a [Fe.sup.+], [Se.sup.+], [Fe.sup.+], [Mn.sup.+], [Zn.sup.+], [Cd.sup.+], [Cr.sup.+], [Cu.sup.+], [Hg.sup.+], [Ni.sup.+] and [Pb.sup.+], were detected in the secretions of some species of Poaceae (Krauss et al., 1986; Krauss, 1988; Wu et al., 1997; Burke et al., 2000; Windham et al., 2001; Chen et al., 2003; Kobayashi, 2008). Some metals taken up by plants can be released back to the marsh systems through the secretion from salt glands (Krauss et al. 1986; Krauss, 1988), as reported in the marsh communities of S. alterniflora (Burke et al., 2000). However, secretion rates observed by these authors are far higher than those reported by Krauss et al. (1986) and Krauss (1988).

Salt Gland Secretion Mechanisms

In grasses having active glands, salt crystals can be observed on leaves of plants growing in soils with high salt concentration (Liphschitz & Waisel, 1974; Taleisnik & Anton, 1988; Tivano, 2011). These crystals are an evidence of salt secretion. For instance, salt crystals were quite evident on leaf surfaces of the facultative halophyte P. philippianum in plants grown under saline conditions (Taleisnik & Anton, 1988; Tivano, 2011, Fig. 3a, b), but only a scant secretion was observed in P. pappiferum, a glycophyte (Taleisnik & Anton, 1988).

Several hypotheses for salt gland secretion have been proposed, but up to now the mechanisms involved are still not clear (Shabala, 2013). Ions concentrated in vacuoles may be secreted by exocytosis (Ziegler & Luttge, 1967; Echeverria, 2000). An exocyst protein complex is required for the fusion of the vacuoles to the plasma membrane (Munson & Novick, 2006). The exocyst is involved in the exocytosis of different secretion types (Zhang et al., 2010); however, it is not clear whether it is involved in the mechanism of salt gland secretion in grasses (Ding et al., 2010). These authors propose a model of salt gland secretion in which a vesicle system and membrane-bound transporting proteins are involved. The vesicles may fuse with the plasmalemma and thus salts are excreted, or they may dock onto the plasma membrane without fusion but channels on both membranes would connect them and allow ion secretion to the surface.

Membrane transport proteins play an important role in various processes of salinity tolerance (Bluwald, 2000; Flowers & Colmer, 2008), including the secretion process in salt glands. Almost two decades of extensive molecular studies have clearly established the involvement of NHX, SOS1, and HKT transporters in plant salt tolerance. Although HKT, SOS1 and NI IX transporters have been studied and characterized in several different plant species, until recently no attempts had been made to associate the role of ion transporters with salt gland function. Indeed, the work of Rao (2011) presented the first report on the localization of ion transporters in a plant species bearing salt glands, Z. matrella. The author worked with cultivare 'Diamond' and 'Cavalier'; he observed different spatial leaf expression patterns for isoforms of HKT, SOS, and NHX in both cultivare and suggested the contribution of those patterns to the specific salt tolerance of these cultivare (Rao, 2011).

Salt Secretion and Gland Density

Increasing salt concentration in the substrate increases secretion rates up to an optimal level and then rates decline (Liphschitz & Waisel, 1982). Salinity levels at which maximum secretion rates are observed vary among species. Maximum rates are observed at between 150 and 200 mM NaCl (8-13 dSm-1) in moderately tolerant Chloridoid species, such as Cynodon, Ch. gayana and Eleusine (Wieneke et al. 1987; Liphschitz & Waisel, 1974; Worku & Chapman, 1998); at 200 mM NaCl (17 [dSm.sup.-1]) in Distichlis and Spartina (Liphschitz & Waisel, 1974) and at 300 mM NaCl (23 [dSm.sup.-1]) in Sporobolus (Marcum & Murdoch, 1992).

There is no agreement among authors about the time of the day of highest salt secretion. Hansen et al. (1976) reported that salt secretion in Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene is higher at night. Ramadan (2001) and Marcum (2008) found that salt secretion increased during the night, and contributed to remove salt buildup that occurred during the day. However, Ramadan (1998) reported that more than 67 % of the absorbed salt was secreted by leaves during the day in Reaumuria hirtella Jaub. et Sp. The diurnal or nocturnal patterns of salt secretion may possibly be regulated by still unclear environmental factors. Pollak & Waisel (1979) suggested that prevailing high air humidity and the decrease of water stress may be advantageous for night secretion.

