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Salpe's PAIGNIA: Athenaeus 322A and Plin. 'H.N.' 28.38.

Pauly's Real-Encyclopadie knows of two women named after the attractive looking, but allegedly unappetising fish, [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The first is mentioned several times in the elder Pliny, who on one occasion refers to her as an obstetrix,(1) while the second features in the Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus as a writer of [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].(2) In a recent issue of this journal J. N. Davidson has made the suggestion that they were one and the same person.(3) Salpe's [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Davidson argues, would not have consisted of light or frivolous verse, but of a compilation of prose recipes of a kind that is to be found in a section of a London magical papyrus which is headed [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].(4) Such recipes might well have cohabited with the kind of practical medical advice reportedly given by the Salpe referred to in Pliny. His case is superficially attractive since, as will be seen, such a collocation of practical help and frivolity is easy to parallel in magical and other subliterary texts. It needs to be scrutinized, however, in the light of a fuller presentation and consideration of the evidence than is to be found in his note. First, it is worth describing at greater length the phenomena in question, which are much more common than one would gather from a reading of Davidson and which are, I suspect, not as yet as familiar to the scholarly world as they should be.


The above-mentioned [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] consists of twelve prescriptions with for the most part frivolous or dubious ends: to make bronze look like gold, to make an egg look like a quince,(5) to cause a cook not to be able to light his stove, to eat garlic without acquiring bad breath, to prevent an old woman from talking or drinking too much, to make gladiators depicted in a painting (on the glasses) appear to engage in a real fight, to be scalded despite eating cold food, to benefit people who have difficulty mixing socially (or couples who have sexual difficulties?), to drink a lot and not get drunk, not to become thirsty when travelling, to be able to fuck ([GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) a lot, and to have an erection at will. Such tricks and spells can easily be paralleled both from papyri and from literature, and are often explicitly designated as intended for performance at symposia.(6) The most extensive collection is to be found in Psellus' [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].(7) Here we have sixteen tricks that it is permissible to perform without impiety: catching fish, ensuring the success of a fighting cock, creating the illusion that a black man is present at a symposium, smashing a nut with bare hands, avoiding pain when walking, making an egg purple, manipulating lead and tin, splitting an anvil, preventing a cock from crowing, writing on water, finding whether or not a girl is a virgin, not to feel sleepy despite suffering from insomnia, changing water into wine, smashing iron, causing a woman looking into a mirror to see her nose as an ass's snout, and dividing an egg. Elsewhere there are six items found in a Yale papyrus which present material of a character very similar to the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].(8) The first describes a method of sustaining an erection, the second (possibly) how to pick up a partner at the baths, the third how to `play' with a woman, the fourth how to cause a fight(9) to break out at a symposium, the fifth how to turn cheap wine sour, and the sixth how to be able to fuck ([GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) many times.(10)

A further example of a text of the kind postulated by Davidson, where recipes which involve illusion and/or mischief are combined with recipes aiming at more practical ends, is to be found in the still relatively little known medico-magical work entitled Cyranides.(11) This work, as well as containing prescriptions for cures, for personal hygiene, for cosmetic improvement, and for self-advancement, presents items involving illusion and mischief. For example, at 2.31.25ff. we are offered a recipe which induces non-stop farting in a woman. Another recipe creates the illusion that the sea has flooded the room in which a symposium is taking place (2.40.19ff).(12) At 3.13.6ff. the symposiasts are sent to sleep, while at 1.8.13ff. they are tricked into thinking that they are drunk (presumably thereby greatly reducing the host's drink bills).(13)


Davidson merely paraphrases the passage from Athenaeus which informs us of the existence of Salpe's [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. This is unfortunate, since in some respects his paraphrase is inexact and misleading. For instance, we shall see that Athenaeus does something more specific than just `associate' the [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of Salpe with Botrys of Messana.

