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STUDY OF VERTEBRATE DIVERSITY AT LAL SUHANRA NATIONAL PARK, PAKISTAN.

Byline: B. N. Khan, R. Ahmad, Z. Ali, R. Yasmeen, M. Azhar, F. Abid, S. Mehmood and H. Raza

ABSTRACT

The field surveys of Lal Suhanra National Park (LSNP) Bahawalpur were conducted to study its vertebrate diversity between October and December 2015. The study was commenced to determine the status of fauna of national park, diversity indices and environmental intimidations to their protection. The data was collected by point count method. The fauna observed there included 17 species of mammals including Asiatic wolf that is endangered. Five species of amphibians and 27 species of reptiles were found there. Among reptiles, Chitra indica is endangered. The results of study showed that maximum account of 7443 birds of 74 species belong to 35 families and representative of 16 orders were witnessed during the study. The seasonal distribution pattern of birds shown that year around resident were 76%, 7% were summer breeders, 4% were passage migrants while 5% were uncommon and 8% were common winter migrants.

Hunting, deforestation, wood logging, disturbance by human activities and habitat loss are the major threats for wild animals at LSNP. Alteration in natural lake and their flows for recreational purposes is also a major threat. Proper attention should be given to existing habitat of study area for conservation of unique fauna of this biosphere reserve.

Keywords: National park, Vertebrate diversity, Lal Suhanra, Habitat loss.

INTRODUCTION

Pakistan is home to an ecologically unique fauna. Biodiversity is facing serious threats due to anthropogenic activities like deforestation, species migration and habitat fragmentation) Qasim et al. (2017). Among protected areas worldwide, national parks are one of the extensive types, which encompass the highest percentage (23%) of the over-all area covered by protected areas globally (Chape et al., 2005). The basic conservation and maintenance tools are national parks and bio reserves that are supposed to guard species and their habitats in the limitations of fixed boundaries declared by the government. This obstinacy may be their "Achilles' heel" as conservation tools in the phase of developing global-scale ecological complications such as change in climate. Increased level of greenhouse effect is triggering global climatic changes, which is life threatening for different species hence changing geographic distribution.

With these ecological temperature changes, there originates uncertainty about the future ability of protected areas and gardens to meet their conservation and protection directives Burns et al. (2003). Organization of National Parks plays important role in the biodiversity conservation through the defense of ecosystems and threatened species. It also acts as reservoirs of flora and fauna that can reestablish lands where different species have been extinct (Cathcart 2000).

Lal Suhanra Nartional Park (LSNP); in 1972, government declared it a national park on October 26, following commendations compiled by the Wildlife Enquiry Committee in 1971. Originally, it covered an area of 313.549 km2, of which 209.319 km2 was desert, 84.880 km2 irrigated forest plantation and 19.339 km2 reservoir; it was enlarged by 226.80 km2. It is famous for its animal diversity that includes black buck, Nilgai antelope, and Rhino. LSNP is first biosphere reserve of Pakistan. Biosphere reserves are the sites recognized under UNESCO's "Human and the Biosphere" (MAB) Program to promote sustainable advancement. They are ideal for testing and demonstration of innovative methodologies to sustainability from local to international standards. Three interconnected functions can be achieved i.e. conservation, development and research through these biosphere reserves. Unesco (2011). The vast lake in the central of the park, which is perfect for bird watching, is an amazing wintering ground.

Maan and Chaudhary (2001). The Lal Suhanra National Park protects the best of our natural heritage: spectacular landscapes, amazing wildlife and splendid forests. Along with other protected areas, they make the basis of our frugal and communal welfare, fascinate millions of visitors per annum, and helps to protect exceptional wildlife by acting as a harbor for threatened species. This study was carried out to enlist the existing vertebrate diversity of LSNP, and to come up with recommendations and strategies for conservation and management of biodiversity in a sustainable manner. The study provides provision of basic data for fauna and flora of study site for conservation and management of first biosphere reserve of the country.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Different kind of field methods were applied to accomplish the research work.

