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Byline: M. Arshad Azmi and Shahina Rao


Aquatic insects, their naiads and larvae were investigated from Chiliya Bund during 2006-2007. Total three types of larvae and naiad were recorded for the first time. The reported larvae were Tanytarsus and Chaoborus (Diptera), and naiad of May-fly (Ephemeroptera) was found abundantly.

Keywords: Chiliya Bund, Keenjhar Lake, Dipteran larvae, May-fly naiad.


The present study was undertaken to explore the insect larvae and naiads at Chiliya Bund from where an outlet of Keenjhar Lake is originated. The Keenjhar Lake is situated at 24deg 47' N lat. 68deg 02' E long (Blatter, et al., 1929).

It is at a distance of about 19 km north and north-east of Thatta town. It is about 24 km long and 6 km wide with an irregular shoreline of about 192 km. Its maximum depth is 26 ft. and total area is approximately 9842 Ha, according to a survey carried out by WWF in 2007-08. It has been reported that the lake is fed by Kairi Baghar feeder from Kotri barrage at Chul, and water is taken out through a canal for irrigation and feeding of other lakes from Chiliya (Siddiqui, et al. 1972)

Keenjhar supports a rich biological diversity. It is rich in variety of fauna, including fish, zooplanktons and insects (Siddiqui, et al., 1972; Korai, et al., 2008). Insects have achieved unparallel success in both terrestrial and fresh water environments with a number of species in these two habitats approximately a million and more than 30,000 respectively (Williams and Feltmate, 1992). Aquatic insects have been used as bio-indicators of water pollution and water quality (EPA, 1997).


Planktons were collected with No. 25t plankton net below the surface 1 to 3 feet deep. The water samples were preserved in 4% formalin on the spot. Planktonic insect's larvae and naiad were observed in laboratory by a compound light microscope and identified using Needham and Needham (1951).


Larvae of Diptera:

Chaoborus sp.

Length was 10-12 mm, body long, cylindrical; transparent or semi-transparent; yellowish white in color; eyes on the head and two pairs of air sacs, one on each side of the body. One pair of air sacs in the thorax and the other on the seventh abdominal segment; head with single pair of antennae, characteristic notch at the base of the antennae; at the ventral side of the last abdominal segment is a tuft of hairs, containing 6-7 bristles, behind which are four well developed anal papillae (Fig. 1).

Tanytarsus (Chironomous) sp.

Body elongated, segmented pale brown color, divided into head, thorax and abdomen; antennae small; eyes small; paired anterior proleg behind the head and one pair of posterior leg are at the second last abdominal segment; abdominal setae are prominent on posterior segments although present all over the body; 4 ventral tubules; 4 anal tubules. (Fig. 2)

Ephemeroptera Naiad: May-Fly Naiad:

Body is campodeiformes; antennae evident; compound eyes; thoracic segments with rudimentary wings; each leg with single claw on its termination; 6 pairs of plate like abdominal tracheal gills; 8 abdominal segments, terminating to two long, multi-articulated and covered with micro-bristles and one short middle anal cerci without bristles (Fig. 3)


Chiliya Bund is situated at a canal coming out from Keenjhar Lake, which is a significant natural resource. It is a potential source of drinking and irrigation water and its diverse flora and fauna support important fisheries (Korai et. al., 2008). Three types of larvae and naiad were identified and described from Chiliya Bund for the first time. The faunal checklist of Keenjhar Lake was previously enlisted by Siddiqui, et al., (1972).

Chiliya reservoir is rich in plant nutrients, which produces high number of phytoplankton and relatively high numbers of zooplanktons. This provides high nutritional diet to insect larvae and naiads, which are affected by fluctuations in physico-chemical parameters of that water and avoid pollutants and good indicators of water quality (Paine and Gaufin, 1956).


The authors are thankful to Dr. Farhanullah Khan, Department of Zoology, University of Karachi and Dr. Syma Naz, Govt. Degree Boys College Qaidabad, Karachi for their guidance and valuable suggestions.


Blatter, E., Mc. Cann, C. and Sabnus, TS.1929. The flora of Indus delta; Ind. Bot. Scoc. Methodist. Pub. House, Madras; 173.

Detailed Ecological Assessment Report 2008 - Keenjhar Lake. WWF Pakistan - Indus for All Program.pp: 1-186.

Korai, AL., Sahato, GA., Lashari, KH. and Arbani, SN. 2008. Biodiversity in relation to physico-chemical properties of Keenjhar lake, Thatta district, Sindh, Pakistan. Turkish Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; 8: 259-268.

Needham,JG. and Needham, PR. 1951. A guide to the study of Fresh-water Biology; Comstock Publishing Company, Inc. Ithaca. New York.

Paine, G. and Gaufin, AR. 1956. Aquatic Diptera as indicators of Pollution in a Midwestern stream. The Ohio J. Science; 56(5): 291.

Siddiqui, AP., Baqai, IU. and Iqbal, M.1972. Check list of fishes of Keenjhar (Kalri) lake with notes on environmental conditions and fisheries potential, revised publication. Agriculture Pakistan; 24(2): 201-220.

Williams, DD and Williams, NE. 1998. Aquatic insects in an esturine environment: densities, distribution and salinity tolerance; Fresh water Biology; 39: 411-421. Williams, DD. and Feitmate, BW. 1992. Aquatic Insects; CAB International; 358. Wallingford, Oxon, U.K.

M. Arshad Azmi and Shahina Rao - Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan Corresponding author: E-mail:
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Publication:Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2011

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