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STUDIES OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF UMBELLIFERAE FAMILY.

Byline: T. Rana, M. A. Kashmiri and M. Ahmad - Email mamjadchaudhary@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The antioxidative activity of the essential oils of the species (Apium graveolens, Ferula ovina, Foniculum vulgare, rachyspermum ammi) of family Umbelliferae in Pakistan has been studied by accelerated oxidation method (AOM) and peroxide value (POV) at 0.01% concentration and 40oC temperature in cotton seed oil. The antioxidative activity was compared with antioxidative activity of standard antioxidant BHT. Ferula Ovina showed better antioxidative activity than the standard antioxidant and other species. The activity of essential oil of Apium graveolens at 0.01% concentration is almost equal to BHT. While the essential oils of Foniculum vulgare, Trachyspermum ammi with 0.01% concentration showed weaker antioxidative activity than BHT. The essential oils were found to be rich in oxygenated compounds and had better activity.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Essential oils, Umbelliferae family, Butylated hydroxy toluene

INTRODUCTION

The family umbelliferae is commonly known as the carrot family. It has approximately 2000 to 3000 species, out of these 174 grow in Pakistan. Some of the species, found in the country, are cultivated while most of them grow in the jungle. Even in the jungle, the growth of some of the species is so extensive that they are collected for their commercial exploitation. Additionally some potential species are domesticated for multiplication as a cash crop. (Nasir, 1972: Chopra, 1958).

Essential oils are derived from fruits, flowers and seeds of the aromatic plants. Aromatic plants were used not only for flavour but also to preserve the foods and food products. The essential oils are ethereal oils defined as the oil obtained by steam distillation of plants. The essential oils are odoriferous bodies of an oily nature, obtained almost exclusively from vegetable sources, generally liquid at ordinary temperature and volatile without decomposition. The essential oils posses pleasant odour, sweet smell and are widely used as flavors, perfumes and in medicines (Parry, 1922).

The edible oils, fats and their food products on storage show off-odour and sometimes change in colour and taste in the fatty food products. This change occurs as soon as the oils, fats and fatty food products come into contact with atmospheric oxygen. The enzymes and micro-organisms also react and bring about alteration in the structure of oils and fats. This phenomenon of the development of off-flavour, off-odour and change in colour and taste in general is called rancidity (Lundberg, 1962).

The antioxidative and antifungal activity of the essential oils and callus culture of satureja hortensis was studied and it was found that antioxidants in small quantities are able to prevent or greatly retard the oxidation of easily oxidizable material such as oils and fats (Gulluce, 2003). The aqueous extract of fennel waste led to the isolation of 12 major compounds. Eight antioxidant compounds isolated and identified for the first time in fennel. 3-Cafeoylquinic acid, 4-Caffeoyluinic acid, 1, 5, 0-di Caffeoyluinic acid, rosmarinic acid, criodictyol-7-o-rutinoside, quercein-3-o-galactoside, kaempfero -3-0-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside. The isolated compounds exhibited a strong antiradical scavenging activity (Saleh and Zwaving, 2004).

The antimicrobial activity of oil of Thymus pectinatus was observed in those fractions containing thymol, in particular and carvacrol. Other constituents of the essential oils account for their possible synergistic or antagonistic effects. Thymol and carvacol were individually found to possess weaker antioxidant activity than crude oils, indicating that other constituents of the essential oil may contribute to the antioxidant activity observed (Varda and Candan, 2003).

Recent research has concentrated on natural sources of antioxidants such as plant extracts, herbs, spices, seeds and fermentation products. The presence of active components in spices has been demonstrated over the last 30 years. Various essential oils were screened for their antioxidative activity by measuring bleaching of beta-carotene in the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid. The oils containing carvacrol, thymol and eugenol showed marked antioxidant activity co-efficient (Lagouri and Boskou, 2007).

Keeping in view the above facts, the present investigation was designed to study the antioxidative activity of different species of Umbelliferae in cotton seed oil.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The essential oils of the species Apium graveloens, Ferula ovina, Foniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi of Umbelliferae family were studied for their antioxidative activity in edible oil (cotton seed oil). The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy analysis performed using Hewllet Packed 5973 fitted with HP 5 MS column (30 m x 0.25 mm thickness). The column temperature was kept at 60oC for 3 minutes and programmed to 220oC @ 50oC per minute and kept constant at 200oC for 5 minutes. The flow rate of carrier gas (He) was 1 ml / min. Mass spectra were taken at 70 ev.

Then the physico-chemical properties percentage yield, specific gravity, refractive index, optical rotation, acidvalue and ester value were determined according to the methods described by Guenther (1948).

Accelerated Oxidation Method (AOM): AOM was employed for the development of rancidity in the edible oil (cottonseed oil). Six test tubes (25 mm in diameter and 200 mm in length) and an air pump were joined in series keeping the tubes in an oil bath at the temperature 40oC. 50 ml edible oil was taken in each tube and added the essential oils in four tubes contained edible oil and BHT in fifth tube contained edible oil and one test tube was kept blank with oil. The air was blown through these at a rate of 2.33 ml/sec for a fixed time taking samples for peroxide value at regular intervals of time (2 hour, 4 hour, 6 hour and 8 hour). The experiments were carried Per oxide value (POV) Determination: POV is the measure of degree of oxidation or the degree of rancidity. Peroxide value determine the concentration of peroxides in an oil or fat.