I. Study Site: Lal Suhanra National Park (29024'N-72001'E) is situated in the east of Bahawalpur at the distance of about 36km in Punjab province. For present research five different sites were selected (Fig.1). Study sites included TDCP rest house area. RD25 was enclosure of black buck sunder semi natural conditions. RD65 was also black buck enclosure but with completely natural environment. Lake is an important wetland; it was also the part of study. Forest area was dense and far from other study sites. It is passing through the dried-up bed of the Hakra River and features an important wetland.

II. Methodology for Biodiversity Estimation:

a. Census Method: The Direct count was applied for estimation of vertebrate (Birds, Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians) diversity. It is one of the most extensively used approach for determination of the species abundance and diversity (Haldin and Ulfvens 1987). Five vantage points were selected for Animal/Bird's census in LSNP. GPS (GARMIN, GPS map 76CS x) was used for coordinates of vantage points. Equipment included binocular (magnification 10 x 50). Spotting scope (20 x 40 x 60 magnification) with a tripod and a digital camera. Animals/Birds was identified by using books and field guides like Roberts, (1991, 1992, 1997); Khan, (1977); Grimmitte et al. (1998, 2008); Mirza, (1998, 2007). The duration of study was three months (5-7 days in each survey). During the study along with direct observations, meeting with officials and local community members were held.

b. Meetings with Local and Concerned Departments: Meetings with local communities were also arranged to collect the traditional knowledge regarding biodiversity. The concerned departments were consulted to determine their policies and strategies for biodiversity conservation.

III. Proposed Analysis: Different types of analysis were conducted to determine the diversity index that tells how many species were present in a dataset and at the same time took into account in what manner the basic entities (individuals) were distributed amongst those types. Different types of diversity analysis were used as stated below:

I-Species Richness: Richness is amongst popular and widely used diversity indices in the field of ecology, being a simple measure, where abundance data are frequently unavailable for the datasets of interest. Diversity takes abundances with it but richness is something different, as it does not take abundances under consideration (Jost 2006).

II-Shannon-Wiener Index: The Shannon index is one of the popular and widely used diversity indices in the environmental literature. It is also known as Shannon's diversity index or the Shannon-Wiener index. Shannon (1948). It was calculated as follows:

(Equation)

Simpson Index (D): The Simpson Index is popular for the calculation of probability of different individuals that belong to distinct species of selected sample. He provided probability of various individuals from a large community connected to different species (Simpson 1949). The given formula for calculation of Simpson Index for current study is given below:

D = IPSn (n-1) / N (N -1)

Where n is the total number of birds of a particular species

N = the total number of birds of all species

Evenness (E): "The relative abundance calculation of various species is contributing to richness of sample of site is called evenness". It mainly describes the equivalent distribution of various individuals among several species. The formula of evenness is given below:

= Shannon Weiner Diversity Index/ln (log natural) of Total Population

IV. Informal Meetings with the Locals: The main purpose of these informal meeting and conversation with local individuals was to acquire information about the status and regime of the wildlife and the natural resources of that area. The hunters were also interviewed.

Table 1. Diversity of Avian at Lal Suhanrah National Park.

Order###Family###Species Recorded###Occurrence###IUCN###n###R.A###C.I###diet

###Status

Falconiformes###Falconidae###Grey Francolin Francolinus pondicerianus###YRR###LC###90###1.20919###0.102975###O

###Falconidae###Laggar Falcon Falco jugger###YRR###NT###65###0.873304###0.074371###C

###Falconidae###Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus###YRR###LC###70###0.940481###0.080092###I

Piciformes###Picidae###Yellow Crowned Woodpecker Leiopicus mahrattensis###YRR###LC###85###1.142013###0.097254###I

###Picidae###Black Rumped Flameback Dinopium benghalense###YRR###LC###65###0.873304###0.074371###I

Coraciiformes###Upupidae###Common Hoopoe Upupa epops###YRR###LC###80###1.074835###0.091533###C

###Upupidae###European Hoopoe Upupa epops###PM###LC###55###0.738949###0.062929###C

###Coraciidae###Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis###YRR###LC###45###0.604595###0.051487###I

###Halcyonidae###White Throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis###YRR###LC###85###1.142013###0.097254###P

###Alcedinidae###Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis###YRR###LC###85###1.142013###0.097254###P

###Meropidae###Blue Cheeked Bee-Eater Merops persicus###SB###LC###51###0.685208###0.058352###I

###Meropidae###Green Bee-Eater Merops orientalis###YRR###LC###89###1.195754###0.101831###I

###Cuculidae###Pied Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus###SB###LC###38###0.510547###0.043478###I

###Cuculidae###Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis###YRR###LC###78###1.047965###0.089245###TO

stigiformes###Strigidae###Collard Scops Owl Otus lettia###YRR###LC###85###1.142013###0.097254###C

###Strigidae###Spotted Owlet Athene brama###YRR###NT###122###1.639124###0.139588###C

###Strigidae###Short Eared Owl Asio flammeus###UWM###LC###39###0.523982###0.044622###C

###Strigidae###Eurasian Eagle Owl Bubo bubo###YRR###LC###119###1.598818###0.136156###C

###Strigidae###Dusky Eagle Owl Bubo coromandus###YRR###LC###79###1.0614###0.090389###C

Columbiformes###Columbidae###Rock Pigeon Columba livia###YRR###LC###142###1.907833###0.162471###G

###Columbidae###Yellow Footed Green Pigeon Treron phoenicoptera###UWM###LC###41###0.550853###0.046911###F

###Columbidae###Red Collard Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica###SB###LC###97###1.303238###0.110984###G

###Columbidae###Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis###YRR###LC###144###1.934704###0.16476###G

###Columbidae###Collard Dove Streptopelia decaocto###YRR###LC###144###1.934704###0.16476###G

Gruiformes###Rallidae###Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyria###YRR###NR###99###1.330109###0.113272###O

###Rallidae###White Breatsed Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus###YRR###LC###100###1.343544###0.114416###O

Ciconiiformes###Rostratulidae###Greater Panited Snipe Rostratula benghalensis###YRR###LC###135###1.813785###0.154462###O

Charadriiformes###Burhinidae###Eurasian thick knee Burhinus oedicnemus###YRR###LC###103###1.383851###0.117849###I

###Recurvirostridae###Black Winged Stint Himantopus himantopus###YRR###LC###85###1.142013###0.097254###P

###Charadriidae###White Tailed Lapwing Vanellus leucurus###WM###LC###118###1.585382###0.135011###I

###Charadriidae###Red Wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus###YRR###LC###95###1.276367###0.108696###I

Passeriformes###Sturnidae###Common Myna Acridotheres tristis###YRR###LC###185###2.485557###0.21167###O

###Sturnidae###Bank Myna Acridotheres ginginianus###YRR###LC###65###0.873304###0.074371###O

###Emberizidae###Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus###WM###LC###20###0.268709###0.022883###O

###Motacillidae###White Browed Wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis###YRR###LC###95###1.276367###0.108696###I

###Alaudidae###Sand Lark Calandrella raytal###YRR###LC###69###0.927046###0.078947###O

###Passeridae###House Sparrow Passer domesticus###YRR###LC###325###4.366519###0.371854###G

###Laniidae###Bay Backed Shrike Lanius vittatus###YRR###LC###83###1.115142###0.094966###P

###Laniidae###Long Tailed Shrike Lanius schach###YRR###LC###79###1.0614###0.090389###P

###Zosteropidae###Oriental White Eye Zosterops palpebrosus###YRR###LC###45###0.604595###0.051487###O

###Corvidae###Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda###YRR###LC###124###1.665995###0.141876###O

###Corvidae###House Crow Corvus splendens###YRR###LC###425###5.710063###0.48627###O

###Dicruridae###Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus###YRR###LC###95###1.276367###0.108696###I

###Muscicapidae###Indina Robin Saxicoloides fulicatus###YRR###LC###58###0.779256###0.066362###I