The passage in question must be examined in detail. It runs as follows:


The speaker, Ulpian, reports a disagreement over the attribution of a work which may well have circulated under the title [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and goes on to say that the first person to write a work of this kind was a certain Botrys. [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a catch-all title.(16) It can been applied to light verse, whether pastoral,(17) epigrammatic,(18) or satirical, (19) A mime or comedy might be referred to as a [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],(20) but so also might a piece of frivolous prose.(21) Does the language used by Athenaeus enable us to determine the likely content of the work in question? Was it written in prose or, as has been more commonly assumed, in verse?(22) Of the two words used in this passage to denote composition, [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the first strongly suggests prose.(23) The other, [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] however, is freely used of any sort of composition.(24) Neither of these expressions is decisive since one might in this instance take [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to mean `ordering a collection' (compare [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). Athenaeus does at least tell us that the nickname [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII](25) was given to Mnaseas because of the variety of the work composed by him (a detail Davidson neglects to mention). The statement that Botrys was [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII](26) [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is more helpful. It first of all suggests a special category of work called [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Secondly, there exists external evidence regarding Botrys. He recurs in Polybius' famous quotation of Timaeus:


This additional reference to Botrys confirms beyond doubt that he was a writer of prose and almost certainly disposes of Davidson's conjecture that the work variously attributed to [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII](28) was a collection of recipes. Here Botrys' work is referred to not as [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], but as [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] a most unlikely title either for a verse-book or for a collection of recipes.(29) The work is associated by Timaeus with pornographic writing in general and, in particular, with the notorious Philainis.(30)


Davidson also advances a novel idea about the meaning of [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in works containing recipes of the kind found in pseudo-Democritus and postulated by him for Salpe. For him, playfulness or frivolity is not a compelling description of the kind of recipes found in `Democritus' and the recipes of Salpe obstetrix cited by Pliny.(32) What is at issue rather is simplicity: `it is more cogent to relate the title to the simplicity which characterizes all the recipes in the collection'.(33)

Davidson cites LSJ s. v. where the meaning of [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Euphro comicus fr. 1.35 is given as `child's play', noted as a metaphorical usage, but in this passage (not quoted by Davidson) [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] retains its basic meaning of non-serious activity or non-serious artifact, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs in the final line of a speech delivered by a cook:


The last four lines of this fragment are very obscure,(34) but it is at any rate certain that a second achievement of a pupil of the cook is being contrasted with an earlier one. Notice that the contrast is basically between the serious ([GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) and the non-serious ([GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). There may be a connotation of easiness in the latter, but [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] here hardly deserves its separate entry in LSJ.

Davidson tries to support his interpretation of Salpe's title by reference to Pliny's description(35) of a work by the otherwise unknown Marcion of Smyrna, qui de simplicibus effectibus scripsit (Plin. H.N. 28.38, occurring a little before the first mention of Salpe in Pliny). What is meant by qui de simplicibus effectibus scripsit is a genuine puzzle, but I cannot accept that it means what Davidson wants it to mean;(36) simplex is not a synonym of facilis. Translators of Pliny take simplicibus to be referring to single, non-compound ingredients used for healing or other purposes. They translate as if the reading was simplicium,(37) and indeed Dalecampius restored that word by emendation.

Davidson does not take into account a most powerful obstacle against his suggestion: Pliny himself took [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to mean `playful tricks'. The Pythagorean Anaxilaus of Larissa who was expelled from Rome in 28 n.c. and was clearly regarded as a kind of magician wrote or collected [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].(38) These are referred to explicitly as [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] by Epiphanius, bishop of Constance, following and partially a lost passage from Saint Irenaeus adv. haer.(39) (the Latin translation of this last work has at this point ludicra).(40) Pliny, in referring to one of Anaxilaus' tricks, uses the word ludo:

lusit et Anaxilaus (fr. 3 Wellmann) eo (sc. sulphure), addens in calicem uini prunaque subdita circumferens, exardescentis repercussu pallorem dirum uelut defunctorum effundente in conuiuiis.(41)


