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Revision of the plant bug tribe phylini from Nepal: (heteroptera: miridae: phylinae).

Abstract.--Thirty species in 13 genera of plant bugs (Phylinae: Phylini) from Nepal are revised in a first attempt to comprehensively clarify the fauna from this country. Five new genera, Alnopsallus, Aplagiognathus, Leucophylus, Psallomorpha and Zanchiophylus, are proposed. The following 21 species are described as new: Alnopsallus goddwari, Al. jiriensis, Aplagiognathus albopilosus, Atractotomoidea monticola, At. orientalis, Campylomma buddlejae, C. chitwanense, Decomia bhaktapurana, Europiella langtangensis, E. puspae, Leucophylus variegatus, Moissonia schuhi, M. terai, Psallomorpha alba, P. castanopsis, P. kathmandu, P. quercicola, P. tenella, P. tomokunii, Rubrocuneocoris nigriceps, and Zanchiophylus hyaloviridis. Nine described species of the genera Badezorus, Campylomma, Decomia, Opuna, and Moissonia are reported from Nepal for the first time and are diagnosed. Opuna pallidula Yasunaga is proposed as a junior synonym of Moissonia importunitas (Distant). Digital photographic images of live individuals and detailed male genitalic figures are presented for most species. Female genitalic structures, which have been insufficiently employed for previous phyline classification, are also described and illustrated for 20 species. Zoogeography and characteristics of the Nepalese phyline fauna are also discussed. Host plants are confirmed for 12 species.

Key words: Phylini, revision, Nepal, taxonomy, zoogeography.

INTRODUCTION

Nepal, a narrow Himalayan country, lies along a border of the Palearctic and Oriental faunal regions. Owing to the world's greatest altitude range, the country is blessed with various climate zones as well as conspicuous biodiversity.

There is no reliable account of the Phylini from Nepal. Comprehensive treatments of the mirid fauna of the Oriental Region, particularly Indian subcontinent, were published by Distant (1904, 1911), who had treated only a few taxa of the subfamily Mirinae. Schuh's revision (1984) is the first comprehensive monographic revision of the Phylinae of the Indo-Pacific. However, phyline taxa do not appear in these eminent works. Other recent treatments of Nepalese Miridae (e.g., Schwartz, 1990; Yasunaga and Duwal, 2008; Yasunaga and Schwartz, 2000, 2007) are also limited to the subfamily Mirinae. This work was initiated to investigate this species-rich tribe of this small but attractive Himalayan nation. As a result of field investigations conducted in diverse climate zones from 2005 to 2007, more than 3,000 specimens of Phylini were collected. Based on these materials, we examine and evaluate the Nepalese phyline fauna.

This is the first comprehensive taxonomic revision for the fauna of Phylini in Nepal. After careful examination, we recognize a total of 30 species in 13 genera. Of these, 21 species are undescribed, and 9 of these species could not be accommodated by any known phyline genus.

In the present paper, 5 new genera, Alnopsallus, Aplagiognathus, Leucophylus, Psallomorpha, and Zanchiophylus, are proposed to accommodate 10 of the undescribed species. Eleven other species are described as either new or as belonging to one of five known phylinae genera. Nine known species of the genera Badezorus, Campylomma, Decomia, Moissonia, and Opuna are reported from Nepal for the first time. Opuna pallidula Yasunaga is synonymized with Moissonia importunitas (Distant).

Digital photographic images of live individuals and detailed male genitalic figures are presented for most species. Female genitalic structures, which have been insufficiently used in previous phyline classifications, are also described and illustrated for 20 species. A list of host plant associations is given. Zoogeography and characteristics of the Nepalese phyline fauna are also discussed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Approximately 3,000 dried specimens were examined. Most of these specimens were collected during our fieldwork, which spanned more than 100 days between April and November from 2005 to 2007. The principal investigation sites are as follows: Bhaktapur, Lalitpur and Kathmandu cities in Kathmandu Valley, Langtang Himal National Park, Sagarmatha National Park, Kaski District, and Chitwan National Park. These regions cover major climate zones in Nepal. Approximately 80 specimens deposited in the National Science Museum, Tokyo, were also examined (see Fig. 21).