To determine the peroxide values of cotton seed oils a sample of about 5 gram of cotton seed oil weighed accurately and dissolved in 30ml of a mixture of acetic acid and chloroform (3:2 V/V). A saturated KI solution (0.5ml) was added to it. The mixture was allowed to stand for one minute and then 30ml of distilled water was added. The whole mixture was titrated with 0.1N Na2S2O3 solution, using 1 ml of 0.5% starch as an indicator. The POV was calculated from the relationship given below: (Lea, 1939)

POV = V x N/W x 1000 Meq/Kg

Where,

V = volume of Na2S2O3 used

N = normality of Na2S2O3

W = weight of the sample

Statistical Analysis: The data thus collected were statistically analysed through two way analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) and the differences among means were compared with Least Significant Difference (LSD) test (Steel et al., 1997)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The chemical composition and physico chemical properties of essential oils of AG, FO, FV and TS of Family Umbelliferae were determined and are presented in table-1

Table-1: The Chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of essential oils of various species

ApiumGraveolens, Lin Seeds###Ferula Ovina Boiss, Seeds###Foeniculum Vulgare, Miller Seeds###Trachyspermum ammi, Sprague Seeds

Physico-chemical properties###Physico-chemical properties###Physico-chemical properties###Physico-chemical properties

Yield value###2.9% Yield value###1.00%###Yield value###2.5%###Yield value###3.5%

Specific Gravity###0.9548###Specific Gravity###0.8280###Specific gravity###0.9548###Specific gravity###0.8648

Refrective index###1.4730###Refractive index###1.4730###Refractive index###1.5300###Refractive index###1.4890

Optical rotation###+63o 14' Optical rotation###+ 10deg 4'###Optical rotation###+16deg16'###Optical rotation###+1 3/

Acid value###1.3###Acid Value###0.70###Acid Value###0.76###Acid value###1.00

Ester value###41.4###Ester Value###5.40###Ester Value###6.50###Ester value###2.88

Chemical composition###Chemical composition###Chemical composition###Chemical composition

a -pinene###0.5% ? -pinene###70.6%###anethole###74.9%###Thymol carvarcrol###53.00%

ss-pinene###0.8% Camphene###7.9%###fenchone###10.2%###P-cymene###23.8%

Myrcene###6.1% Myrcene###5.8%###phellandrene and limonene###5.0%###? -terpinene###20.4%

Limonene###37.0###1 imonone###3.8%###a -pinene and camphene###3.6%###ss-pinene###1.2%

p-cymene###2.5% Geraniol###2.3%###methyl chavicol###3.5%###a - tinene###0.33%

ss-elemen###1.5% Borneol###1.9%###anisal'dehyde###1.8%###Camphene###0.63%

ss-caryophy1lene###3. 1% Coumarins###1.9%###P-anisic acid###1.0%###carene###0.40%

ss - selinene###28.5% ss-pinene###0.8%###limonene###0.20%###

Eudesinol###0.8% ? -terpinene###0.1%

a - terpineol###0.5% bornyl acetate###1.2%

n - phthalide###7.2% terpinyl acetate###0.8%

Sedanonic anhydride###7.9% geranyl acetate###0.3%

Carvone###1.00% Camphor###0.3%

Dihydro Carvone###1.2% fenchone###0.2%

3-Isobutylidene-3a,4-###1.4% a - perpineol###2.1%

dihydrophalide

dihydrophalide

the yield value was maximum (3.5%) in Trachyspermum ammi, whereas it was minimum (1.00%) in Ferule Ovina. The specific gravity, refrective index, optical rotation, acid value and ester values for essential oils of different species of umbelliferae family are given in table 1 where as peroxide values of cotton seed oil after addition of 0.01% different essial oil at the temperature 40oC presented in Table 2.

Table-2: POVs of Cotton Seed Oil Containing 0.01 % Antioxidant After Different Time Intervals at 40oC.

Treatments/Time###BHT###AG###FO###FV###TS

0 hr.###13###13###13###13###13

2 hrs.###15###14###14###17###16

4 hrs.###17###17###15###18###18

6 hrs.###19###19###17###20###20

8 hrs.###21###21###19###22###22

AG = Apium Graveolens; FO = Ferula Ovina;

FV = Foniculum Vulgare; TS = Trachy Spermum

Peroxide values of cotton seed oil were determined after the treatments with different essentials oils at 0.01% concentration and 40oC temperature at different time intervals (Figure 1- 4)

Analysis of variance revealed that peroxide values of cotton seed oil containing 0.01% concentration of different essential oils at 40oC were significantly different (Pless than0.01) whereas the treatment time intervals were also had a significant effect on the rancidity. (Table-3).

