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SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS, PEER PRESSURE AND USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA BY UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN, IBADAN, OYO STATE, NIGERIA.

Introduction

Today, we are living in the information age. Postindustrial age is called information age. The age where information is a human product; where information is the result of human thinking. National Task Force for Information Technology and Software Development (NTFIT) desires that computer education and internet use should be promoted at an early stage of education. Thus, computers are a manifestation of the scientific and technological revolution; their actual creation, utilization, and further development caused new theoretical and applied problems especially in education (Tay, 2010). University as higher institution of learning provides facilities for teaching and research and is authorized to grant academic degrees; specifically: one made up of an undergraduate division which confers bachelor's degrees and a graduate division which comprises a graduate school and professional schools each of which may confer master's degrees and doctorates. Institution of higher education, usually comprise a liberal arts and sciences college and graduate and professional schools that confer degrees in various fields. A university differs from a college in that it is usually larger, has a broader curriculum, and offers advanced degrees in addition to undergraduate degrees (MerriamWebster, 2014).

Undergraduate students are students in a university or college who has not received a first, especially a bachelor's, degree. In other words, an undergraduate is a person studying in a university for a first degree. An undergraduate is someone who is yet to be awarded an associate or a bachelor degree by a recognized university (Collins English Dictionary, 2009). Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education. In Nigeria, it includes all the academic programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree and it takes a minimum of 4 years to complete. Undergraduate students are known to select and use information sources based on the accessibility rather than the quality of information; they seem to have developed some effective strategies that can help assess the information from social media.

In a study conducted on Social Network Addiction among Youths in Nigeria, Ajewole, Olowu, and Fasola, (2012), concluded that majority of the respondents spend more time on social media, which affects their academic productivity negatively. They equally found out that youths in Nigeria are spending too much time on social media at the detriment of other necessary things such as their studies. A study conducted in 2013 to find out students' use of social media revealed that students view social media sites for the purposes of leisurely entertainment, to watch films, to expose themselves to pornography, discuss serious national issues like politics, economy, and religious matters on the new media (Buhari, Ahmad and HadiAshara, 2014).

There are a number of indicators that determine the use of social media especially, among the undergraduate students. These indicators include: peer pressure, socio- economic background, among others. Paye (1996) reiterated the effects of socioeconomic status of parents on the Nigerian students. According to him, poverty syndrome imposed by economic crunch, maladministration, corruption and emergency closure of firms, has imposed hardship among parents/workers. They in turn have not been able to provide adequately for the basic fundamental, social and academic needs of the students (Paye, 1996). The affiliation of the undergraduate students especially with reference to the financial background of their parents and social status influence would predict, most of the time their economic position and the nature. Perhaps, the type of job the students' parents are engaged in can also be a factor to predict what the attitude of the student would be towards use of social media. The aim of education goes beyond the development of academic competence (Mayer, 2000).

Universities have the added responsibility of preparing self-assured and fully functioning individuals capable of pursuing their hopes and ambition. Parental involvement has become an era of increasing concern about the quality of education world over. Since parents want assurance that their children will receive adequate preparation to lead a rewarding adult lives (Mayer, 2000). Peer relationships play an important role in the development of a student's selfconcept. Peers influence is a kind of reaction that a peer group, observers or individual exerts that encourages others to change their attitudes, values, or behaviors to conform to group norms. The influence of peers declines upon entering adulthood (Stephanie, 2012).

Peer pressure occurs when an individual's thoughts or actions are affected by other people. The process of interpersonal influence that affects actors' attitudes and opinions is an important foundation of peer socialization, identity, and decisions. Social media (SM), such as Facebook, Orkut, Flickr, and LiveJournal, have become very popular and continue to grow their user base. Users on these SNS usually have explicitly labeled friends, which we consider to be proximity relationships on the networks (Anagnostopoulos, Kumar and Mahdian, 2008). Users can choose to create or join a group or community based on common interests, such as affiliations, hobbies, political stands, or religions. Peer pressure can manifest when people of the same interest realize that they can invite other users to join the same groups. As students move into the larger world of friends and school, many of their ideas and beliefs are reinforced by those around them. It is commonly believed that the close proximity peers, such as friends and friends of friends, have social impact on the joining of a certain group of that node (Stephanie, 2012).

As in any social networks, online or offline, the effect can also be the other way around, when people get to know others by virtue of their common interests and memberships in the same groups. These acquaintances then become new social relations. In social media, these new relations may result in links between users and thus new neighbours in the network topology (Friedkin and Johnsen, 1997; Friedkin and Johnsen, 1999). This research therefore aimed at investigating undergraduate students' perception about the use of social media in learning process at the university level of education. It is also aimed at ascertaining the alternative social media that Undergraduate students visit more often for academic matters and other private purposes. The research was borne out of the need to investigate what could be responsible for the inability of the appropriate authorities to successfully integrate use of social media into university education system in Nigeria. Particular attention was paid to variables of socioeconomic status and peer pressure as it affects use of social media for by Undergraduate students in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Statement of Problem

