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SEED AND OIL YIELDS OF RAPESEED (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) CULTIVARS UNDER IRRIGATED AND NON-IRRIGATED CONDITIONS.

Byline: A. H. S. Rad A. Abbasian and H. Aminpanah

ABSTRACT

Drought is the major factor limiting plant growth and productivity in many regions of the world more than any other environmental factors. To determine the effect of water deficit on seed and oil yields in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars field experiments were conducted at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Karaj Iran during 20072009. The experimental designs were randomized complete block with split-plot arrangement and three replicates. main plots were four levels of irrigation (control (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A" pan IR1) no irrigation after the start of stem elongation stage (IR2) no irrigation after the start of flowering stage (IR3) and no irrigation after the start of podding stage (IR4)) and subplots were six rapeseed cultivars (Licord SLM046 Okapi Orient Zarfam and Opera). Results showed that seed and oil yields number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod were significantly affected by year rapeseed cultivar and irrigation level. Moreover the most average yield reduction due to drought conditions (IR2) in comparison with control (IR1) in first and second year was 30.44% (Licord) and 50.27% (Zarfam) respectively. In both two years SLM046 cultivar has the least percentage of yield reduction and it was the best yielding in water stress conditions. Therefore these experiments illustrated that rapeseed cultivars showed significantly different responses depending on weather conditions to different irrigation levels and SLM046 cultivar showed higher ability to capture soil moisture under severe competition and had the least reduction in seed yield compared to the other cultivars.

Keywords: Brassica napus L. oil yield seed yield water deficit winter rapeseed cultivars.

INTRODUCTION

Environmental stress such as water limitation during growth and development of plants can affect seed quality and quantity (Younesi and Moradi 2009). Drought stress often causes yield reduction which is an important agricultural research subject (Zhang et al.2008). Robertson and Holland (2004) reported that the effect of drought stress is a function of genotype intensity and duration of stress weather growth and developmental stages of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). The effects of water stress depend on timing duration and magnitude of water deficiency (Pandey et al. 2001). The occurrence time is more important than the water stress intensity (Abbasian and Shirani Rad 2011). Most oilseed rape crops grown in Iran are established in autumn and usually drought is an important limiting factor. In certain tolerant-adaptable crop plants such as rapeseed morphological and metabolic changes occur in response to drought which contribute towards adaptation (Tohidi-Moghadam et al. 2009).Breeding for drought resistance is complicated by the lack of fast reproducible screening techniques and the inability to routinely create defined and repeatable water stress conditions when a large amount of genotypes need to be evaluated efficiently (Akcura et al. 2011). Achieving a genetic increase in yield under these environments is a difficult challenge for plant breeders while progress in yield grain has been much higher in favorable environments (Richards et al. 2002).Water limitation during seed development usually interrupts development and results in small seed size (Cruz-Aguado et al. 2000); this reduced size is primarily due to a shortening of the filling period rather than an inhibition of seed growth rate (Younesi and Moradi 2009). Drought reduces biomass and seed yield harvest index number of silique and seeds seed weight and days to maturity (Abebe and Brick 2003; Munoz- Perea et al. 2006; Padilla-Ramirez et al. 2005). Besides drought increases cooking time and seed protein content (Frahm et al. 2004). According to Mir Mousavi et al. (2006) seed yield has a larger positive direct effect on oil yield and content. Harvest index has a large positive correlation with oil yield; Great positive correlation was due to its indirect effect via seed yield in each plant (Abbasian and Shirani Rad 2011). Pazouki (2000) showed that shortening irrigation interval increased 1000- seed weight and vice versa. In an experiment with nine summer rapeseed Chango and McVetty (2001) observed that total dry matter and harvest index had a significant

correlation with grain yield. Under field conditions early drought (occurring at green bud stage) could lead to a decrease in oil content of seeds implying that allocation of assimilates to the ovule at the early stage of the megaspore could be related to the final oil concentration (Wright et al. 1995; Abbasian and Shirani Rad 2011). Jensen et al. (1996) found that under low evaporative demands (24 mm d-1) oil and seed yields were not influenced by soil drying. Under high evaporative demands (45 mm d-1) oil and seed yields significantly decreased. Thus it is very important to determine critical stages of oilseed rape crops against drought stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of rapeseed cultivars to water deficit occurring at either vegetative or reproductive stages in order to achieve the optimum use of resources.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Set up of the experiment: This study was carried out at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Karaj Iran (35 55' N 5054' E 1313 m altitude) during 20072009. This region has a semi-arid climate (354 mm annual rainfall). The soil texture of the experimental site is a clay loam with montmorillionite clay mineral low in nitrogen (0.06-0.07 %) low in organic matter (0.56-0.60%) and alkaline in reaction with a pH of 7.9 and Ec=0.66 dS m-1(using an Electrical Conductivity Meter).

Experimental design and crop management: The experimental designs were randomized complete block with split-plot arrangement and three replications. main plots were four levels of irrigation (control (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A" pan IR1) no irrigation after the start of stem elongation stage (IR2) no irrigation after the start of flowering stage (IR3) and no irrigation after the start of podding stage (IR4)) and subplots were six rapeseed cultivars (Licord SLM046 Okapi Orient Zarfam and Opera). Individual plot consisted of 6 rows 6 m long and spaced 30 cm apart using a seeding rate of 7 kg ha-1. The experimental fields and seedbed preparation consisted of two passes with a tandem disk. Seeds were planted 1 to 1.5 cm deep at a rate of 100 seeds m-1 on 10 October 2007 and 2008. For all treatments N: P: K fertilizers applied at the rates of150:60:50 kg respectively. All of P K fertilizer and one- third of N were added and incorporated to soil at presowing stage. Other two-third of N fertilizer was split equally at the beginning of the stem elongation and the flowering stages. Weeds were controlled by application of haloxyfop- R-methyl ester (Gallant Super. 10 % EC) at0.6 L ha-1. Broadleaf weeds were also hand weeded during the season. Final harvests were carried out at the16 June 2008 and 28 June 2009. Sampling: At maturity stage ten plants from each plot were randomly selected for the measurement of yield components: number of pods per plant number of seeds per pod 1000-seed weight. To determine the seed yields per unit area seeds and straw were collected and dried at70C for 48 h. Harvested area was 2m A- 4m in each plot. Seed yield of rapeseed was adjusted to 9% moisture content. Oil content was determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) with a Bruker equipment (DMX 500MHz) (Bruker Germany) using deuterated chloroform as solvent. Oil yield was calculated by multiplying seed yield by oil content.

Statistical analysis: Because of achieved data for two years were different and in second year we have a bad climate conditions we separated and analyzed information for every year. The experimental data were statistically analyzed by using of SAS system (SAS Institute 2002). Mean separation was obtained using fisher's protected LSD at the 0.05 probability level.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Analysis of variance showed that rapeseed cultivars and water stress had significant effects on all traits except oil content 1000-seed weight and harvest index (Table 1). Moreover the interactions between rapeseed cultivars and irrigation level were significant for seed and oil yields number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod. Rapeseed cultivars showed significantly different responses to different irrigation levels. Because of bad climate conditions in the second year as well as great difference between the amount of seed yield and oil yield in these two years we have measured these data separately. Also in the second year we had higher reduction in percentage yield compared with the first year. Means comparison for the effect of drought stress on yield and its components of rapeseed cultivars are shown in Table 2 and 3. Seed yield and yield components were reduced significantly when drought stress imposed either during vegetative or during reproductive growth stage of rapeseed. In full irrigation (control) Okapi cultivar produced the highest and Opera cultivar given the least seed yield (Table 2) in the first year. In the second year Opera cultivar produced the highest seed yield followed by Licord and Okapi (Table 3).The difference between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars was about 767 and 505.7 kg ha-1 in20072008 and 618.1 and 585.5 kg ha-1 in 20082009 in non-stress and stress conditions respectively (Tables 2 and 3). The most average yield reduction due to drought conditions (IR2) in comparison with control (IR1) in first and second year was 30.44% (Licord) and 50.27%(Zarfam) respectively. SLM046 cultivar has the leastpercentage of yield reduction and it was the best yielding in water stress conditions (Table 2 and 3).

Table 1: Variance analysis of variables in winter rapeseed cultivars between 2007 and 2009.

###1000-

###Number###Number###Oil

###seed###Seed yield###Harvest###Oil yield

###SOV###df###of pods###of seeds###content

###weight###(kg ha-1)###index###(kg ha-1)

###per plant###per pod###(%)

###(g)

Year###1###1048.14###583.6###26.89###119772412###323.6###98.43###20762737

Rep. (Year)###4###321.94###10.01###0.7###344776.7###21.5###4.66###69174.1

Irrigation###3###7943.89###42.7###0.08 ns###3442479.1###74.74ns###3.42ns###742948.1

IrrigationA-Year###3###1143.4###62.58###0.14 ns###165269.6 ns###44.21ns###3.9ns###51454.1ns

Error###12###82.8###2.17###0.26###153797.6###74.96###3.12###28038.1

Variety###5###470.8###10.8###0.17 ns###495652.8###40.89ns###3.88ns###94214.3

VarietyA-Year###5###367.2###3.21ns###0.4###485164.5###25.48ns###1.93ns###94499.3

VarietyA-Irrigation###15###418.05###6.09###0.13 ns###432337.9###57.21###1.55ns###76665.5

VarietyA-IrrigationA-Year 15###801.7###8.22###0.12 ns###257859.8###41.37ns###3.33ns###42091.4ns

Error###80###87.1###2.16###0.14ns###122565.1###30.1###2.13###27242.5

CV %###11.79###6.65###8.89###11.03###22.68###3.27###11.74

ns: nonsignificant; p 0.10; p 0.05; p 0.01.

In control treatment Okapi and Zarfam produced the greatest and least oil yields in the first year respectively. In contrast Licord and Zarfam produced the greatest and least oil yields in the second year respectively. Zarfam cultivar however has least oil yield in normal irrigation but this cultivar had smallest degree of oil yield reduction in the severe water stress (0.44% in first year and 15.83% in second year). Grain yield under irrigated condition was adversely correlated with rain-fed condition suggesting that a high potential yield under optimum condition does not necessarily result in improved yield under stress condition. Thus indirect selection for a drought-prone environment based on the results of optimum condition will not be efficient (Sio-Se Mardeh et al. 2006). The number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod reduced significantly when water deficit stress occurring at either vegetative or reproductive stages leading to a reduction in seed yield (Table 2 and 3). The highest pods per plant were recorded for Opera and Orient cultivars in full irrigation regime while the lowest ones were recorded for Okapi and Zarfam cultivars (Table 2 and 3). Number of pods per plant was the most sensitive yield components to water stress occurring at reproductive growth stage (Diepenbrock (2000). Seed yield of rapeseed depended on density number of pods per plant number of seeds per pod and seed weight (Angadi et al. 2003).It seems that water stress caused yield reduction probably by inducing pod abortion via limiting photosynthesis. Under drought stress stomata become blocked or half-blocked leading to a decrease in absorbing CO2. At the same time the plants tended to consume a lot of energy to absorb water causing a reduction in producing photosynthetic assimilates (Moaveni et al. 2010). It appears that water stress hampered flowering and reduced the probability of developing flower to pod and its occurrence during flowering and pod formation resulted in pod abortion (Shirani Rad 2012). Mendham and Salisbury (1995) reported that competition for assimilates among new branches and extra pod formation at the time when seed numbers are set was responsible for decreasing seeds per pod as well. Clarke and Simpson (1978) suggested that increased###number###of###pods###per###plant###in###irrigation treatments were primarily due to lengthening of the flowering period. Due to the reduction in the area of photosynthesis a drop in producing chlorophyll was happened and also the rise of the energy consumed by the plant in order to take in water caused the increasing the density of the protoplasm changing respiratory paths and the activation of the path of phosphate pentose or the reduction of the root spread which could finally reduce###plant###height###(Moaveni###et###al.###2010).###The interaction between rapeseed cultivar and irrigation level was significant for harvest index at 0.05 probability level (Table 1). The lower harvest index for Okapi under severe drought stress (IR2) indicates lower partitioning of dry matter towards the seed. Reduction in the length width and area of the leaf and reduction in the plant height and tiller number all contribute to the reduction of plant's evaporation area and photosynthesis and consequently dry matter decreases (Moaveni et al.2010). Daneshmand et al. (2007) suggested that at water stressed conditions those rapeseed cultivars which were able to maintain their relative water content at high levels also had higher seed yield.

Table 2. Effects of irrigation level (IR) and cultivar (V) on yield components seed yield biological yield harvest

###index oil content and yield of rapeseed during 2007-2008.