In summarizing Salpe's final appearance in the Historia Naturalis, Davidson does not do full justice to the import of the text.(42) Describing the use of parts of the tunny as a depilatory,(43) Pliny says of Salpe that she ita pueros mangonicauit.(44) This is clearly a reference to the slave trade. On the face of it, it also looks like a reference to a known person who herself dealt in slaves or else assisted slave dealers.(45) We have no evidence that midwives were also merchants of flesh, although this would be one possible interpretation of Pliny's text. There is, however, testimony which indicates that slaves were inspected medically before sale and that is what may be in question here.(46) As well as doctors, Salpe and other midwives may have been called in by slave dealers on such occasions, mangonicauit in the passage in question would not then refer to Salpe acting on her own behalf as an independent businesswoman, but to a paid service performed in the capacity of a consultant.


Davidson assumes that the name or nickname Salpe must be opprobrious.(47) As we have seen, this was not the case when it was applied to Mnaseas. Nor need it be the case with the obstetrix who appears in Pliny. The saupe, whatever one thinks of its eating habits, is by any standards a beautiful fish.(48) It is described as [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the Cyranides.(49) If the idea of a beautiful midwife(50) so dubbed by her contemporaries or of a midwife whose parents gave her this name in the hope that she would turn out to be beautiful does not appeal, another line of approach might be tried. Perhaps in this connection it is worth pointing out that almost every time the word [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs in the Cyranides, it is in a sexual context. The bezoar in the right side of the head of the [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], worn as an amulet, creates an erection, while the one in the left side prevents one.(51) Its suet along with honey creates sexual ecstasy when rubbed on the genitals of the partners in intercourse.(52) The fish is depicted on an amulet whose purpose, apart from aiding the digestion and bestowing charm on the wearer, is to ensure erections for the aged and those wishing to indulge frequently in intercourse.(53) If the [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and its parts were notoriously effective as aphrodisiacs, might not its name have been thought suitable for a midwife who compiled a collection of recipes some of which presumably contained advice on sexual matters?

(*) I am grateful to Mary Beagon and K.-D. Fischer for reading and commenting on an earlier draft of this note and also to the journal's anonymous referee, particularly for the reference supplied regarding the medical inspection of slaves before they are sold (note 46). Jim Adams and David Langslow were kind enough to discuss with me passages from Pliny and Celsus.

(1) Plin. H.N. 28.38, 66, 82, 262; 32.135, 140, RE 1 A 2, Salpe (1). Though she is only once mentioned by name as an obstetrix, she must be included in the obstetricum nobilitas of Plin. H.N. 28.67.

(2) Athen. 322a, RE 1 A 2, Salpe (2).

(3) J. N. Davidson, `Don't try this at home: Pliny's Salpe, Salpe's Paignia and magic', CQ n.s. 45 (1995), 590-2. The connection between Salpe's [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of `Democritus' had already been made by M. Wellmann, Die Georgika des Demokritos, SPAW (1921), 29 n. 3. He suggested that, like Laevius', they might have been erotopaignia, but certainly assumed that they were written in prose.

(4) PGM 7. 167-86 = D.-K. 68 F 300. Compare Maltomini in Corpus dei papiri filosofici greci i i** 43a 11. For the most recent discussion of `Democritus' see P. Kingsley, JWCI 57 (1995), 5ff. and, for an English translation of the [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] H.-D. Betz (ed.), The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation including the Demotic Spells (Chicago, 1992), 119ff.

(5) Reading [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] rather than [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in 1. 170 (so K. F. W. Schmidt, GGA 196 [1934], 170 following Wessely). In a text of this date there is nothing unusual syntactically about [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] followed by the genitive (see L. Rydbeck, Fachprosa, Vermeintliche Volkssprache und neues Testament: zur Beurteilung der sprachliche Niveauunterschiede im nachklassischen Griechisch [Studia Graeca Upsaliensia, 5, Uppsala, 1967], 46ff.), but the sense here demands a singular.