###Muscicapidae###Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata###YRR###LC###85###1.142013###0.097254###I

###Muscicapidae###Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis###YRR###LC###90###1.20919###0.102975###I

###Pycnonotidae###White Eared Bulbul Pycnonotus leucotis###YRR###LC###145###1.948139###0.165904###O

###Pycnonotidae###Red Vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer###YRR###LC###125###1.67943###0.143021###O

###Cisticolidae###Rufous Fronted Prinia Prinia buchanani###YRR###LC###81###1.088271###0.092677###I

###Cisticolidae###Ashy Prinia Prinia socialis###YRR###LC###95###1.276367###0.108696###I

###Cisticolidae###Rufous Vented Prinia Prinia burnesii###YRR###NT###100###1.343544###0.114416###I

###Cisticolidae###Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis###YRR###LC###109###1.464463###0.124714###O

###Leiothrichidae###Large Grey Bebbler Turdoides malcolmi###YRR###LC###125###1.67943###0.143021###O

###Hirundinidae###Plain Martin Riparia paludicola###YRR###LC###115###1.545076###0.131579###I

Accipitriformes###Accipitridae###Black Shouldered Kite Elanus axillaris###YRR###LC###245###3.291683###0.28032###P

###Accipitridae###Pallard Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus###YRR###VU###90###1.20919###0.102975###C

###Accipitridae###Egyptian VultureNeophron percnopterus###YRR###EN###42###0.564289###0.048055###C

###Accipitridae###Shikra Accipiter badius###YRR###LC###89###1.195754###0.101831###C

###Accipitridae###Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax###YRR###LC###57###0.76582###0.065217###P

###Accipitridae###Eurasian Sparrow Hawk Accipiter nisus###UWM###LC###86###1.155448###0.098398###C

###Accipitridae###Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca###UWM###LC###104###1.397286###0.118993###C

Podicipediformes###Podicipedidae###Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis###YRR###LC###85###1.142013###0.097254###I

Pelecaniformes###Ardeidae###Little Egret Egretta garzetta###YRR###LC###107###1.437592###0.122426###C

###Ardeidae###Purple Heron Ardea purpurea###YRR###LC###99###1.330109###0.113272###C

###Ardeidae###Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis###YRR###LC###106###1.424157###0.121281###C

###Ardeidae###Black Crowned Heron Nycticorax nycticorax###YRR###LC###90###1.20919###0.102975###C

###Ardeidae###Great Egret Ardea alba###WM###LC###105###1.410721###0.120137###C

###Ardeidae###Black Bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis###SB###LC###75###1.007658###0.085812###C

Anseriformes###Anatidae###Gadwall Anas strepera###WM###LC###84###1.128577###0.09611###H

###Anatidae###Mallard Anas platyrhynchos###WM###LC###90###1.20919###0.102975###O

Psittaciformes###Psittaculidae###Rose Ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri###WM###LC###130###1.746608###0.148741###F

Phasianoidea###Phasianidae###Rain Quail Coturnix coromandelica###SB###LC###95###1.276367###0.108696###I

###Phasianidae###Common Quail Coturnix coturnix###PM###LC###90###1.20919###0.102975###O

Guiformes###Gruidae###Demosille Crane Grus virgo###PM###LC###108###1.451028###0.12357###I

###7443###100###8.516018

Table 2. Major Birds Species.

Birds Species###Total###Relative###Density Birds/km2

###Abundance

Corvus splendens###425###0.597###0.00237

Passer domesticus###325###0.491###0.00158

Elanus axillaris###245###0.00163###0..00280

Acridotheres tristis###185###0.00021###0.00301

Pycnonotus leucotis###145###0.000016###0.000805

Table 3. List of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Order###Family###Species Identified###Status

