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SHADOWS OF A LITERARY DIALECT: FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS IN FIVE ROMANCE LANGUAGES (3).

(14.) Use of thou and ye as nonstandard pronouns was a novelist's stock-in-trade to signal alien speech. About half a century earlier H. Rider Haggard had used them in King Solomon's Mines to alert the reader that a character was speaking an African language: "`Great words, my father,' answered the Zulu.... `Thou art right, my father Incubu'" (67). Or in another passage: "`Ye will see, O friends, that I [Alan Quartemain, a hunter] have prepared myself by learning your language'" (115).

(15.) For example: [Pablo]--"`[Spanish open quote] Que tiene usted para justificar su identidad?'.... [Jordan]--`Mire el sello---dijo en voz baja'" (Sp-A 20). Later on Pablo switches to tu ("`[Spanish open quote] Que es eso que traes?'" (Sp-LA 66)) and then changes back to usted ("`[Spanish open quote] Que es lo que esta usted diciendo?'" (Sp-LA 69).

16. On the use second person address forms in Portuguese, see Head, Jensen, Silva, and Azevedo 1981.

17. Said to a guest by a hotel employee in Barcelona. Robert Jordan correctly identifies it: "So he [El Sordo] does only speak that pidgin Spanish for foreigners" (147); "And that poor bloody Sordo abandoning his pidgin Spanish to explain it to him so carefully" (167). See Hall (376) for comments on this kind of pidginized language, which Hemingway uses in A Farewell to Army: "The captain spoke pidgin Italian for my doubtful benefit ... `Priest today with girls.... Not true?.... To-day I see priest with girls'" (7).

18. See Gould on Hemingway's troubles with censorship in the U.S. in the 1940s. Similar considerations may have led the Brazilian translator--censorship was severe in Brazil, then under a dictatorship--to substitute a modest dotted line for the love scene between Jordan and Maria in Chapter 13 (Pg 139). On Spanish censors' handling of Hemingway's works, see LaPrade 1991.

19. Diccionari Catala-Angles (Barcelona: Enciclopedia Catalana, 1986). Daixonses/dallonses are equivalent vicarious euphemisms that refer to someone or mention something when one cannot find the appropriate words or does not want to say them. See also Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana (Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans, 1995).

20. Sp-LA, as well as the Catalan version, follow the original integrally, whereas other Spanish versions make a variety of changesa most of which "are in the blasphemies and profanities in a political context.... the blasphemies in the Spanish version are usually more explicit and closer to Scribner's edition than those in the Mexican version" (LaPrade 1991:54, my translation).

21. Sp-SS coincides literally with Sp-OS in this passage.

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