(6) For parallels to these [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Athenaeus see Kotansky ap. Betz (n. 4), 120, nn. 4, 5, 8, 9, 10. For symposiastic tricks see also Anaxilaus ap. Plin. H.N. 35.175, Ael. N.A. 1.38, Suppl. Mag. 2.76, Cyr. 1.8.13ff., 1.15.29f., 2.31.22, 2.40.19ff., 3.13.6ff., 4.9.8ff., 4.23.4f., Psell. (see the following note), 70-1.

(7) Michael Psellus, Philosophica Minora 1, edited by J. M. Duffy (Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1992), pp. 32.65-90. If these were indeed excerpted from Julius Africanus' Kesti, we would have another parallel for what Davidson is postulating for his unitary Salpe, recipes for tricks being inserted into a work which contained practical medical (and in this case veterinary) advice, but Wellmann (Die [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] des Bolos Demokritos und der Magier Anaxilaos aus Larissa: Teil I, APAW[1928], p. 79, also in D.-K. 2.220), who drew attention to these tricks in connection with the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], is wrong to treat them as part of the Kesti (excerpted from Anaxilaus' [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). See J.-R. Vieillefond, Les `Cestes' de Julius Africanus. Etude sur l'ensemble des fragments avec edition, traduction et commentaires (Florence and Paris, 1970), p. 312 n. 3.

(8) P. Yale 2.134.7-8 (Suppl. Mag. 2.76). For another paignion on papyrus see PGM 11b. For examples in late manuscripts see A. Delatte, Anecdota Atheniensia 1 (1927), 449 (3-7).

(9) [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a supplement, but it is undoubtedly correct. See Maltomini ad loc. adducing parallels such as Ael. N.A. 1.38.

(10) I do not agree with the interpretation of the construction of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] offered in Suppl. Mag (v. contra Bain, CQ n.s. 41 [1991], 57 n. 44). There is no need to take [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as purposive with the infinitive [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and assume the omission of the article: none of the other infinitives in these or other recipes has such an accompaniment.

(11) I refer to this work by book, section, and line numbers as given in the edition of D. Kaimakis (Die Kyraniden [Beitrage zur klassischen Philologie Heft 76, Meisenheim am Glan, 1976]). The [OCD.sup.3] article on the Cyranides is unfortunately out of date, uninformed and uninformative. On the character of this work see D. Bain, `"Treading birds": an unnoticed use of [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Cyranides, 1.10.27, 1.19.9)', in E. M. Craik (ed.), Owls to Athens: Essays on Classical Subjects Presented to Sir Kenneth Dover (Oxford, 1990), pp. 295-304, and, for more detail, my forthcoming RAC entry s. v. Koeraniden.

(12) An example of `a symposium at sea', for which see W. J. Slater, BICS 23 (1976), 161-70. Compare also 4.9.11ff.

(13) Compare also 1.24.56ff (a recipe for smashing a stone), 1.15.33ff (to achieve invisibility), and 4.23.4f. (inducing hallucination).

(14) For the little that is known of Mnaseas see Maas, RE 15.2.2225-6.

(15) Athen. 321f-322a. Jacoby quite arbitrarily deletes the last three words.

(16) On [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] generally see the Pauly article (RE 18. 2. 2396-8), which surprisingly is not mentioned by Davidson. See also LSJ s. v. [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] III


(18) Compare Leonidas of Alexandria, A. P 6.322 (see D. L. Page, Further Greek Epigrams, p. 515) [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (a highly appropriate reference since each line of the poem is isopsephistic, producing therefore a totally ludic effect) and Meleager, A. P 7.196, 5f. On Philetas' [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] see G. Kuchenmuller, Philetae Coi Reliquiae (Berlin, 1928), 70ff. Ludwig (RE Suppl. XII. 30) assumes that the [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of Aratus were epigrams.