Many researchers have carried out series of research on how social media influence sharing of information among students in higher institutions. Many parents are worried that university students nowadays spend too much time on Facebook, WhatsApp, 2Go and other social media and do not have enough time for their academic matters. Stakeholders in Nigerian education sector (librarians inclusive) have observed that most students cannot even go two-three hours without checking or updating their profiles on social media networks, yet they do not have time for their academic activities both within and outside the university environment. Some researchers even perceived that undergraduate students from a very rich or averagely rich family background could afford to buy expensive tools such as smart phones and other facilities in order to access and use social media and as such spend a longer amount of time on social media than students from a poor family background without smart phones. Hence, most of the undergraduate students believe that using social media is a way of "fitting in" with peers, just like many other types of groups in high school. In other words, they believe that if they are not on social media like Facebook, Badoo, Twitter, MySpace etc. they do not belong. The ultimate goal of social media is creating an active and knowledge network community that individuals can exchange and share their valuable information. This study therefore intends to contribute to knowledge by paying keen attention to variables of SES, peer pressure and use of social media with reference to Undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Research Questions

The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:

1. What are the types of social media used by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria?

2. What are socio-economic factors that determine undergraduate students' use of social media in University of Ibadan, Nigeria?

3. What are peer pressure influences on use of social media in University of Ibadan, Nigeria?

4. Why do undergraduate students use social media in University of Ibadan, Nigeria?

Research Hypothesis

The following are the hypotheses that are set to test for the purpose of this study.

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic status and use of social media by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between peer pressure and use of social media by Undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Ho3: There is no significant joint influence of socio-economic status and peer pressure on use of social media by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Ho4: There is no significant joint effect of socio-economic status and peer pressure on use of social media by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Literature Review

Social media use by undergraduate students

Social networking has spread around the world with remarkable speed. Report of Pew Research Centre (2012) on social networking popular across globe Arab publics most likely to express political views online revealed that in countries such as Britain, the United States, Russia, the Czech Republic and Spain, about half of all adults now use Facebook and similar websites. These sites are also popular in many lower-income nations, where, once people have access to the internet, they tend to use it for social networking. Meanwhile, cell phones have become nearly ubiquitous throughout much of the world, and people are using them in a variety of ways, including texting and taking pictures. Smart phones are also increasingly common roughly half in Britain, the U.S., and Japan have one. Pew Research Centre (2012) also reported that globally, most smart phone users say they visit social networking sites on their phone, while many get job, consumer, and political information. Technologies like these are especially popular among the young and well educated.

Social media use by undergraduate students reflect more on their academic grades, a study released by Ohio State University reveals that college students who utilize Facebook spend less time on studying and have lower grades than students who do not use the popular social media (Kalpidou, Costin, and Morris, 2011). The proliferation of social media the internet has gained popularity over the last decade. Hence, the sites have attracted millions of users worldwide by providing a platform where people search for news, information, business and entertainment (Boyd, and Ellison, 2007). Social media use allows users to create personal profiles, while connecting with other users of the sites. Users can upload photographs and post what they are doing at any given time (Pempek, Yermolayeva, and Calvert, 2008).

Regarding the relationship between using social media with the education of undergraduate students, concurrent with past studies that find that online communication is linked to time spent in offline relationships, "findings indicate that social media use and cellularphone communication facilitates offline social interaction, rather than replace it (Jacobsen and Forste, 2011)". Undergraduate students commonly commented that connect should be invaluable for making friends and supporting each other, especially within the first few weeks after arriving at the University (Wang, Chen, and Liang, 2011). The relationship between Facebook and wellbeing appears to become positive over the college years, possibly because upper-class students use Facebook to connect socially with their peers and participate in college life (Kalpidou, Costin, and Morris, 2011).

The social media by their nature have the capabilities of educating, informing, entertaining and inflaming the audience. Above all, they possess a contagious and outreaching influence which the conventional media lack. This potential is most likely what Osahenye (2012) refers to as "unstoppable power of the social media". Social media, which include blogs (political Blog), networks (Facebook, Twitter, etc.), video sharing (YouTube) audio sharing (Podcast), mobile sites (2go etc.), image or picture sharing (flicker), etc. have the capacity of boosting participation because of their open, conversational nature, connectedness and textual and audio-visual characteristic appeals (Abubakar, 2011; Buhari, Ahmad and HadiAshara, 2014). Pew Research Centre (2017) pointed out that Facebook is the most-widely used of the major social media platforms, and its user base is most broadly representative of the population as a whole. Smaller shares of Americans use sites such as Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram and LinkedIn.

Socio-Economic Status and Use of Social Media by Undergraduate students

Social status is the position or rank of a person or group, within the society. Socioeconomic standings refer to valued resources attached to occupied positions. These resources can be classified into two types: personal resources and social resources. Personal resources are possessed by the individual who can use and dispose them with freedom and without much concern for compensation. Social resources are resources accessible through one's direct and indirect ties. The access to and use of these resources are temporary and borrowed. For example, a friend's occupational or authority position, or such positions of this friend, may be ego's social resource. The friend may use his/her position or network to help ego to find a job. These resources are borrowed and useful to achieve ego's certain goal, but they remain the property of the friend or his/her friends (Lin, 1999).

In most African countries and western world, economic status of a family is usually linked with the family's income, parents' educational level, parents' occupation and social status among the kith's and kin and even at the global level. Ford and Harris (1997) followed this logic while examining parental influences on African American students' school environment by focusing on specific socio-economic factors, including parents' level of education, marital status, and family income.

Undergraduate students' socio-economic background may greatly influence their online addictive behavior since the individual's economic viability determines the quality and quantity as well as how long a good and service could be consumed. Thus, student's access to funds and provision of technological equipment by parents and caregivers may influence their excessive use of computers and in turn, social media use. Socio-economic status could be described as a number of measures of inequality, practice, education, and advocacy (American Psychological Association, 2009).

Northwestern University recently published research stating that social media are not affecting students' GPAs. In fact, ethnic background, and parental education appears to have more of an influence than the amount of time used on social media. Northwestern researchers believe that "social media use didn't affect the difference in GPAs between male and female or white and African American students. However, social network use did eliminate the difference in GPAs between students whose parents had differing levels of higher education" (Cheng, 2010). When researchers controlled the demographic of parental education, there seemed to be a positive relationship between internet use and GPA.

There have been several studies related to measuring social capital in social network sites. For example, Brooks, Welser, Hogan and Titsworth (2011) discovers the relationship between socioeconomic status and three types of social capital which are network size, bonding social capital and bridging social capital. According to their results, higher socioeconomic status relates to larger and denser networks but not networks with more clusters so they concluded that socioeconomic status is not that much important to build new networks but it is certainly helpful to maintain existed networks. In another study, Burke, Marlow and Lento (2010) conclude that intensive Facebook usage relates to bonding social capital but has a modest relationship with bridging social capital. In addition, they states bonding social capital decrease loneliness of active Facebook users.

Peer Pressure and Use of Social Media by Undergraduate students

Thus, peers influence the growth or reduction of problematic behavior in youth (Capaldi, Dishion, Stoolmiller and Yoerger, 2001). The internet is more than just a means of seeking information. People discovered that the Internet could be used to connect with other friends and long lost relatives. The emergence of social media networks simplify the whole process as majority of them are free to use, they are easier to use and navigate, because it does not require advanced knowledge and experience of the internet and are made up of a wide array of different formats and topics; this means that just about anyone can connect.

According to Chaudhuri (2012) most students are at the age when they look for a group of like-minded, people of the same age. "Their happiness depends upon acceptance by their group members. If rejected, they certainly feel depressed and sometimes suicidal, feeling as though something is wrong with them. They start doubting their worth and may end up succumbing to the peer pressure." Influence of peer group plays an important role in the development of a student's self-concept. Peers influence is a kind of reaction that a peer group, observers or individual exerts that encourages others to change their attitudes, values, or behaviors to conform to group norms. The influence of peers declines upon entering adulthood (Stephanie, 2012).

Peers influence occurs when an individual's thoughts or actions are affected by other people. The process of interpersonal influence that affects actors' attitudes and opinions is an important foundation of peer socialization, identity, and decisions. Social media, such as Facebook, Orkut, Flickr, and LiveJournal, have become very popular and continue to grow their user base. Users on these social media usually have explicitly labeled friends, which we consider to be proximity relationships on the networks (Anagnostopoulos, Kumar and Mahdian, 2008). Users can choose to create or join a group or community based on common interests, such as affiliations, hobbies, political stands, or religions.

Methodology

The research design that was used for this study was survey descriptive research design of the correlational type. Descriptive research is considered appropriate because it focuses on the perception of existing situation, describes and interprets what is concerned with the issues, conditions, practices or relationship that exist, views, belief and attitudes that are held, processes that are going on and trends that are developing. The population of this study consists of all 300 level undergraduate students in University of Ibadan having being in their third year in the university (they were at the same developmental stage).

Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted. The first stage involved purposive selection of three (3) faculties from the thirteen faculties in the University. Hence, there were four hundred and seventy five (475) 300 level students in the three (3) selected faculties as at the time of this study. The second stage was equal allocation of 3 Departments to each of the three Faculties selected for study in the University. The Departments include: Economics, Political Science and Sociology (from the Faculty of Social Sciences); English, History and International Relation and Theater Arts (from the Faculty of Arts); and, Computer Science, Microbiology and Physics (from Faculty of Sciences). Finally the last stage was the selection of the sample size from the Departments. Probability proportionate to size (PPS) of 50.0% was used to draw the sample for this study giving a total selection of 238 respondents. However, only three hundred and thirty two (232) responses were generated giving a rate of 97.5%.

Instrument

The instrument used in carrying out this study was structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were divided into five sections, viz: Section A: was on the personal data of the respondents (demographic information) such as age, sex, marital status, educational qualifications, occupation, etc., Section B contains questions on socio-economic status with reliability coefficient of r = 0.72; Section C was dedicated to peer pressure with reliability coefficient of r = 0.82; Section D contains questions on use of social media by undergraduate students (reliability coefficient of r = 0.86) while, Section E was on reasons for use of social media with reliability coefficient of r = 0.96.

Method of Data Analysis

Descriptive and inferential tools were employed to analyse the collected date. Descriptive statistics tools such as frequency count, mean and standard deviation presented in tables was used to describe the demographic characteristics and as well answering the research questions. Chi-Square analysis was used to test he null hypothesis 1, the Pearson's Correlation was used to test the null hypotheses 2 while, Multiple Regression Analysis was used to test the hypotheses 3 and 4.

Results

Response rate on demographic information of the respondents is presented in the following figures.

Figure 1 shows the distribution of respondents based on age, 187(80.6%) respondents were between ages 20-24 years. Only 4(1.7%) were 30-34 years. This means that the respondents were still in their youthful and active years of university education.

On gender, 152(65.5%) of the respondents were males (fig. 2). This could mean that there were more male students compared to females in the departments selected for this study in both universities.

Figure 3 shows the distribution of respondents by marital status and 189(81.5%) respondents. Most of the respondent in the both universities were singles, this is adequate since they are still in their university days.

Types of social media used by undergraduate students

Table 1 presents information on the various types of social media used by the undergraduate students.

Table 1 shows that in 139(59.9%) respondents have been using social media network for over 3years while, 11(4.7%) have been using social media for a period between 2- 3 years. This means that the respondents were experienced social media users. Similarly, 116(50.0%) respondents had over 1000 friend on social media.

Most of the respondents (211 or 90.9%) used Facebook, 200(86.2%) Flickr, and 193(83.2%) used My Opera. None of the respondents indicated that they used Blogstar, LibraryThing and Xanga; perhaps respondents for this study were not aware of the existence of the social media. Therefore, the social media used by the undergraduate students Flickr, Facebook, WhatsApp, Ebuddy, Twitter, Academia.edu, Netlog and Wiki.

Socio-economic factors that determine undergraduate students' use of social media

Table 2a and 2b present information on the socio-economic status of undergraduate students in the University of Ibadan.

Table 2a shows that the father of 118(50.9%) respondents had NCE/OND. The Table shows further that mother of 116(50.0%) respondents had Grade II Certificate. This is adequate since the students' parents were literate persons having a minimum SSCE educational qualifications prerequisite for reading and writing skills.

The father of 159(68.5%) respondents was Civil Servant/Government Employed while, their mothers 48(46.6%) were traders (Table 2a).

While 126(54.3%) respondents had household income 100,000-159,999, 157(67.7%) respondents had personal monthly income range of 10,000-59,999. This is quite in good proportion with the students' household income (Table 2a).

Table 2a shows that 135(58.2%) respondents lived in bungalow. In addition, table 2b shows that 83(35.8%) respondents had their house situated in developing area.

Table 2b shows further that 161(69.4%) respondents lived in rented apartments, 160(69.0%) respondents used either Pit Latrine or Bushy area, 199(85.8%) had their house floor fixed with mosaic (tile), and 165(71.1%) had their house wall plastered with cement.

Finally, 2b shows that 113(57.3%) used public borehole/well for their water sources. Therefore, findings revealed that socio-economic factors that contribute more to the undergraduates' use of social media include: parental occupation, parental educational qualification, financial background, housing, and sources of water supply.

Peer pressure influences on use of social media

Response rate on peer pressure influence on use of social media is presented in Table 3. For the purpose of reporting

Table 3 shows that most of the respondents indicated that they like being independent of others when browsing the pages of social media ([bar.x] = 3.80; SD = .40). In the same way, most of the respondents affirmed that it was not true that they felt pressured to do drugs, because others have urged them to do so via social media ([bar.x] = 1.22; SD = .42). Similarly, respondents indicated that it was true that when at school, if a group of people asked them to do something, it would be hard to say no ([bar.x] = 3.20; SD = .11). In order to ascertain the level of peer pressure influence on use of social media by the undergraduate students, a test of norm was conducted. Results showed that the scale 1-14 is low, 15-28 is moderate, and 27-44 is high. Since the overall mean for the peer pressure influence yielded 22.47 which fall between the scale 15-28, it could be inferred that the level of peer pressure influence is moderate.

Reasons for undergraduate students' use of social media

Table 4 presents information in why undergraduate students use social media in the University of Ibadan.

Table 4 shows that most of the respondents indicated that sharing knowledge with others is a beneficial activity ([bar.x] = 3.64; SD = .48). Similarly, most of the respondents affirmed that they will try to share their expertise more effectively with other friends on social media ([bar.x] = 3.60; SD = .65). In addition, most of the respondents indicated that they desire to share knowledge taken from newspapers, magazines, and scientific papers concerning their university with other friends on social media ([bar.x] = 3.29; SD = .01). However, most of the respondents indicated that they rarely share their education reports and formal documents more openly with other friends on social media ([bar.x] = 2.08; SD = .75). Therefore, observation from Table 4 shows that undergraduate students in University of Ibadan used social media for sharing knowledge that is taken from newspapers, magazines, scientific papers concerning their university, for communication about examination matters, to seek assistance from online friends about problems, and to study with other students on social media.

Research Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic status and use of social media by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Table 5 shows the result of Chi-Square test of the relationship between socio- economic status and use of social media by undergraduate students in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Table 5 shows Chi-Square tests of significant relationship between socio- economic status and use of social media by undergraduate students. Result shows [X.sup.2] = 9.797,p < 0.05. This means that there is statistically significant association between socio-economic status and use of social media. In other words, as socio-economic status of the respondents improves, there is tendency for increased use of social media. Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho1) is hereby rejected.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between peer pressure and use of social media by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Table 5 presents the relationship between peer pressure and use of social media by undergraduate students in the University of Ibadan.

Table 5 shows that there is a negative significant relationship (r = -.163**; P<0.05) between peer pressure and use of social media by the undergraduate students in the University of Ibadan. This implies that if there is decrease in in peer pressure, use of social media could increase. In other words, peer pressure does not determine the use of social media by the undergraduate students. Therefore, Ho2 is hereby rejected.

Ho3: There is no significant joint influence of socio-economic status and peer pressure on use of social media by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Information on relative influence of socio-economic status and peer pressure on use of social media by undergraduate students in presented in Table 6.

Table 6 shows that (r = .305 and a multiple [R.sup.2] of .093) that was obtained was quite significant (F [2, 229] = 11.730; p < 0.05). This means that 9.3% of the variance was accounted for by the tow predictor variables when taken together. The significance of the relative influence was tested at P < .05. This implies that the level of influence of the independent variables to the dependent variable was significant and that other variables not included in this model may have accounted for the remaining variance. Therefore, Ho3 is rejected. Hence, the r is not due to chance.

Ho4: There is no significant joint effect of socio-economic status and peer pressure on use of social media by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Table 7 shows that socio-economic status and peer pressure were significant to undergraduates' use of social media. Hence, socio-economic status has highest and positive effect on undergraduates' use of social media (B = .271; t = 4.208; p < 0.05). The adjusted r square = .085 shows that socio-economic status and peer pressure has joint effect of about 8.5% to undergraduates' use of social media. Since the coefficients were significant, the null hypothesis is hereby rejected.

Discussion of findings

The social media used by the undergraduate students Flickr, Facebook, WhatsApp, Ebuddy, Twitter, Academia.edu, Netlog and Wiki. This is in line with Anagnostopoulos, Kumar and Mahdian (2008) who postulated that social media such as Facebook, Orkut, Flickr, and LiveJournal, have become very popular and continue to grow their user base. Pew Research Centre (2017) pointed out that Facebook is the most-widely used of the major social media platforms, and its user base is most broadly representative of the population as a whole. Smaller shares of Americans use sites such as Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram and Linkedln. Hence, users on these SNS usually have explicitly labeled friends, which were considered to be proximity relationships on the networks.

Findings revealed that socio-economic factors that contribute more to the undergraduates' use of social media include: parental occupation, parental educational qualification, financial background, housing, and sources of water supply. This is in line with Ford and Harris (1997) who posited that socio-economic factors of students include: parents' level of education, marital status, and family income.

The level of peer pressure influence on use of social media by the undergraduate students is moderate. This supports Wang et al. (2011) who opined that it is less common for students to seek out new friends online. In other words, the influence of peers decline in individual persons upon entering the adulthood.

The undergraduate students used social media for sharing knowledge that is taken from newspapers, magazines, scientific papers concerning their university, for communication about examination matters, to seek assistance from online friends about problems, and to study with other students on social media. This negates Buhari, Ahmad and HadiAshara, 2014) who stated that students view social media sites for the purposes of leisurely entertainment, to watch films, to expose themselves to pornography, discuss serious national issues like politics, economy, and religious matters on the new media. The finding of this study therefore established that social media were used by undergraduate students not only for entertainment but for educational purposes.

There is significant relationship between socio-economic status and use of social media. This explains the finding by Brooks et al. (2011) that higher socioeconomic status relates to larger and denser networks but not networks with more clusters so they concluded that socioeconomic status is not that much important to build new networks but it is certainly helpful to maintain existed networks.

There is a significant relationship between peer pressure and use of social media by the undergraduate students in the University of Ibadan. This supports Kalpidou, Costin, and Morris (2011) who maintained that the relationship between Facebook and well-being appears to become positive over the college years, possibly because upper-class students use Facebook to connect socially with their peers and participate in college life.

There is significant joint influence of socio-economic status and peer pressure on use of social media by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria. This supports McGarrity (2014) who asserted that peers' influence can have positive influence, especially when combined with use of social media tools. Thus, exposure to different cultures and beliefs can actually help counteract negative influence of peers by encouraging students to be themselves, rather than trying to conform to what everyone else around them might be doing. Hence, APA Bulletin (2009) reinstated that undergraduates' socio-economic background may greatly influence their online addictive behavior since the individual's economic viability determines the quality and quantity as well as how long a good and service could be consumed. There is significant joint effect of socio-economic status and peer pressure on use of social media by undergraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria. This is in line with Cheng (2010) who maintained that social network use just to fit in with peers did eliminate the difference in GPAs between students whose parents had differing levels of higher education.

Conclusion

Previous research in spheres of social media networks and its impact on tertiary institution students in different global and demographic context provided an extensive secondary source base for the study. Adoption of the Internet especially for its social uses has seen its highest levels of usage among Nigerian undergraduates. Most of the students have had access to the Internet, mobile/smart phones and computers for a large percentage of their lives. The students did not use social media mainly for entertainment but have started to embrace social media use for education purposes. Hence, socio-economic status and peer pressure were significant to undergraduates' use of social media networks in

the two universities in South- West, Nigeria. Thus socio-economic status will contribute more in positive ways towards use of social media networks in both universities. In other words, as the students' socio-economic status increases, their use of social media networks also improves.

Recommendations

The following recommendations were made after paying a careful look at the findings of this study:

1. Clearly, the study of social media use in tertiary institutions is in its infancy. Scholars thus need to move forward cautiously. The academic landscape is littered with many studies of new communication technologies that are now out-dated because their authors focused on particular technologies, exploring what consequences the use of those technologies had on social and organizational dynamics. With the swift development of new communication technologies, the particular social media used by students today are not likely to be the ones they will use in the future (see the appendix). Therefore, an affordance approach, which focuses attention not on any particular technology, but on the types of communicative practices that various features afford, is much more likely to have staying power because it builds theory about the relationship between technology and communication without foregrounding one concept or the other.

2. The results of this project have shown that more attention needs to be placed on understanding social media networks and their impact on tertiary institution students. University authorities need to not only be aware of what sites students are participating on, but also the significant role that these sites have in the lives of students. Though these sites have the potential to distract students from studying, homework, or other academic requirements, they can also benefit students if used properly and appropriately.

3. Social media, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter etc. are not only gaining popularity each year, they are becoming the primary form of communication between tertiary institution students even when they are at home. Knowing this, Nigerian university authorities should explore these sites to find out what attracts students to this type of communication and thus look for the appropriate ways to channel its use towards academic matters.

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by

John Adeboye Oyeboade CLN

Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies, University of Ibadan,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

johnadeboye@yahoo.com / johnadeboyeamb@gmail.com
Table 1: Social media used by the undergraduate students

1.   Years of social media use     Frequency   Percentage (%)

     1-6 months                        60           25.9
     6 months to a year                22            9.5
     1-2 years                         11            4.7
     2-3 years                         --             --
     Over 3years                      139           59.9

2.   Number of Friends on
     Social Media
     1-20                              32           13.8
     21-60                             21            9.1
     61-100                            21            9.1
     100-1000                          42           18.1
     Above 1000                       116           50.0

3.   Social Media Used
a.   Classmate.com                     73           31.5
b.   Cross.tv                          21            9.1
c.   Blogstar                          --             --
d.   Academia.edu                     147           63.4
e.   Twitter                          178           76.7
f.   Facebook                         211           90.9
g.   Ebuddy                           170           73.3
h.   MySpace                           57           24.6
i.   Audimated.com                     21            9.1
j.   Flickr                           200           86.2
k.   WhatsApp                         178           76.7
l.   LibraryThing                      --             --
m.   GetGlue                           54           23.3
n.   Biip.no                           21            9.1
o.   hi5                               39           16.8
p.   My Opera                         193           83.2
q.   Netlog                           157           67.7
r.   Open Diary                        --             --
s.   Playfire                          --             --
t.   Wiki                             164           70.7
u.   Xanga                             --             --
     N = 232; Grand Mean = 23.98

Table 2: Undergraduate students' socio-economic status

1    Fathers' Highest Educational         Frequency   Percentage (%)
     Qualification
a.   Nil                                       9            3.9
b.   SSCE                                      6            2.6
c.   Grade II Certificate                     17            7.3
d.   NCE/OND                                 118           50.9
e.   HND/First Degree                         35           15.1
f.   Mphil/PhD                                11            4.7
g.   PhD                                      36           15.5

2    Mothers' Highest Educational
     Qualification
a.   SSCE                                     34           14.7
b.   Grade II Certificate                    116           50.0
c.   NCE/OND                                  34           14.7
d.   HND/First Degree                         28           12.1
e.   PhD                                      20            8.6

3    Father's Occupation
a.   Farming/Trading                          40           17.2
b.   Civil Servant/Government Employed       159           68.5
c.   Artisan/Vocation Expert                  33           14.2

4    Mother's Occupation
a.   Farming/Trading                         108           46.6
b.   Civil Sevant/Government Employed        101           43.5
c.   Artisan/Vocation Expert                  23            9.9

5.   Household income per month
a.   Less than 10,000                         36           15.5
b.   10,000--59,999                           28           12.1
c.   60,000-99,999                            13            5.6
d.   100,000-159,999                         126           54.3
e.   160,000-199,999                          17            7.3
f.   200,000 and Above                        12            5.2

6    Undergraduates' personal income
     per month
a.   Less than 10,000                         54           23.3
b.   10,000-59,999                           157           67.7
c.   60,000-99,999                            21            9.1

7    Housing
a.   Bungalow                                135           58.2
b.   Bungalow Flat                            23            9.9
c.   Duplex                                   15            6.5
d.   Face me and I face you                   30           12.9
e.   Flat                                     21            9.1
f.   Story Building                            8            3.4

8    Area of residence

a.   Slum area                                72           31.0
b.   Estate                                   24           10.3
c.   Developing area                          83           35.8
d.   Well-developed area                      53           22.8

9    Housing status
a.   Rented Apartment                        161           69.4
b.   Personally Owned by Parents              71           30.6

10   Household items owned
a.   Electric Generator                       75           32.3
b.   Satellite dish                           45           19.4
c.   Vehicle e.g. car                         94           40.5
d.   Pit Latrine/Bushy area                  160           69.0
e.   Water Closet Toilet                      72           31.0

11   Housing floor materials
a.   Cement                                   21            9.1
b.   Mosaic (tile)                           199           85.8
c.   Wood                                     12            5.2

12   Housing wall materials
a.   Cement                                  165           71.1
b.   Wood                                     46           19.8
c.   Wood/Cement "Disposable"                 21            9.1

13   Water source
a.   Personal borehole/well                   33           14.2
b.   Buy                                      45           19.4
c.   Water station                            21            9.1
d.   Public borehole/well                    133           57.3
     N = 232

Table 3: Peer pressure influences on use of social media by
undergraduate students

S/N   Peer pressure items              Very True    True of Me
                                       of Me

                                        F     %      F     %

1.    My friends could push me into     --     --   11     4.7
      doing just about anything
2.    I give into peer pressure         --     --   13     5.6
      easily
3.    When at school, if a group of    137   59.1   39    16.8
      people asked me to do some-
      thing, it would be hard to
      say no
4.    At times, I have posted           74   31.9   11     4.7
      dangerous or foolish things on
      social media because others
      dared me to
5.    My social media interactions      30   12.9   11     4.7
      is because my faculty/univer-
      sity is on social media and I
      do not want to feel inferior
      because other students are
      using it too
6.    I like being independent of      186   80.2   46    19.8
      others when browsing social
      media networks
7.    I often feel pressured to do      --     --   44    19.0
      things I wouldn't normally do
      especially on SNSs.
8.    I make friends very easily and   160   69.0   43    18.5
      quickly on social media more
      than face to face
9.    I have skipped classes, when      30   12.9   11     4.7
      others have urged me to
10.   I have felt pressured to get      --     --   24    10.3
      drunk at parties I received
      its invitation via social media
11.   At times I have felt pressured    --     --
      to do drugs, because others                   --      --
      have urged me to do so via
      social media
N = 232 Criterion Mean = 2.50; Weighted Mean = 2.04

S/N   Peer pressure items              Rarely True   Not True
                                       of Me         of Me

                                        F     %       F     %

1.    My friends could push me into     50   21.6    171   73.7
      doing just about anything
2.    I give into peer pressure         62   26.7    157   67.7
      easily
3.    When at school, if a group of     22    9.5     34   14.7
      people asked me to do some-
      thing, it would be hard to
      say no
4.    At times, I have posted           96   41.4     51   22.0
      dangerous or foolish things on
      social media because others
      dared me to
5.    My social media interactions     140   60.3     51   22.0
      is because my faculty/univer-
      sity is on social media and I
      do not want to feel inferior
      because other students are
      using it too
6.    I like being independent of       --     --     --     --
      others when browsing social
      media networks
7.    I often feel pressured to do     116   50.0     72   31.0
      things I wouldn't normally do
      especially on SNSs.
8.    I make friends very easily and    29   12.5     --     --
      quickly on social media more
      than face to face
9.    I have skipped classes, when      54   23.3    137   59.1
      others have urged me to
10.   I have felt pressured to get      44   19.0    164   70.7
      drunk at parties I received
      its invitation via social media
11.   At times I have felt pressured
      to do drugs, because others       51   22.0    181   78.0
      have urged me to do so via
      social media
N = 232 Criterion Mean = 2.50; Weighted Mean = 2.04

S/N   Peer pressure items                Mean      Std.
                                       ([bar.x])   Dev.
                                                   (SD)

1.    My friends could push me into      1.31       .557
      doing just about anything
2.    I give into peer pressure          1.38       .591
      easily
3.    When at school, if a group of      3.20      0.112
      people asked me to do some-
      thing, it would be hard to
      say no
4.    At times, I have posted            2.47      0.154
      dangerous or foolish things on
      social media because others
      dared me to
5.    My social media interactions       2.09       .883
      is because my faculty/univer-
      sity is on social media and I
      do not want to feel inferior
      because other students are
      using it too
6.    I like being independent of        3.80       .400
      others when browsing social
      media networks
7.    I often feel pressured to do       1.88       .698
      things I wouldn't normally do
      especially on SNSs.
8.    I make friends very easily and     2.00      1.250
      quickly on social media more
      than face to face
9.    I have skipped classes, when       1.72      1.039
      others have urged me to
10.   I have felt pressured to get       1.40       .669
      drunk at parties I received
      its invitation via social media
11.   At times I have felt pressured
      to do drugs, because others        1.22       .415
      have urged me to do so via
      social media
N = 232 Criterion Mean = 2.50; Weighted Mean = 2.04

Table 4: Reasons for use of social media by the undergraduate students

S/N   Reasons for use of social        Very True     True of Me
      media                            of Me

                                        F     %      F     %

a.    I will try to share my           160   69.0    51    22.0
      expertise more effectively
      with other friends on social
      media
b.    Using online social media         42   18.1   118    50.9
      networks allows me to express
      my feelings clearly
c.    I intend to share handbooks,      41   17.7    63    27.2
      methods, and other educational
      materials with other friends
      on social media.
d.    Sharing knowledge with others    149   64.2    83    35.8
      is a beneficial activity.
e.    I desire to share knowledge
      taken from newspapers,           136   58.6    62    26.7
      magazines, and scientific
      papers concerning my
      university with other friends
      on social media.
f.    I feel social media can be        19    8.2   117    50.4
      used to communicate exam
      leakage and exam malpractice
      activities
g.    I like social media because I     60   25.9   136    58.6
      seek assistance from online
      friends about my problems
h.    I prefer to always share and      66   28.4   148    63.8
      study with other Students o       53   22.8    21     9.1
      social media I am aware that
      social media networks can be
      used as teaching/lecturing
      medium in this university, so
      I have adopted the strategy
      for my academic matters
J.    I intend to share more openly
      my education reports and          11    4.7    42    18.1
      formal documents with other
      friends on social media
                                       N = 232

S/N   Reasons for use of social        Rarely True   Not True
      media                            of Me         of Me

                                        F     %      F      %

a.    I will try to share my            21    9.1    --      --
      expertise more effectively
      with other friends on social
      media
b.    Using online social media         32   13.8    40    17.2
      networks allows me to express
      my feelings clearly
c.    I intend to share handbooks,      63   27.2    65    28.0
      methods, and other educational
      materials with other friends
      on social media.
d.    Sharing knowledge with others     --     --    --      --
      is a beneficial activity.
e.    I desire to share knowledge
      taken from newspapers,            --     --    34    14.7
      magazines, and scientific
      papers concerning my
      university with other friends
      on social media.
f.    I feel social media can be        73   31.5    23     9.9
      used to communicate exam
      leakage and exam malpractice
      activities
g.    I like social media because I     12    5.2    24    10.3
      seek assistance from online
      friends about my problems
h.    I prefer to always share and      --     --    18     7.8
      study with other Students o      105   45.3    53    22.8
      social media I am aware that
      social media networks can be
      used as teaching/lecturing
      medium in this university, so
      I have adopted the strategy
      for my academic matters
J.    I intend to share more openly
      my education reports and         134   57.8   45    19.4
      formal documents with other
      friends on social media

S/N   Reasons for use of social        Mean        Std.
      media                            ([bar.x])   Dev.
                                                   (SD)

a.    I will try to share my             3.60       .650
      expertise more effectively
      with other friends on social
      media
b.    Using online social media          2.70       .960
      networks allows me to express
      my feelings clearly
c.    I intend to share handbooks,       2.34      1.070
      methods, and other educational
      materials with other friends
      on social media.
d.    Sharing knowledge with others      3.64       .480
      is a beneficial activity.
e.    I desire to share knowledge
      taken from newspapers,             3.29       .045
      magazines, and scientific
      papers concerning my
      university with other friends
      on social media.
f.    I feel social media can be         2.57       .781
      used to communicate exam
      leakage and exam malpractice
      activities
g.    I like social media because I      3.00       .853
      seek assistance from online
      friends about my problems
h.    I prefer to always share and       3.13       .762
      study with other Students o        2.32      1.066
      social media I am aware that
      social media networks can be
      used as teaching/lecturing
      medium in this university, so
      I have adopted the strategy
      for my academic matters
J.    I intend to share more openly
      my education reports and            2.08    .749
      formal documents with other
      friends on social media

Table 5: Relationship between socio-economic status and use of social
media

                     Value                                   Approx.
Model                ([X.sup.2])   df   Phi     Cramer's V   Sig.

Pearson Chi-Square   9.797 (a)     49                        .000
                                        2.055   .777         .000
Likelihood Ratio     608.408       49                        .000
Linear-by-Linear     12.040        1                         .001
Association             N = 232

Table 5: Pearson Product Moment Correlation between peer pressure and
use of social media

Variables          [bar.x]  S.D     N        r        p       Remark

Peer pressure      22.44    6.76   232   -.163 **   0.000   Significant
Social media use   23.98    2.42

** Correlation Significant at 0.05 level

Table 6: ANOVA showing relative influence of socio-economic status
and peer pressure on use of social media

R          R Square   Adjusted R   Std. Error of
                      Square       the Estimate

.305 (a)   .093       .085         2.993

                              ANOVA

Model        Sum of     DF    Mean      F        Sig.   Remark
             Squares          Square

Regression   210.197    2     105.099   11.730   .000   Sig.
Residual     2051.716   229   8.959
Total        2261.914   231

Table 7: Coefficients showing joint effect of socio-economic status and
peer pressure on Use of Social Media

                                 Unstandardized    Standardized
                                  Coefficients     Coefficients

Variables                      B      Std. Error      Beta

UI   (Constant)              15.668       2.369
     Socio-Economic Status    .233         .055       .271
     of the Undergraduates
     Peer Pressure            .248         .077       .206

Variables                    Rank     t     Sig.

UI   (Constant)                     6.612   .000
     Socio-Economic Status   1st    4.208   .000
     of the Undergraduates
     Peer Pressure           2nd    3.210   .002

a. Dependent Variable: Use of Social Media Networks

Figure 1: Age of respondents

Age of respondents

Below 20 yrs (21 or 9.1%)     9.1
20-24 years (187 or 80.6%)   80.6
25-29 years (20 or 8.6%)      8.6
30-34 years (4 or 1.7%)       1.7

Note: Table made from pie graph.

Figure 2: Gender of respondents

Gender of respondents

Male (152 or 65.5%)    65.5
Female (80 or 34.5%)   34.5

Note: Table made from pie graph.

Figure 3: Marital status of respondents

Marital Status of Respondents

Single (189 or 81.5%)   81.5
Married (43 or 18.5%)   18.5

Note: Table made from pie graph.
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Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
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Date:Jan 1, 2018
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