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Rural development in Pakistan.

Rural development is a complex phenomenon and despite a long history of efforts claimed by a number of government or related agencies, visible changes in the rural scene are far too meagre and fragmentary to present a total impact. In Pakistan attempts at rural development have been going on for the last three decades. The purpose of this paper is to point out the functions of rural development programme, objectives, problems, scope, teaching system in rural development etc.

Pakistan after gaining independence during 1947 inherited a vicious cycle of century-old stagenation and poverty. The people were living in the scattered and interior villages with low subsistence level. The problem of reviving of rural life came into picture due to mass poverty, population, increase, stagnation in agricultural production neglect of various social services, wide gap and the disparity in the income distribution and non-adopting trend for modern technology.(1)

The rural sector contains a predominant proportion of our total population which is deprived of basic necessities of life as health, better a higher education, transportation and communication facilities healthy drinking water and electricity etc.(2)

The availability of these facilities vary significantly resulting economic base of labour specially rural youth in productive manner. Thus if we want to develop Pakistan then development of rural are have to be considered at all cost.(3)

The necessity of rural works programme was felt seriously when the country developed the shortage of food and the need for increasing the agricultural output became a must. The rural works programme may be described briefly as a technique of socio-economic development of rural areas.(4)

The Scope

Over four-fifths of the population of Pakistan lives in rural areas. Their per capita income is much lower than those who live in urban areas. But there is shortage of capital in the country and development has to be through those projects, which need a smaller proportion of capital and more labour. Such projects can be accomplished in rural areas because surplus labour power is available there, particularly during the less busy seasons. The aim of rural development is to frame projectsoflocalimportanceandtocomplete them with the help of the surplus labour available in the villages. The projects usually consist of building village, roads, improving pathways, and village streets to build the village school and the common meeting place, to improve suppy for irrigation and for drinking to construct small bridges and culverts, etc.(5)

Rural Programmes

In order to improve the rural life, miscellaneous rural programmes were undertaken, via: 1. Village aid programme 2. Rural works programme 3. Basic Democracy Scheme 4. Agricultural Development Corporation 5. Peoples works program

Rural development during 1972-77

contain:

i) Integrated rural development programme ii) Peoples works programme iii) Agroville development programme.(7) The present government has devised a new plan for rural development with what is called new strategy.(8)

Objectives

a) To improve the quality of life of rural masses. b) To improve the rural economy and the upliftment of the living condition in the villages. c) To provide the community essential services, education, health sanitation, drainage, pure drinking water and job facilities.(9)

Teaching System in

Pakistan for

Rural Development

Although efforts were made since independence (1947) to improve the educational standard. The high rate of population growth over weighs our gains, besides 50 per cent of our children dropout of the school system, by the time they reach Class V. The masses are required to be taught to read, write and learn skills. This will reduce the wide gap of literacy and illiteracy. Based on the lessons and mininial impact on the rural economy of the previous national rural development programme. it was realized that the majority of the rural population was still poor and illiterate. The present government is determined not to allow the present deplorable situation to continue any longer, and is resolved to get rid of the persistent deprivations and giving freedom to the peasants and the workers to fight poverty (basic needs being food, shelter, clothing, health), the main campaign being against the illiteracy arid ignorance. The Allama lqbal Open University is determined to reach and teach the rural people living in 45000 villages through the cooperation and coordination of field workers of various departments and agencies.(10) It is observed in rural societies of Sindh that family cohesion plays an important role in personality development.(11) There are, however, special economic problems of rural areas of Punjab which need immediate attention, with a view to transforming rural economy.(12)

Rural Industrialisation policy and the role of small and medium scale industries in the development of rural sector: At long last, the Federal Government have announced their policy in respect of rural industrialisation while it is fulfilment of a requirement long overdue, the main points of the Policy centre round the fiscal incentives and not the planning of this activity as a Sector.(13) Small and Medium Scale industries can play an importantroleintheprocessofadeveloping country's industrial and economic development. In particular (SMIS) can make significant contribution to achieve social and economic objectives such as labour absorption, income distribution, rural development, poverty eradication and balanced economic growth.(14)