(19) Such works were written by Monimus (Diog. Laert. 6.83) and Crates (Diog. Laert. 6.85).

(20) Comedy can be referred to deprecatingly and self-deprecatingly in this way (e.g. Plat. Laws 816e). [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], however, can be used technically as a designation of a category of mime. See most recently E. Voutiras, EA 24 (1995), 71.

(21) Gorg. Hel. 21.

(22) So most recently E. Courtney, The Fragmentary Latin Poets (Oxford, 1993), p. 119. M. L. West, Die griechische Dichterin. Bild und Rolle (Lectio Teubneriana VI, Leipzig, 1996), p. 47, does not commit himself.

(23) All the examples cited at LSJ II 3 are from prose.

(24) [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is used of Kallias the author of the alphabetic tragedy (276a). For other examples of [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] used of verse authors in Athenaeus see 101a ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) and 599f (Aeschylus of Alexandria). Note also [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the passage of Aelian cited in note 17.

(25) I do not see any warrant for Davidson's suggestion (590 n. 1) that [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was a pseudonym of Mnaseas.

(26) For Hellenistic works dealing with founders of literary genres see A. Kleingunther, IIP[Omega]TO[Sigma] EYPETH[Sigma]. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte einer Fragestellung (Philologus Supplementband 26.1, Leipzig, 1933), 135ff.

(27) Polyb. 12.13. For Botrys see also RE 3.1.793, `Botrys (3)', where it is suggested that his [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may have been separate works.

(28) For such a mode of reference see D. Bain, `?Bo. tiades [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: an abusive Graffito from Thorikos', ZPE 104 (1994), 33-5. Fish-names were not uncommon as nicknames: see L. Robert, Noms indigenes dans l'Asie-mineure, premiere partie (Paris, 1963), p. 167ff., who actually cites (p. 168 n. 6) a modern Greek instance of this particular name, [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], from the island of Lesbos.

(29) On [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] see Der kleine Pauly 2.1282-3 and J. Engels, ZPE96 (1993), 26ff.

(30) For [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as a title of pornographic works see K. Tsantsanoglou, ZPE 12 (1973), 193.

(31) See also R. Ganschinietz, Die Capitel des Hippolytos gegen die Magier (Texte und Untersuchungen 39.2, Leipzig, 1913), 19, 72.

(32) Plin. H.N. 32.135.

(33) Davidson, 592. Contrast Blumenthal in RE (note 16), 2397: `das Spielerische als Gegensatz zum [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ist allen diesen Bezeichnungen gemeinsam'.

(34) Kaibel's comment is cited by Kassel and Austin on 33: `despero'.

(35) Is this a description of an activity by Marcion or a translation of his Greek title (e.g. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: so Ernout, but better [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], as suggested by David Langslow, which could have motivated a mistranslation)? As the anonymous referee points out, de simplicibus effectibus would constitute an odd sort of title since one expects a drug book to be entitled `the properties of simples' (facultatibus rather than effectibus). effectus, however, is common enough in medical contexts: see TLL s. v. B 2. More detailed examination of Pliny's usage might settle the matter. Celsus, 5.17.1A (expositis simplicibus facultatibus dicendum est quemadmodum misceantur, quaeque ex his fiant: cited by OLD) might make the correction suggested by Dalecampius unnecessary by providing a parallel for simplex meaning `belonging to simples'. David Langslow who agrees with me that simplicibus must have its usual sense in the Pliny passage suspects that et or ac has fallen out between simplicibus and facultatibus.

(36) He does not offer a translation, but it is clear that he wants the expression to mean `results that are easy to achieve', `results achievable by easy/simple methods'.

(37) `Marcion de Smyrne, qui a ecrit sur l'action des medicaments simples' (Ernout). Compare Bostock-Riley and Jones.