Matrix code labels were attached to all specimens; they are referred to as unique specimen identifiers (USI) and uniquely identify each specimen. Generally each USI label corresponds to a single specimen, although some USI labels correspond to two or three specimens where several specimens are mounted on one pin. The USI prefix "AMNH_PBI" is indicated in the text only for holotypes, in the interest of conserving space in the printed paper. USI labels were not attached to some loaned specimens and to those known species represented by numerous individuals from same localities.

Digital images of live individuals were taken by TY with a Canon EOS Kiss Digital camera body + Olympus OM-System (38 mm macrolens + Auto Extension Tube + T10 Ringflash). The genitalia were dissected and observed under an Olympus SZ60 binocular stereoscopic microscope. The genitalic illustrations were made with temporary slide mounts in glycerin. The detailed genitalic structures were observed with an Indian NOIF biological microscope at 150 x or 200 x magnification.

All measurements in the text are given in mm. Principal terminology follows major works treating the taxa of the tribe Phylini (Schuh, 1984; Wheeler, 2001; Yasunaga, 2001b); terminology of the female genitalia mainly follows Davis (1955), Wyniger (2006) and Yasunaga & Schwartz (2007). In the synonymic lists, only original references and/or selected references are provided, as comprehensive catalogs are available (Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999; Schuh, 1995) as is a live catalog that is frequently updated on the Plant Bug Planetary Biodiveristy Inventory website: [http://research.amnh.org/pbi/catalog/].

Depositories of specimens examined are abbreviated in the text as follows: AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, New York; NMTU: Natural History Museum, Tribhuvan University, Swayambhu, Kathmandu, Nepal; NSMT: National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan; SNU: Seoul National University, Korea; TYCN, Yasunaga Collection, Nagasaki, Japan.

TRIBE PHYLINI DOUGLAS AND SCOTT, 1865 Alnopsallus, new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Alnopsallus godawari, new species.

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the elongate oval, subparallel-sided body, shining, generally chestnut brown dorsum with the uniformly distributed, simple pale pubescence, rather developed calli, shiny hemelytron that is shallowly and coarsely punctate (Figs. 1A-C, 17A), and large, coiled vesica with a sclerotized extension distal to the secondary gonopore (Figs. 2D, H). Without sexual dimorphism, except the male antennal segment II is a little thicker than that of the female.

DESCRIPTION: Body generally brownish, elongate oval, subparallel-sided, not much shortened or broadened in 9; dorsal surface shining, generally brownish, with uniformly distributed, silky, reclining pubescence. Head oblique; eyes large; vertex relatively narrow. Antennae moderate in length; segment I greater than vertex width; segment II somewhat incrassate in [male], subequal in length to basal width of pronotum. Labium reaching apex of mesocoxa. Pronotum rather shiny; calli shiny; scent efferent system creamy yellow, with distinct opening. Hemelytron shiny, shallowly and coarsely punctate, with stiff, semierect setae (Figs. 1A-C, 17A). Male genitalia (Figs. 2A-H): Vesica large, broad, medially coiled, broadly membranous apically, with a row of spicules below the secondary gonopore and an apical spine-like sclerite.

ETYMOLOGY: From a generic name of the host plant of the type species, 'Alnus' nepalensis, combined with the Palearctic phyline generic name Psallus Fieber, to which members of this new genus are superficially similar; gender masculine.

DISCUSSION: The present new genus is primarily recognized by the diagnostic characters given above.

The closest sister genus is yet to be determined. Although the shape of the vesica of the new genus is similar to that of Atractotomoidea, the structures of the body surface and the apical part of the vesica are significantly different (see also diagnosis of Atractotomoidea).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Alnopsallus is currently composed of two Nepalese species occurring in the temperate forests.

Alnopsallus godawavi, new species Figures IA-E; 2A-D; 18

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally chestnut brown body, shiny dorsum, slightly paler corner of the scutellum, variable pale spots or stripes on the hemelytron, contrastingly yellowish brown legs, somewhat sanguineous apices of all femora (Figs. 1 A-C), rounded right paramere and simple apex of the sclerotized vesical extension. The late immatures are recognized by the reddish brown general coloration and densely distributed, long, erect vestiture (Figs. 1D-E).