###Frogs

Anura###Microhylidae###Microhyla ornata###LC

###Bufonidae###Bufo viridis zugmayeri###LC

###Dicroglossidae###Fejervarya syhadrensis###LC

###Dicroglossidae###Fejervarya limnocharis###LC

###Dicroglossidae###Hoplobatrachus tigerinus###LC

###Turtles

Testudines###Geoemydidae###Kachuga smithi###LC

###Geoemydidae###Geoclemys hamiltonii###VU

###Trionychidae###Chitra indica###EN

###Trionychidae###Lissemys punctata andersoni###LC

###Trionychidae###Aspidereted gangeticus###VU

###Lizards

Squamata###Agamidae###Calotes versicolor###LC

###Agamidae###Laudakia melanura###LC

###Agamidae###Trapellus agillis pakistensis###LC

###Agamidae###Trapellus megalonyx###LC

###Gekkonidae###Crossobamon orientalis###LC

###Gekkonidae###Hemidactulus flaviviridis###LC

###Agamidae###Uromastyx hardwickii###LC

###Lacertidae###Acanthidactylus cantoris###LC

###Varanidae###Varanus bengalensis###LC

###Snakes

###Typhlopidae###Typhlops ductuliformes###LC

###Boidae###Eryx johnii###LC

###Boidae###Eryx conicus conicus###LC

###Colubridae###Argyrogena fasciolata###LC

###Colubridae###Ampheiasma stolatum###LC

###Colubridae###Lycodon aulicus aulicus###LC

###Colubridae###Oligodon arnensis###LC

###Colubridae###Platyceps ventromaculatus###LC

###Colubridae###Ptyas mucosus###LC

###Colubridae###Spalerosophis diadema###LC

###Colubridae###Xenochrosphis sanctijohannis###LC

###Colubridae###Xenochrophis piscator piscator###LC

###Elapidae###Naja naja naja###LC

Table 4: List of Mammals of Lal Suhanra National Park

COMMON NAME###SCIENTIFIC NAME###STATUS

Black Buck###Antilope cervicapra###Near Threatened

Blue Bull###Boselaphus tragocamelus###Least Concern

Jungle Fox###Vulpes bengalensis###Least Concern

Jungle Cat###Felis chaus###Least Concern

Civet Cat###Civettictis civetta###Least Concern

Asian Budger###Meles leucurus###Least Concern

Wild Boar###Sus scrofa###Least Concern

Long Eared Hedgehog###Hemiechinus auritus###Least Concern

Red Fox###Vulpes vulpes###Least Concern

Smooth Coated Otter###Lutrogale perspicillata###Least Concern

Golden Jackal###Canis aureus###Least Concern

Mouse Tailed Bat###Rhinopoma Spp.###Least Concern

Asiatic Wolf / Dhole###Cuon alpinus###Endangered

Indian Grey Mongoose###Herpestes edwardsii###Least Concern

Short Tailed Mole Rat###Nesokia indica###Least Concern

Desert Hare###Lepus tibetanus###Least Concern

Indian Crested Porcupine###Hystrix indica###Least Concern

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Lal Suhanra National Park (LSNP) was declared as first biosphere reserve in 1977 (Khan 2012). LSNP is diverse in flora and fauna. According to literature the Flora composition of park included 212 species of trees belongs to 50 families of plants of which 14 are major families containing 147 species that includes Poaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Boraginaceae, Amaranthaceae, Aizoaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Mimosaceae and Solanaceae, Capparidaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Scrophulariaceae (Wariss et al., 2014). These families are supported through suitable soil, which is generally made up of muddy deposits and clayey loam, minerals and water availability. The fauna observed there included 17 species of mammals (Table.4) while one of them (Antilope cervicapra) is categorized as near threatened and Asiatic Wolf as endangered (IUCN Red list, Web.1). Five species of amphibians and 27 species of reptiles (table.3) were found there.

Among amphibians one species namely is categorized as Vulnerable. Out of 27 reptile species Chitra indica is Endangered and Aspidereted gangeticus is Vulnerable (table.3). Maan and Chaudhry, 2001 found 10 species of mammals, 2 species of amphibians and six species of reptiles in the study at LSNP. It was observed that completely natural environment was rich in avian diversity. The results of the study showed that a maximum number of 7,443 birds of 74 species that belong to 35 families and representative of 16 orders were witnessed during October to December 2015 while only 40 species of birds were found in 2001 (Maan and Chaudhry 2001). The Maximum values of diversity indices were also documented in study year 2015 i.e. Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index was 4.18; Census Index was 8.5/km2, Simpson's Diversity Index was 0.98 and species evenness was 0.971. According to these indices, the study site was rich in diversity.

The vegetation and its composition that forms a key element of their habitations mainly determined the distribution and abundance of several bird species. As vegetation, flora and its composition alters along complex biological and ecological gradients, a specific bird species can appear, disappear, increase or decrease in number as there are fluctuations in habitat. Lee and Rotenberry (2005). According to literature, the lake is vital wintering ground for different migratory waterfowl (Maan and Chaudhry 2001). Nineteen percent of total birds were migratory in our findings (Fig.2). It was seen that due to recreational purposes lake, which is habitat of many birds, is under process of reforming that might decrease avian diversity of that area. Suitable temperature, food availability, less predation risk and favorable conditions might have caused them to come here in winter season. Major species of LSNP are given in (Table.2). Plenty of food, insects, small mammals and perfect vegetation have buoyed them.

Passeriformes were best supported by the study site. LSNP has sustained black shouldered kite through its scattered tree area, hence caused it to be one of the most abundant species of study site. Other abundant species were sustained through remarkable open forest, tall trees and food like insects, crustaceans, arachnids etc. insectivores, carnivore and omnivore birds hold the major fauna (Fig. 3). Three major orders that are best sustained by LSNP other than Passeriformes are Coraciiformes (9 spp.), Acciptriformes (7 spp.), Pelecaniformes (4 spp.). Twenty-three families of order Passeriformes were reported during study of avifauna at Mangla dam, which may be due to better ecological conditions and amazing flora (Khan 2015). Food plays vital role for the diversity of various birds' orders. Breeding area, season, food and proper climatic conditions might have close association with bird's abundance at particular place (Bibi and Ali 2013).

The families observed there were belonged to Falconiformes (3 spp.), Piciformes contained 2 species belonging to family Picidae. Upupidae (2 spp.), Coraciidae (1 sp.), Halcyonidae (1sp.), Alcedinidae (1 sp.), Meropidae (2 spp.), Cuculidae (2 spp.) belonged to order Coraciiformes. Stigiformes included Strigidae (5 spp.), Columbidae contained 5 species that belonged to columbiformes. Rallidae was representative of Gruiformes contained 2 species. Rostratulidae contained only one species that belonged to order Ciconiiformes. Charadriiformes included Burhinidae (1 sp.), Recurvirostridae (1 sp.) and Charadriidae (2 spp.). Sturnidae (2 spp.), Emberizidae (1 sp.), Motacillidae (1 sp.), Alaudidae (1 sp.), Passeridae (1 sp.), Laniidae (2 spp.), Zosteropidae (1 sp.), Corvidae (2 spp.), Dicruridae (1 sp.), Muscicapidae (3 spp.), Pycnonotidae (2 spp.), Cisticolidae (4 spp.), Leiothrichidae (1 sp.), Hirundinidae (1 sp.) belonged to Passeriformes. Accipitridae (7 spp.) is member of order Acciptriformes.

Podicipediformes contained 1 species of family Podicipedidae. Ardeidae belonged to Pelecaniformes contained 6 species. Anatidae contained 2 species that were representative of order Anseriformes. Psittaculidae is member of family Psittaciformes contained 1 species. Phasianidae contained 2 species of Phasianoidiformes and Gruidae included 1 species of Guiformes. Access of water, food, tall trees, and dense vegetation has supported these bird species. The diversity of Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Mammals is given in tables 3and4.According to IUCN red list Chitra indica is an endangered species, was also seen near the lake of LSNP. The lake was less polluted hence suitable for the endangered species. Four out of seven families of lizards in Pakistan were found there. The area holds four species of Agamidae. The diurnal species was easily identified by their acrodonts.Colubrids are advanced snakes were found there and occur nearly worldwide.