(38) Wellmann (1928), pp. 77-80, collects the fragments. Wellmann (p. 57), R. Halleux, Les alchimistes grecs 1, 69ff. and Kingsley (note 4), 7 n. 41, assume the existence of a work by Anaxilaus circulating under the title [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The sceptic might question this and argue that the way in which Irenaeus alludes to Anaxilaus' [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] provides no confirmation for the existence of a work with this title and does not exclude the possibility that Anaxilaus' works were interspersed with [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. A sceptic might also question whether we can be sure of the existence of a work by ps.-Democritus which was entitled [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. It is not otherwise attested. It has become the custom to call an individual item of the kind found there a paignion (so, for example, Maltomini commenting on P. Yale 2.134.7-8 in Supplementum magicum 2, p. 143) and no doubt it is conceivable that a collection of such might have gone under the heading [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], but it might be argued the papyrus-heading does not justify the assumption of the existence of an otherwise unattested Democritean work. It says `paignia of Democritus', not `from the paignia of Democritus'.

(39) Epiphanius, adv. haer. 34.1: it is printed in Stieren's edition of Irenaeus, vol. 1, p. 144.

(40) Irenaeus, adv. haer. 1.13 (vol. 1, p. 145 Stieren). Anaxilaus' work is also referred to as lusus Anaxilai in ps.-Cyprian, de rebaptismate 16 (III, 89ff. Hartel).

(41) Plin. H.N. 35.175: for in conuiuiis compare above, note 6.

(42) `At the end of Book 28 Pliny abandons his source for a while, but returns to her in Book 32... for some handy hints on hair removal... and silencing noisy dogs...', p. 591.

(43) Plin. H.N. 32.135: psilotrum est thynni sanguis, fel, iocur, siue recentia siue seruata, iocur autem tritum mixtoque cedrio plumbea pyxide adseruatum. ita pueros mangonicauit Salpe obstetrix.

(44) See T. Kleberg, Eranos 43 (1945), 279: `with an interesting secondary meaning "polish up in order to make saleable as slaves".' Cloudy Fischer points out that, since the psilotrum is used for removing hair, Salpe would be using it or recommending the use of it to make the pueri look less sexually mature than they really were and therefore more saleable by removing both body and facial hair.

(45) Unless we interpret Pliny as intending to imply `Salpe [in her recipe-book] suggested this means by which slaves might be made saleable': quae docet alios facere, facit per se?

(46) The existence of a work by Rufus of Ephesus entitled `On the Sale of Slaves' proves that medical examinations of slaves must on some occasions at least have taken place before their sale. This lost work is cited by ar-Razi (see Rufus, pp. 469f. Daremberg-Ruelle for the Latin version of the Arabic: there is an English translation of the extracts by F. Rosenthal in The Classical Heritage of Islam [London, 1975], 204).

(47) Davidson, 590 n. 1: `unlikely to have been coined for the sake of flattery'.

(48) Cyr. 1.18.7, where, incidentally, it is described as [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Opinions differed as to its culinary merits: see Thompson (n. 49).

(49) See D.'Arcy W. Thompson, A Glossary of Greek Fishes (London, 1947), p. 225. Compare also A. Davidson, Mediterranean Fish (Harmondsworth, 1972), p. 104: `an easy fish to recognise, with ten or eleven golden-yellow horizontal stripes'.

(50) Davidson (p. 592) argues that obstetrix as applied to Salpe need not necessarily mean `midwife' and quotes with approval de Saint-Denis's translation `sage-femme'. `Sage-femme' is, in fact, the French for midwife.

(51) Cyr. 1.18.50ff. ~4.58.2ff.

(52) Cyr. 1.18.52ff. ~4.58.4ff.

(53) Cyr. 1.18.54-69. See also M. Waegeman, Amulet and Alphabet: Magical Amulets in the First Book of Cyranides (Amsterdam, 1987), p. 145.
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Title Annotation:Pliny the Elder's 'Historia naturalis
Author:Bain, David
Publication:The Classical Quarterly
Date:Jan 1, 1998
Previous Article:Three cruces in Juvenal.
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