###Number of###Number of

Oil yield (kg###Oil content###Harvest###Seed yield###1000-seed

###seeds per###pods per###Treatment

###ha-1)###(%)###index###(kg ha-1)###weight(g)

###pod###plant

###Interaction (I irrigation A- V variety)

2088.04ab###42.89ab###30.44a###4858ab###4.89abcd###24a###111.833b###IR1 V1

1949.47bcd###44.09ab###27.35bcdef###4678abc###4.33cde###22.3abc###97c###IR1 V2

###2211.05a###44.76a###29.57ab###4941a###5.06ab###21.3bcd###110.333b###IR1 V3

1984.21bc###43.24ab###26.1cdefg###4594.3bcd###4.79abcde###23ab###130.667a###IR1 V4

1665.56fghij###44.67a###24.73g###4272.3ef###5.02ab###23.3a###95c###IR1 V5

1779.9defgh###42.87ab###25.93defg###4174efg###4.93abcd###23.7a###97c###IR1 V6

###1493.29j###44.16ab###24.82fg###3379l###4.77abcde###19.2efgh###64jklm###IR2 V1

1835.17vdef###44.49a###29.14ab###3884.7ghij###4.44bcde###17.3ijk###63.3jklm###IR2 V2

###1590.84ij###43.25ab###21.85hi###3680.7jkl###4.56bcde###16.3k###60.3klm###IR2 V3

1753.95efghi###42.92ab###25.6efg###3882ghij###4.71abcde###18hijk###56m###IR2 V4

1658.26ghij###44.96a###24.29gh###3547.7kl###4.7abcde###17jk###55.3m###IR2 V5

1741.51efghi###42.97ab###27.95abcde###3444.7l###4.56bcde###17jk###58.7lm###IR2 V6

1662.26fghij###44.04ab###20.46i###3772.3ijk###4.28de###21.3bcd###70.3hijk###IR3 V1

2038.02ab###43.56ab###28.02abcde###4170.7efg###4.16e###20defg###75.67fghi###IR3 V2

1797.34defgh###41.77b###19.82i###4162.7fgh###5.28a###18.7fghij###82defg###IR3 V3

1790.01defgh###44.29ab###26.16cdefg###4039.3fghi###4.69abcde###19efghi###71.3ghij###IR3 V4

1851.29cde###43.91ab###20.62i###3674jkl###5.13ab###18.7fghij###67.67ijkl###IR3 V5

###1530.85j###44.45a###28.41abcd###3817.7ijk###4.54bcde###18.3ghij###88cde###IR3 V6

1828.63cdefg###43.2ab###21.96hi###4241.7ef###4.64abcde###22.3abc###90.3cd###IR4 V1

1753.06efghi###44.08ab###28.46abc###4475cde###4.64abcde###21cd###80.3defgh###IR4 V2

1805.41defgh###43.35ab###23.99gh###4301def###4.53bcde###20defg###91cd###IR4 V3

1797.88defgh###43.74ab###29.9a###4136.7fgh###4.76abcde###20.3def###78.3efghi###IR4 V4

###1583.92ij###44.68a###24.11gh###3863.3hij###4.89abcd###20.7cde###86.3cdef###IR4 V5

1644.53jhi###43.06ab###25.67efg###4036.7fghi###4.47bcde###19.7defgh###83.3def###IR4 V6

###175.38###2.66###2.53###306.37###0.71###1.83###10.78###LSD

Table 3. Effects of irrigation level (IR) and cultivar (V) on yield components seed yield biological yield harvest

###index oil content and yield of rapeseed during 2008-2009.

###Number of###Number of

###1000-seed###Seed yield###Harvest###Oil content###Oil yield

Treatment###pods per###seeds per

###weight(g)###(kg ha-1)###index###(%)###(kg ha-1)

###plant###pod

###Interaction (I irrigation A- V variety)

IR1 V1###70.37efgh###25.33abcd###3.89abc###3013.9ab###21.94abcd###47.47a###1430.6

IR1 V2###98.83bc###26.33ab###4.05ab###2773.2abc###26.51abc###46.43abcd###1165.2abcd

IR1 V3###66.73efgh###25.1bcd###3.83abc###2956ab###30.09a###45.39abcdef###1340.1ab

IR1 V4###68.73efgh###25.67abcd###3.4c###2736.1abcd###23.09abcd###47.24ab###1173.6abcd

IR1 V5###77.83def###24.33bcde###3.81abc###2601.8bcd###28.61ab###44.84cdef###1123.7abcde

IR1 V6###126.87a###19.67g###3.86abc###3219.9a###24.99abcd###43.94ef###1414.2

IR2 V1###75.6def###28a###3.67abc###1669ijkl###18.75abcd###44.99bcdef###921.8cdefg

IR2 V2###36.37i###25.33abcd###4.1a###1719hijkl###22.13abcd###45.04bcdef###810.9efg

IR2 V3###59.9fgh###23.57bcde###3.97abc###1620.4jkl###17.08bcd3###44.84cdef###726.6fg

IR2 V4###56.23gh###24.33bcde###3.92abc###1435.2kl###14.37d###44.77cdef###839.8defg

IR2 V5###54.13hi###21.67efg###3.5bc###1294l###16.2cd###45bcdef###945.8cdef

IR2 V6###91.33bcd###25.9abc###3.68abc###1879.5ghijk###19.21abcd###43.27f###991cdef

IR3 V1###74.13defg###25bcd###3.65abc###2280.1cdefg###23.99abcd###44.79cdef###890.1cdefg

IR3 V2###60.93fgh###26abc###3.82abc###2043.2efghij###19.59abcd###44.23def###1096.7abcde

IR3 V3###72.43efgh###24.1bcde###3.74abc###1995.4fghij###21.95abcd###46.56abc###933.3cdef

IR3 V4###78.13def###23def###3.84abc###2199defghi###27.57abc###44.05ef###1140.3abcde

IR3 V5###81.1cde###24bcde###3.86abc###1627.3jkl###19.83abcd###45.57abcde###588g

IR3 V6###77.93def###23.33cde###3.9abc###2411.2cdefg###27.36abc###45.04bcdef###1001.5bcdef

IR4 V1###92.87bcd###20.33fg###3.71abc###2500bcdef###21.8abcd###46.06abcde###1104.8abcde

IR4 V2###98.37bc###25bcd###4.11###2328.7cdefg###20.65abcd###45.59abcde###955.2cdef

IR4 V3###102.7b###23def###3.98abc###2578.7bcde###23.86abcd###45.66abcde###1182.8abc

IR4 V4###75.7def###24.9bcd###3.64abc###2409.7cdefg###20.17abcd###47.38a###869.7cdefg

IR4 V5###71.73efgh###21.9efg###4.06ab###2226.1defgh###23.39abcd###46.15abcde###844.3cdefg

IR4 V6###65.7efgh###23.33cde###4.01ab###2733.8abcd###24.31abcd###44.81cdef###1118.3abcde

###LSD###18.745###2.89###0.6###537.49###11.56###2.26###342.02

The correlation coefficients among the measurements are shown in Table 4. All the characters except oil content and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield in two years. In both years oil yield showed the highest correlation value with seed yield in comparison to the others (r = 0.7 and 0.71). Sadaqat et al. (2003) found that seed yield had significant positive correlation with pods per plant and branches per plant under drought conditions. Among yield components number of seed per pod and number of pods per plant had greatest influence on seed yield. Our results were similar to the findings of Biabani et al. (2008) Singh (2007) and Aliabadi et al. (2009).

Table 4. Correlation Coefficients between characters calculated from six rapeseed cultivars in 2007-2008 (above

###diagonal) and 2008-2009 (below diagonal).

###Number###Number

###1000-seed###Harvest###Oil

###Characters###of pods###of seeds###Seed yield###Oil yield

###weight###index###content

###per plant###per pod

Number of pods per plant###1###0.72###0.18ns###0.64###0.23ns###-0.03ns###0.46

Number of seeds per pod###-0.1ns###1###0.18ns###0.61###0.12ns###0.06ns###0.32

1000-seed weight###0.08ns###-0.27###1###0.1ns###-0.1ns###-0.1ns###0.04ns

Seed yield###0.46###-0.08ns###0.03ns###1###0.47###-0.07ns###0.7

Harvest index###0.19ns###-0.1ns###0.14ns###0.5###1###0.06ns###0.38

Oil content###-0.07ns###0.09ns###0.04ns###0.24###-0.01ns###1###0.17ns

Oil yield###0.29###-0.01ns###-0.09ns###0.71###0.37###0.09ns###1

Conclusions: In this study our results demonstrated that seed yield and yield components were significantly reduced by drought stress occurring at either vegetative or reproductive growth stage of rapeseed cultivars. The differential response of cultivars to imposed water stress condition indicates the drought tolerance ability of rapeseed cultivars. SLM046 cultivar showed higher ability to capture soil moisture under severe competition and had the least reduction in seed yield compared to the other cultivars. SLM046 cultivar has the least percentage of yield reduction and it was the best yielding in water stress conditions. REFERENCES

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Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
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Date:Feb 28, 2014
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