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SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TURKISH TAZI (SIGHT HOUND).

Byline: O. Yilmaz, and M. Ertugrul - Email: zileliorhan62@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the distributions of body coat colour and the body measurements of the Turkish Tazi (Sighthound) comparing with some other sight hound breeds from different countries. To this end, a data of 122 (60 male and 62 female) Tazi were analyzed with the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student's t- Test. Descriptive statistics for live weight (LW) 18.4 +- 0.19, withers height (WH) 62 +- 0.35, height at rump (HR) 62.2 +- 0.35, body length (BL) 60.3 +- 0.39, heart girth circumference (HGC) 63.3 +- 0.42, chest depth (CD) 22.8 +- 0.27, abdomen depth (AD) 14.3 +- 0.14, chest width (CW) 17.3 +- .0.16, haunch width (HW) 16.2 +- 0.12, thigh width (TW) 21.9 +- 0.17, tail length (TL) 44.8 +- 0.37, limb length (LL) 39.2 +- 0.20, cannon circumference (CC) 10.2 +- 0.07, head length (HL) 23.7 +- 0.21 and ear length (EL) 12.3 +- 0.13 cm respectively.

In this study the distributions of body coat color of the sampled Tazi, as percentages, for black was 35.2%, dun 25.4%, brown 12.3%, tan 10.7%, white 8.2% and pied 8.2% respectively.

Keywords: Turkish Tazi, sighthound, morphological trait, body measurement, coat colour.

INTRODUCTION

Dogs were the first domesticated animals around 12.000-15.000 years ago (Ostrander, 2008). The Turkish Tazi (Sighthound) is a breed that has been primarily bred for hunting. It hunts by using sight and speed, instead of scent and endurance as "scent hounds" do (en.wikipedia.org, 2011).

Some data reported for sighthound breeds from various countries is given in Table 1. According to reported weights and sizes, they can be categorized in three groups: big-, mid- and small-sized hounds for height at withers above 70 cm, between 51-70 cm and below 50 cm respectively.

Big-sized hounds are higher than 70 cm at withers and generally heavier than 40 kg live weight. Russian Borzoi (Russia), English Greyhound (UK), Irish Wolfhound (Ireland), Polish Greyhound (Poland) and Scottish Deerhound (UK) are thus big-sized hounds. Their original habitat are generally harsh, being forests and rugged areas; these dogs are therefore large and rough in appearance and have a good bone structure, rugged feet, thicker skin and coat against tough climates except for the English Greyhound which originated in a mild climate. Sight hounds do not have double coats unlike most of the other dog breeds. Instead to protect them from exposure, they have long, shaggy but not fluffy coats (en.wikipedia.org 2011, www. nationmaster. com 2011).

Mid-sized hounds are roughly between 51-70 cm at withers and 20-40 kg in weight. Their original habitat was a generally hot and dry climate except in the case of the Hungarian hounds. The Afghan Hound (Afghanistan), Arabian Greyhound (Morocco), Galgo Espanol (Spain), Kyrgyz Taigan (Kyrgyzstan), Pharaoh Hound (Malta), Rampur Greyhound (India), Saluki, Sloughi (Middle East), Tuareg Greyhound (Western Sahel), and Turkish Tazi (Turkey) are moderate in size and weight. They have shorter coats than the big-size hounds. They are tolerant of hot, dry weather but not cold weather, and can chill in cool weather. It is accepted that, generally, they are genuine examples of sighthounds (Pugnetti 2001, Anonymous 2005, en.wikipedia.org 2011, www.greyhoundclubofamerica.org 2011 www. nationmaster. com 2011).

Small-sized are lower than 50 cm at withers and generally lighter than 20 kg live weight. Italian Greyhound (Italy) and Whippet (UK) are thus small -sized hounds. Their original habitat are generally plain areas. These dogs are small in appearance and have a thin bone structure. The distribution of the Turkish Tazi is generally concentrated around the Central (Province of Konya) and Southeast (Province of Sanliurfa) Anatolia regions, but it can be seen in small quantities also in Igdir, Kars, Karaman, Ankara and Istanbul provinces. These dogs are reared for their superior hunting skills.