Salt secretion and salt gland density can be controlled by plant hormones and ion transport inhibitors (Kobayashi, 2008). The application of ABA appears to affect the Na-secretion process (Wieneke et al., 1987; Kobayashi, 2008). Treatments with cytokinins increased the number of salt glands in some grass species (Liphschitz & Waisel, 1974; Ramadan and Flowers, 2004). Benzyl adenine (BA) increased secretion through its influence on the number of microhairs and leaf area, rather than by affecting the efficiency of the secretion process per se (Ramadan & Flowers, 2004). Kobayashi et al. (2010) showed that exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alters the density of macrohairs and salt glands in Rhodes grass by reducing leaf area and affecting trichome initiation; macrohair initiation is increased whereas that of salt glands is decreased.

Salt Glands in Salt Tolerance Breeding Programs

Drought and salinity stress are important abiotic factors that limit crop yields (Jiang et al., 2012) and the development of crops that are tolerant to these conditions is a major driver of agricultural research. Specifically, increased crop salt tolerance is a goal for the productive incorporation of salt-affected soils (Roychoudhury & Chakraborty, 2013). Incorporating traits involved in salt tolerance into crop, woody and fodder plants is a target in conventional and biotechnological breeding schemes (Ashraf & Foolad, 2013). Various physiological and molecular mechanisms associated with plant salt tolerance, including those related to osmoregulation, reactive oxygen species detoxification, ion balance control and signaling events, have been introduced into model and crop plants with the purpose of increasing salt tolerance, as recently reviewed by Reguera et al. (2012)

Can knowledge on the salinity tolerance of salt-gland bearing grasses contribute to increasing salt tolerance in crops? At least two possibilities can be suggested:

1. Selecting for higher salt gland density. Salt gland density is an innate, genetically-controlled heritable trait (Marcum, 2008; Rao, 2011). Improved salt tolerance in tetraploid C. gayana cultivare (Perez et al., 2009; Loch & Zorin, 2010) as well as in diploid cultivare (Zorin & Loch, 2007) has been associated with increased salt gland density. Likewise, salinity tolerance was positively correlated with salt secretion and salt gland density in species of Zoysia (Marcum et al., 1998; Marcum, 2008; Rao, 2011) and Sporoholus (Hameed et al., 2013). Salt glands have been found in wild rice (Oiyza coarctata Roxb.) (Bal & Dutt, 1986; Yadav et al., 2012) and crosses with this species may be used to increase salt tolerance in O. sativa.

Salt gland density is easily quantified on grass leaves and may be conveniently implemented as a selection tool in breeding programs (Marcum, 2008).

2. Inducing the development of salt secretion capacity in grass species whose microhairs do not secrete salt. In maize the number of microhairs per unit area of adaxial leaf surface of the youngest leaf almost doubled as salinity increased from zero to 120 mM NaCl, with a 50 % increase in the number of microhairs on the abaxial surface (Ramadan & Flowers, 2004). Though these microhairs do not secrete salt, microhair density was inducible, and the introduction of salt-secreting capability in microhairs would be challenging. There is at least one instance in which secretion of salt appears to have been induced. McGovern et al. (1995) reported the presence of crystals on the leaves of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. This species presents Panicoid-type microhairs that do not usually secrete salts. These microhairs could be induced to secrete salt when plants were grown in a soil mixture that was high in lime (McGovern et al., 1995). Inducing salt-secreting capability in microhairs may be complex due to the involvement of anatomical as well as ion-transport features in salt secretion process. The introduction of ion transporters has been successfully used to increase plant salt tolerance (Zhang & Blumwald, 2001), as highlighted in the review on Na homeostasis by Hasegawa (2013). Introducing ion transport capacity in microhairs would require their control by site-specific transcription factors and the support of increased transport capability in mesophyll cells. These challenges may currently seem unattainable; however, technological development may render them possible in the near future. Cereal microhairs do not have glandular function and are not big enough to sequester excess [Na.sup.+] continuously (Shabala, 2013). Improving salinity tolerance in cereal crops by introducing salt secretion mechanisms relies on the possibility of changing these two features. There is currently little understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate [Na.sup.+] excretion through glands; hence, modifying the number, size and shape of trichomes may be the most practical way to improve [Na.sup.+] balance in leaves of grass crops (Shabala, 2013).

Salt glands have been studied for many years and are recognized as an integral part of the complex picture of plant salt tolerance. Further attention to the specific molecular components of the salt-secretion mechanism in salt glands and biotechnological attempts to introduce them into non-secreting microhairs will undoubtedly contribute to an increase in salt tolerance in grass crops.

DOI 10.1007/s 12229-015-9153-7

Literature Cited

Amarasinghe, V. 1990. Polysaccharide and protein secretion by grass microhairs. A cytochemical study at light and electron micro-scopic levels. Protoplasma 156: 45-56.

-- & L. Watson. 1988. Comparative ultrastructure of microhairs in grasses. Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 98: 303-319.

-- & --. 1989. Variation in salt secretory activity of microhairs in grasses. Australian journal of plant physiology 16: 219-229.

Arisz, W. H., I. J. Camphuis, H. Heikens & A. J. Vantooren. 1955. The secretion of the salt glands of Limonium latifolium Ktze. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 4: 321-338.

Arriaga, M. O. 1992. Salt glands in flowering culms of Eriochloa species (Poaccac). Bothalia 22: 11 l-l 17.

Ashraf, M. 1999. Breeding for salinity tolerance proteins in plants. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 13: 1742.

-- & M. R. Foolad. 2013. Crop breeding for salt tolerance in the era of molecular markers and marker assisted selection. Plant Breeding 132: 10-20.

Bal, A. R. & S. K. Dutt. 1986. Mechanism of salt tolerance in wild rice (Oryza coarctata Roxb.). Plant and Soil 92: 399-404.

Balakrishna, P. 1995. Screening of salt-tolerant varieties of rice (Oryza sativa) through scanning electron microscopy and ion analysis. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 65: 896-899.

Barhoumi, Z., W. Djebali, C. Abdelly, W. Chaibi & A. Smaoui. 2008. Ultrastructure of Aeluropus littoralis leaf salt glands under NaCl stress. Protoplasma 233: 195-202.

Bell, H. L. & J. VV. O'Leary. 2003. Effects of salinity on growth and cation accumulation of Sporobolus virginicus. American Journal of Botany 90: 1416-1424.

Bluwald, E. 2000. Sodium transport and salt tolerance in plants. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 12: 431-434.

Borsani, O., V. Valpuesta & M. A. Botella. 2003. Developing salt tolerant plants in a new century: a molecular biology approach. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 73: 101-115.

Breckle, S. W. 1995. How do halophytes overcome salinity? In: M. A. Khann & I. A. Ungar (Eds.). Biology of Salt Tolerant Plants. 199-213.

Brini, F. & K. Masmoudi. 2012. Ion Transporters and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plant. ISRN Molecular Biology 2012: 1-13.

Buchanan, C. D., S. Lim, R. A. Salzman, I. Kagiampakis, D. T. Morishige & B. D. Weers. 2005. Sorghum bicolor's transcriptome response to dehydration, high salinity and ABA. Plant Mol. Biol. 200: 699-720.

Burke, D. J., J. S. Weis & P. Weis. 2000. Release of metals by the leaves of the salt marsh grasses Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 51: 153-159.

Caceres, M. R. 1958. La anatomia foliar dc las "Pappophoreae" do Mendoza y su valor taxonomico. Revista Argentina dc Agronomia 25: 1-11.

Campbell, N. & W. W. Thomson. 1976. The ultrastructural basis of chloride tolerance in the leaf of Frankenia. Annals of Botany 40: 687-693.

Chen, Y., H. Wang, S. F Zhang & H. X. Jia. 2003. The effects of silicon on ionic distribution and physiological characteristic of Aeluropus pungens under salinity conditions. Acta Phytoccologica Sinica 27: 189-195.

Chinnusamy, V., A. Jagendorf & J. Zhu. 2005. Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Science Society of America 45: 437-448.

Clayton, W. D. & S. A. Renvoize. 1986. Genera Graminum, grasses of the world. Kew bulletin additional series 13.

Columbus, J. T., R. Cerros-Tlatilpa, M. S. Kinney, M. E. Siqueiros-Delgado, H. E. Bell, M. P. Griffith & N. F. Refulio-Rodriguez. 2007. Phylogenetics of Chloridoideae (Gramineae): a preliminary study based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast trnL-F sequences. Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany 23: 565-579.

Davenport, R., R. A. James, A. Zakrisson-Plogander, M. Tester & R. Munns. 2005. Control of sodium transport in durum wheat Plant Physiology 137: 807-818.

Ding, F., J. Yang, F. Yuan & B. Wang. 2010. Progress in mechanism of salt excretion in recretohalopytes. Frontiers of biology 5: 164-170.

Echeverria, E. 2000. Vesicle-mediated solute transport between the vacuole and the plasma membrane. Plant Physiology 123: 1217-1226.

Fahn, A. 1979. Secretory tissues in plants. Academic Press.

Flowers, T. J. & T. D. Colmer. 2008. Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytologist 179: 945-963.

--, S. A. Flowers, M. A. Hajibagheri & A. R. Yeo. 1990. Salt tolerance in the halophytic wild rice, Porterecia coarctata Tateoka. New Phytologist 114: 675-684.

--, H. K. Galal & L. Bromham. 2010. Evolution of halophytes: multiple origins of salt tolerance in land plants. Functional Plant Biology 37: 604-612.

Grass Phylogeny Working Group (GPWG). 2001. Phytogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88: 373-457.

--. 2012. New grass phylogeny resolves deep evolutionary relationships and discovers C4 origins. New Phytologist 193: 304-312.

Greenway, H. & R. Munns. 1980. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in non halophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular 31: 149-190.

Hameed, M., M. Ashraf, N. Naz, T. Nawaz, R. Batool, M. S. Ahmad, F. Ahmad & M. Hussain. 2013. Anatomical adaptations of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. from the salt range (Pakistan) to salinity stress. II. Leaf anatomy. Pakistan Journal of Botany 45: 133-142.

Hansen, D. J., P. Dayanandan, P. B. Kaufman & J. D. Brotherson. 1976. Ecological adaptation of salt marsh grass, Distichlis spicata (Gramineae), and environmental factors affecting its growth and distribution. American Journal of Botany 63: 635-650.

Hasegawa, P. M. 2013. Sodium ([Na.sup.+]) homeostasis and salt tolerance of plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 92: 19-31.

Jacobs, B. F., J. D. Kingston & I. I. Jacobs. 1999. The origin of grass-dominated ecosystems. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86: 590-643.

Jiang, C., E. J. Belfield, A. Mithani, A. Visscher, J. Ragoussis, R. Mott, J. A. C. Smith & N. P. Harberd. 2012. ROS-mediated vascular homeostatic control of root-to-shoot soil Na delivery in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 31:4359-4370.

Johnston, C. R. & L. Watson. 1976. Microhairs: a universal characteristic of non-festucoid grass genera? Phytomorphology 26: 297-301.

Joshi, Y. C., R. Snehi Dwivedi, A. R. Bal & A. Qadar. 1983. Salt excretion in Diplachne fusca (Linn.) P-Beauv. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 26: 203-208.

Jouyban, Z. 2012. The Effects of Salt stress on plant growth. Journal of Applied Science & Engineering Technology 2: 7-10.

Klagges, S., A. S. Bhatti, G. Sarwar, A. Hilpert & W. D. Jeschke. 1993. Ion distribution in relation to leaf age in Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth. II. Anions. New Phytologist 125: 521-528.

Kobayashi, H. 2008. Ion secretion via salt glands in Poaceae. Japan Journal of Plant Science 2: 1-8.

-- & Y. Masaoka. 2008. Salt secretion in Rhodes Grass (Choris gayana Kunth) under conditions of excess magnesium. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 54: 393-399.

--, --, Y. Takahashi, Y. Ide & S. Sato. 2007. Ability of salt glands in Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) to secrete [Na.sup.+] and [K.sup.+]. Soil Science & Plant Nutrition 53: 764-771.

--, M. Yanaka & T. M. Ikeda. 2010. Exogenous methyl jasmonate alters trichome density on leaf surfaces of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 29: 506-511.