Prevailing arid ecological conditions are less suitable for amphibians in Pakistan that caused the country to be an amphibian poor country. Nonetheless, with the moist riparian environment in the Indus Valley, torrents and streams in the "northern Himalayan sub-mountainous region", and the subterranean water canals in the western Baluchistan upland, there stand 25 amphibian species known from Pakistan. Khan (2002, 2004, 2006). Out of 25 species in Pakistan 5 species were found in LSNP. The Balochistan toad, Bufo viridis zugmayeri, found around Quetta, and southward to Chagai, Baluchistan Khan (2006). It was seen in a small lake of RD 65. RD 65 was natural enclosure for black bucks. They also camouflaged themselves that helped them hiding from predators. Microhyla ornata, stayed near to water, hiding under leaf litter during day, and emerged to hunt at night. It was found during evening survey in pond area on park. It feeds on termites.

It was observed that the calling male sat away from the water, hidden in grass. Amphibians were often recognized by their call as some float in water and some sit on the wet ground might burrowing themselves. The call of Hoplobatrachus tigertnus is" kang, kang, kangi'; the call of Fejemarya limnocharis and Fejervarya syhadrensls is "tak, tak, tak". It really helped in their identification. The Indus Valley bullfrog, Hoplobatrachus figerinus that was found in park has a snout-vent of approximately 130-145 mm length. It is mostly used in demonstration of human anatomy in Pakistan. Literature showed that it is the most common frog of the Indo-Gangetic plains. It was found mostly in cultivated areas and swampy wetlands. In Pakistan this species does not extend into Baluchistan but it has been reported in Afghanistan close to Khyber Pass. Khan (2006). Black buck was specialty of park. Black bucks were reintroduced there through ex situ breeding after their extinction from Pakistan.

They were present in two different enclosures RD25 and RD65. RD25 was semi natural and RD65 was completely natural environment. No artificial food or medication was given to the animal in RD65 enclosure. Only small salt blocks were present there.Blue bull, smooth coated otter, wild boar, red fox and short-tailed mole rat were seen during evening survey. Insufficient resources, lack of staff, less security and damaged fences are posturingsevere threats to survival of threatened and rare wild species at Lal Suhanra National Park. Sufficient supply of canal water is also essential for safety of fauna and flora at the LSNP. Major threat to fauna of an area is loss of habitat, as trees are habitation of many birds and deforestation can cause a great loss to astonishing wildlife. Other threats are illegal hunting, wood logging pollution and unawareness.

Most extortions to the park were anthropogenic which would in turn harm human beings, as there is strong connection between wildlife, biodiversity and humans. Biodiversity loss can affect community traditions also. These types of climatic changes have already been noted in birds in Europe and Costa Rica Greenwood and Baillie (1993); Pounds et al. (1999), trees, and forbs in Europe. Grabherr et al. (1994).From an operational perspective, the major issue is how to design policies for the efficient management of ecosystems for sustainability of an equitable provision of ecosystem service. Carpenter et al. (2006). Even with an understanding of natural complexities, if there is lack of appropriate institutional framework to provide incentives for the provision of public goods and internalize externalities we will not succeed at efcient and sustainable management of ecosystems.

There should be trio of conservation, reservation and management. Protection and reestablishment of such places along with species within them help us in understanding the transformation of natural ecology by earlier lineages. Management plan for a national park has to be constant with the General Policy for National Parks. Fisher et al., (2011). Habitats should be conserved and illegal hunting should be strongly prohibited through strict legislation and penalties. Proper arrangements should be made for transportation of visitors from neighboring cities to park. Different educational, recreational and research facilities be provided if proper attention is provided. Awareness about wildlife and its importance should be given to public through print media and electronic media along with some major steps like reforestation.

Acknowledgments: We are extremely thankful to Mr. Abdul Khaliq of Lal Suhanra National Park for his support at every step of our work. He was an amazing guide for us.

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