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SATURDAY PAPERS.

Section I. Biological Sciences Room 1196, University Center Elizabeth Bennett, Presiding

8:45 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR LAKE BLACKSHEAR, GEORGIA, Lisa Jan Broadhurst [*] and Elisabeth D. Elder, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 31709. Lake Blackshear, a man-made impoundment of the Flint River, is used extensively for recreational activities as well as for power generation. The purpose of this study was to monitor water quality in two representative areas of the Lake, Spring Creek and Warren Slough. Samples, from seven sites within the two areas, were collected four times monthly to comply with Georgia standards. Each set of samples was monitored for coliforms and fecal coliforms using the most probable number procedure. Heterotrophic bacteria counts were made with nutrient agar plates, temperature and dissolved oxygen with a YSI meter, and pH with a hand-held pH meter. Spatial and seasonal variations in the results, along with compliance of water quality with water usage will be discussed.

9:00 DEVELOPMENT OF BIOFILMS IN NATURAL AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS, Elisabeth D. Elder, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 31709. The purpose of this project was to monitor the development of biofilms on stainless steel disks suspended in natural aquatic environments. The disks were suspended in four areas of a small, spring-fed, urban lake. These areas included one covered with lily pads, one with grassy plants, a sandy area devoid of vegetation, and a clay area devoid of vegetation. Samples were removed and processed over a period of four weeks. Biofilm development was monitored through the numbers of viable, culturable bacteria retrieved from the disk surfaces. While the disks in the lily infested area appeared to have higher numbers of viable, culturable cells, the difference was not found to be statistically significant. All areas of the lake supported equal amounts of biofilm development under the conditions tested.

9:15 THE EFFECTS OF A SINGLE PRESCRIBED BURN EVENT ON THE NITROGEN CAPITAL OF A LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST IN THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT, T Russell Rampy [*], Russell J. Nix and Joseph J. Hendricks, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a single, prescribed burn event on the loss, retention, and replacement of nitrogen (N) in a loblolly pine forest of the Georgia Piedmont. The study was conducted in a 45-year-old, monotypic loblolly pine forest that had no documented history of prior burning. Pre-burn assessments revealed a total N capital of 3,700 kg N [ha.sup.-1] in the study site. Approximately 20 percent of the site N capital occurred in the forest floor bio- and necromass that is subject to loss via volatilization during burning and erosion after burning. The results indicate that approximately 120 kg N [ha.sup.-1] was lost from the site during burning. Nitrogen replacement via atmospheric deposition and nitrogen fixation was insignificant. The results suggest that regular prescribed burning without facilitating N replacement may lead to excessive losses of N, thereby decreasing site quality and long-term forest productivity.

9:30 CHANGES IN TAXA DIVERSITY AND BIOMASS IN LOW ORDER STREAM LEAF PACKS, Angie Mooney [*], Toby Foster and Mark Davis, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30519. We investigated biomass loss and invertebrate diversity of artifical leaf packs placed in a low order Appalachian stream for 125 d. Hardware cloth "baskets" (36 cm x 30 cm x 2 cm), each containing 65 tulip popular leaves, were immersed in a small stream near Dahlonega, GA. Three baskets were removed at 25 d intervals, and their invertebrate diversity and percent biomass loss were determined. Percent biomass loss decreased significantly for the first 50 d ([F.sub.4,10] = 5.58, P = 0.013, followed by Fisher's PLSD), but no significant biomass loss occurred thereafter. Mean taxa diversity declined over time ([F.sub.4,10] = 6.83, P = 0.006, followed by Fisher's PLSD) and the lowest diversity occurred at 125 d. Changes in diversity may result from reduced attraction of decaying leaves to invertebrates over time.

9:45 FOLIAR TRICHOMES THAT ADAPT TILLANDSIA TO UNDER UTIUZED EPIPHYTIC HABITATS ARE ALSO USEFUL TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS, Cecelia Sue Sill, Georgia Southern Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 8039, Statesboro, GA 30460. The absorptive function of leaf trichomes in Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae), along with other morphologic and metabolic adaptations, allow them to colonize habitats that are uninhabitable for typical vascular plants that depend on roots to garner sustenance. These unique epidermal features are also rich in characteristics that can be used to differentiate morphologically similar, and confusing species pairs such as T. bartramii and T. setacea, linear-leafed species that occur in South Georgia. Comparisons were made by scraping trichome caps from the mid-abaxial leaf surface onto glass slides then viewing under a microscope.

11:00 THE DISTRIBUTION OF GALLS ON REDBAY LEAVES IN SAND DUNE AND MARITIME FOREST HABITATS: IS LIFE REALLY BETTER AT THE BEACH? Lissa M. Leege and Charlie J. Bridges, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. We observed the interactions between redbay trees (Persea borbonia) and a psyllid gallmaker in sand dune and maritime forest on Jekyll Island, GA. We expected that forest trees (in higher nutrient environments) would allocate more resources to defense than dune trees, and would therefore be less susceptible to attack by psyllid leaf-gallers. Frequency of galls and area of leaves with and without galls was determined for leaves on each of twenty trees sampled in each habitat. Redbays growing in the dunes at Jekyll Island appear more susceptible to attack by psyllid gall-makers than forest trees. At least one leaf with a gall was present on every dune tree sampled, vs. only 50% of trees in the forest. Galls were present on 6% of all the leaves sampled in dune vs. 2% in forest. Forest leaves were nearly two times larger than sand dune leaves, and leaves with galls were always smaller than those without ([F.sub.3,587] = 204; p[less than]0.0001). This suggests that there may be some fitness consequences associated with the presence of galls in both habitats. Explanations for differences in gall frequency might include higher levels of defense against herbivore in forest or more predator-free space in dunes.

11:15 PARTITIONING OF SOIL WATER AMONG TREE SPECIES IN A BRAZILIAN CERRADO ECOSYSTEM, P.C. Jackson, F C. Meinzer, M. Bustamante, G. Goldstein, A. Franco, P.W. Rundel, L. Caldas, E. Igler and F. Causin, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144-5591. Source water used by woody perennials in a Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was determined by comparing the stable hydrogen isotope composition ([delta]D) of xylem sap and soil water at different depths during two consecutive dry seasons (1995 and 1996). Plant water status and rates of water use were also determined and compared with xylem water [delta]D. Concurrent analyses of xylem and soil water [delta]D values indicated a distinct partitioning of water resources among 10 representative woody species (five deciduous and five evergreen). Total daily sap flow was negatively correlated with xylem sal [delta]D values, indicating that species with higher rates of water use during the dry season tended to rely on deeper soil water sources. Among evergreen species, mi nimum leaf water potentials were also negatively correlated with xylem water [delta]D values, suggesting that access to more readily available water at greater depth permitted maintenance of a more favorable plant water status.

11:30 DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF CYPERUS LOUISIANENSIS (CYPERACEAE), Richard [Carter.sup.1] and Charles T. Bryson [2], Biology Department, Valdosta State [University.sup.1], Valdosta, GA 31698 and Southern Weed Science Research [Unit.sup.2], United States Department of Agriculture, Stoneville, MS 38776. Cyperus louisianensis Thieret is an obscure member of subgenus Pycreus. It was first described in 1977 and was previously thought to be endemic to two sites in southeastern Louisiana. Cyperus louisianensis was listed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in category 2 among endangered or threatened species. Since 1993, intensive field surveys have revealed more than 30 populations in southeastern Louisiana and southern Mississippi and isolated populations in southern Alabama and southeastern Georgia. Field observations show that C. louisianensis is often locally abundant and weedy, and an analysis of specimens of it and the Old World weed, C. sanguinolentus Vahl, indicates that the two are conspecific . Data on the distribution and ecology of C. louisianensis will be presented, and its taxonomic relationship to C. sanguinolentus and to other species of subgenus Pycreus occurring in eastern North America will be discussed.

POSTERS

THE EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES ON KINETICS OF CATALASE ACTIVITY IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, Joseph O'Neal, Deborah L. Anderson, Alexis Carreta, Matthew A. Gilbert, Brandi L. White, Sadia Ajohda, Terrell L. Wallace and William A. Said, Brewton-Parker College, Highway 280, Mount Vernon, GA 30445-0197. Variations of maximal velocity (Vmax), and Michaelis-Menten Constant (Kin) of Saccharomyces catalase were determined after short-term exposure to temperatures of 0[degrees], 50[degrees], and 80[degrees]C. Kinetic parameters were determined by linear regression of the double reciprocal (Lineweaver-Burk) plot for substrate concentration between 0.88 and 0.055M. Ten minutes of heat shock (50[degrees]C) resulted in 91.5% reduction of Vmax value and 79.4% reduction of the Km, compared to catalase activity at room temperature of 23[degrees]C. A short-term (10 min.) exposure to 0[degrees]C resulted in 2.80% reduction in Vinax value. Regardless of substrate concentration, 10 minutes of heat shock at 80[degrees]C resulted in [greater than] 99% reduction in the velocity of the reaction, probably due to irreversibility of the denaturation process.

MONITORING THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CHEMICAL AND THERMAL STIMUU IN THE CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS NERVOUS SYSTEM, Darren Pittard [*] and Bowman O. Davis, Jr., Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Synaptic and gap junction connections are known to exist between chemosensory and thermosensory pathways within the model C. elegans nervous system. However; the role of these neural interactions in the neurophysiology of the nematode is poorly understood. Using the video image capture and computer tracking technology developed by Dr. David Dusenbery, it is possible to explore the effects of chemical attractants on the worm's responses to temperatures both above and below acclimation (growth) temperature. It has been demonstrated that exposure to certain volatile chemical attractants, diacetyl and benzaldehyde, alters the normal response to environmental temperature changes.

COLONIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATE IN A MIDDLE GEORGIA STREAM, Hyoung S. Choi, Martin M. Sarkar and Alan F. Smith, Department of Biology, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. Many streams of middle Georgia are limited by substrate availability. Consequently, species abundance and diversity are often restricted. Many colonization studies have been conducted with introduced, labile organic substrates. However, these organic materials (e.g., wood) tend to support a microbial community and thereby introduce another factor in the experimental design. In our study, we wished to examine the colonization pattern of non-decaying material introduced into Falling Creek (Jones County, GA) from October 1999 to January 2000. Six stations, constructed of PVC pipe, were anchored along the length of the stream. Secured to each station, at relatively uniform depth, were 7 equivalent pods of six-pack ringers and nylon fabric, each enclosed with monofilament netting. Biweekly, single pods were randomly removed from each station and preserved for later identification of macroinvertebrates. Physical parameters (e.g., depth, temperature, current, dissolved oxygen) were also recorded.