Koyro, H. W. & B. Huchzermeyer. 2004. Ecophysiological needs of the potential biomass crop Spartina townsendii Grov. Tropical Ecology 45: 123-139.

Krauss, M. L. 1988. Accumulations and excretion of five heavy metals by the salt-marsh Cord grass Spartina townsendii Grov. Tropical Ecology 45: 123-139.

--, P. Weis & J. H. Crow. 1986. The excretion of heavy metals by the salt marsh Cord grass Spartina alterniflora and Spartina's role in mercury cicling. Marine Environmental Research 20: 307-316.

Latha, R., C. S. Rao, H. M. S. Subramaniam, P. Eganathan & M. S. Swaminatham. 2004. Approach to breeding for salinity tolerance--a ease study on Porteresia coarctata. Annals of Applied Biology 144: 177-184.

Levering, C. A. & W. VV. Thomson. 1971. The ultrastructure of the salt gland of Spartina foliosa. Planta 97: 183-196.

-- & --. 1972 Studies on the ultrastructure and mechanism of secretion of the salt gland of the grass Spartina. Proceedings of the 30th Electron Microscopy Society of America: 222-223.

Liphschitz, N. & Y. Waisel. 1974. Existence of salt glands in various genera of the gramineae. New Phytologist 73: 507-513.

-- & --, 1982. Adaptation of plants to saline environments: salt excretion and glandular structure. Pp 187-214. In: D. N. Sen & K. S. Rajpurohit (eds). Contributions of the Ecology of Halophytes, Vol. 2. Springer, Netherlands.

Liu, Z. H., L. R. Shi & K. F. Zhao. 2006. The morphological structure of salt gland and salt secretion in Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux. Journal of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology 32: 420426.

Liu, Q., D. X. Zhang & P. M. Peterson. 2010. Lemma micromorphological characters in the Chloridoideae (Poaccac) optimized on a molecular phylogeny. South African Journal of Botany 76: 196-209.

Loch, D. S. & M. Zorin. 2010. Development of new tetraploid Chloris gayana cultivara with improved salt tolerance from 'Callide' and 'Samford'. Pp 190-194. In: G. R. Smith, G. W. Evers, & L. R. Nelson (eds). Proceedings of the 7th International Herbage Seed Conference. Texas A & M University, Dallas, United States.

Marcum, K. B. 1999. Salinity tolerance mechanisms of grasses in the subfamily Chloridoideae. Crop Science Society of America 39: 1153-1160.

--2008. Saline tolerance physiology in grasses In: M. A. Khan & D. J. Weber (Eds.). Ecophysiology of High Salinity Tolerant Plants. 157-172. Springer Series.

-- & C. L. Murdoch. 1990. Growth responses, ion relations, and osmotic adaptations of eleven C4 turfgrasses to salinity. Agronomy Journal 82: 892-896.

-- & --, 1992. Salt tolerance of the coastal salt marsh grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth. The New Phytologist 120: 281-288.

-- & --. 1994. Salinity Tolerance Mechanisms of Six C4 Turfgrasses. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119: 779-784.

-- & M. Pessarakli. 2006. Salinity tolerance and salt gland excretion activity of bermudagrass turf cultivars. Crop Science Society of America 46: 2571-2574.

--, S. J. Anderson & M. C. Engelke. 1998. Salt gland ion secretion: a salinity tolerance mechanism among five zoysiagrass species. Crop Science Society of America 38: 806-810.

Mauseth, J. D. 1988. Plant Anatomy. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. Inc, California.

McGovern, T. A., L. J. Laver & B. C. Gram. 1979. Characteristics of the salt secreted by Spartina alterniflora and their relation to estuarine production. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 9: 352-276.

--, R. N. Paul & J. C. Ouzts. 1995. Bicellular trichomes of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) leaves morphology, histochemistry and function. Weed Science Society of America 43: 201-208.

Metcalfe, C. R. 1960. Anatomy of the monocotyledons, Volume 1 Gramineae. Oxford, London, UK.

Mittova, V., M. Tal, M. Volokita & M. Guy. 2002. Salt stress induces up-regulation of an efficient chloroplast antioxidant system in the salt-tolerant wild tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii but not in the cultivated species. Physiologia Plantarum 115: 393-400.