The Turkish Tazi also makes a good pet for humans because of its mild and affectionate character. It can get along well with children and other family pets, including cats. Although the Turkish Tazi is an extremely fast dog, it is not hyper-active. It is calm, loyal and tractable (Serpell 1996, Palika 2007, Yilmaz 2008, en.wikipedia.org 2011). Where the environment is concerned, they do not have an undercoat and therefore are less likely to resist cold weather. As a result, especially in the cold season, owners find it advisable to cover their backs with a piece of cloth.

The objectives of this study were to determine body coat colour and some phenotypic characteristics of native Turkish Sighthound, the Tazi.

Table 1. Some sighthound breeds, origins and means of height and weight.

Breed###Origin###Withers Height (cm)###Live Weight (kg)

###Overall###Male###Female###Overall###Male###Female

Afghan Hound2###Afghanistan###61-73###20-27

Afghan Hound3###Afghanistan###68-74###63-69

Afghan Hound3###Afghanistan###64-69###23-27

Afghan Hound8###Afghanistan###69-74###26-34

Arabian Greyhound7###Morocco###66-72###61-68

Borzoi2###Russia###Min 80###Min 66###45-54

Borzoi3###Russia###66-81###27-50

Borzoi7###Russia###75-85###68-78

Borzoi8###Russia###75,5###71###34-48

Chart Polski2,3###Poland###69-81###30-43

Chart Polski7###Poland###68-75###70-80

Galgo Espanol2###Spain###66-71###64-69###27-30###23-25

Galgo Espanol 7###Spain###62-70###60-68###

Galgo Espanol8###Spain###65-70###30###

Greyhound2###UK###71-76###68-71###27-40###27-34

Greyhound7###UK###71-76###68-71###

Greyhound8###UK###71-78###69-71###27-32

Hungarian Greyhound7###Hungary###65-70###62-67

Ibizan Hound2###Spain###61-74###20-29

Irish Wolfhound2###Ireland###81-86###Min 71###Min 54,5###Min 41

Irish Wolfhound7###Ireland###81-86###Min 79###Min 71###Min 54,5###Min 40,5

Irish Wolfhound8###Ireland###81-86###79###71###54###40

Italian Greyhound2###Italy###33-38###4-8

Italian Greyhound3###Italy###33-38###3-7

Italian Greyhound7###Italy###32-38###Max 5

Italian Greyhound8###Italy###32-38###Max 5

Kyrgyz Taigan2###Kyrgyzstan###Min 65###Min 60

Magyar Agar2###Hungary###65-70###62-67###22-31

Magyar Agar8###Hungary###27-31###22-26

Pharaoh Hound2###Malta###53-64###18-27

Pharaoh Hound8###Malta###63-70###57-66

Rampur Greyhound2###India###60-75###55-60###27-30

Saluki2,3###Middle Eastern 58-71###18-27

Saluki7###Middle Eastern 58-71

Scottish Deerhound2###Scotland###75-80###Min 70###40-50###35-43

Scottish Deerhound7###Scotland###Min 76###Min 71###45,5###36,5

Scottish Deerhound8###Scotland###76###71###39-48###30-36

Sloughi2###North Africa###66-74###61-69###

Sloughi8###North Africa###55-75###30-32###

Tuareg Sloughi2###Western Sahel 61-74###15-25###

Tuareg Sloughi7###Western Sahel###64-74###60-70###20-25###15-20

Turkish Tazi10###Turkey###70###24

Whippet2###UK###47-51###44-47###7-14

Whippet7###UK###47-51###44-47###

Whippet8###UK###47###44###8-12###5-9

'Min' indicates minimum size of the dog

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experimental animals: The Tazi included in the study were surveyed in Igdir (390 55'N; 440 02'E), Kars (400 36'N; 430 06'E), Konya (370 53'N; 320 29'E) and Sanliurfa (370 09'N; 380 48'E) provinces in 2010 and 2011 (www.googleearth.com 2011). This study lasted from November 2010 to January 2011. Ages were determined from the reports of owners. The dogs were aged between 5 months and 5 years, grouped according to their age as 0-12 months, 13-24 months, 25-36 months and 36-60 months.