DESCRIPTION: Body generally dull chestnut brown; dorsal surface shiny, slightly tinged with purple, partly or sometimes widely reddish. Eyes rather large. Antenna dark brown; segment I and basal 1/3-3/4 part of segment II pale brown; segment II slightly shorter than basal width of pronotum. Pronotum partly paler; corners of scutellum slightly paler; pleura usually darkened. Hemelytron more or less speckled with pale spots or stripes that vary in density and shape; apices of corium, and cuneus tinged with red; membrane smoky brown, with pale markings basally. Legs contrastingly yellowish brown; all femora somewhat sanguineous apically (Figs. 1AC). Male genitalia (Figs. 2A-D): Right paramere rather short, rounded (Fig. 2C). Sclerotized vesical extension along apical membranous region smooth, not bifurcate (Fig. 2D). Female genitalia (Fig. 18): Bursa copulatrix mostly membranous, with sparsely distributed, minute spinules anteriorly; sclerotized rings large, oval, thin-rimmed; posterior wall spinulate posteriorly, with narrow interramal sclerite.

DIMENSIONS ([male/[female]): Body length 3.954.37/ 4.064.26; head width across eyes 0.88-0.96/ 0.88-0.90; vertex width 0.26/ 0.26-0.40; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.36-0.40, 1.20-l.38, 0.68-0.70, 0.40-0.42/ 0.36-0.38, 1.16-1.30, 0.620.66, 0.40-0.44; total length of labium 1.34-1.52/ 1.44-1.50; mesal pronotal length 0.60-0.62/0.620.66; basal pronotal width 1.30 1.40/ 1.42-1.52; width across hemelytron 1.56-1.70/1.68 1.86; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.36-1.50, 2.20-2.30, 0.56-0.58 / 1.40-1.48, 2.20-2.26, 0.520.56.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the type locality, Godawari Valley; a noun in apposition.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Lalitpur: Godawari, Taukhel-Kodetar, 27.360388[degrees]N 85.210956[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 5 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 1[male] (00378706) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85.235940[degrees]E, 1,408 m, 28 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 19 (00384058) (NMTU); 7 Oct 2006, R. K. Duwal, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 1[male] (00384059) (NMTU); 14 Nov 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00383789) (SNU); 8 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 2[male] (00383776), 19 (00383785) (SNU); 22 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, 19 (00383791) (SNU). Lalitpur: Godawari, Taukhel-Kodetar, 27.360388[degrees]N 85.210956[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 5 May 2006, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), T. Yasunaga, 70.39 (00378707-30378713) (AMNH, TYCN); 5 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 10. (00384057) (NMTU); 19 (00383779) (SNU); 8 Oct 2006, R. K. Duwal, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 50. (00384060-00384064), 19 (00384065) (NMTU); 10. (00383775), 19 (00383790) (SNU); 10 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 2[male] (00383777), 39 (00383778, 00383780) (SNU); 29 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 6[male] (00383781-00383783, 00383788), 6[female] (00383784, 00383786, 00383787) (SNU). Mt. Pulchoki, 27.344778[degrees]N 85.2244[degrees]E, 1,500m, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 4 Jul 2006, T. Yasunaga, 10.19 (00378714) (TYCN). Kaski Dist.: Phedi, 1,450 m, Ghatte Khola (Riverside), 9 Mar 2007, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae), 10.39 (00378715-00378717) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate deciduous forests of Nepalese alder, Alnus nepalensis).

DISCUSSION: The present new species is recognized by the diagnostic characters given above.

The breeding host of this new species is confirmed to be Alnus nepalensis D. Don (Betulaceae), on which some immatures were found. A bivoltine life cycle is assumed for the new species, as the adults were collected from March to July and in October.

Alnopsallus jiriensis, new species Figures 2E-H; 17A

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally brown body, darkened antennal segment I, length antennal segment II greater than basal width of the pronotum (Fig. 17A), and bifurcate apex of the sclerotized vesical extension (Fig. 2H).