Munns, R. & M. Tester. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59: 651-681.

Munson, M. & P. Novick. 2006. The exocyst defrocked, a framework of rods revealed. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 13: 577-581.

Naidoo, Y. & G. Naidoo. 1998. Salt glands of Sporobolus virginicus: morphology and ultrastructure. South African Journal of Botany 64: 198-204.

-- & --. 1999. Cytochemical localisation of adenosine triphosphatase activity in salt glands of Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth. South African Journal of Botany 65: 370-373.

-- & --. 2006. Localization of potential ion transport pathways in the salt glands of the halophyte Sporobolus virginicus. Pp 173-185. In: M. A. Khan & D. J. Weber (eds). Ecophysiology of High Salinity Tolerant Plants. Springer, Dordrecht.

Naz, N., M. Hameed, A. Wahid, M. Arshad, A. Ahmad & M. Sajid. 2009. Patterns of ion excretion and survival in two stoloniferous arid zone grasses. Physiologia plantarum 135: 185-195.

Nicora, E. G. & Z. E. Rugolo de Agrasar. 1987. Los generos de Gramineas de America Austral. Editorial Hemisferio Sur, Buenos Aires. 611 p.

Oi, T., K. Hirunagi, M. Taniguchi & H. Miyake. 2013a. Salt excretion from the salt glands in Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) as evidenced by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy. Flora 208: 52-57.

--, T. M. Sasagawa, M. Taniguchi & H. Miyake. 2013b. Growth and salt excretion via the salt glands of Rhodes grass in the soil damaged by the Tsunami. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 82: 378-389.

--, H. Miyake & M. Taniguchi. 2014. Salt excretion through the cuticle without disintegration of fine structures in the salt glands of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth). Flora 209: 185-190.

Oross, J. W. & W. W. Thomson. 1982a. The ultrastructure of the salt glands of Cynodon and Distichlis (Poaccac). American Journal of Botany 69: 939-949.

-- & --. 1982b. The ultrastructure of Cynodon salt glands: the apoplast. European Journal of Cell Biology 28: 257-263.

-- & --. 1984. The ultrastructure of Cynodon salt gland: secreting and nonsecreting. European Journal of Cell Biology 34: 287-291.

--, R. T. Leonard & W. VV. Thomson. 1985. Flux rate and a secretion model for salt glands of grasses. Israel Journal of Botany 34: 69-77.

Perez, H., E. Taleisnik & R. Peman. 2009. Development of a tetraploid salt-tolerant Chloris gayana cultivar. In: E. G. Corte (ed). II Simposio Internacional sobre Melhoramento de Forrageiras. Embrapa Gado de Corte, Campo Grande, Brazil.

Peterson, P. M., K. Romaschenko & G. Johnson. 2010. A classification of the Chloridoideae (Poaccac) based on multi-gene phylogenetic trees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55: 580-598.

Pollak, G. & Y. Waisel. 1970. Salt secretion in Aeluropus litoralis (Willd.) Pari. Annals of Botany 34: 879-888.

--& --. 1979. Ecophysiology of salt secretion in Aeluropus litoralis (Gramineae). Physiologia Plantarum 47: 17-184.

Ramadan, T. 1998. Ecophysiology of salt secretion in the xero- halophyte Reaumuria hirtella. New Phytologist 139: 273-281.

--2001. Dynamics of salt secretion by Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl) Kunth from sites of differing salinity. Annals of Botany 87: 259-266.

--& T. J. Flowers. 2004. Effects of salinity and benzyladenine on development and function of microhairs of Zea mays L. Planta 219: 639-648.

Rao, S. 2011. Ph.D. MEPS. Elucidation of mechanisms of salinity tolerance in Zoysia matrella cultivare--A study of structure and function of salt glands. M. Binzel, Chair.

Reeder, J. R. 1964. The tribe Orcuttieae and the subtribes of the Pappophoreae. (Gramineae). Madrono 18: 18-28.

Reguera, M., Z. Peleg & E. Blumwald. 2012. Targeting metabolic pathways for genetic engineering abiotic stress-tolerance in crops. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta (BBA)--Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1819: 186-194.

Renvoize, S. A. 1985. A survey of leaf blade anatomy in grasses. VI. Stipeae. Kew Bulletin 40: 731-736.