Table -3: analysis of variance for evaluation of oxidative effect of different species at different time interval

Source###Df###Sum of Square###Mean Square###F

Species###4###18.16###4.54###10.94

Interval Time###4###196.16###49.04###118.17

Error###16###6.64###0.415###-

Total###24###-###-###-

= Significant (P less than 0.01)

The peroxide values of cotton seed oil determine the concentration of peroxides or rancidity. Greater the peroxide value of the oil lesser will be the antioxidative activity of the antioxidant. Cotton seed oil containing antioxidants FV and TS has greater peroxide values than BHT standard antioxidant indicating lesser antioxidative activity than standard BHT with 0.01% concentration at 40oC. While AG has almost equal activity to BHT. The FO with 0.01% concentration has better antioxidative activity than BHT at 40oC as it has lower per oxide values. (Table 2 and Fig. 1-4).

Palic and Dikonvic (2006) conducted a study on antioxidative activity of Bunium persicum, an economically important medicinal plant growing wild in the dry temperature regions in Iran. In this study, chemical constituents of the essential oil of the seed from Bunium persicum Boiss. have been studied by GC/MS technique. The major components were caryophyllene (27.81%), ?-terpinene (15.19%), cuminyl acetate (14.67%). In ss-carotene bleaching antioxidant activity of essential oil (0.45%) was almost equal to BHT at 0.01%. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated in crude soybean oil by monitoring peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of the oil substrate. The results showed that the Bunium persicum essential oil was able to reduce the oxidation rate of the soybean oil in the accelerated condition at 60 C (oven test).

In our experiment the essential oils of AF, FO, FV and TS were studied by GC/MS technique and the major components found are limonene (37%), ss-Selinene (28.5%) and myrcene (6.1%) in AG and a-Pinene (70.6%), Camphene (7.9%) and myrcene (5.8%) in FO. The essential oil of FV contains major components anethole (74.9%) Fenchone (10.2%), limonene (5.0%) and the essential oil of TS contains the major components Thymol carvarcrol (53.0%), P-cymene (23.1%) and ?-terpinene (20.4%) (Table-1). The antioxidant activity of essential oils was evaluated in cotton seed oil by monitoring the peroxide value. Ferula Ovina has shown better antioxidant activity than standard antioxidant BHT Apium graveolens with concentrations of 0.01% and 0.015% at temperature 40oC and 50oC showed antioxidated activity equal to that of BHT. Hence, FO and AG could be used as an additives in food.

Neda et al. (2008) also studied antioxidative effect of BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole) and rosemary extract (Herbalox Type 0) in soybean and sunflower seed oil. Stability to oxidation was determined by measurement of induction time with the Rancimat at 100degC. The addition of antioxidants reduced oxidation thus increasing product stability. Presence of synthetic antioxidant BHA in sunflower seed oil at the concentration of 0.02% (w/w) increased induction time from 6.0 to 8.09 hours. The results obtained indicated higher synthetic antioxidant efficacy compared with natural Herbalox Type 0 antioxidant, as the induction time for the later one, used at the same concentration, increased from originally 6.0 to 6.67 hours. These results are in agreement with the findings of the present study.

REFERENCES

Chopra, R. N. Indigenous Drugs of India. U. N. Shar Private Ltd., Calcutta, pp 495, 556, 595 (1958).

Guenther, E. The Acid and Ester values of essential oils. D. Van Nostrand Company Inc. New York vol I pp 185 (1948).

Gulluce, M. Antioixidant, antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extacts of herbal parts and callus cultures of saturey a hostensis. J. Agric Food Chem. 51(14): 3958-65 (2003).

Lagouri, V and D. Boskou. Antioxidative activity of essential oils. J. Development in Food Sci. 37 (I): 869-879 (2007).

Lea, C. H. Rancidity in Edible Fats, Chemical publishing, Food Investigation Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, London, Special report 46: 106-110 (1939)

Lundberg, W. O. Antioxidation and Antioxidant, Inter Science Pulishers, London, Vol. 2 P 452-60 (1962).

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Neda, S., B. Mohsin and M. A. Sahari. Antioxidative effect of BHA and rosemery extract in soybean and Sunflower oil. J. Plant Foods Human Nutrition 63 (4): 183 - 188 (2008).

Parry, E. J. The chemistry of essential oils and artificial perfumes 4th ed. (1922)

Palic, A. and Z. Dikanovic. The chemical constituents of essential oil of Bunium persicum. European J. Lipid Science and Technology 97 (10): 379 (2006).

Saleh, M.M. and J.H. Zwaving, The chemical composition of aqeous extract of Fennel, J. Agric. Food Chem. (7):1890-7 (2004)

Steel, R. G. D; J. H. Torrie and Dickey. Principles and procedures of statistic. A bio metric approach, 3rd ed. Mc Graw-Hill Book Co, Inc., New york (1997).

Vardar-Undu G. and F. Candan Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of thymus pactinatus Fisch et Mey. Var. Pectinatus. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51(1): 63-7 (2003).

Department of Chemistry, G.C. University Lahore Corresponding author
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Publication:Pakistan Journal of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2010
Words:2510
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