MARINE DIATOMS OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE FAMILY HEMIDISCADEAE, A.K.S.K Prasad, Florida State University and J.A. Nienow, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. In order to establish a baseline for the study of environmental impacts caused by the increasing human population, we are re-examining archived diatom samples from the coastal waters of the Galapagos Islands in light of modern taxonomic concepts. In our preliminary examination of samples from the National Museum of Natural History (Washington, D.C.), the California Academy of Sciences, and the Academy of Natural Sciences (Philadelphia) we have recorded over 100 species. Of particular interest are members of the family Hemidiscaceae. This is a small family comprised of four genera characterized by a single pseudo- nodulus, radial areolation, an abrupt transition from the valve face to the valve margin, and a single ring of marginal labiate processes. Ten species from this family occur in the Galapagos samples; these are illustrated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The species are common members of marine phytoplankton assemblages in the equatorial Pacific.

A SURVEY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES OF THE BERRY COLLEGE LAND TRACT, Jeremy K. Jones [*] and David Bruce Conn, Department of Biology, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. Planning for utilization of Berry College's 28,000-acre land tract requires establishment of a comprehensive biodiversity inventory. We initiated a preliminary qualitative inventory of benthic invertebrates in 3 limnologically diverse sites: (1) Victory Lake, shallow eutrophic lake/emergent wetland; (2) Armuchee Creek, large perennial stream/alternating riffles and pools; (3) Stone Dairy Brook/Pond, intermittent stream/deep pond/submergent macrophytes. Results demonstrated a marked difference in composition of taxa. Victory Lake had the lowest overall diversity; molluscan diversity was highest in Armuchee Creek; insect diversity was similar at both lotic habitats. Molluscs included Bivalvia (Sphaeriidae, Corbiculidae), and Gastropoda (Pleuroceridae, Hydrobiidae, Planorbidae, Ancylidae, Physidae). Insects included Odonata (Gomphidae, Macr omiidae), Megaloptera, Trichoptera, Plecoptera, Coleoptera (Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Psephenidae, Dryopoidea), Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera (Corixidae, Belostomatidae, Veliidae), and Diptera (Tipulidae, Chironomidae).

Section II-C. Chemistry (Faculty)

University Center 1195

Jim LoBue, Presiding

8:30 ARE STUDENTS LEARNING MORE CHEMISTRY UNDER SEMESTERS? Stephanie Myers, Donna Hobbs and Cathy Cobb, Augusta State University, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Augusta, GA 30904. Augusta State University has traditionally used the American Chemical Society's General Chemistry Exam as the final exam for both terms of general chemistry. In the switch from quarters to semesters, this practice was continued and the same version of the exam was used by three different instructors with over 100 students taking the exam under quarters and a similar number under semesters. Since the material covered in class was essentially the same before each test, these exams were used to assess students' learning and compare the semester versus quarter results. The percentage of our students scoring at or above the 50th percentile has decreased under the semester system.

8:45 ELECTRONIC LABORATORY REPORT (ELR) FOR CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS, Myung-Hoon Kim, Georgia Perimeter College, 2101 Womack Rd., Dunwoody, GA 30338. Software for an interactive Electronic Laboratory Report (ELR) for chemistry experiments was recently developed. The computer program asks students questions about the basic concepts, principles, and methods involved in an experiment; it also asks for the input of raw data from the experiment as well as intermediate and final results from calculation. Then, it automatically evaluates the inputs (answers to the questions, data and the results), assigns a grade and enters the grade in the student's record in a file-server. The grading by computer was prompt, time-saving, and uniform. The grading scheme will be presented. A real example of ELR was demonstrated with an acid-base titration. This is currently implemented under an LAN environment so that instructors can access the records in a campus-wide file-server directly from their offices.

9:00 A STUDY IN LINKAGE ISOMERISM FOR THE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY, Larry McRae, Berry College, P.O. Box 495016, Mount Berry, GA 30149. Linkage isomerism in coordination compounds is an interesting study for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. A compound, [Co[([NH.sub.3]).sub.5]DMF][([N0.sub.3]).sub.3], in which dimethylformamide is a ligand that may bind to the metal through either the oxygen or nitrogen atom has been synthesized and investigated in the solid state using ET-IR and in solution using FT-NMR. An X-ray crystal structure determination will be made. Using the compiled data, the atom bound to the cobalt can be determined.

9:15 HOMOLOGY MODEUNG OF DIPEPTIDYL-POEPTIDASE I, Steven Weiner, Karen A. Ellis, Chi-Minh Kam, Tinh Tran and James C. Powers, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Armstrong Atlantic State University, 11935 Abercorn Ext., Savannah, GA 31419-1997. The substrate specificity of dipeptidylpeptidase I (DPPI, Cahtepsin C), a cysteine protease that removes a dipeptide fragment at the N-terminus of various proteins and peptides, has been tested with a series of dipeptidyl-AMC (AMC = 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) derivatives. Dipeptidyl-AMC derivatives with large hydrophobic resides at P1 and small alkyl groups such as methyl, ethyl, and n-butyl at P2 show the highest substrate specificity. The presence of a protonated alpha amino group at P2 is essential for activity. Homology modeling studies of human DPPI based on the crystal structures of Cathepsins B and H indicate the presence of a loop near the catalytic triad that is conserved within human, rat, and mouse DPPI but has no sequence homology to any of the other cathe psins or cysteine proteases. Models of enzyme-substrate complexes generated by docking dipeptidyl-AMC substrates with DPPI can account for substrate specificity.

9:30 FORMATION AND PROCESSING OF SPHERICAL BORON NITRIDE PARTICLES, Gary Wood, T. Paine, E.A. Pruss, C. Swierkowski, R.F. Hill and W.J. Kronki, Valdosta State University, Chemistry Department, Valdosta, GA 31698. Boron nitride is a ceramic that is generating increased interest because of its thermal properties. Chief among its uses is as a component in thermal management composites. Spherical, micron sized boron nitride can be prepared by a new technique called aerosol assisted vapor synthesis (AAVS). In a typical preparation, an aerosol of boric acid is introduced into a furnace at 1100[degrees]C in an ammonia atmosphere. What emerges from the furnace is a white solid which contains approximately 45% by mass oxygen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a material composed of spherical particles. Unfortunately, X-ray diffraction shows low crystallinity. The oxygen content can be decreased to 5% - 10% oxygen and the crystallinity can be increased by heat treating the material in ammonia first at 1400[de grees]C for four hours followed by treatment at 1700[degrees]C for four hours.

10:30 SYNTHESIS, PURIFICATION AND ULTRAVIOLET VISIBLE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW WATER-SOLUBLE PORPHYRIN, TETRAKIS(2,6-DIFLUORO-3-SULFONATOPHENYL)PORPHYRIN, Adegboye Adeyemo, Albert N. Thompson, Jr., George N. Williams and Olarongbe Olubajo, Savannah State University, College of Sciences and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Savannah, GA 31404. A new water-soluble porphyrin, tetrakis(2,6-difluoro-3-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin, has been synthesized and characterized spectrophotometrically. Water solution of the free base form of this porphyrin shows absorbance maxima at 408, 508, 574 and 635 nm while the diacid form shows absorbance maxima at 428, 575 and 623 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this would be the first time this porphyrin has been made and it may as well be the most electronegative porphyrin so far made.

10:45 THE PHOTOLYSIS OF AROMATIC ALKENES ON SILICA, Samantha Corbett, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698 and Mike E. Sigman, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The direct photolysis of 1,1-diphenylethene at the silica/air interface gives benzophenone and diphenylmethane as major products. Minor products include diphenylmethanol and 1,1-diphenylethanal. When 2,5-dimethylfuran, a singlet oxygen scavenger, is co-absorbed on the silica the same products are obtained under similar conditions. In contrast, when singlet oxygen is generated in-situ with co-adsorbed methylene blue as sensitizer, benzophenone is the only product. Our results support the intermediacy of superoxide as the oxidizing agent. These results will be compared with those obtained earlier in the photolysis of trans-stilbene.

11:00 THREE GAS MIXTURES IN OZONE PRODUCTION, Thomas Manning, Valdosta State

University, Dept. of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Ozone ([O.sub.3]), a strong oxiding agent, is commercially produced with a high voltage (5-20 kV) corona discharge. Past work in this lab has centered on demonstrating the catalytic role that argon plays in the production of ozone by increasing the electron density of the discharge for the important reaction, [O.sub.2] + e [right arrow] 2 O which is needed for the formation of ozone, [O.sub.2] [right arrow] [O.sub.3]. Because industrial and natural processes (i.e. lightning) that produce ozone have some level of nitrogen in them, we studied the effects of its addition. We found that the three-gas mixture gave maximum ozone production with a 4:1:1 ratio of Ar/[O.sub.2]/[N.sub.2]. We demonstrate that argon increases the plasma temperature and electron density and demonstrate that nitrogen plays a role in elastic and inelastic collisions.

11:15 COLLOIDAL SEMICONDUCTOR LUMINESCENCE INTENSITY QUANTIFIED WITH A CHARGE SHELL MODEL; Dale Moore, Tad Daniel and Kevin Lisle, Mercer University, 1400 Coleman Ave., Macon, GA 31207. A consistent, quantitative model relating the luminescence intensity of a semiconductor colloids to the surface charge density at the colloid-fluid interface will be presented. The model has been tested by exposing dioctylsulfosuccinate-stabilized colloidal cadmium sulfide suspended in chloroform to various divalent transition metal cations (with common anion). These cations appear to adsorb at the cadmium sulfide surface, and the colloid's luminescence intensity is observed to vary as a function of surface coverage. While adsorption of some cations results in an enhancement of emission intensity (e.g., zinc and manganese), for others quenching is observed (e.g., nickel and copper). By treating the surface charge density of the colloid as a shell of charge that traps a photo-excited electron within a colloidal particle, a sur face charge perturbation factor has been calculated for each cation tested.

POSTERS

TEACHING ORGANIC CHEMISTRY TO VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS, K. Bryant Smalley and Michael O. Hurst, Georgia Southern University, P.O. Box 8064, Statesbora, GA 30460. We are developing methods for teaching organic chemistry to visually impaired students. A review of the literature was conducted concerning the teaching of chemistry (especially organic structure and lab exercises) to visually impaired students. Limited findings led to the conclusion that few measures have been developed in relation to this issue. Therefore, there are two missions for this project: (1) to formulate techniques by which to better facilitate chemistry in the classroom and laboratory to visually impaired students, and (2) to develop chemical models to utilize tactile recognition of chemical structures and bonding, and their subsequent chemical properties by visually impaired students. After construction of chemical models, experiments will be conducted through the Disability Center at Georgia Southern University with visually impaired students to quantify the benefits of such models.

THE PURIFICATION OF ALPHA, BETA, AND GAMMA PROTEINS FROM BOVINE EYE LENSES AND THE PRODUCTION OF ANTIBODIES TO THESE PROTEINS USING A RECOMBINANT PHAGE ANTIBODY DISPLAY LIBRARY, Patrick Narh'martey and Paul F Cerpovicz, Georgia Southern University, Department of Chemistry, Statesboro, GA 30460. The alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins represent the major proteins found in the vertebrate eye lens. Damage to these proteins, either through aging, or chemical or environmental factors, is believed to lead to opacification of the lens and the formation of cataracts. The current study focuses on the purification and characterization of the alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins from bovine lenses. Bovine eyes were obtained from a local slaghterhouse and stored at - 70[degrees]C until needed. The lenses were removed from the eyes, homogenized, and the soluble fraction passed through a gel filtration column. The three major peaks, representing the alpha, beta, and gamma proteins, were collected and analyzed using a Bradford protein assay and SDS-PAGE. Antibodies specific to these proteins will be produced using a phage antibody display library. These antibodies will provide important biochemical tools for studying how the lens proteins are modified during cataract formation.

LIGAND EXCHANGE REACTIONS INVOLVING VITAMIN [B.sub.1] METAL COMPLEX AND VARIOUS PORPHYRIN SPECIES, Jermaine Butler, Ojo Bababunde and Adegboye Adeyeme, Savannah State University, College of Sciences and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Savannah, GA 31404. Ligand exchange reactions between Vitamin [B.sub.1] metal complex and various porphyrin species have been studied. Results show that the exchange reactions involving Vitamin [B.sub.1] complex and peripherally negatively charged porphyrin species led to the formation of the more stable metal(II) complex. On the other hand, the same reaction with peripherally positively charged porphrin species resulted in the destruction of the porphyrin ring systems as evidenced from the loss of fluorescence, characteristic of all porphyrins.

Section III. Earth & Atmospheric Sciences

University Center 1171

Susan M. Walcott, Presiding

8:00 METAL CONTAMINATION OF PLANTS IN THE BUFFALO CREEK WATERSHED, CARROLL COUNTY, GEORGIA, Amy Burns [*], Alvin Coleman [*] and Julie K. Bartley, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The Buffalo Creek Watershed in Carroll County, Georgia consists of a small perennial stream and its associated wetland environments. Previous studies indicate sediments in the watershed contain high concentrations of heavy metals, likely originating from a metal processing plant near the headwaters. Having established that sediments contain heavy metals, this study attempts to determine whether the metals are bioavailable. A pilot study indicates benthic invertebrates have elevated metal concentrations, suggesting some degree of bioavailability. This study assesses metal uptake and storage by plants. Elevated metal content in plants may be attributable to (1) distance from the processing plant (2) root depth (3) environment in which plants grow and (4) total amount of metals in sediment. Live plants are analyz ed as well as leaf litter and buried organic material. This study will constrain the extent to which metal contamination of the Buffalo Creek watershed affects the local food chain.

8:15 THE CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES (SNAKE, ACORN, AND WHOOPING CREEKS) IN CARROLL COUNTY, GEORGIA: A CONTRAST IN WATER QUALITY, George H. Whitton [*] and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA. The Chattahoochee River's water quality in Carroll County ([sim]70 km downstream of Atlanta) is degraded because of its passage through metro-Atlanta. Some fish cannot be eaten (PCPs and mercury contamination) and it cannot be used as a source of drinking water. Rapid population growth in Carroll County has caused a search for new drinking water supplies. Our research included temperature, pH, nitrate-N, hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS), and dissolved oxygen (DO) monitoring of one site on the Chattahoochee River and one site on each creek. Nitrate and hardness were measured in the laboratory with colorimeters, other parameters were measured in the field. Water samples were collected and tested on a weekly basis. All three tributaries were found to be of good quality and could be considered as viable drinking source options, with nitrate-N levels ranging from 0.0 to 0.8 and TDS from 11 to 18 ppm. The Chattahoochee River had higher nitrate levels.

8:30 GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE HELENA FORMATION, MONTANA: A TEST FOR BASIN RESTRICTION, Michael Swafford [*], Laura Slade and Julie K. Bartley, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Typically, early Mesoproterozic ([greater than] 1300 Ma) carbonate sediments, such as the Helena Formation, exposed in northern Montana show a stratigraphic pattern of carbon isotopic ([[delta].sup.13]C) invariance; however, a recent study revealed a stratigraphic pattern of [[delta].sup.13]C change within the Helena Fm. The authors conclude that the observed pattern is unrelated to the global ocean, proposing that the isotopic shift is caused by [[CO.sup.12].sub.2] degassing in an evaporitic environment. By evaluating [[delta].sup.13]C of organic and inorganic carbon, we can test their hypothesis. Three partial stratigraphic sections of the Helena Fm sampled at 5 m intervals. Samples were prepared for geochemical study by standard techniques and analyzed on a carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometer. If the observed [[delta].sup.13]C shift resulted from basin restriction, the isotopic fractionation between organic and inorganic carbon should decrease upsection. In the absence of such a decrease, we would conclude that basin restriction was not the cause of the observed carbon isotopic change.

8:45 DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS BETWEEN WATER AND SEDIMENT IN LAKE LOUISE, LOWNDES COUNTY, GEORGIA, Rasmus H. Larsen [*] and Jeffrey H. Tepper, Department of Physics, Astronomy, & Geosciences, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. The goal of this study is to investigate the distribution of trace elements in the water column, in suspended sediment, and in bottom sediment at Lake Louise, a 5.4 ha blackwater lake near Valdosta, GA. Elements that were analyzed include Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Rb, Sc, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn and Zr. D-values (sediment/water) range from 2,000 (Rb) to 166,000 (V), and generally increase with increasing charge of the ion, although not all the elements follow this pattern. In contrast, neither ionic radius nor ionic potential appear to have a significant influence on D-values. Levels of most trace elements in solution show a modest ([sim]2-fold) increase with depth, with Ba and V showing the greatest enrichment ([sim]6-fold). For some elements (Co, Rb, Ba, Sr) D-values change with depth; this appears to reflect the appearance of a Fe-rich phase in sediment from deeper waters. The results of this study provide insight into the origins of chemical variations preserved in sediment cores from the lake.

9:00 HOW CITIES AFFECT WATER QUALITY: A STUDY OF THE LITTLE TALLAPOOSA RIVER AS IT FLOWS THROUGH CARROLL COUNTY, GEORGIA, James Brian Nicholas and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The Little Tallapoosa River serves as a drinking water supply for Villa Rica, Georgia, which removes about 0.5 mgd, and Carrollton, Georgia, which removes about 5 mgd. The river heads in a watershed lake in the city of Villa Rica and its principle tributary is Mud Creek that heads in cattle pasture and then receives treated sewage from the city of Villa Rica Wastewater Treatment Plant. Unlike Villa Rica, the city of Carrollton uses spray field application of treated sewage. DO, pH, TDS, nitrate, hardness, and temperature monitoring of seven sites in the Upper Tallapoosa River watershed were conducted weekly for one year. Averages above and below the Villa Rica wastewater treatment plant are 1.1 and 2.8 mg/L for nitrate-N, 7.9 and 6.6 mg/L for DO, 39 and 146 mg/L for hardness, and 48 and 273 mg/L for TDS. Averages above and below the city of Carrollton show no change for nitrate-N, a slight decline in DO and a slight increase in TDS. The Little Tallapoosa River would benefit from the move to spray fields by the city of Villa Rica.

9:15 USING HYDRAULIC HEAD AND NATURAL TRACERS TO MONITOR STREAM-GROUNDWATER INTERACTION IN A CRYSTALLINE-ROCK SETTING, PIEDMONT PROVINCE, GEORGIA, Barry George [*] and James Mayer, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. We monitored rainfall, water level, temperature, pH and specific conductance in the Little Tallapoosa River and adjacent wells at the State University of West Georgia Crystalline Rock Hydrogeologic Research Station from July to December, 1999. Water levels in all wells and the river rise quickly following major rainfall events. During dry periods hydraulic gradient adjacent to the river is oriented toward the river. As river stage rises following rainfall, the hydraulic gradient quickly reverses. It remains reversed for up to 48 hours as river stage and groundwater levels gradually return to normal levels. Temperature and specific conductance data suggest that very little flow occurs in response to short-term changes in hydraulic gradient. River-driven changes in hydraulic he ad are probably caused by water pressure changes transmitted through low-permeability riverbank sediments and not by flow of significant quantities of water.

9:30 GEOCHEMISTRY OF SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER IN WESTERN POLK COUNTY GEORGIA: VARIATIONS IN WATER QUAUTY OF CEDAR CREEK, Adam A. Motes [*] and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Temperature, pH, nitrate-N, hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS), and dissolved oxygen (DO) monitoring of 14 sites on Cedar Creek and one spring were conducted for one year. Nitrate and hardness were measured in the laboratory with colorimeters. Other parameters were measured in the field. Water samples were collected and tested on a weekly basis beginning in November 1998. The purpose of this study was to assess how rock type, land use, human activities and seasonal variations affect water quality parameters. Average water hardness increases from 10.4 mg/L to 115 mg/L and the average TDS increases from 19 mg/L to 130 mg/L, as Cedar Creek flows from the Piedmont to the Valley and Ridge Province. The release of treated sewage in Cedartown influences the creek's water quality wit h increases in TDS, water hardness, temperature, and drops in DO. The spring has nearly constant temperature of 14-17[degrees]C. Compared to Cedar Creek the spring has lower DO, higher nitrate-N, and similar TDS and hardness.

9:45 OZONE DECOMPOSITION STUDIES IN OXYGEN, NITROGEN AND ARGON ENVIRONMENTS, Brian Little [*] and Thomas J. Manning, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta, GA 31698. Ozone ([O.sub.3]) plays a significant role in the stratosphere and troposphere as an absorber of ultraviolet light and a pollutant, respectively, Ozone's decomposition back to oxygen is thermodynamically favored but many factors such as temperature, pressure, and other constituents of the gas phase can play a role in determining the rate constant of the decomposition. In this work we generate ozone in a high voltage (7 kV) corona discharge in various mixtures of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon. We measured the rate of decomposition using an ultraviolet spectrometer set at ozone's peak absorbance wavelength (254 nm). All work was conducted in a temperature controlled 10 cm quartz cell. While argon is the third most prevalent constituent of the atmosphere behind nitrogen and oxygen, there is no kinetic data in the literature illustrating the effect argon has on the decomposition of ozone. This research centers on the effect that the composition of the gas mixture has on the kinetics of ozone decomposition.

10:00 Section Business Meeting

10:30 USING GIS TO ASSESS GROUND-LEVEL OZONE IN GEORGIA, Florence Sherrill Duarte [*], Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. Current levels of ozone were studied and their relationship to patterns of traffic, landuse, and demographic distribution in the state of Georgia. Data were obtained from the EPA, the DOT, the USGS, and US Census for inclusion in the database. This study is of particular importance due to the upcoming implementation of the new 8 hr. standard for ozone exposure.