--& W. D. Clayton. 1992. Classification and Evolution of the grasses. Pp 3-37. In: J. P. Chapman (ed). Grass Evolution and Domestication. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Reutemann, A. G., L. Lucero, J. C. Tivano, L. Giussiani & A. C. Vegetti. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships within Pappophoreae s.l. (Poaccac: Chloridoideae): additional evidences based on ITS and trnL-F sequence data. South African Journal of Botany 77: 693-702.

Roychoudhury, A. & M. Chakraborty. 2013. Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Varietal Difference in Plant Salt Tolerance. Annual Review & Research in Biology 3: 422-454.

Rozema, J., H. Gude & G. Pollak. 1981. An ccophysiological study of the salt secretion of four halophytes. New Phytologist 89: 201-217.

Scholander, P. F. 1968. How mangroves desalinate seawater. Physiologia Plantarum 21: 251-261.

Scholz, H. 1979. Bottle like microhairs in the genus Panicum (Gramineae). Willdenowia 8: 511-515.

Shabala, S. 2013. Learning from halophytes: physiological basis and strategics to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops. Annals of Botany 112: 1-13.

Skelding, A. D. & J. Winterbotham. 1939. The structure and development of the hydathodes of Spartina townsendii Groves. New Phytologist 38: 69-79.

Somaru, R., Y. Naidoo & G. Naidoo. 2002. Morphology and ultrastructure of the leaf salt glands of Odyssea paucinervis (Stapf) (Poaccac). Flora 197: 67-75.

Sottosanto, J. B., A. Gelli & E. Blumwald. 2004. DNA array analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana lacking a vacuolar [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiporter: Impact of AtNHXI on gene expression. The Plant Journal 40: 752-771.

Stewart, D. R. M. 1964. Stalked glandular hairs in Pappophoreae (Gramineae). Annals of Botany 28: 565-567.

Sutherland, G. K. & A. Eastwood. 1916. The physiological anatomy of Spartina townsendii. Annals of Botany 30: 333-350.

Taleisnik, E. L. & A. M. Anton. 1988. Salt glands in Pappophorum (Poaccac). Annals of Botany 62: 383-388.

--, A. A. Rodriguez, D. Bustos, L. S. Erdei, L. Ortega & M. E. Senn. 2009. Leaf expansion in grasses under salt stress. Journal of Plant Physiology 166: 1123-1140.

Tateoka, Y. 1976. Histogenesis of lemma in Japonica paddy rice. Preocceding of the Crop Science Society of Japan 45: 369-581.

--& T. Takaji. 1967. Notes on some grasses XIX: systematic significance of microhairs on lodicules epidermis. Botanical Magazine of Tokyo 80: 394-403.

--, S. Inoue & S. Kawano. 1959. Notes on some grasses IX: systematic significance of bicellular microhairs of leaf epidermis. Botanical Gazette 121: 80-91.

Terrel, E. E. & W. P. Wergin. 1981. Epidermal features and silica deposition in lemmas and awns of Zizania (Gramineae). American Journal of Botany 68: 697-707.

Tester, M. & R. Davenport. 2003. [Na.sup.+] tolerance and [Na.sup.+] transport in higher plants. Annals of Botany 91: 503-527.

Thomson, W. W. 1975. The structure and Junction of salt glands. Pp 118-148. In: A. Poljakoffmayber & J. Gale (eds). Plants in saline environments. Springer, Berlin.

--& L. L. Liu. 1967. Ultrastructural features of the salt gland of Tamarix aphylla L. Planta 73: 201-220.

--& P. L. Healey. 1984. Celular basis of trichome secretion. In: E. Rodriguez, P. L. Healy & I. Mehta (Eds.) Biology and chemistry of plant. 95-111. Plenum Publishing Corporation.

--, W. L. Berry & L. L. Liu. 1969. Localization and secretion of salt by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla. Botany 63: 310-317.

Tivano, J. C. 2011. Formas de crecimiento en la tribu Pappophoreac s. l. (Chloridoideae-Poaccac). Tesis doctoral. Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina).

Tzvelev, N. N. 1989. The system of grasses (Poaceae) and their evolution. Botanical Review 55: 141-204.

Wahit, A. 2003. Physiological significance of morpho-anatomical features of halophytes with particular reference to Cholistan Flora. International journal of agriculture & biology 5: 207-212.

Waisel, Y. 1972. Biology of halophytes. Academic, New York and London.

Watson, L. & M. J. Dallwitz. 1992. The Grass Genera of the World. C.A.B.. International, Wallingford, UK.

-- & --. 1994. The Grass Genera of the World. CAB International, Cambridge.

--, H. T. Clifford & M. J. Dallwitz. 1985. The classification of Poaccac: subfamilies and supertribes. Australian Journal of Botany 33: 433-484.

Wieneke, J., G. Sarwar & M. Roeb. 1987. Existence of salt glands on leaves of Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca L. Kunth). Journal of Plant Nutrition 10: 805-820.

Windham, L., J. S. Weis & P. Weis. 2001. Patterns and processes of mercury release from leaves of two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Pragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora. Estuaries 24: 787-795.

Worku, W. & G. P. Chapman. 1998. The salt secretion physiology of the Chloridoid grass, Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers and its implications. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science 21: 1-16.

Wu, Y., J. Kuzma, E. Marechal, R. Graeff, H. C. Lee, R. Foster & N. H. Chua. 1997. Abscisic acid signaling through cyclic ADP-ribose in plants. Science 278: 2126-2130.

Yadav, N. S., P. S. Shukla, A. Jha, P. K. Agarwal & B. Jha. 2012. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances [Na.sup.+] loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco. BMC plant biology 12: 188.

Zhang, H. X. & E. Blumwald. 2001. Transgenic salt-tolerant tomato plants accumulate salt in foliage but not in fruit. Nature Biotechnology 19: 765-768.

--, H. Nguyen & A. Blum. 1999. Genetic analysis of osmotic adjustment in crop plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 50: 291-302.

--, L. K. Yin & B. R. Pan. 2003. A review on the study of salt glands of Tamarix. Acta Botanica Borcali-Occidentalia Sinica 23: 190-194.

--, C. M. Liu, A. M. C. Emons & T. Ketelaar. 2010. The plant exocyst. Journal of integrative plant biology 52: 138-146.

Zhou, S., J. L. Han & K. F. Zhao. 2001. Advance of study on recretohalophytes. Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology 7: 496-501.

Ziegler, H. & U. Luttge. 1967. Die Salzdrusen von Limonium vulgare. II- Mitteilung: Die Lokalisierung des Chlorids. Planta 74: 1-17.

Zorin, M. & D. S. Loch. 2007. Development of new Chloris gayana cultivare with improved salt tolerance from 'Finecut' and 'Topcut'. Pp 92-96. In: T. S. Aamlid, L. T. Havstsad, & B. Boelt (eds). Proceedings Sixth International Herbage Seed Conference. Gjennestad, Norway.

Gabriel Ceccoli (1,4 1,4) * Julio Ramos (2,4 2,4) * Vanesa Pilatti (2,4 2,4) * Ignacio Dellaferrera (3,4 3,4) * Juan C. Tivano (2 2) * Edith Taleisnik (4,5 4,5) * Abelardo C. Vegetti (2,4,6)

(1) Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultad do Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina

(2) Morfologia Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina

(3) Cultivos Extensivos, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina

(4) CONICET, Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de la Republica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina

(5) Instituto de Fisiologia y Recursos Geneticos Vegetales--Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (IFRGV-CIAP, formerly IFFIVE) INTA (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria), Cordoba, Argentina

(6) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: avegetti@fea.unl.edu.ar

Published online: 17 April 2015

Gabriel Ceccoli and Julio Ramos are joint first authors.
COPYRIGHT 2015 New York Botanical Garden
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Ceccoli, Gabriel; Ramos, Julio; Pilatti, Vanesa; Dellaferrera, Ignacio; Tivano, Juan C.; Taleisnik,
Publication:The Botanical Review
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2015
Words:8126
Previous Article:Lateral meristems responsible for secondary growth of the monocotyledons: a survey of the state of the art.
Next Article:Inflorescence structure in Koyamaeae and its relationship with Sclerieae, Bisboeckelereae, Cryptagieae and Trilepideae tribes...
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters