Printer Friendly

SECOND FORCE PSYCHOLOGY TO ASSESS COGNITIVE DISSONANCE AREAS AND RESTORE FULL SERVICE TO DELINQUENTS AND PRISON INMATES.

Second Force Psychology is presently the theory underlying the use of psycho-analysis throughout the health care facilities of the world, and serves as the principal means for health care with individuals displaying psychiatric disorders (Taylor, 1962). It derives directly from the early work of Sigmund Freud where "free association" is the technique for revealing areas and nature of hurts lying deep in the unconscious. Such hurts are believed to be directly associated with different areas of one's life space where personal needs have not been well gratified. The theory in Second Force Psychology follows that when the individual is fully aware of such areas of one's life space that foster such unconscious hurts, the individual on a conscious level can seek to find personal ways to relieve the hurts that are present. In December 1949 the New York Times did a survey to identify the 10 greatest contributions to society during the entire first half of the 20th century, from 1900 to 1950-from the Victorian Age to the Atomic Age, and the "free association" concept of Freud was considered to be the greatest for that period of time (Commager, 1949). Today, around the world psychoanalysis based on Second Force Psychology serves as the basis for treatment of psychiatric disorders and mentally sick people (Taylor, 1962).

Cognitive Dissonance

It was Leon Festinger of Stanford University (1957) who introduced "Cognitive Dissonance" as a substitute for "Free Association" and defined it as "feelings of unpleasantness" which an individual possesses lying deep in the unconscious, and where the individual seldom if ever realizes the reasons for such feelings. The Cognitive Dissonance Test (DISS) (Cassel, et.al, 2001b) was developed based on the Festinger theory to serve as a means for helping individuals discover the areas and nature of cognitive dissonance" typically lying deep in the unconscious; so that on a conscious level they might help to plan for ways to eliminate such hurts. The DISS test is comprised of 200 true/false type items that are distributed with 25 in each of the eight part scores. One item, for example reads "Is your home warm and friendly?" If the answer is "Yes," then there is no "Cognitive Dissonance" present, but if the answer is "No," then there is clear evidence of "cognitive dissonance" being present. Four of the eight part scores are included within the Internal and Personal areas of life; while the other four are included in the External and Impersonal areas of one's life space. A Discerning Score (LIE) is included to insure that the items are really read, and/or understood:
I. Internal & Personal:        II. External & Impersonal:

   1. Home & Family - HOM          5. School & Learning - SCH
   2. Inner Development-INN        6. Social Affiliation-SOC
   3. Personal Adjustment-PER      7. Survival & Power-SUR
   4. Health & Well-being-HEA      8. Life Pursuits-LIF
      Part I Total - IPTOT            Part II Total - EITOT

                    DISS Total Score - DISTOT

                       Discerning Score-LIE


Juvenile Delinquents and Prison Inmates

The Cognitive Dissonance Test (DISS) (Cassel, et.al., 2001a), and The Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy Test (DEMO) (Cassel, 2001b) were administered to a number of Juvenile Delinquent Boys and Girls, but only the DEMO test was administered to the male prison inmates (Cassel, et.al., 2001c, 2001d, 2001e, 2001f, and 2001g). When the DISS scores were compared to Typical high school students for the Delinquent groups, statistically different Part and Total Scores were obtained suggesting that much higher levels of "Cognitive Dissonance" is present for the Delinquents than for the Typical Individuals. Since the Male Prison Inmates Hall-Marks for Success scores were low like the Delinquency Boys and Girls, we assume that their DISS scores would be high just like that for the delinquents, if they had taken the DISS test. It follows logically that such persons with high Cognitive Dissonance have psychiatric disorders and where Second Force Psychology becomes the rule for health care purposes, and the DISS test is designed for such use.

Comparing Global Functioning and Cognitive Dissonance

Repeated studies where The Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy Test (DEMO) (Cassel, et.al, 2001a) and The Cognitive Dissonance Test (DISS)(Cassel, et.al., 2001b) were given to the same individual, the DEMO scores were as follows:

1. For the Typical High School Students and the Typical Adults, the DEMO scores were significantly higher for the Typical individuals then for the Juvenile Delinquents or Prison Inmates. This suggests that Juvenile Delinquents and Prison Inmates each generally lack "Hall-Marks for Success." At the same time corresponding Typical High School Students and Typical Adults all tend to possess very high such "Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy."

2. For the same Typical High School Students, the DISS scores were significantly lower than for the Juvenile Boys and Girls. This suggests that Delinquent Boys and Girls have significantly greater "Cognitive Dissonance" than do Typical High School Students. Because of the presence of high Cognitive Dissonance, they must be considered as being psychiatric patients, and where Second Force Psychology becomes the rule for health care.

It is clear from this data that the absence of "Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy" is typically associated with high and excessive "Cognitive Dissonance." This presence of Cognitive Dissonance is evident with both the Juvenile Delinquent Boys and Girls. It is clear that dealing with both Juvenile Delinquents and Prison Inmates involves the use of Second Force Psychology. The fact that more than 80 percent of the prison Inmates in our country are presently addicted to alcohol or drugs, suggests further the psychiatric nature of their personal problems, and without question, from a health care standpoint, Second Force Psychology must become the rule.

Need for High School Delinquency Prevention Programs

The present two million prison inmates in the United States with one million of them being high school dropouts, and with that prison population doubling in the last ten years suggests an immediate and urgent need for Delinquency Prevention Programs in our high schools across the nation. Person-centered high schools based on Third Force Psychology must serve as the basis for such prevention programs (Cassel, 2000, 2001a, 2001b, and Cassel and Reiger, 2000). The high school extra-curricular activities must serve as a firm basis for such delinquency prevention programs, and as requested by parents in the 32nd Annual Gallup Poll (Rose and Gallup, 2000).

References

Cassel, R.N. (2000). Third Force Psychology and Person-Centered Theory: From Ego-Status to Ego-Ideal. Psychology, 37,(3/4), 44-48.

Cassel, R.N., and Reiger, R.C. (2000). The New Third Force Psychology promises to reduce the growing prison population through student-centered high schools. Education, 121(1), 34-37.

Cassel, R.N. (2001a). Interpreting General Colin Powell's notion of a high school program that prevents delinquency and crime. Education, 121(3), 422-430.

Cassel, R.N. (2001b). A person-centered high school delinquency prevention program based on "Eight-Hall Marks for Success in a democracy." Education, 121(3), 431-435.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMoulin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001a). The Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy Test (DEMO). Chula Vista, California: Project Innovation.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001b). The Cognitive Dissonance Test (DISS). Chula Vista, California: Project Innovation.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001c). Comparing the Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy of 116 Juvenile Delinquent Boys with that of 461 Typical High School Students. Education, 121(3), 436-440.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001d). Comparing the Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy of 57 Juvenile Delinquent Girls with that of 461 Typical High School Students. Education, 121(3), 441-445.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001e). Comparing the Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy of 92 Male Prison Inmates with that of 1492 Typical Adults. Education, 121(3), 446-448.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001f). Comparing the Cognitive Dissonance of 116 Juvenile Delinquent Boys with that of 215 Typical High School Students. Education, 121(3), 449-453.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001g). Comparing the Cognitive Dissonance of 57 Juvenile Delinquent Girls with that of 215 Typical High School Students. Education, 121(3), 454-458.

Commager, H.S. (1949). 1900-1950: From the Victorian Age to the Atomic Age. The New York Times Magaziner, December, 25, pp. 3-15.

DSM-III-R (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases.

Washington, D.C.: The American Psychiatric Association.

DSM-IV (19941. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Washington, D.C.: The American Psychiatric Association.

Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. New York: Harper and Row.

Rose, L.C., and Gallup, A.M. (2000). The 32nd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's Attitude Toward the Public Schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(1), 41-66.

Taylor, E. (1962). Transpersonal psychology: Its several virtues. The Humanistic Psychologist, 20(2), 285-300.
RUSSELL N. CASSEL, ED.D., ABPP, FAASP
The Cassel Institute,
Where Today is Tomorrow in Health Care,
1362 Santa Cruz Court,
Chula Vista, California 91910-7114
COPYRIGHT 2001 Project Innovation (Alabama)
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2001 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:CASSEL, RUSSELL N.
Publication:Education
Article Type:Statistical Data Included
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 22, 2001
Words:1502
Previous Article:THIRD FORCE PSYCHOLOGY USED TO FOSTER HALL-MARKS FOR SUCCESS SERVES AS THE BASIS FOR DELINQUENCY AND CRIME PREVENTION.
Next Article:COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACADEMIC WEB SITES.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |