SOCIABILITY AND INTELLIGENCE AMONG THE MALE STUDENTS OF HEC-RECOGNIZED INSTITUTIONS AND DEENI MADARIS IN PUNJAB.
The main focus of the present study was on analytically studying the sociability and I.Q level of male students enrolled with HEC-recognized institutions and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris at post-graduate level. A sample of 700 (350 representing each of two sub samples) meeting the criterion, was tested. The participants were administered Demographic Information Performa (DIP), Jaiza Mizaji Kafeyaat (Urdu adaptation of Thorndike Dimensions of Temperament by Sheikh et al., 1990) and Zahanat Paima (Urdu adaptation of 'Otis Tests of Mental ability' by Sheikh et al., 1979). T-test for independent samples revealed that students of HEC-recognized institutions scored significantly higher on the temperament dimensions of sociability. No significant differences were found between the students of HEC-recognized institutions and Deeni Madaris on I.Q levels. Regression analyses were also done to estimate the contribution of demographic variables and I.Q level in the variance of scores on sociability.
Only father education showed significant effect. The findings suggested a weak significant positive relationship of I.Q level with sociability.
Keywords: HEC-recognized institutions, Deeni madaris, sociability, I.Q level
Educational institutions play important role as socializing agents. Major part of the personality of students is shaped by the institutions in which they study. Cultural and social norms, values, rituals, beliefs, experiences, skills, and knowledge of a nation are transmitted to the new generation through educational institutions. Even psychological and personality characteristics are mostly determined by these institutions. Different educational institutions have different educational environments that influence student's personality in a different and their own way (Pace, 1971).
There are two independent systems of education working parallel in Pakistan; educational system of Government and educational system of Deeni Madaris. Each system is imparting education to millions of students according to their specific goals, curricula and teaching methods (Khalid, 2005).
Educational system of government is regulated and monitored by the education departments of central and provincial governments. The buildings, teaching staff, curriculum, examinations and teaching strategies are determined by the government. Educational institutions are accountable to the government for their functioning. This system has been designed in accordance with international traditions of education. The nature of subjects taught, teaching strategies and examination system is the same that is being used internationally, particularly in the western world. It needs sixteen years of education to earn a master degree. Total number of universities in Pakistan recognized by Higher Education Commission is 145 (universities are only 0.05% of total institutions in Pakistan), out of which 80 universities are in public sector and 65 are in private sector. There are 39 universities and degree awarding institutes in Punjab, out of which 18 are in public sector (Higher Education Commission, 2012).
On the contrary, the educational system of Deeni Madaris is primarily run by non-governmental organizations mostly relying on donations of the people. Government has practically no supervisory or advisory role in their functioning. They are governed by a central regulatory body named as Wafaq (five Islamic wafaqs representing sectarian ideologies) which is responsible for the determination of curriculum, conducting of examinations, and awarding of certificates/ degrees to the students enrolled under the system. This body has simply an advisory role and the Madaris are internally independent to function according to the will, preference, ideology and inclination of their local administration. The instructional program which is named as 'Dars-i-Nizami' consists of religious education and factional ideologies. Some of nonreligious subjects are also taught, but their scope is very limited.
Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has recognized the degree of Shahadat-ul-Almia awarded by Deeni madaris as equivalent to postgraduate level. This degree is earned in sixteen years (Khalid, 2005; Tariq, 2011).
Rahman (2005) compared the world view of the students of Deeni Madaris, Cadet Colleges, English, Urdu, and Sindhi medium schools, and governmental schools at secondary level. No differences among the students of different schools were found regarding the enforcement of Sharia laws in Pakistan, use of force for the settlement of Kashmir dispute, and the production of nuclear weapons by Pakistan except the students of Sindhi and English medium schools. Khalid, Saeed and Hassan (1996) found Madrassah students more aggressive than the students of Government school at secondary level. Khanam (2008) found that postgraduate students of Deeni Madaris have highest level of moral development as compared to the students of public and private institutions. Ahmed, Shaukat and Abiodullah (2009) investigated the role of different school systems (Public, Private, and Madrassah schools) of Pakistan in the development of moral and social traits in students.
The students of Madrassah scored significantly higher on the traits of honesty, violence, respect for others and patriotism as compared to the students of Private and Public School Systems.
The general educational institutions and Deeni Madaris have different educational environments. Their physical structure of buildings, space for sports, curriculum, teaching methodologies, learning aids and equipment, control techniques, curricular and co-curricular activities, students and teacher input, ideologies and educational objectives, cultural feel of the campuses are different. The different type of educational environment is likely to promote and foster different personality and temperamental traits in their students (Khalid, 2005; Ahmed, Shaukat, and Abiodullah, 2009; Fair, 2006; Rahman, 2005). Moreover, it is supposed that children with higher I.Q level are sent to the institutions of general education and the children with lower I.Q level are sent to the institutions of Deeni Madaris (Rahman, 2005). The current study aims to examine the hypothesized different pattern of temperamental trait of sociability and I.Q level in the students of HEC-recognized institutions and Deeni Madaris.
Sociability is a temperament dimension characterized by a tendency of being among the people, enjoying group tasks and parties, and playing a central role in different activities (Sheikh et al., 1991). It determines child's nature of reaction to new people or situations and his or her readiness for new and novel experiences. The other side of the dimension defines a child as being shy or hesitant (Thomas and Chess, 1991). Sociability is the tendency to prefer the company of others than being alone (Buss and Plomin, 1984). Bates (1987) regarded sociability and positive emotionality as overlapping concepts. He said that many markers of sociability such as laughter, smiling, and others expressions of happiness were also the markers of positive emotionality. Similarly, Martin (1988) considered sociability as associated with the interaction with familiar people and familiar situations.
Various studies have investigated the association between sociability and educational institution. Guerin, Gottfried, Oliver and Thomas (1994) found sociability as a moderate contributor to the classroom behaviors assessed by the teachers in the form of student's ability to work hard and appropriateness of behaviors. Similarly, in another study, sociability was found related to different aspects of school environment (Nelson, Martin, Hodge, Havill, and Kamphaus, 1999). Barclay (1983) found from a meta-analysis that traditional structured classroom environment had positive impact on children with temperaments like low task orientation and low sociability. They benefited from it and developed greater level of self-control and became more outgoing. The results indicate the significance of "fit" between child temperamental tendencies and the nature of classroom environment.
The findings of a study suggested that sociability, low reactivity and high task orientation were significantly associated with child-teacher and child-peer interactions in less structured classrooms environment (Keogh and Burstein, 1988). Asendorpf (1990) found a positive relationship between peer rejection and the development of inhibition (reverse of sociability) in children in school setting. The above literature review confirms the "goodness of fit model" and reveals the significance of fit between sociability and educational environment.
Intelligence is the major variable of current study. DeYoung (2011) incorporated the opinion of 52 experts in the field of intelligence in these words: "Intelligence is a very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings-"catching on", "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do".
Sociability has been found to be related with intelligence in various studies. Kaczmarek, Miklewska and Strelau (2006) found moderate positive relationship between sociability and intelligence. Burk (1980) indicated a highly positive correlation between sociability and one's I.Q. Clarke-Stewart, Umeh, Snow and Pederson (1980) found a positive relationship between children's intelligence and sociability. In another study, it was found that sociability and activity are positively related with higher levels of cognitive stimulation (Lounsbury, Sundstrom, Loveland, and Gibson, 2003).
Theoretical frame of reference:
The current study is based on the theoretical frame work of "Goodness of fit model" by Thomas and Chess (1991). The personality of a person is shaped by the match and mismatch between temperament dispositions and environmental demands. The environment determines the expression and growth of a temperamental characteristic and temperament is supposed to modify an individual's environment to fit the demands of temperamental dispositions. Sociability is expected to have greater match with the environments of Universities as compared to the environments of Deeni Madaris. Thomas and Chess (1991) recognized the role of intellectual capacities in the process of interaction between temperament and environment in predicting developmental outcomes.
1- To compare the students of HEC-recognized institutions and Deeni Madaris on sociability.
2- To find out the difference between I.Q. levels of the students of HEC-recognized institutions and Deeni Madaris.
3- To explore the impact of demographic variables and I.Q level on sociability.
4- To investigate the association of I.Q level with sociability.
1- There is significant difference of scores on sociability between the students of HEC-recognized institutions and Deeni Madaris.
2- There is significant difference of I.Q. level between the students of HEC-recognized institutions and Deeni Madaris.
3- There is significant contribution of demographic variables and I.Q level in the scores of participants on sociability.
4- There is significant association of I.Q level with sociability.
The convenient sample of the study comprised of 700 male students at post graduate level (350 from six HEC-recognized institutions (universities of general education) and 350 from 13 Deeni Madaris of five Islamic wafaqs located in Punjab province). The age range for university students was 19 to 25 years (M= 22.23, SD= 1.86) and 16 to 36 years (M= 22.43, SD= 2.66) for the students of Deeni Madaris. The number of siblings ranged from 1 to 11 (M= 5.44, SD= 2.27) and 1 to 13 (M=5.69, SD= 2.37) for sub samples of University and Deeni Madaris respectively. The birth order in the two subsamples also was the same. The educational level of parents was recorded in the form of years of education and it ranged from 0 to 16 (M=6.22, SD=5.11) for mothers and 0 to 16 (M=10.94, SD= 4.41) for fathers of university students. Similarly, it was from 0 to 14 (M= 3.68, SD= 4.18) for mothers and 0 to 16 (M= 6.87, SD= 5.20) for the fathers of Deeni Madaris subsample.
The monthly income of the family was conveniently used as an indicator for SES of the participants. The monthly income of the family ranged from Rs. 4,000 to 1, 50,000 (M= 20,564, SD= 16454.09) and Rs. 1,000 to 100,000 (M= 16,169, SD= 13,850) for the subsamples of university and Deeni Madaris respectively. The I.Q level of university students was between 90 and 124 (M= 105.43, SD= 8.01) and for the students of Deeni Madaris, it was between 89 and 123 (M= 104.62, SD= 8.35).
The following instruments were used in the present study:
Demographic Information Performa (DIP)
DIP was used for gathering desired demographic information of name of educational institution, age, number of siblings, birth order, educational status of mother and father in years of education, monthly income of the family in rupees.
Jaiza Mizaji Kafeyaat (JMK)
Sociability was measured by sociable- solitary dimension of Jaiza Mizaji Kafeyaat (JMK). This is a standardized Urdu adaptation of Thorndike Dimensions of Temperament by Sheikh et al. (1990) to be used more meaningfully on Pakistani population. The reliability and validity of JMK were found .79 and .86 respectively (Riaz, 2013).
Zahanat Paima (ZP)
The test is a standardized Urdu translation and adaptation of 'Otis Tests of Mental ability' (Otis, 1950) by Sheikh et al. (1979). The test can be administered on the subjects of age 11-17 years and over. The test is a useful tool to measure I.Q level for Pakistani population.
Test material was prepared for data collection at massive level. An efficient plan for sampling procedures and data collection was devised. Written requests for the grant of permission were sent to the administrations of Universities and Wafaqs. The researcher visited the Universities and Madaris who granted permission for data collection. The tests were administered to the participants in a package. They were advised to fill the Demographic Information Performa (DIP) and Consent Form first. Secondly, they were tested for Jaiza Mizaji Kafeyaat (JMK) and at the last they were administered Zahanat Paima (ZP).
Research Design of the study
This is a cross-sectional study utilizing between groups design.
Data analysis strategy
The data was carefully entered into SPSS package in tabular form. T-test for independent samples was run to find the mean difference of scores on temperament dimension of sociability and Intelligence between the students of HEC-recognized Institutions and Deeni Madaris. Standard regression analysis was done in order to examine the impact of demographic variables and I.Q level on the score of sociability. Pearson correlation was applied to find out association between I.Q level and sociability.
Table 1: Comparison of mean Sociable-Solitary scores of the students of HEC-recognized Institutions and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris by independent samples t-test
HEC-recognized Institutions###81.3###14.1 42.6###698###.000
There is a significant difference of scores for the students of HEC-recognized institutions (M= 81.3, SD= 14.1) and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris (M= 29.4, SD= 18.0; t (698) = 42.6, p(Less than ) .0001 on the dimension of sociability. It is evident from mean that students of HEC-recognized institutions are more sociable as compared to the students of HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris.
Table 2: Comparison of mean I.Q. level of the students of HEC-recognized Institutions and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris by independent samples t-test
Table 2 presents the result of independent samples t-test. The value of t (698) = 1.31, p=.192 is not significant at a=0.05. This indicates that there is no difference of mean I.Q. level for the students of HEC-recognized institutions (M= 105.4, SD= 8.0) and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris (M= 104.6, SD= 8.4).
Table 3: Summary of Regression Analysis: Effect of Demographic Variables and I.Q level on scores of sociability
Father's Education###1.983###.280###.340###7.088 (Less then).001
Number of Siblings###.326###.598###.025###.545###.586
Monthly Family Income 5.744E-6###.000###.003###.076###.939
Table 3 shows the results of standard multiple regressions. The model produced R square of .123 which was statistically significant [F (7, 692) = 16.185, p(Less than ) .001]. It means that predictor variables of age, birth order, mother's education, father's education, number of siblings, monthly income of the family and I.Q. level collectively accounted for 12% of the variance in the scores of sociability. However, only father's education significantly predicted scores on sociability ( b= .340, t = 6.53, p (Less than ) .001).
Table 4: Summary of Correlation Analysis: Relationship of I.Q .level with Sociability
I.Q level###.096###p(Less then) .05
Pearson product moment correlation was calculated in order to find out association between I. Q level and participant's scores on sociability. Preliminary analyses were performed to evaluate that no violation of assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity was made (Cohen, 1988). The results suggest that I.Q. level showed significant but weak positive relationship [r (698) = .09, p (Less than ).05] with sociability.
The first hypothesis of the study states that the students of HEC-recognized institutions and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris are significantly different on temperament dimension of sociability. The results of t-test approve this hypothesis. The analysis of the mean indicates that the students of HEC-recognized institutions are more sociable as compared to the students of HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris. The results are according to the theoretical model presented by Thomas and Chess (1977). Environmental factors including educational institutions interact with the temperamental dispositions of children and the temperamental outcomes are determined by the match or mismatch between these two variables. The findings of the current study reveal that the dimension of sociability has greater match with the environments of HEC-recognized institutions. So, the mean score of their students is significantly higher. On the other hand, this dimension has a greater mismatch with the environments of Deeni Madaris.
Asendorpf (1990) found that sociability was related to peer rejection and unsuccessful experiences of making friends in schools. This indicates the significance of the role of educational institutions in the development of sociability.
The direction of these results can be justified as HEC-recognized institutions have certain conducive characteristics for the development of sociability. The students of universities have plenty of opportunities to have social interaction, to establish social contacts, to develop closer ties and friendships with one another, to attend too many seminars and conferences, to enjoy functions and festivals, to work on collective assignments and projects, to visit restaurants and markets freely, to join different academic and social organizations and to participate in various curricular and extracurricular activities. Moreover, they are financially sound and they have got capacity to spend money on the activities of entertainment. All these activities are the source of social contacts and interaction which promote and foster the characteristics of sociability in the students.
On the other hand, the physical structure of Deeni Madaris is usually congested with very limited facilities for sports, curricular and extracurricular activities. The academic time table is distributed on full day activities letting no room for leisure and entertainment. Students study under a very tight control and discipline, in a confined and restricted environment where opportunities for social contacts are limited and they do not have enough opportunities to develop close ties and relationships with one another that can lead to the development of sociability. They are not allowed to move freely outside the premises of institution to attend public gatherings or functions or to visit markets (Raman, 2005; Khalid, 2005). So, behaviors related to sociability are restricted and inhibited to grow and foster in the environment of Deeni Madaris. The results of the present study are in congruence with the state of affairs prevailing in two institutions.
A study by Saudino and Cherny (2001) revealed that non-shared environmental factors contributed significantly in modifying temperament of inhibition (reverse of sociability). It means that non-shared environmental factors that also include educational environmental factors can amend the behavioral inhibition and an inhibited child may become sociable one under the influence of environmental factors. Another cause for the lower scores of the students of Deeni Madaris on sociability may be their lower placement on SES and larger family size. Wachs (1988) found that infants belonging to lower socioeconomic status and reared in crowded family environments were observed to have lower levels of sociability and lower adaptability. Similarly, Sharma (1975) found a significant positive relationship between SES and sociability.
The second hypothesis of the study states that the students of HEC-recognized institutions and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris are significantly different on their I.Q levels. An independent samples t-test was conducted to compare the mean I.Q. level of the students of HEC-recognized institutions and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris. The result of t-test did not support this hypothesis. This indicates that there is no difference of mean I.Q. level for the students of HEC-recognized institutions and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris. There is a popular propaganda in the national and international media that children with lower I.Q levels are sent to Deeni Madaris and the children with higher I.Qs are admitted in the institutions of general education (Khalid, 2005; Fair, 2006; Rahman, 2005). The findings of current study refuted this popular hypothesis and revealed that the students of Deeni Madaris are not less intelligent as compared to the students of other institutions.
Moreover, the students studying at postgraduate level cannot reach this level without intellectual compatibility.
The third hypothesis is about the effect of demographic variables and IQ level on sociability. The results of standard multiple regression showed that model consisted of demographic variables such as age, birth order, mother's education, father's education, number of siblings, monthly income of the family, and IQ. level collectively accounted for 12% of the variance in the scores of sociability dimension of temperament. However, only father's education showed significant positive effect on sociability dimension and others variables entered in the model did not make significant unique contribution. In Pakistani culture, father plays central role in the selection of educational institutions for his children. Educated parents usually send their children in the educational institutions of general education where the characteristic of sociability is groomed well than the students of Deeni Madaris.
The fourth hypothesis is about the relationship of IQ level with sociability dimension of temperament. The student's IQ level showed a weak positive relationship with Sociability. This is consistent with the findings of previous studies (Burk, 1980; Clarke-Stewart et al., 1980; Lounsbury, Sundstrom, Loveland, and Gibson, 2003; Kaczmarek, Miklewska, and Strelau, 2006).
The present study aims at comparing the male students of HEC-recognized institutions and HEC-recognized Deeni Madaris on sociability and intelligence. The first hypothesis was approved. The results indicate that students of HEC-recognized institutions are more sociable than the students of Deeni Madaris. The second hypothesis was not approved. The students of HEC-recognized institutions and Deeni Madaris are not different on IQ levels. The third hypothesis was partially approved. Only father's education has significant effect on sociability. The fourth hypothesis was supported. Sociability and IQ level are significantly related.
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Corresponding Address: Muhammad Riaz, Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Department of Applied Psychology University of Punjab, Lahore
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|Title Annotation:||Higher Education Commission|
|Author:||Riaz, Muhammad; Sheikh, Muhammad Hamid|
|Publication:||Pakistan Journal of Psychology|
|Date:||Jun 30, 2013|
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