Measurements: Dogs were measured for live weight with a portable spring scale. Linear measures such as withers height (WH), height at rump (HR), body length (BL), chest depth (CD), abdomen depth (AD), chest width (CW), haunch width (HW), thigh width (TW) and limb length (LL) were measured using a measuring stick. Other linear measures such as heart girth circumference (HGC), tail length (TL), cannon circumference (CC), head length (HL) and ear length (EL) were measured using a graduated plastic tape (Yilmaz, 2007). AD and TW are not usual measurement taken for dogs, but sighthound dogs have some special breed characteristics on these traits. In sighthound anatomy, the chest is deeper and the abdomen is narrower than in other dog breeds. It is normally accepted that chest and abdomen depth are usable traits to evaluate the speed of a sighthound. Secondly speed factor in a sighthound depends on the strength of its hind legs.

Sighthound hind legs are very much different from other dogs. A major difference lies in the proportions of the haunch and thigh of a sighthound, unlike other dog breeds. The sighthound thigh is wider, more muscled and developed; hence measuring only the haunch is not enough of an indicator to evaluate the hindquarters of a sighthound.

Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed with the Minitab 15 statistical software program. Descriptive statistics for body dimensions were analyzed using ANOVA and Student's T-Test that also determined the impact of sex, region, body coat colour, and age group on the response variables of LW, WH, HR, BL, HGC, CD, AD, CW, HW, TW, TL, LL, CC, HL and EL (Anonymous, 2011).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Descriptive statistics for live weight was (LW) 18.4 +- 0.19, withers height (WH) 62 +- 0.35, height at rump (HR) 62.2 +- 0.35, body length (BL) 60.3 +- 0.39, heart girth circumference (HGC) 63.3 +- 0.42, chest depth (CD) 22.8 +- 0.27, abdomen depth (AD) 14.3 +- 0.14, chest width (CW) 17.3 +- .0.16, haunch width (HW) 16.2 +- 0.12, thigh width (TW) 21.9 +- 0.17, tail length (TL) 44.8 +- 0.37, limb length (LL) 39.2 +- 0.20, cannon circumference (CC) 10.2 +- 0.07, head length (HL) 23.7 +- 0.21 and ear length (EL) 12.3 +- 0.13 cm, respectively.

The effects of sex on phenotypic traits are given in Table 2. There were significant differences between male and female Tazis for LW, WH, HGC, and CC (P less than 0.01) and HR, BL, CD, CW, and LL (P less than 0.05) that the males were larger in all those traits.

Among Turkish Tazi all colour patterns can be seen but generally dark coat colours were common. The most common body coat colour, about 60% in total, was black and dun. White and pied were the rarest body coat colours.

Results of present study revealed that Turkish Tazis are mid-size dogs. They are lighter in weight than Russian Borzoi (Russia), Irish Wolfhound (Ireland), Chart Polski (Poland), Galgo Espanol (Spain), English Greyhound (UK), Magyar Agar (Hungary), Scottish Deerhound (UK), Sloughi (North Africa), and Turkish Tazi (Turkey). The weight category for Turkish Tazis obtained from this study agreed with those for the Maltese Pharaoh Hound, Middle Eastern Saluki and Western Sahel Tuareg Sloughi. The English Whippet and Italian Greyhound were lighter than the Turkish Tazi.

Table 2. Phenotypic traits (mean +- S.E.) of Tazis for different sex.

###Overall###Female

###Male (n=60)###(n=62)

Traits###(n=122)

###X +- Sx###X +- Sx###X +- Sx

LW (kg)###18.4 +- 0.19###19.0 +- 0.25a###17.8 +- 0.28b

WH (cm)###62.0 +- 0.35###63.1 +- 0.47a###61.0 +- 0.48b

HR (cm)###62.2 +- 0.35###63.1 +- 0.50a###61.4 +- 0.4b

BL (cm)###60.3 +- 0.39###61.3 +- 0.53a###59.4 +- 0.55b

HGC(cm)###63.3 +- 0.42###64.5 +- 0.56a###62.2 +- 0.59b

CD (cm)###22.8 +- 0.27###23.3 +- 0.35a###22.2 +- 0.39b

AD (cm)###14.3 +- 0.14###14.5 +- 0.20a###14.1 +- 0.20a

CW (cm)###16.2 +- 0.16###17.7 +- 0.22a###17.0 +- 0.22b

HW (cm)###16.2 +- 0.12###16.3 +- 0.15a###16.1 +- 0.18a

TW (cm)###21.9 +- 0.17###22.0 +- 0.24a###21.8 +- 0.23a

TL (cm)###44.8 +- 0.37###45.0 +- 0.5a###44.6 +- 0.51a

LL (cm)###39.2 +- 0.20###39.8 +- 0.26a###38.7 +- 0.29b

CC (cm)###10.2 +- 0.07###10.5 +- 0.10a###10.0 +- 0.08b

HL (cm)###23.7 +- 0.21###23.9 +- 0.33a###23.4 +- 0.28a

EL (cm)###12.3 +- 0.13###12.4 +- 0.18a###12.2 +- 0.18a

In this study 122 Turkish Tazi were measured and their body coat colours were divided into black, dun, brown, cream, white and piebald. The frequencies of these are listed in Table 3 below.

Average withers height (62 cm) obtained in this study is shorter than for the Russian Borzoi, Irish Wolfhound, Afghan Hound, Arabian Greyhound, Chart Polski, Galgo Espanol, English Greyhound, Ibizan Hound, Kyrgyz Taigan, Magyar Agar, Scottish Deerhound, Sloughi, and earlier measurements for the Turkish Tazi (Tepeli, 2003). With respect to height at withers, the Turkish Tazi is found to be similar in size to the Maltese Pharaoh Hound, Indian Rampour Greyhound, Middle Eastern Saluki and Western Sahel Tuareg Sloughi, but higher than the English Whippet and Italian Greyhound. Concerning the height at rump in the Tazi hound, there has only been one result reported10: 68 cm for the Turkish Tazi. This is higher than the result (62.2 cm) from this study.

In this study the mean of body length was found to be 60.3 cm, longer than the result (49.9 cm) of the previous research by Tepeli (2003). In that research, all the linear measurements, except that for body length, were on average higher than those obtained in the present research.

There were significant (P less than 0.05) differences between this study's results and those of the previous research (Tepeli, 2003) for the means of heart girth circumference: 63.3 and 73.8 cm respectively.

The smallest difference between the results of this study and those of the earlier research (Tepeli 2003) concerned head length which, at was 23.7 and 25.6 cm respectively.

In conclusion, the overall results of the current study reveal that the Turkish Tazi is a mid-size sighthound dog. After 12 months, body growth rate decelerates and after 24 months of age there is only a minor growth rate. This suggests that Turkish Tazis reach the mature body weight and size around 2 years of age. Black and dun colours are in the majority.

Table 3. Distributions of the phenotypic traits of Tazis for different body coat colour.

###Black###Dun###Brown###Tan###White###Pied

Trait###X +- Sx###X +- Sx###X +- Sx###X +- Sx###X +- Sx###X +- Sx

###(n=43) 35.2%###(n=31) 25.4%###(n=15) 12.3%###(n=13) 10.7%###(n=10) 8.2%###(n=10) 8.2%

LW (kg)###17.7 +- 0.31a###19.1 +- 0.43a###18.5 +- 0.36a###18.5 +- 0.35a###18.6 +- 0.63a###18.7 +- 0.96a

WH (cm)###60.8 +- 0.56a###63.3 +- 0.81a###62.1 +- 0.57a###62.3 +- 0.85a###63.4 +- 1.13a###61.2 +- 1.51a

HR (cm)###61.0 +- 0.58a###63.3 +- 1.89a###63.2 +- 0.74a###62.4 +- 0.89a###63.5 +- 0.99a###61.4 +- 1.37a

BL (cm)###59.1 +- 0.67a###61.3 +- 0.89a###61.8 +- 0.87a###60.3 +- 0.95a###61.6 +- 0.95a###59.0 +- 1.45a

HGC(cm)###61.9 +- 0.69a###64.4 +- 0.95a###64.1 +- 0.97a###65.2 +- 1.32a###63.6 +- 0.88a###61.9 +- 1.15a

CD (cm)###21.7 +- 0.44b###24.1 +- 0.62a###23.3 +- 0.46ab###22.5 +- 0.65ab###23.6 +- 0.65ab###22.2 +- 0.98ab

AD (cm)###13.9 +- 0.26a###14.5 +- 0.26a###14.5 +- 0.36a###15.0 +- 0.41a###13.8 +- 0.39a###14.6 +- 0.54a

CW (cm)###17.1 +- 0.28a###17.5 +- 0.32a###17.4 +- 0.30a###17.7 +- 0.58a###17.4 +- 0.68a###17.4 +- 0.26a

HW (cm)###16.0 +- 0.20a###16.3 +- 0.26a###16.5 +- 0.38a###16.4 +- 0.23a###16.2 +- 0.33a###16.1 +- 0.35a

TW (cm)###22.1 +- 0.31a###21.5 +- 0.33a###21.7 +- 0.27a###22.5 +- 0.55a###22.0 +- 0.75a###22.1 +- 0.41a

TL (cm)###45.2 +- 0.62abc###43.3 +- 0.73d###47.6 +- 0.98a###43.1 +- 0.85cd###46.5 +- 1.05ab###43.7 +- 1.14bcd

LL (cm)###39.1 +- 0.33a###39.3 +- 0.46a###38.8 +- 0.43a###39.8 +- 0.51a###39.8 +- 0.73a###39.0 +- 0.73a

CC (cm)###10.2 +- 0.12a###10.3 +- 0.13a###10.4 +- 0.19a###10.2 +- 0.23a###10.1 +- 0.28a###10.0 +- 0.26a

HL (cm)###23.7 +- 0.34a###24.5 +- 0.42a###23.2 +- 0.60a###24.6 +- 0.61a###21.6 +- 0.70a###22.9 +- 0.68a

EL (cm)###12.7 +- 0.19b###12.5 +- 0.24ab###11.8 +- 0.32ab###12.2 +- 0.39ab###11.5 +- 0.51b###11.5 +- 0.51b

There were no significant differences between means bearing the same superscripts in same line.

The impacts of region on live weight and body sizes are also given in Table 4. The Tazi in East of Turkey were significantly different from others on measurements for BL, LL and EL (P less than 0.05).

Table 4. Phenotypic traits of Tazis for different region.

###Southeast (n=62)###Central (n=41)###East (n=19)

Traits###X +- Sx###X +- Sx###X +- Sx

LW (kg)###18.6 +- 0.26a###18.4 +- 0.31a###17.6 +- 0.65a

WH (cm)###62.5 +- 0.49a###62.0 +- 0.44a###60.4 +- 1.23a

HR (cm)###62.8 +- 0.48a###62.1 +- 0.50a###60.6 +- 1.18a

BL (cm)###60.9 +- 0.54b###60.7 +- 0.55b###57.7 +- 1.24a

HGC(cm)###63.5 +- 0.57a###63.9 +- 0.64a###61.5 +- 1.30a

CD (cm)###22.8 +- 0.36a###23.1 +- 0.41a###21.9 +- 0.90a

AD (cm)###14.4 +- 0.21a###13.9 +- 0.21a###14.5 +- 0.39a

CW (cm)###17.3 +- 0.20a###17.4 +- 0.25a###17.3 +- 0.55a

HW (cm)###16.1 +- 0.16a###16.4 +- 0.18a###16.2 +- 0.39a

TW (cm)###21.7 +- 0.23a###22.3 +- 0.26a###21.7 +- 0.55a

TL (cm)###44.6 +- 0.41a###45.7 +- 0.79a###43.3 +- 0.89a

LL (cm)###39.7 +- 0.25b###38.9 +- 0.31ab###38.4 +- 0.69a

CC (cm)###10.3 +- 0.09a###10.2 +- 0.11a###10.0 +- 0.34a

HL (cm)###23.8 +- 0.29a###24.0 +- 0.36a###22.7 +- 0.59a

EL (cm)###12.2 +- 0.17ab###12.8 +- 0.19b###11.5 +- 0.36a

a, b: P less than 0.05.

There were no significant differences between means showed in same letters of alphabet in same line and factor group.

The means of juvenile (0-12 months) Tazis were significantly different from older ones on the traits of WH, HR, BL, HGC, CD, CW, HW and CC (P less than 0.05) as seen in Table 5. After 12 months there were only minor differences for body growth and dimensions.

Table 5. Phenotypic traits of Tazis for different age.

###0-12 (n=49) 13-24 (n=35)###25-36 (n=19)###36-60 (n=19)

Traits###X +- Sx###X +- Sx###X +- Sx###X +- Sx

LW (kg)###17,8 +- 0,34a###18,7 +- 0,37a###18,9 +- 0,29a###18,9 +- 0,43a

WH (cm)###60,8 +- 0,64a###62,9 +- 0,63b###62,7 +- 0,68b###62,7 +- 0,51b

HR (cm)###61,0 +- 0,63a###63,1 +- 0,63b###63,3 +- 0,75b###62,6 +- 0,63b

BL (cm)###59,0 +- 0,67a###61,5 +- 0,72b###61,2 +- 0,94b###60,9 +- 0,61b

HGC(cm)###61,1 +- 0,65a65,1 +- 0,73b###63,5 +- 0,68ab###65,3 +- 1,01b

CD (cm)###21,8 +- 0,47a###23,7 +- 0,50b###22,5 +- 0,53ab###23,6 +- 0,40b

AD (cm)###13,9 +- 0,22a###14,5 +- 0,22a###14,7 +- 0,42a###14,4 +- 0,40a

CW (cm)###16,7 +- 0,18a###17,8 +- 0,35b###17,4 +- 0,27ab###18,1 +- 0,47b

HW (cm)###15,5 +- 0,18a###16,5 +- 0,15b###16,4 +- 0,26b###17,2 +- 0,31c

TW (cm)###21,3 +- 0,26a###22,1 +- 0,30a###21,5 +- 0,28a###23,5 +- 0,42a

TL (cm)###44,5 +- 0,64a###44,7 +- 0,60a###44,8 +- 0,77a###45,7 +- 1,05a

LL (cm)###39,0 +- 0,31a###39,2 +- 0,44a###40,2 +- 0,36a###39,1 +- 0,41a

CC (cm)###9,9 +- 0,13a10,4 +- 0,11ab###10,6 +- 0,11b###10,3 +- 0,15ab

HL (cm)###23,8 +- 0,34a###23,7 +- 0,38a###22,8 +- 0,68a###24,1 +- 0,40a

EL (cm)###12,5 +- 0,17a###12,1 +- 0,24a###11,8 +- 0,37a###12,4 +- 0,36a

a, b: P less than 0.05, c: P less than 0.01.

There were no significant differences between means showed in same letters of alphabet in same line and fact or group.

REFERENCES

Ostrander, E. A. (2008). National Human Genome Research Institute (2007, May 7). Gene Mutation Linked To Increased Athletic Performance In Whippets. Science Daily. en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Sighthound

Palika, L. (2007). The Howell Book of Dogs: The Definitive Reference to 300 Breeds and Varieties. John Wiley and Sons,

Serpell J A. (1996). The Origins of the domestic dog. In, Tekinsen, C and Tepeli C (Ed): International Symposium on Turkish Shepherd Dogs. First ed. pp. 7-18, University of Seljuk, Faculty of Veterinary Print Unit, Konya.

Yilmaz, O. (2008). Turkish Kangal (Karabash) Shepherd Dog. First ed., pp. 24, Impress Printing, Ankara. www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Greyhoun ds

Anonymous, (2005). Federation Cynologique Internationale.-Limited Edition. Cynological Association. Istanbul.

Pugnetti, G. (2001). Kopek Ansiklopedisi. Arkadas Yayinevi. Istanbul. www. greyhound club of america.org/greyhound

Tepeli, C. (2003). Some morphological Characteristics in Turkish Tazi (Turkish Hunting Dog). pp. 124. II. Small Pet Veterinary Congress, Bursa. www. googleearth.com

Yilmaz, O. (2007). Some Morphological Characteristics of Kangal Dogs Raised in Various Regions of Turkey. PhD thesis (unpublished). pp. 50-59, University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Ankara,

Anonymous, (2011). Minitab 15 Computer Program.

O. Yilmaz, and M. Ertugrul

Igdir University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Animal Science, 76100, Igdir. Ankara University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Animal Science, 06100, Ankara.
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Author:Yilmaz, O.; Ertugrul, M.
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
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Date:Dec 31, 2011
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