Women in Rural Development

Women are already playing a vital role in the family. In the rural families, their role is significant even economically as they help the menfolk in farm activities. The main f act that deserves planner's attention with regard to women's participation in rural development process, is that utilising their work force should be something substantially more than merely improving their present role in the house-hold economy. The women's development programme should be well integrated into sectoral programmes.(15) In Pakistan attempts at rural development have been going on for the last three decades. Women constitute a little less than half of the total population of Pakistan. They works in the fields, in cottage and in business etc.(16)

Problems

Consequently new policies and programmes fail to achieve the objectives in views, as they are not only un-realistic but fail to generate enthusiasm or sense of participation.(17) The major problem that developing country faces like Pakistan today is of unemployment of rural youth. There is need for assessing actual situation Pakistan wide in order to draw a list of problem villages and types of resources to be exploited further needs to be categorised into separate groups on the basis of acuteness of problem if at all we want to promote harmony among all oppressed citizens of Pakistan specially rural youth.(18)

The people's government wants to bring spectacular changes in the rural economy within the shortest possible period of time. It is needed because the improvement in the rural areas can balance the economic growth of the country as a whole.(19) The Annual Development Programme of the government is the public sector part of the annual development plan of the country.(20) Agriculture is a less lucrative profession. Due to the dwindling of the size of holdings and the increase of population, income from agriculture can not sustain the families of small and medium land owners. This problem would have acquired serious proportions, had the opportunities for employment abroad and increased income from livestock not occurred. Consequently un-employment and under employment are developing in the rural areas, with the result that rural youth has started flocking to urban areas, in and around which most of the industries have been located.(21)

Conclusion/Suggestions

Technology has generally been thought of as a measure of increasing production through new or improved physical inputs. Technology should be available to the majority of the rural community and should be understood and controlled by the users. Institutional credit is viewed as a necessary adjunct to efforts of increasing agricultural production on the assumptions that farmers need credit to take advantage of technology and it will be adopted if credit is received in Pakistan agriculture continues to be the major labour absorbed and accounts for 54.0 per of the total employment. Under the Prime Minister's Five Points Programme, 700 thousands jobs were to be created during 1986-1990, which will have a market impact on the domestic un-employment situation. For creating the rural development, possibility for creating self employment opportunities based on cottage industry and Small Enterprises based on On-Farm income generating activities needs to be explored and envisaged in a most strategic way. The Allama lqbal Open University is determined to reach and teach the rural people living in 45000 villages through the cooperation and coordination of field workers of various departments and agencies. A programme of rural progress contain:

(a) Contribution of Agriculture to GNP (b) Farm Structure (c) Development Process (d) Land Reforms (e) Diffusion of Technology (f) Fisheries Development (g) Forests for Public Welfare (h) Physical Planning and Housing (i) Plant Protection (j) Farm Equipment (k) Soil Conservation (l) Water Supply and Management (m) Rural Roads (n) Macro Economic Policy (o) Human Resources Development (p) Investment Policy (q) Traders Policy (r) Finance and Fiscal Policies

[TABULAR DATA OMITTED]

The Pakistan villages hold the key to her future. The role of government, no doubt, is to create favourable environments for sustaining growth in the total economy.
 Percentage of Occupational
 Distribution of
 Rural Population

Occupation (%)

Cultivator 57
Agricultural Labour 11
In mining, fishing etc. 4
Non-cultivating owners of land 0.5
Household industry 5
In manufacturing occupations
other than household industry 5
In construction 1
Trade and Commerce 5.5
Communication, Storage
& Transport 1
Other services 10

 Total:- 100

Source: Journal of Rural Development and
Administration Peshawar, Vol XXI, No. 2,
April-June, 1989.


 Unemployment by Level
 of Education in Rural and urban
 Areas of Pakistan (000)

 Pakistan Rural Urban

Total 903 535 368
 (3.05) (2.50) (4.50)
Illiterae 456 315 141
 (2.45) (2.07) (4.18)
Literate less
than Matric 266 144 122
 (3.68) (3.01) (4.99)
Matric but less
than Degree 141 64 80
 (4.99) (5.34) (4.73)
Degree + Post
Graduate 35 11 24
 (4.65) (7.86) (3.92)
Others 2 - 2
 (1.71) (-) (3.85)
Source: Journal of Rural Development
and Administration.


Foot Notes and References

(1.) Pakistan Agriculture, "Role of distance teaching system in rural system " Karachi, September 1984, P-45, Published by Kaneez Sajjad and Printed at Gulf Graphics Private Ltd., Karachi. (2.) Ibid, "Rural Development", January 1986, P-30, Vol. VIII, No. 1, Published by Kaneez Sajjad and Printed by S. Hussain Mehdi at Gulf Graphics Private Ltd., Karachi. (3.) Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, Journal of Rural Development and Administration, "Absorption of Rural Youth in Productive Avenues-Need the hour", Peshawar, April-June 1989, P-8, Vol XXI, No. 2, Printed at Printing Corporation of Frontier Ltd., Peshawar. (4.) Prof. Syed Jamil Ahmed, "An approach to Economic Problems of Pakistan", Karachi, July 1969 and new addition September 1980, P-224, Printed at Tasneem Process, Published by Kifayat Academy, Urdu Bazar, Karachi. (5.) S.M. Akhtar, "Economic Development of Pakistan", Lahore, 1986, P-91, Vol. II, Printed by Sh. Muhammad Amin at Starlite Press, Lahore and published by him for the Publishers United Limited, 176, Anarkali, Lahore. (6.) Pakistan Agriculture, Karachi, September 1984, P-45, Printed at Gulf Graphics Private Ltd., Karachi. (7.) Syed Jamil Ahmed "An approach to Economic Problem of Pakistan", Karachi, July 1969 and new addition September 1980, P-227, Printed at Tasneem Process, Published by Kifayat Academy, Urdu Bazar, Karachi. (8.) S.M. Akhtar "Economic Development of Pakistan, Lahore, 1986, P-101, Printed by S.H. Muhammad Amin at Starlite Press, Lahore, Publishers United Ltd., 176, Anarkali, Lahore. (9.) Pakistan Agriculture, "Objectives", Karachi, September 1984, P-45, Printed at Gulf Graphics Private Ltd., Karachi. (10.) Ibid. (11.) Pakistan Agriculture, "Development of Personality-study in Rural Sindh" Karachi, May-June 1983, P-42, Printed at Gulf Graphics Private, Ltd., Karachi. (12.) Ibid, "Problems of Rural areas of Punjab", Karachi, March 1989, P-57 Published by Sikandar Dervesh and Printed at Gulf Graphics Pvt., Ltd., Karachi. (13.) Pakistan Agriculture, "Rural Industrialisation Policy", Karachi, June 1990, P-3, Printed at Gulf Graphics Private Ltd., Karachi. (14.) Ibid, "Role of Small and Medium Scale Industries in the Development of Rural Sector", Karachi, February 1990, P-15, Printed at Gulf Graphics Private Ltd., Karachi. (15.) Pakistan Agriculture, "Women in Rural Development", Karachi, November 1987, P-5, Printed at Gulf Graphics private Ltd., Karachi. (16.) Ibid, "Changing Roles of Rural Women", Karachi, April 1982, P-38, Printed at Gulf Graphics Private Ltd., Karachi. (17.) Pakistan Agriculture, Karachi, September 1984, P-46, Printed at Gulf Graphics Private Ltd., Karachi. (18.) Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, Peshawar "Journal of Rural Development and Administration", Peshawar, April-June 1989, P-15, Vol. XXI, No. 2, Printed at Printing Corporation of Frontier Limited, Peshawar. (19.) Muzaffar Hussain Malathvi, "Fundamentals of Pakistan Economics", Karachi, January 1980, 2nd Edition, P-299, Published by Farooq Kitab Ghar 33, Urdu Bazag Karachi Printed by Nazir Press, Karachi. (20.) S.M. Akhtar, "Essentials of Economics", Lahore, 1982, P-249, Vol II, Printed by S.H. Muhammad Amin at the Publishers United Printing Press, 9, Rattigan Road, Lahore and Published by him for the Publisher, United Limited, 176, Anarkali, Lahore. (21.) Pakistan Agriculture, "Problems of Rural Areas of Punjab", Karachi, March 1989, P-57, Printed at Gulf Graphics Private Ltd., Karachi.
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Author:Memon, Musrat
Publication:Economic Review
Date:Jul 1, 1993
Words:2185
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