10:45 GIS IN SUPPORT OF WELLHEAD PROTECTION IN THE DOUGHERTY PLAIN OF SOUTHWEST GEORGIA, Christopher J. Shemerjian [*] and Zhi Yong-Yin, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. Regression analysis between the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer and potential explanatory variables was conducted to produce a cost-effective, GIS-based methodology for the delineation of protection areas in carbonate terrain. Groundwater elevation readings for eight sampling periods over a span of four years (1977-1980) were obtained from the Georgia Geologic Survey. Desktop GIS software was used to compile regression variables, including elevation, stream distance, sinkhole distance, population, aquifer thickness, and slope. Regression results for the eight data periods produced [R.sup.2] values ranging from 0.89 to 0.96. Both the observed and predicted potentiometric surfaces were used to delineate groundwater basins. Results indicated that while the model significantly described groundwater levels, fluctuations were present in the location of groundwater divides.

11:00 FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT OF HOG WASTE LAGOONS IN DUPLIN COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA, Thomas D. Rowland [*], Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. The state of North Carolina has experienced enormous growth in the commercial hog farming industry in the past decade. Duplin County, North Carolina is the number one producer of hogs in the state with over 2,034,349 hogs in 1997. The waste generated by these animals in stored in open lagoons. ARCView GIS software was utilized to examine the number of waste lagoons in Duplin County with FEMA delineated flood zone areas and assess risk to communities and the watersheds within the county. Digital orthographic quarter quadrangles (aerial photographs) were used to locate the waste lagoons. This data was then overlaid FEMA Q3 flood data maps and other hydrologic data to determine flood risk.

11:15 IDENTIFICATION OF POLLUTION SOURCES WITHIN THE CITY OF MADISON'S HARD LABOR CREEK DRINKING WATER INTAKE WATERSHED, Barbara Stitt-Allen [*], Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302. The purpose of the study was to determine (assess) the areas of significant contaminant contribution for point and non-point pollution sources within the watershed of a drinking water intake. Initial potential pollution sources within the watershed were identified using geographic information systems (GIS) data and software. Field survey was conducted to ground truth Digital Ortho Quarter Quads and other spatial data. Other potential pollution source locations were collected using global positioning systems (GPS) receivers. All pollution source data were mapped and significant potential pollution sources identified. Limitations of the GIS and field data will be discussed. Best Management Practices (BMPs) will be recommended to alleviate any known or future problems.

11:30 CHANGES OF RUNOFF RELATED TO VEGETATIVE CHANGES IN THE BIG CREEK WATERSHED IN GEORGIA, Brian M. Kaplan [*] and Zhi-Yong Yin, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302. This paper discusses the flow of Big Creek and its response to rain events during 1991 and 1998. The relationships of stream flow, rainfall, and vegetation cover are explored to evaluate changes in the hydrologic regime of the watershed in response to urban growth in suburban Atlanta, Georgia. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Landsat Images is used as an indicator of vegetation cover changes with a decrease in 1998. A model is derived from 15-minute precipitation data to predict streamflow data for 1991 and 1998. The model reveals an increase in runoff per unit of rainfall between the two years. The hydrographs from individual storm events are evaluated graphically to describe changes in peak discharge, basin lag and discharge duration.

11:45 QUARTZ-TOURMALINE VEINS IN THE NORCROSS GNEISS NEAR DULUTH, GEORGIA, David Babulski, Georgia Mineral Society, Atlanta, GA 30333-5011. Complex swarms of quartz-tourmaline veins cutting the Norcross Gneiss have been discovered in the Northeast portion of the Norcross Quadrangle at the intersection of Satellite Blvd. and Old Norcross Road near the city of Duluth in Gwinnett County, Georgia. The quartz-tourmaline veins appear as swarms of dark colored fracture filling veins and veinlets of from 3 mm to 8 mm in width cutting across the lineations in the Norcross Gneiss. The veins trend in a generally Southwest direction and generally dip 40 to 70 degrees to the Southeast. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy has identified the tourmaline species as Dravite. Alteration zones surrounding the veins show evidence of metasomatic alteration of the host rock. Magnesium and Iron minerals, characteristic of the host gneiss are absent in the alteration zones. These tourmaline veins are believed to result from Boron enriche d hydrothermal fluids derived from metamorphic de-watering of the host rocks.

POSTER

University Center Loggy

DEVELOPING AN ANNUALLY-RESOLVED, PRE-COLUMBIAN RECONSTRUCTION OF PRECIPITATION FOR SOUTH-CENTRAL GEORGIA, Henri D. Grissino-Mayer and Jeffrey H. Tepper, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. We discovered several well-preserved remnant snags and stumps of longleaf pines logged near the turn of the century on upland ridges surrounding Lake Louise, south of Valdosta, Georgia. Dendro-chronological dating of the tree-ring patterns from these stumps revealed several inside pith dates that clustered between 1694 and 1704, suggesting the occurrence of a stand-initiating disturbance (e.g., hurricane blowdown). The oldest sample yet dated is one exceptional specimen that dates back to AD 1539. We investigated the response by this species to climate, and found a strong relationship with summer (April-August total) rainfall in which the tree-ring record accounted for 55% of the high-frequency variability in the modern climate record. Collection of additional specimens will likely push the record back prior to t he pre-Columbian period, and should prove instrumental for analyzing the impact of longer-term climatic anomalies on (1) Native American cultures of the region, and (2) disturbance processes on coastal plain ecosystems.

Section IV. Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science And Technology

R.W. Schmude, Presiding

University Center 1170

8:00 WIDEBAND PHOTOELECTRIC MAGNITUDE MEASUREMENTS OF NGC 6210, Prital Mehta [*] and Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, 419 College Dr., Barnesville, GA 30204. An SSP-3 solid-state photometer along with a 0.51 meter f/4.5 Newtonian telescope was used in measuring the brightness and color of the planetary nebula NGC 6210 in May of 1999. A total of 56 photoelectric magnitude measurements were made of NGC 6210 (14 measurements in the B, V, R and I filters). All magnitude measurements were corrected for atmospheric extinction and transformation. The selected magnitudes for NCG 6210 in the B, V, R and I filters are: 9.70[+ or -]0.02, 9.08[+ or -]0.01, 9.66[+ or -]0.01 and 10.35[+ or -]0.04 respectively. Absolute magnitudes of NGC 6210 through the B, V, R and I filters are calculated as: -0.50, -1.12, -0.55 and 0.14 respectively assuming a distance of 1.1 kiloparsecs.

8:15 WIDEBAND PHOTOMETRY OF SATURN IN 1999, Richard W. Schmude, Jr. and William H. Hallsworth [*], Gordon College, 419 College Dr., Barnesville, GA 30204. A total of 16 photoelectric magnitude measurements of Saturn were made between September 5, 1999, and November 4, 1999. The measurements were made with filters that have been transformed to the Johnson B, V, R and I system. The selected normalized measurements for Saturn with a ring tilt angle of 20.0 degrees are: B(1,0) = -8,53 [+ or -] 0.02, V(1,0) = 09.57 [+ or -] 0.02, R(1,0) = -10.27 [+ or -] 0.03 and 1(1,0) = -10.48 [+ or -] 0.02 while the selected solar phase angle coefficients for the B, V, R and I filters are: 0.035, 0.040, 0.047 and 0.049 respectively. The results of this study are preliminary. Results over the last three years indicate that the solar phase angle coefficient in the V-filter changes with the changing tilt of the rings.

8:30 THE CHEMISTRY AND COLOR OF JUPITER'S ATMOSPHERE USING PHOTOELECTRIC PHOTOMETRY, Heidi Lesser [*] and Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, 419 College Dr., Barnesville, GA 30204. An SSP-3 solid state photometer was used along with filters that were transformed to the Johnson B, V, R and I system to measure the brightness and color of Jupiter. A 0.51 m Newtonian telescope (stooped down to an aperture of 0.05 m) was also used in this study. Between September 5 and November 4, 1999 photoelectric measurements were taken of Jupiter. The measured normalized magnitudes are as follows: B(1,0) -8.54[+ or -]0.04; V(1,0) = -9.40[+ or -]0.04; R(1,0 = 9.89[+ or -]0.04 and 1(1,0) -9.78[+ or -]0.04. The measured solar phase angle coefficients are as follows: [C.sub.B] = 0.0l3,[c.sub.v] = 0.007, [c.sub.R] = 0.008 and [c.sub.l] 0.0009. These results show that Jupiter is brightest through the red filter.

8:45 ACTIVE LEARNING IN PHYSICS CLASSES, Kailash Chandra and Gian S. Ghuman, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. From an early period of higher education, educators have imparted knowledge by the lecture mode of instructions. In 1984, the Study Group on the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education recommended, "Faculty should make greater use of active modes of teaching and require that students take greater responsibility of their learning." During the last two decades, new pedagogies such as Cooperative Learning, Collaborative Learning, Problem-based Learning, Project-based Learning, Inquiry-based Learning, Case-based Learning, Research-based Leaning, Situation-based Learning, Context-based Leaning, Service Learning, Active Learning and Interactive Learning have been introduced in an arena of higher education for enhancing students' learning. We have used Active Learning in our classrooms during Fall and Spring 1999 semesters. Students' enthusiasm in learning has increased in the cl asses. However, we had a very difficult time in covering course content in the available time.

9:00 A BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND TESTING DEVICE, Rachel Fuller [*] and Ben de Mayo, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Artificial intelligence was used in conjunction with multiple sensors in an attempt to predict the bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) of treated waste water. Treated wastewater samples were supplied by a local environmental testing company. Currently 5 days are needed to determine the BOD using conventional methods. Computer-based measurements were simultaneously made of electrical conductivity, temperature, ammonium ion concentration, nitrate ion concentration, chloride ion concentration, calcium ion concentration, pH, and dissolved oxygen. This work was supported in part by the Georgia Space Grant Consortium/NASA and by the Faculty Research Committee of the State University of West Georgia.

9:15 FILTERING WATER SOURCES FOR USE IN HYDRATING INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS (IV) ONBOARD SPACE SHUTTLE AND INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS), J.D. Pounds [*], State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. In the space environment, there exists the likelihood of medical emergencies requiring the use of Intravenous (IV) Fluids. Aboard the Space Shuttle and ISS, dehydration cause by space motion sickness, burns, infection, and trauma are medical contingencies facing astronauts. However, due to the high cost associated with launching heavy payloads, the orbiter carries only two liters (or bags) of IV and the ISS will carry only six liters. A possible cost effective improvement to the situation includes sending an increased number of anhydrous IV bags along with the lightweight water filtration system for on board hydration and use. The NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program's (SLSTP) Flight Emphasis Group project FLUID (Filtering Liquids for Use in Intravenous Devices), explored the feasibility of producin g pharmaceutical grade water by filtering various onboard water sources with a Reverse Osmosis (RO) system. The effects of the RO system on the water samples were determined for microbial content, pH, chloride content, chemical composition, conductivity, and endotoxin levels. Bacteria, endotoxin, chloride content, and pH levels were brought to within USP standards using the system. Conductivity did not fall within USP standards due possibly to restrained pump pressure. Findings support the idea that with a few additional improvements and further trials a similar RO system could be flown aboard the orbiter and ISS for use in future emergency medical situations.

9:30 THERMAL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR REPLICATION OF NATIVE AMERICAN POTTERY PRODUCTION FOR MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY STUDY, John Holland [*] and Ben de Mayo, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. A computer-based thermal monitoring system was used to quantitatively measure the time-temperature profile of clay pottery prepared in a manner thought to be similar to that used by native Americans. The Mossbauer spectra of the clay samples thus prepared were compared with spectra of pottery of known provenance such as prehistoric samples from the coastal region of Georgia and from the Kolomoki Mount area, Mayan samples, and samples from ancient middle Eastern cultures, such as the Hittites. This work was supported in part by the Georgia Space Grant Consortium/NASA and by the Student Research Assistants Program and the Faculty Research Committee of the State University of West Georgia.

9:45 THE IMPACT OF VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE ON THE CAPACITANCE OF AN ULTRAHIGH (1 FARAD) CAPACITOR, Thomas W. Clifft [*] and Joseph A. Hauger, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA 30904. The capacitance of an ordinary capacitor is a constant which only depends on the geometry of the device and the dielectric constant of the material separating the electrodes. We have found, however, that the capacitance of commercially available IF capacitors (Tokin Corp., Miyagi, Japan) is increased when a voltage is applied. By holding the capacitor voltage constant and measuring the current flowing into the capacitor, the capacitance and time rate of change of capacitance were measured. The impact of temperature on these changes was also determined. Voltage measurements were made using a DAS8 analog to digital converter interfaced to a small computer.

10:30 INTERACTION OF GAMMA-RAYS WITH AMBIENT MATTER, Chung Chen, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303. Detection of Gamma-ray lines in the Orion Complex by the Comptel telescope can be explained with the Gamma ray line production model due to accelerated particle instruction in the stellar winds of massive stars. Comparison of this observation with the calculation of luminosity helps evaluate the Acceleration Mechanism Theory.

10:45 n-DIMENSIONAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM DYNAMICS, Dennis W. Marks, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. Dirac matrices link general relativity and quantum mechanics. Dot products of Dirac matrices yield the metric tensor of general relativity, while wedge products yield the Heisenberg (anti)commutation relationships of quantum mechanics. The products of Dirac matrices form a graded Clifford algebra with one scalar, n vectors, n(n-1)/2 bivectors, and so on, up to n convectors (products of n-1 vectors), and one coscalar (the product of all n vectors). In general, there are [2.sup.n] different elements in the Clifford algebra. On the other hand, there are [n.sup.2] different elements in the algebra of nxn matrices. Now [2.sup.n] = [n.sup.2] only for n=2 and n=4. The n=2 case has one scalar, two vectors, and one scalar, interpreted as the bases for the real numbers, two-dimensional position, and the imaginary numbers, respectively. The n=4 case has one scalar, four vectors, six bivectors, four covectors, and one coscalar, interpreted as the bases for real numbers, four-dimensional position, angular momentum, linear momentum, and imaginary numbers, respectively. Only in four dimensions do dynamical elements span the full matrix space.

11:00 NMR (MRI) DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE DISTRIBUTION AND BINDING IN CARPET, Hubert B. [Kinser.sup.1] Johannes [Leeisen.sup.2] and Has kell W. [Beckham.sup.2], Dalton State [College.sup.1], Dalton, GA 30720 and Georgia Institute of [Technology.sup.2], Atlanta, GA 30332. The distribution of moisture absorbed by tufted carpet and the strength of binding of the water molecules to the fibrous substrate were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Carpet samples were exposed to defined conditions of high relative humidity and the uptake of moisture was determined gravimetrically as a function of time. The location of moisture within a carpet structure was measured using the spin echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. Also, spin-spin relaxation methods were used to determine the transverse relation time constants, [T.sub.2], which are related to the hydrogen proton mobility and hence binding of water molecules to the substrate. The results provide important information for the construction of carpets tha t exhibit minimum moisture absorption together with maximum moisture binding, characteristics that limit microorganism growth in porous substrates. This work is supported in part by a CCACTI grant.

11:15 COMBINATORIAL APPROACH TO CREATING OF INTRANET DOMAINS, Boris Peltsuvergr and Arvind Shah, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 31709. The structure of domains does not necessarily have to follow the structure of an organization, but may be based on workgroups, interaction between and among workgroups, and flow information from and within the domains. With time a structure of domains has to be adjusted to current organization needs. It means that has to be developed a procedure (or procedures) for designing and re-designing domain structures. We propose an approach to creating of an intranet structure that allows creating domains based upon of a level of information exchanges between employees (divisions).

11:30 APPROXIMATION-ASSISTED MONTE CARLO ESTIMATION FOR SECURITY PRICING, Jin Wang and Said Fares, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. We present a new strategy for security pricing using approximation-assisted Monte Carlo estimation. In evaluating the price of an underlying security, we assume that both a numerical approximation and a Monte Carlo point estimator are available. We investigate three alternatives for combining the numerical approximation with the Monte Carlo point estimator: (1) binary choice, (2) linear combination, and (3) Bayesian analysis. Making a binary choice, based on the compatibility of the stimulation estimator with the approximation, provides at best a twenty percent improvement in simulation efficiency. More effective is taking a linear combination of the approximation and the simulation estimator using weights estimated from the simulation data, which provides at best a fifty percent improvement in simulation efficiency.

11:45 MAGNETIC FIELD DEPENDENCE OF SUPERCONDUCTING CRITICAL CURRENTS AND TRANSITION TEMPERATURES OF Bi(2223) TAPES, Ben de Mayo, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The dependence on magnetic field of the superconducting critical currents and transition temperatures of Ag-clad Bi(2223) multifilament, commercially supplied tapes was determined. The critical current is defined to be the current at which a potential difference per length of 1.0 [micro]V/cm is produced. Magnetic fields of up to 3,600 Gs were applied parallel and perpendicularly to the samples. The transition temperatures (about 130 K) were largely unaffected by the magnetic fields but the critical currents were exponentially reduced as the field increased. The parallel applied field caused a single exponential decrease whereas the perpendicular field caused a decrease of about 50% up to 350 Gs and a slower exponential decrease above 350 Gs. This work was supported in part by the Georgia Space Grant Consortium/NASA and by the F aculty Research Committee of the State University of West Georgia.

Section V. Biomedical Science

J. C. McPherson, Jr., Presiding

University Center 1169

8:00 c-Myc AND Bcl-2 IN PROGRESSION OF ORAL NEOPLASI, Baldev Singh, Gretchen Caughman, James Franklin and Francis Chandler, Jr., Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912. The role of dominant and suppressor oncogenes in the initiation and progression of cancer has been becoming increasing clear; however, limited data are available on genes regulating programmed cell death (PCD). Therefore the objective of this investigation was to examine comparative evaluation of c-Myc and Bcl-2 (anti-PCD) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the same lesions. For this purpose five micron thick sections of formalin-fixed archival paraffin blocks were examined by immunohistochemistry employing MAbs to c-Myc and Bcl-2 oncoproteins. c-Myc immunoreactivity was observed in 40% of epithelial dysplasias (n=30) of varying degrees and 65% of moderate to poorly differentiated SCC (n=20). Bcl-2 activity was observed in 30% of dysplasias and 40% carcinomas. Both oncogenes showed activity in 50% lesions. The expression of Bcl- 2 oncoprotein has not been shown to independently induce cell proliferation or transformation. Plausibly, it synergizes with c-Myc in initiation and progression of oral neoplasia similar to malignant lymphoma.

8:15 Fc RECEPTOR-MEDIATED IMMUNOREGULATION OF T CELL IMMUNITY AGAINST C. TRACHOMATIS, Tern Moore [*], Samera Bowers, Francis Edo, Tesfaye Belay, Goodwin Ananaba and Joseph Igietserne, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. Genital infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. The need for a vaccine requires identifying effective immune effectors that control Chlamydia. Since Chlamydia is an intracellular pathogen, the precise mechanisms of antibody-mediated inhibition is not clear. In this study, we investigated the role of FcRmediated effector mechanisms of antibodies in chlamydial immunity. Fc receptor knockout (FcR-KO) mice were less resistant to a reinfection than wild type (WT) mice. The presence of specific anti-chlamydial immune serum enhanced chlamydial antigen presentation for induction of Th1 response, and increased phagocytosis of elementary bodies (EBs) for intracellular degradat ion by peritoneal exudate macrophages. Also, FcR-deficient antigen presenting cells were less efficient at inducing T cell response than APCs from WT mice. The results indicated that antibodies contribute to antichlamydial immunity by enhancing FcR-mediated phagocytosis and intracellular destruction EBs, ADCC, and increased presentation of chlamydial antigens that boost specific T cell response.

8:30 A COMPARISON OF MEDICAL RISK FACTORS IN MEXICAN POPULATIONS IN TEOCELO, MEXICO AND NORTH GEORGIA, Jean [Bendik.sup.1], Sabrina [Moore.sup.2], Don [Davis.sup.1], and Carlos Blazquez, [M.D.sup.2], Kennesaw State [University.sup.1], Kennesaw, GA, Universidad Veracruz, [Xalapa.sup.2], Veracruz State, Mexico. This joint project seeks to identify medical risk factors in populations of Mexican persons in Veracruz State, Mexico and in the northern counties of Georgia. Data is gathered by means of a common questionnaire used for persons seeking health care in both populations. The results are evaluated to determine commonalities, trends, and statistically significant differences in medical risk factors both within and between the two populations. We have hypothesized that there will be significant differences in medical risk between and within the two populations due to differences in health care availability, diet, work conditions, and access to family and cultural support systems. The gathering and analysis of information is currently ongoing.

8:45 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN GRAM POSITIVE COCCI FROM THROAT AND NARES SWABS OF KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY FACULTY AND STUDENTS, Kelli Heard [*], Don Davis and Biology 4490 Class of Fall, 1999, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30014. Resistance patterns of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species are being studied. A questionnaire and consent form are filled out by the subjects from whom the throat and nares swabs are taken. Gram positive cocci are isolated, identified, and tested for resistance to Penicillin G, Vancomycin, Bacitracin, and Erythromycin. This study seeks a correlation of information from the questionnaire with antibiotic resistance in the isolates. Information that is predicted to be correlated with presence of antibiotic resistance in the individuals includes, but is not limited to: (1) working in a clinical setting, (2) recent illness, (3) recent treatment with antibiotics, (4) having allergies severe enough to seek medical treatment, and (5) small children in the home. The gathering and analysis of data is currently ongoing.

9:00 MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF THROAT AND NARES SWABS OBTAINED FROM FACULTY AND STUDENTS IN NORTH GEORGIA, Brian Shipley [*], Robert Gatliff [*] and Don Davis, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30014. This project seeks to identify resident bacterial flora, gram positive cocci only, from throat and nares swabs of faculty and students at Kennesaw State University. Information is being gathered from each individual in the study by means of a questionnaire. This information will be used for statistical comparison and correlation studies. This information includes, but is not limited to: (1) Are you currently taking medication? (2) Do you work in a clinical setting? (3) Have you been sick in the last 6 months or are you currently sick? (4) Are you seeking a physician's aid for allergies? (5) What is your age/gender? and (6) What is your county of residence? This data will be compared to similar studies from other geographic regions, if this information is available. The gathering and analys is of information is currently ongoing.

9:15 TYPE I COLLAGEN EXPRESSION IN UTERINE LEIMYOMAS, Eniki Mack [*], Tammy Wallace, Johnafel Crowe and Shelia McClure, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314. Fibroid tumors are benign tumors that originate from the myometrium layer of the uterus. They typically affect women during their reproductive years and are more prevalent among African-American women than any other ethnic group. Previous work in our lab has suggested that the level of type I collagen in the extracellular matrix is correlated with the growth potential of leimyoma cell lines. The purpose of this work was to determine if the differences in type I collagen observed in the extracellular matrix are related to a change in type I collagen gene expression. The slow-growing HT1 cell line and the rapidly growing ST1 cell line were monitored for type I collagen expression utilizing Western blots. There were three distinct bands observed in the two tumor cell lines present at molecular weights of 295,000, 135,000 and 120,000. Expression of type I collagen is up-regulated in the slower growing cell line HT1, which supports the hypotheses that increases in type I collagen in the matrix of cell line HT 1 occur as a result of a change in gene expression.

9:30 THE ROLE OF MITOTIC INHIBITORS IN REGULATING THE GROWTH OF HUMAN UTERINE LEIOMYOMA CELLS, Jameta Barlow [*], Tammy Wallace and Shelia McClure, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314. Uterine leiomyomas, commonly known as fibroid tumors, are benign tumors of the uterine myometrium and represent a model for studying tumor progression from the growth-arrested to proliferative state. One of the most frequent causes of infertility in women, these tumors may be growth-arrested or grow very rapidly in vivo, forming large tumor masses that fill the pelvic and abdominal cavities. The goal of this study was to investigate the type of regulatory mechanisms involved in the progression of human uterine leiomyomas. Levels of the mitotic inhibitor p21 were monitored by immunofluorescence in both cell lines derived from growth-arrested/slow growing tumors and in cell lines derived from rapidly growing tumors. The data suggest that cell lines derived from slow growing tumors express higher levels of nuclear localized 021 and that this pattern of expression continues as these cells are maintained in vitro. This suggests that changes in the expression and/or activation of p212 may be an important regulator of leiomyoma tumor progression.

9:45 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOSPHERES OF GADOLINIUM CARBIDE, Amy Feldman and Thomas J. Manning, Department of Chemistry, Valdosta, GA 31698. Gadolinium is a paramagnetic element that is widely used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a contrast reagent. In order to reduce its toxicity in medical applications, it is typically wrapped in a chemical cage such as the aminocarboxylate DTPA. In this work we describe a novel synthetic route for nanometer-sized particles of Gadolinium carbide and their subsequent characterization by techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

10:30 MICRO ARRAY ANALYSIS OF CARDIAC ISCHEMIA IN MICE, Deborah Lyn, Xiowei Luiand Nerimiah L. Emmett, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310. A mouse model was used to develop a panoramic profile of genes expressed during ischemic injury to the heart. Ischemia was introduced by surgical ligature of the left coronary artery without reperfusion. A mouse cDNA micro array containing 588 known genes was used to compare gene expression in heart RNA after 24 hr ischemia with RNA from sham operated tissue. Only a limited number of genes on the array were altered by cardiac ischemia, and the resultant hybridization pattern was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Decreased levels of the cell cycle regulator p18ink4 and the oxidative responsive gene glutathione S-transferase were accompanied by an induction of genes associated with cardiac muscle development, alpha myosin heavy chain and fetal myosin alkali light chain. Other stress responses elicited by cardiac injury included an induction of the Egr related transcription factors. These responses in gene expression may represent a balance between the cardioprotective and degenerative processes that accompany myocardial ischemia.

10:45 THE ROLE OF CHEMOKINES AND CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS IN IMMUNITY AGAINST CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS, Francis O. Edo, Tesfaye Belay, Godwin A. Ananaba and Joseph U. Igietseme, Morehouse School of Medicine and Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30310. Genital chlamydial disease is a common sexually transmitted disease in the United States and a vaccine is needed to control the infection in the population. An understanding of the role of local epithelial factors that control immunity against Chlamydia is important for designing an effective vaccine against Chlamydia. Chemokines are important mediators of leukocyte trafficking as well as the controlled recruitment of specific leukocyte clonotypes required during host defense and inflammation. In this study, the dynamics of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression was investigated in relation to the recruitment of T cells and resolution of genital chlamydial infection in mice. The results revealed that the chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, IP-10 and MIP-1[alpha] as well as ICAM-1 were induced at the early stage of infection. Also, the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3, which are selectively expressed on Th1 cells, were also upregulated during the infection. The chemokine receptor expression pattern confirms that chemokines are important in the recruitment of Th1 cells, which are responsible for resolution of chlamydial infection in mice.

11:00 VACCINATION AGAINST CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS USING IL-10 DEFICIENT DENDRITIC CELLS, Joseph U. Igietseme, Francis O, Eko and Godwin A. Ananaba, Morehouse School of Medicine and Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30310. A new paradigm for designing vaccines against certain microbial pathogens, including C. trachomatis, is based on the induction of local mucosal Th1 response. This study extends previous findings that genetically engineered IL-l0 knockout (IL-10KO) mice, when compared to immunocompetent wild-type (WT) mice: (1) suffered a shorter duration of genital chlamydial infection and less microbial burden; (2) had limited ascending infection, and (3) were resistant to reinfection after 8 weeks of a primary genital infection. Also, IL-10 suppressed dendritic cells (DC) were efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that preferentially stimulated high levels of Th1 response from naive or immune T cells. Both antigen-pulsed DC from IL-10KO mice and IL-10 antisense-treated DC from WT mice were efficient cellular vaccines in adoptive immunotherapeutic vaccination against genital chlamydial infection. The efficacy IL-10 suppressed DC as cellular vaccines appear to be associated with their potent co-stimulatory function, as evidenced by expressions of high levels of adhesion and accessory molecules, cytokines, and chemokines.

11:15 EFFECT OF POLOXAMER 188 ON THE AQUEOUS SOLUBILITY OF URIC ACID, B.J. Hughes, MD and R.M. Graven, MD, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912. Excess uric acid production in patients with gout is commonly managed by colchine which inhibits uric acid production. We propose a method to increase the excretion of uric acid. Benzoic acid has increased solubility in poloxamer 188 when its concentration exceeds its CMC. Micellar benzoic acid is metabolically inactive. In this study, we suggest that micellar bound uric acid would be metabolically inactive and the complex excreted in the urine, thereby increasing its excretion as another means to treat patients with abnormal uric acid production. Materials: We prepared 12 mM/L aqueous solution of poloxamer 188(neutralized). Solid uric acid and standardized Ba[(OH).sub.2] solution. Method: An excess of solid uric acid was suspended in 10 aliquots of water and the surfactant. These were stirred for 48 hours at room temperature, filtered, and the filtrate weig hed. The filtrate was titrated with the Ba[(OH).sub.2] solution and the solubility calculated in both water and the poloxamer solution. Results: Uric acid solubility in water was 10.46[+ or -]0.07 mg/100g of solution compared to 69.87[+ or -]3.02 mg/100g in the poloxamer solution (p[less than]0.001). Conclusion: Uric acid has increased solubility in micelles of poloxamer 188 and this complex may be excreted in the urine.

11:30 ASPIRIN SOLUBILITY IS INCREASED IN MICELLAR SOLUTIONS OF PLURONIC F-68, R.M. Graven, MD and B.J. Hughes, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912. Aspirin has an antiplatelet aggregation action and used clinically in long term management of cardiovascular diseases. It has been suggested that aspirin be given immediately upon suspicion of myocardial infarction or stroke. The immediate effect of aspirin is delayed due to its absorption from the GI tract. An intravenous preparation could exert its effect immediately. In this study we have determined the solubility of aspirin in a micellar solution of Pluronic F-68, a non-toxic surfactant. Materials: Solid aspirin, neutralized l2mM/L, Pluronic F-68 aqueous solution, standardized Ba[(OH).sub.2] solution. Methods: An excess of solid aspirin was suspended in aliquots of water and the surfactant solution. These were stirred for 48 hours at room temp., filtered, and the filtrate weighed. The filtrate was titrated and th e solubility determined. Results: The solubility of aspirin in water was 428[+ or -]28 mg/100 grams compared to 688[+ or -]44 mg/100 grams in Pluronic F-68 (p[less than]0.01). Conclusion: In the presence of micellar concentrations of Pluronic F-68, the solubility of aspirin increased. We suggest that such a solution could be given IV immediately to patients sustaining an acute cardiovascular event to limit damage due to further platelet aggregation.

POSTER

University Center Lobby

MOLECULAR TYPING OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS ISOLATES BYHSP70 RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM, Jonathan K. Stiles, Preetam H. Shah, Li Xue and John C. Meade, Morehouse School of Medicine, GA 30310 and William B. Lushbaugh, John D. Cleary and Richard W. Finley, University of Mississippi Medical Center, MS 39216. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis employing a probe from the heat inducible cytoplasmic HSP70 gene family hybridized with Eco RI digested genomic DNA was used in the molecular typing of Trichomonas isolates. Analysis of five American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains and 31 Jackson, Mississippi isolates, from 6 male and 21 female patients, revealed 10 distinct RFLP pattern subtypes of Trichomonas. The subtypes were temporally stable and cosmopolitan. The RFLP profiles seen in Maryland, Ohio, Massachusetts and New York ATCC strains were identical to those of some Mississippi isolates even though the samples were isolated 10-35 years apart. There was no correla tion between metronidazole resistance and RFLP subtype with resistant isolates from eight patients distributed among six different subtypes.

Section VI. Philosophy & History of Science and Section VIII. Anthropology

University Center 1162

Tom McMullen, Presiding

8:30 THE POTENTIAL FOR ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION USING A DATABASE SOFTWARE, Alana A. Lynch and Thomas G. Whitley, Brockington and Associates, Inc., Norcross, GA. The traditional method of faunal analysis uses a paper based system that is inefficient. It generates data sets that are both time consuming and subject to human error due to the confusion inherent in the system. It is believed that using a database program will reduce the overall time, paper work, and margin of error. A database system should accomplish this in the two critical areas of data analysis and interpretation. These benefits and the potential for expanding the scope of faunal interpretations will be discussed.

9:00 CHRYSOCOMA, CHONDROPHORA OR BIGELOWIA: A TAXONOMIC HISTORY, George A. [Rogers.sup.1], Daniel V. [Hagan.sup.1], F. Michael [McAloon.sup.1], and Frankie [Snow.sup.2], Dept. of Biology, Georgia Southern [Univ..sup.1], Statesboro, GA 30460 and Div. of Natural Sciences & Mathematics, South Georgia [College.sup.2], Douglas, GA 31533. Peter Kalm collected a plant in Canada in 1749 which Carolus Linnaeus published as Chrysocoma graminifolia in 1753. William Bartram noted Chrysocoma on the lower Suwanee River in 1774. A few years later Andre Michaux named Chrysocoma nudata "in humidis Carolinae." Thomas Nuttall described C. nudata and C. virgata, found "on the borders of swamps ... in New Jersey." Stephen Elliott cited Michaux and Nuttall under Chrysocoma nudata and referred to the Linnaean plant as Solidago graminifolia. Alphonse De Candolle established Bigelowia in 1836 and C.S. Rafinesque used Chondrophora in 1838. A confusion over priority led many botanists to use Chondrophora, among them John K. Small, Roland Harper and, more rece ntly, A.E. Radford et al. 1968, in their widely used "Manual" of the Carolina flora. L.C. Anderson established Bigelowia nuttallii in 1970 on southern rock outcrops.

9:30 GUSTAV FECHNER: THE TROUBLED SPIRIT OF A BIBLIOGRAPHIC GHOST, Krischan Martin [*] and C.L. Cobb, Augusta State University, Augusta, GA 30904-2200. In 1800 Alessandro Volta assembled a direct-current electrochemical cell. In 1828 Gustav Fechner assembled several oscillating-current electrochemical cells. Volta's work is well known in the history of chemistry and physics but Fechner's work is little known. This lack of awareness of Fechner's contribution to the field of oscillating electrochemical reactions -- currently an area of wide-spread interest and research -- can be partially explained by a propagated bibliographic error, but it also has roots in Fechner's troubled life. Fechner suffered a mental breakdown brought on, in part, by a temporary blindness caused by his research into optical afterimages. This breakdown caused a shift in his interest from physics to psychology, but his approach remained quantitative: he developed the mathematical model for sensory perception known as Weber's Law. In this talk, Fechner's life and work will be examined and a video of a simulation of his probably electrochemical setup and measurement instrumentation will be shown.

10:30 THE NORTHERN MOCKINGBIRD AS SEEN BY EIGHTEENTH AND EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY NATURALISTS, Vivian Rogers-Price, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419. In 1830 Thomas Nuttall made a "pedestrian trip" through the southern United States. An acute observer who collected specimens for additional study, Nuttall's publication of his observations in "A Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and Canada: The Land Birds" (1832) revealed a detailed knowledge of earlier groundbreaking work by mark Catesby, William Bartram, John Abbot, Alexander Wilson, and John James Audubon. Careful analysis of the Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), as illustrated and described by each naturalist demonstrates Nuttall's astute scientific accuracy.

11:00 SCIENCE IN THE SERVICE OF POLITICS: WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE 1909 NAVAL SCARE, John E. Moore, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. Winston Churchill led opposition in the British Cabinet to the Admiralty's demand for six battleships in the program for 1909-10 and both he and the admirals put forth scientific and technical arguments to support their cases. This paper reviews the memoranda circulated by both sides and leaked to the British press during the Naval Panic. The paper concludes that the actual cause of the dispute and panic was the earlier reductions imposed on the Admiralty's program of naval construction by the Liberal Cabinet and not the scientific and technical reasons advanced by the Admiralty and answered by Winston Churchill.

11:30 THE MOST SIGNIFICANT SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES OF THE 20TH CENTURY, Ronald E. Mickens. Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. The twentieth century provided major advances in almost all areas of science and technology. The knowledge gained from these discoveries gave rise to a new understanding of the physical and biological universes, and lead to fundamental changes in how humans see themselves and other life forms on the earth. We list and review the most important discoveries and explain our particular selections. Our major conclusion is that the interactions of science/technology with other areas of human interest has created the conditions for a comprehensive and unified knowledge of (almost) the totality of the human experiences in the universe. This work was supported in part by DOE and the MBRS-SCORE Program at Clark Atlanta University.

Section VII. Science Education

University Center 1161

Brian L. Gerber, Presiding

8:00 PERCEPTIONS OF MIDDLE GRADES STUDENTS PERTAINING TO THE INTEGRATION OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE INSTRUCTION, David Hedgepeth and Sharon Kinkade, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. The problem examined in this study was to determine to what extent middle grades mathematics and science students perceived the integration of subject matter content in their respective classroom instruction. A mathematics/science inventory was developed and administered to 345 students. Based upon this survey, there appears to be only a limited amount of integration of mathematics and science instruction taking place in middle grade classrooms.

8:15 SCIENCE ENRICHMENT PROGRAM INCREASED STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE OF SCIENCE CONTENT MANDATED BY GEORGIA QUALITY CORE CURRICULUM, Terese M. Carlin [*], K. Gibbs, M. Jefferson, A. Lester, K. Mulvey, and B. Ricker, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Materials: Analysis of test scores, samples of journal and personalized story writing, hands-on experiments and description of enrichment science program. Methods: Description of science enrichment program between Kennesaw State University and Big Shanty Elementary School and demonstration of how journal writing, personalized story-telling and hands-on activities reinforced and increased students' knowledge of science content mandated by Georgia Quality Core Curriculum. Results & Conclusions: The science enrichment program increased students' standardized test scores in science content.

8:30 ECOCUBE X, Paul E. Greene, Science Department Chairman, Lithia Springs High School, Lithia Springs, GA 30122. The EcoCube Program was begun by the Lithia Springs High School Science Department as a practical approach to science education in 1991. Science students design an experiment to be undertaken within the 512 cubic foot plexiglass enclosure. The facility components are designed, constructed, tested, and modified before the system is sealed for the four week study. This year, students at Lithia Springs High School did an engineering study within the Cube. The internal water and electrical systems were completely redesigned to offer permanent systems for further studies. To test the effectiveness of the systems, various plants and animals were placed in the facility prior to sealing it airtight. Data were collected to measure water and light distribution and general health of plants and animals to assess the new systems. The students used a variety of research techniques for this study. This programs of hands-on science teaching has been recognized by SERVE as a "Quality Program" and has been funded by numerous grants.

8:45 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE DEVELOPMENT OF IDEATIONAL NETWORKS, DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE AND THE FREQUENCY OF WHICH STUDENT TEACHERS TEACH MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY, Paul J. Bischoff, Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 31709. Pre-service elementary education students (n = 30) were asked to describe in writing the workings of a St. Louis Motor before and after a unit of study on magnetism and electricity. The narrative data was analyzed for content of declarative knowledge categories. Thereafter students wrote an essay describing the content objectives of a series of lessons and the frequency of which they actually taught magnetism and electricity during student teaching was documented. Ideational complexity was positively correlated with higher order declarative knowledge descriptions of the electric motor (r = 0.36; p [less than] .10) and content depth of the lesson-planning essay (r = 0.39p; p [less than] .05). There was no relationship between ideational complexity and frequency of teachin g.

9:00 TEACHING SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES WITH CURRENT WEATHER EVENTS AND OTHER EVERYDAY PHENOMENA, Surendra N. Pandey, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705-2797. Explaining certain principles or terms in sciences can be made much easier to understand and appreciate if examples of current events are cited. Applications of scientific principles in daily life make science teaching more relevant and generates students' interests and curiosity. One such example is using weather events while discussing temperature, pressure and humidity. One can take current weather report and show a relationship of these quantities to the comfort level and weather forecasting. Students will be fascinated to learn a simple relationship between pressure and wind speed predictions during stormy weather. For the purpose of this presentation, pressure and wind speed data obtained from NOAA's Web site ((http:// www.nhc.noaa.gov/) for various hurricanes of the year 1999 were plotted showing a definite relationship between the two. Data o btained from the local newspapers may also be used for discussing pressure, temperature, humidity, etc.

9:15 A STRATEGY FOR STUDENT SUCCESS AND PROGRAM ASSESSMENT, Steven McCullagh and Cynthia Stokes, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. We will describe an experience that directly benefits upper division biology and science education majors, as well as the biology department's curriculum assessment program. Offered four times at KSU, "Portfolio and Professional Development" facilitates the transition of senior students to careers and graduate level education. It uses a sequence of activities that culminate in the creation of a portfolio, an organized collection of materials that best represent the student's achievements and skills. This presentation will elaborate on the philosophy, goals and methods of the portfolio experience. In addition, we will report on the effectiveness of the course for student success and as a departmental assessment instrument.

9:30 RESEARCH INTEGRATION INTO UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION AT COMMUNITY COLLEGES, Kathryn L. Garrard and William A. Said, Brewton-Parker College, U.S. Highway 280, Mount Vernon, GA 30445-0197. The number of full-time science and engineering graduates in the United States universities dropped 4% in 1995. First time enrollment dropped in each year since 1992. The national standards for Science Teaching state that students should develop understandings and abilities to do scientific inquiry. Inquiry is fundamental to understanding the true nature of science; therefore, classroom environments and science labs should strongly emphasize the inquiry that science itself stresses: problem solving, questioning, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, data collection, reflection of analyses of first-hand phenomena, interpretation of data, formulation of generalizations. The purpose of this paper is to present new approaches for the implementation and integration of research to foster interdisciplinary learning in scien ce and education at community colleges. The new approaches should serve in satisfying national standards for science teaching and enhance graduate enrollment. Brewton-Parker College has demonstrated innovation in pursuing the integration of research and education.

9:45 AN ONLINE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE COURSE, Tim Goodman, Waycross College, Waycross, GA 31503. Essentials of Ecology was offered online by Waycross College in Summer Semester 1999. The course evolved from a traditional lecture-based course to a web-centric course. The course was structured with online and on-ground components. The laboratory portion of the course used a student portfolio structure. Evaluation and assessment of the course was generally positive showing a need for some adjustments.

10:30 A "TRUE" COURSE WEBSITE, Matthew M. Laposata, Ken nesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Although course web pages are now commonplace in higher education, many suffer from the same characteristics that make the internet often frustrating and inefficient - redundancy and a lack of centralization. This is best exemplified in General Education courses with multiple sections where each instructor creates his/her own course web page, often inadvertently duplicating the work of other instructors and decentralizing the resources available to students. I will demonstrate a web site I developed for our large-enrollment General Education course in Interdisciplinary Science at Kennesaw State University that avoids these difficulties by allowing individual instructors to contribute material to a centralized course site, thereby greatly improving the availability of student/instructor resources and the efficiency of each instructor's work. A similar approach would be useful in any course with multiple sections.

10:45 TEACHING A FUNCTIONAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM TO STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS, Patricia Rutledge, Mary Beth Hendricks and Joe George, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. The functional curriculum for students with special needs has been often offered in separate settings away from the mainstream of the general curriculum. With the emphasis being placed on access to the general curriculum, special education teachers are having to incorporate materials and skill from the regular program into their instructional strategies. Previously this instruction has taken place out of context, that is, instruction is provided in settings other than those in which the student performance must occur. In functional instruction, the instruction consists of the skills people normally need to survive in daily life in the community and it can be incorporated into the transitional component of the IEP. There is much research to support the concept of a functional curriculum that can effectively prepare students with su ccessful opportunities for learning skills that will enable them to benefit from their educational experiences.

11:00 VARIOUS ADAPTATIONS IN LABORATORY SETTINGS FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE HEARING IMPAIRED, Mary Beth Hendricks, Joe George and Patricia Rutledge, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. Because of current trends in educational reform movements, students who are hearing impaired are receiving science instruction in inclusive classroom settings. This presents additional challenges for teachers, especially in the laboratory environment. Descriptive research, interviews, and extensive literature reviews are employed to identify the needs of hearing impaired students in the science laboratory and adaptations that science teachers can utilize to meet these needs. Various adaptations to promote successful inclusion of students who are hearing impaired include technological advances, modifications to the physical environment and peer mentoring.

11:15 VARIOUS ADAPTATIONS IN LABORATORY SETTINGS FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE VISUALLY IMPAIRED, Mary Beth Hendricks, Harlan Hendricks and Joe George, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. Because of current trends in educational reform movements, students who are hearing impaired are receiving science instruction in inclusive classroom settings. This presents additional challenges for teachers, especially in the laboratory environment. Descriptive research, interviews, and extensive literature reviews are employed to identify the needs of hearing impaired students in the science laboratory and adaptations that science teachers can utilize to meet these needs. Various adaptations to promote successful inclusion of students who are hearing impaired include technological advances, modifications to the physical environment and peer mentoring.

11:30 PROPOSED DOOLITTLE CREEK STREAM BANK RESTORATION PROJECT, Ulrike [Lahaise.sup.1], Catherine [Carter.sup.1], David [Kirshbaum.sup.2], Jack [White.sup.3] and Nicole [Vachon.sup.4], Georgia Perimeter [College.sup.1], Decatur, GA 30034, Doolittle Creek Watershed [Alliance.sup.2], Southeast [Waters/Americorps.sup.3] and DeKalb County Parks and [Recreation.sup.4]. Doolittle Creek was studied utilizing Adopt-A-Stream Protocols and Watershed Walks. Visual and biological data indicated strong erosion and sedimentation problems. A stream bank restoration project is being developed featuring restoration of natural meanders, a 25 ft. wide, natural riparian buffer, gradation of the stream bank and subsequent planting of appropriate shrubs, strategic placement of rock riprap, topsoil fabric, and bio-logs. The success of the project will be monitored with Adopt-A-Stream Protocols. Concurrent student projects will be developed to be included in the environmental science and biology curricula.

11:45 THE USE OF ON-LINE MATERIALS AS LECTURE NOTES AND ACTIVE LEARNING MATERIALS FOR CLASSROOM USE, John V. Aliff, Georgia Perimeter College, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. The use of on-line teaching materials allows for projection of lecture notes and incorporation of URL links for active learning exercises in the classroom. The advantages for the instructor include less writing on the "blackboard," better focus for those of us who tend to "ramble," improved course organization, and laying the foundation of an on-line course. The presentation will be made using an active internet hookup to http://www.gpc.peachnet.edu/[sim]jaliff/alifhoma.htm/.

POSTER

INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND HISTORY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVE, Jenifer Turco and Melanie Byrd, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0015. We developed a course entitled Infectious Diseases and History. Its purposes are to help students appreciate the role of infectious diseases in shaping world and regional history and to encourage them to develop their oral and written communication skills as well as their skills in using library and computer resources. Specific diseases and topics explored in each semester vary, and have included cholera, typhus, plague, smallpox, the Irish Potato Famine, polio, AIDS, and bioterrorism. Both biological and historical aspects are emphasized. The first part of the course consists of instructors' presentations and class discussions; the second part consists of student reports. A variety of resources are used to enhance student interest in the material. These include Web sites, books, articles from periodicals, documentaries for television, and movies. Student respo nse has been enthusiastic - all sections of the course have been full each semester. We will continue to enhance the course to capitalize on its many possibilities for engaging students while incorporating biology and history into the curriculum.

Section IX. Genetics Society Of Georgia

University Center 1164

Kathleen Ann Fleiszar, presiding

9:15 HEDGEHOG RECEPTORS IN HEMATOPOIETIC CELLS, Kristina [Detmer.sup.1], Anna N. [Walker.sup.1], Timothy A. [Steele.sup.1], Tracie M. [Jenkins.sup.2] and Hassan [Dannawi.sup.3], Mercer [University.sup.1], Macon, GA, Entomology Research [Center.sup.2], Griffin, GA and Medical Center of Central [Georgia.sup.3], Macon, GA. To explore the possibility that hedgehog signaling cascades play a role in hematopoietic differentiation, we used the Rnase protection assay to screen a panel of hematopoietic cell lines for expression of Patched and Smoothened, that encode the receptor and co-receptor for Sonic Hedgehog. Patched expression was detected inmyeloid- and lymphoid-lineage cell lines and in normal bone marrow. Smoothened expression was detected in lymphoid-lineage cell lines and in the biphenotypic lymphoid/myeloid line Reh. Both Patched and Smoothened were down regulated upon myeloid differentiation, but not upon lymphoid activation. Putative targets of sonic hedgehog signaling were detected by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay in extract s from cell lines. These results suggest that hedgehog signaling plays a role in hematopoietic differentiation.

9:30 WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF B2 ELEMENTS IN MAMMALS, Vladimir I. [Mayorov.sup.1] Igor B. [Rogozin.sup.2] Eugene A. [Elisaphenko.sup.3] Taneeka [Law.sup.1], Amy [Daniels.sup.4] and Linda R. [Adkison.sup.1], Mercer Univ. School of [Medicine.sup.1], Macon, GA 31207, Pennsylvania State [Univ..sup.2], University Park, PA 16802, Institute of Cytology and [Genetics.sup.3], Novosibirsk 630090, Russia, Wesleyan [College.sup.4], Macon, GA 31210. The B2 elements, first found in mouse genome and thought to be specific for rodent families, are typical [tRNA.sup.lys] derived SINEs and composed of a 5'RNA-related region, a tRNA-unrelated region, and a 3'AT-rich region; the total length of B2 elements is approximately 200 bp. In rodents, the copy number of B2 elements varies between 2,500 and 100,000. Recently, we have isolated several human, baboon and monkey sequences with very high homology to the rodent B2 consensus sequence. No obvious differences between primate and rodent B2 consensus sequences were revealed. Estimation of the copy number shows there are appro ximately 50 B2 copies in the human genome. It was suggested human B2 elements could be horizontally transferred from rodents into the primate precursor. An example of recent (less than 10 My ago) horizontal gene transfer is suggested in the region of almost perfect homology between the B2 containing human Z96647 sequence and mouse X75040 sequence. Here we present an analysis of newly isolated B2 elements from human, pig, rabbit and other genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of the B2 elements suggests that horizontal transfer is a major source of these elements in mammals different from rodent species. This is supported by several arguments: (1) a high level of similarity between these elements, (2) a small number of the elements in nonrodent species, and (3) a reshuffling in phylogeney to establish de novo pattern of B2 elements.

10:30 SEQUENCE VARIATION IN THE COI GENE OF TAENIA SOLIUM. K. [Hancock.sup.1] D.E. [Broughel.sup.1], V.C.W. [Tsang.sup.1], N.J. [Pieniazek.sup.1] and A.E. [Gonzalez.sup.2], Centers for Disease Control and [Prevention.sup.1], Atlanta, GA 30341 and Universidad Mayor de San [Marcos.sup.2], Lima, Peru. Within the genus Taenia, DNA sequence variation has been used to distinguish one species from another and to construct phylogenetic trees. However, little is known about strain variation within the species Taenia solium. To study strain variation in Toenia solium, we have isolated DNA from individual cysticerci, the larval form, and sequenced a 444 bp portion of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase I (COI), and a 400 bp portion of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA. Initial results, from the COI sequencing, show that the two Peruvian isolates are identical and that they differ from the Colombian isolate at four nucleotide positions. From the ITS sequencing, initial results show differences within a ten nucleotide region between all three isolates. Studies are under way to sequence isolates within several villages. A method that distinguishes between individual Taenia isolates within a village would be a valuable tool for studying the transmission dynamics of Toenia solium.

POSTERS

CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE UV-INDUCED MUTANTS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA, Shemaria E.G. Love, Wayne A. Krissinger and Sara Neville Bennett, Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, P.O. Box 8042, Statesboro, GA 30460. The focus of our research has been the isolation and characterization of osmotic-sensitive and morphological mutants of the fungus Neurospora crassa. Osmotic sensitive mutants are those that fail to grow on medium containing elevated concentrations of NaCI. Many of the osmotic sensitive mutants have an accompanying altered, non-wild type morphology. Among morphological mutants, the colonials exhibit a restricted growth pattern differing from the spreading growth of wild type. The mutants, SS-316, SS-398, and SS-930, were isolated. All three isolates have altered morphology while SS-316 is osmotic sensitive as well. However, the morphology of SS-316 differs from that of the typical osmotic mutants and more closely resembles that of wild-type, with the exception of conidia forming in clumps. B oth SS-398 and SS-930 are colonial mutants. SS-398 is spreading colonial which initially has restricted colonial growth; with maturity, the morphology of the mutant resembles that of wild type. SS-930 is a tight colonial which displays tightly restricted growth at all times. Backcrosses with wild type gave 1:1 segregation patterns for mutant and wild type traits, indicating single genes under Mendelian control. Crosses to the tester strain, Alcoy, showed linkage of the mutants to Linkage Groups IV or V.

ESTABLISHMENT OF AXENIC LINES OF SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA FROM SEEDS SURFACE STERILIZED USING CHLORINE FUMES, F.N. Berry, D.A. Chester, M. V. Hicks. A.M. Edmondson and C.I. Franklin, Department of Biology, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Axenic (microbefree) lines of Spartina alterniflora were obtained from seeds for use in experiments to study plant-microbe interactions in a saltmarsh ecosystem. Due to the microbe-rich habitat of S. alterniflora, its seed surface appears to be heavily infested with fungal and bacterial population. Surface sterilization of seeds using conventional methods did not yield satisfactory results. Therefore, an alternate method using chlorine fumes generated by mixing commercial bleach (Clorox) and glacial acetic acid was used. Seeds were exposed to chlorine fumes for 30-120 min and subsequently germinated on sterile nutrient medium. Thirty minute exposure yielded 33% of surface sterilized seeds, whereas 80-97% of seeds exposed for 60-120 min were surface sterilized. How ever, longer exposure ([greater than] 90 min) to chlorine fumes reduced seed viability. Results from these studies indicate that 60-90 min exposure to chlorine fumes appears to be optimal for surface sterilizing S. alterniflora seeds.

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Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Geographic Code:1U5GA
Date:Mar 22, 2000
Words:15436
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