DESCRIPTION: Male: Body generally brown, elongate, nearly parallel-sided; dorsal surface shining, partly tinged with red (Fig. 17A). Head dark brown. Antenna almost unicolorous dark brown; segment II a little longer than basal width of pronotum. Mesoscutum pale laterally. Mesial small stripe and basal margin of pronotum, and each corner of scutellum pale brown. Hemelytron brown, shining, partly tinged with red, not significantly mottled or speckled; apex of corium and cuneus reddish brown; base of cuneus pale, semitransparent. Legs pale brown; apical part of metafemur more or less sanguineous. Male genitalia (Figs. 2E-H): Right paramere somewhat elongate. Vesica strongly twisted at middle, with a long, gonoporal spine; sclerotized extensions along wide membranous region distinctly bifurcate at apex. Female: Unknown.

DIMENSIONS ([male]): Body length 4.08-4.32; head width across eyes 0.87-0.90; vertex width 0.220.27; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.390.45, 1.48-1.61, 0.64-0.68, 0.42-0.43; total length of labium 1.39-1.50; mesal pronotal length 0.660.68; basal pronotal width 1.35-1.38; width across hemelytron 1.50-1.59; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.51-1.56, 2.40-2.55, 0.52-0.59.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the type locality, Jiri; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Dolakha Dist.: Jiri, 1,8301,900 m, 16 Oct 1979, M. Tomokuni, l[male] (00378718) (NSMT).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Dolakha Dist.: Jiri, 1,8301,900 m, 16 Oct 1979, M. Tomokuni, 2[male] (00378719, 00378720) (NSMT).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (Dolakha Dist.).

DISCUSSION: The present new species is closely allied to the preceding one, from which it can be distinguished by the paler general coloration, dark antennal segment I and II, longer antennal segment II that is greater than basal width of the pronotum, and structure of the vesica.

The female and host association of A. jiriensis are yet to be confirmed.

Aplagiognathus, new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Aplagiognathus albopilosus, new species

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the whitish, elongate body that is not sexually dimorphic either in general coloration or shape, the sparsely distributed, brown, minute spots on dorsum, the simple pale, silky pubescence and dark setae on the dorsum, and the black stripe on about apical 1/3 part of the metafemur.

DESCRIPTION: Body generally whitish, elongate; not sexually dimorphic in general coloration or shape; dorsal surface with sparsely distributed, brown, minute, spots, with both simple pale pubescence and dark setae. Head oblique; vertex slightly concave between eyes. Labium reaching apex of metacoxa. Pronotum with distinct calli. Legs long; metafemur with a black stripe at apical 1/3 part on anterior region (Fig. 1F); parempodia hair like, and pulvilli small. Male genitalia (Figs. 2I-L): Vesica twisted, with distal half-portion C-shaped, apically bifurcated with one short hooked process and the other longer and curving. Female genitalia (Fig. 18): Bursa copulatrix with fields of spinules in and around sclerotized rings; dorsal labiate plate continuous and distinct; sclerotized rings large, oval, rather thick-rimmed.

ETYMOLOGY: Named derived from the phyline genus Plagiognathus Fieber, which the present new genus resembles; gender masculine.

DISCUSSION: The present new genus is presumably related to the Holarctic genus Plagiognathus Fieber as having the similar femoral stripe and apically bifurcate vesica. Aplagiognathus differs from Plagiognathus by the more delicate body that is not sexually dimorphic, possession of both pale pubescence and dark setae on dorsum, and the bifurcate apex of the vesica.

Aplagiognathus albopilosus, new species Figures 1 F; 2I-L; 18

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally whitish body, three distinct dark dots on the antennal segment I, and a distinct, black, apical stripe on the metafemur (Fig. 1F).

DESCRIPTION: Body totally white but dried specimens yellowish; dorsal surface with sparsely distributed, brown spots, except on pronotum and scutellum. Antenna pale brown; segment I shorter than width of vertex, with three distinct spots and a dark, narrow, ventral band at base, segment II longer than width of pronotum, with extreme base black; segments III and IV darkened and filiform. Mesoscutum tinged with yellow; margins of scutellum faintly brown. Legs whitish; metafemur with noticeably black stripe at apical 1/ 3 part on anterior region (Fig. 1F). Male and female genitalia as mentioned in generic description.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/[female]): Body length 4.34/4.11; head width across eyes 0.78/ 0.72; vertex width 0.32/ 0.40; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.40, 1.32, 0.94, 0.54/0.40, 1.36, 0.84, 0.44; total length of labium 1.60 / 1.60; mesal pronotal length 0.58/ 0.56; basal pronotal width 1.20/1.24; width across hemelytron 1.60/ 1.64; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.82, 2.68, 0.64/ 1.72, 2.26, 0.62.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, albus (=white) combined with pilosus (=hair, or seta), referring to the pale vestiture of this new species; an adjective. HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Langtang Himal National Park: RimcheBamboo, 1,970-2,440 m, 3 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00378721) (NMTU).

PARATYPE: NEPAL: Lalitpur: Mt. Pulchoki, 27.344778[degrees]N 85.2244[degrees]E, 1,500-1,800 m, 21 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, Boehmeria sp. (Urticaceae), 19 (00378722) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate zone and subboreal zone).

DISCUSSION: This new species was collected from Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae) and Boehmeria sp. (Urticaceae), but its true breeding hosts remain unknown.

ATRACTOTOMOIDEA YASUNAGA

Atractotomoidea Yasunaga, 1999:110 (n. gen.); 2001b: 154 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: A. castanea Yasunaga, 1999 (by original designation).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally brownish body, uniformly distributed, tiny spots and simple, pale, erect pubescence on the weakly shining dorsal surface, long, strongly coiled vesica that is noticeably bifurcate apically, and highly asymmetrical structures of the female genitalia (bursa copulatrix with heavily sclerotized projections extending from dorsal labiate plate (Fig. 18).

DISCUSSION: This genus was previously know from a single Japanese species, A. castanea Yasunaga. The present discovery of two undescribed species of Atractotomoidea in Nepal implies that this genus has a wider distribution, ranging from South Asia to Eastern Asia.

In the present study we found the female genitalia of Atractotomoidea are strongly asymmetrical. Because a similar tendency is recognized in the type species, A. castanea, such asymmetry is considered to be a synapomorphy for the genus. Asymmetry of the female genitalia is documented in the subfamily Orthotylinae and a few genera of the tribe Mirini (e.g., Philostephanus Distant) (Yasunaga and Schwartz, 2007) and is known in the vestibular area of the Phylinae (e.g., Schuh, 2006; Wyniger, 2006).

The biology of Atractotomoidea members is yet to be determined, although Yasunaga (1999, 2001b) documented that both adults and immatures of A. castanea are associated with many plants and that they appear to be predaceous. All species of this unique genus are known to be occasionally attracted to light.

Atractotomoidea monticola, new species Figures 1G; 3A-C; 18

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by broadly darkened base and apex of antennal segment II, pale profemur that is tinged with red on the apical half, dark brown meso- and metafemora with the yellow basal half and extreme apices (Fig. 1G).

DESCRIPTION: Body elongate-oval; dorsum chestnut brown, partly tinged with red, with uniformly distributed, simple, silky pubescence. Antenna brown; base and apex of segment II darkened. Labium reaching apex of metacoxa. Calli distinct. Hemelytron uniformly with black spots; cells of membrane with reddish veins. Femora pale basally; profemur pale, tinged with red on apex; meso- and metafemora black on apical half and tinged with red on extreme apices; tibia brown, basally tinged with red, and with rows of pale spines without dark spots at bases (Fig. 1G). Male genitalia (Figs. 3A-C): Vesica large, medially coiled and with three long processes (Fig. 3C). Female genitalia (Fig. 18): Bursa copulatrix with a widely expanded, rounded projection dorsolaterally; dorsal labiate plate developed and sclerotized; sclerotized rings small, asymmetrical in shape.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/[female]): Body length 3.19-3.23/ 2.92-2.95; head width across eyes 0.66-0.68/ 0.62; vertex width 0.22/0.32; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.18, 1.02-0.94, 0.34-0.38, 0.340.38/ 0.2, 0.82-0.84, 0.38, 0.38; total length of labium 1.20-1.22/ 1.20 1.24; mesal pronotal length 0.42-0.44/ 0.42; basal pronotal width 1.02-1.06/ 1.06; width across hemelytron 1.221.34/ 1.38; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.06-1.10, 1.58-1.64, 0.38/1.02-1.06, 1.541.58, 0.38.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, monticola (=mountain inhabitant); named for the habitat of this new species occurring principally in montane areas of Nepal; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Lalitpur: Godawari Botanical Garden, 27.353502[degrees]N 85.232688[degrees]E, 1,310 m, 8 Oct 2005, R. K. Duwal, Castanopsis sp. (Fagaceae), l[male] (00378730) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Lalitpur: Godawari, Botanical Garden, 27.353502[degrees]N 85.232688[degrees]E, 1,310 m, 8 Oct 2005, R. K. Duwal, Castanopsis sp. (Fagaceae), 2[male] (00378733, 00378734), 39 (00378735-00378737) (TYCN); 15 Oct 2006, R. K. Duwal, 29 (00378739, 00378740) (TYCN). Mt. Pulchoki, 27.344778[degrees]N 85.2244[degrees]E, 1,500-1,800 m, 4 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, 39 (00378731-00378732) (TYCN); 23 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 19 (00378738) (TYCN). Godawari, 1,700 m, 16 Oct 1979, M. Satoh, I[male] (00378741), 19 (00378742) (NSMT).

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Kaski Dist.: Kimrung Chhomrung, 1,800-2,100 m, 18 Oct 1981, M. Tomokuni, Icy (00378743) (NSMT). Lamdung (1,600 m) Dampus, 1,350 m, 23 Oct 1981, M. Sakai, 1[female] (00378744) (NSMT).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate zone).

DISCUSSION: This species is easily distinguished from A. castanea Yasunaga by the broadly pale profemur. The pale basal half of the meso- and metafemora.

The breeding host plant is currently not confirmed although the adults were collected mostly from inflorescences, such as Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq., Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc, Quercus sp. (Fagaceae) and Ligustrum indicum Lour. (Oleaceae). Yasunaga (2001b) reported that the Japanese species, A. castanea, is not considered to be host-plant specific. Because adults of A. monticola have been randomly collected from many plant species, this new species also appears to be predaceous. Based on collection records, a bivoltine life cycle is assumed for A. monticola.

Atractotomoidea orientalis, new species Figures 1H; 3D-F; 18

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the unicolorously brown antennal segment II, dark brown femora with sparsely distributed fuscous spots, and pale tibia with the dark spots at bases of the spines (Fig. 1H).

DESCRIPTION: Body elongate-oval; dorsum chestnut brown, with simple, silky, sub-erect pubescence. Antennal segment I, II and IV darker or black; segment II unicolorously brown. Calli darkened with densely provided fuscous spots. Hemelytron uniformly spotted; cuneus and corium tinged with red apically; cells of membrane with red veins. All femora dark brown, with sparsely distributed fuscous spots and extreme species tinged with red; tibiae brown, basal part tinged with red and with dark spots (Fig. IH). Male genitalia (Figs. 3D-F): Vesica large, medially coiled, with three relatively short and elongate processes (Fig. 3F). Female genitalia (Fig. 18): Bursa copulatrix with two sclerotized bands surrounding vestibulum; dorsal labiate plate narrow, not developed.

DIMENSIONS ([male]): Body length 2.66-2.73; head width across eyes 0.57-0.64; vertex width 0.220.28; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.160.18, 0.76-0.90, 0.35-0.36, 0.25-0.36; total length of labium 1.04-1.10; mesal pronotal length 0.380.40; basal pronotal width 0.92 0.98; width across hemelytra 0.96-1.25; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.85-0.88, 1.311.44, 0. 26-0.36.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, oriens or orientalis, referring to the occurrence of this new species in the Oriental Region; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kaski Dist.: Pokhara, Begnas lakeside, 17 Oct 2005, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00378745) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Makawanpur Dist.: Chitwan National Park, Machan, 40 Km from Bharatpur air port, 7 Nov 2005, T. Yasunaga et al., 1[male] (00378746), 29 (00378747, 00378748) (TYCN); 28 Nov 2006-30 Nov 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 19 (00378749) (NMTU).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (tropics to warm temperate zone, up to 800 m altitude).

DISCUSSION: This new species is distinguished from its congeners by the uniformly brown antennal segment II, broadly darkened femora, fuscous spots at bases of the tibial spines, and different shape of the vesica with smaller apical projections.

Atractotomoidea orientalis has been collected from the inflorescences of Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (Fagaceae) and Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae). A female adult was attracted to light.

BADEZORUS DISTANT

Badezorus Distant, 1910:153 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995:270 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 314 (cat.).

TYPE SPECIES: Badezorus tyrianus Distant, 1910 [= Atomoscelis signaticornis Reuter, 1904], monotypic.

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the pale or whitish body, the darkened apex of the metafemur provided with small, dark spots (Fig. 1I), the distinct, flat process of the phallotheca (Fig. 3G), the weakly sigmoid, slender, simple vesica, elongate, attenuated (Fig. 3I), and the subapically situate secondary gonopore. Schuh (1984) provided further diagnostic characters.

DISCUSSION: This genus was synonymized with Campylomma by Carvalho (1952), but Schuh (1984) reinstated it as a separate genus distinguished on the basis of enlarged pulvilli that cover nearly the entire ventral surface of the claws, and the distinctive structure of the vesica.

Badezorus currently comprises 6 species, most of which are known to occur in the Mid East.

Badezorus signaticornis (Reuter) Figures 1I; 3G-I; 18; 20

Atomoscelis signaticornis Reuter, 1904:20 (n. sp.). Badezorus signaticornis: Linnavuori, 1993a: 240 (n. comb., diag.); 1993b: 267; Schuh, 1995:271 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:314 (cat.).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the small, oval and slightly elongate body, whitish dorsum with uniformly distributed brown setae, pale antennal segments each with narrow dark or black bases, greenish calli, brown spots on inner margin of each corium, pale membrane with conspicuous brown patches, whitish femora furnished with numerous minute brown spots on apical 1/3 and darkened extreme apices (Fig. 1I), L-shaped phallotheca with a thumb-like projection, U-shaped basal part of vesica, well developed secondary gonopore with some associated barbules, single elongate apical spine of vesica (Fig. 31), and enlarged female genitalia with the wide, continuous dorsal labiate plate and conspicuous form of the sclerotized rings (Fig. 18).

DIMENSIONS: ([male]/[female]): Body length 2.35 2.6/2.472.66; head width across eyes 0.604).62/ 0.62; vertex width 0.32/0.34-0.36; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.18, 0.6043.62, 0.40, 0.24-0.28/ 0.18, 0.60, 0.40, 0.264).28; total length of labium 1.04-1.08/ 1.04-1.08; mesal pronotal length 0.36/ 0.38; basal pronotal width 0.84-0.86/ 0.88-0.92; width across hemelytra 1.00 1.04/ 1.08-1.12; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.98, 1.40, 0.40-0.42/0.98-1.00, 1.38, 0.42-0.44.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Kaski Dist.: Pokhara, Phewa lakeside (north), 28.121622[degrees]N, 83.575035[degrees]E, 809 m, 14 Sep 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, light trap, 19 (00383812) (SNU); 3(7 (00378751-00378753), 19 (00378750) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (Kaski Dist.), Afrotropical and Oriental regions; this species seems to be widely distributed over the Old World tropics and subtropics.

DISCUSSION: The female genitalic structures of this species are distinctive; especially, the specialized shape of the sclerotized rings is unique to B. signaticornis.

All known specimens of B. signaticornis from Nepal were attracted to light. No other information on its biology is currently available.

CAMPYLOMMA REUTER

Campylomma Reuter, 1878:52 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995:278 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 318 (cat.); Yasunaga, 2001a: 113 (diag.), 2001b: 156 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Campylomma nigronasta Reuter, 1878 (subsequent designation by Distant, 1904).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the shiny, ovoid body, small size (2 3 mm in total length), simple vestiture on the dorsum, weakly concave head usually obscuring the anterior margin of the pronotum, row of tiny dark spines on distal half of the dorsal surface of metafemur, setiform parempodia convergent apically, and the vescia with two apical blades. Male usually more slender than female. Schuh (1984) provided further diagnostic characters and a redescription.

DISCUSSION: Campylomma, one of the largest genera among the Phylini, includes more than 120 described species from the Old World tropics and subtropics (Yasunaga, 2001b). Wagner was the first to characterize the diagnostic characters of this confusing genus (Schuh, 1984), and his contribution suggested that they can be defined by the presence of two apical blades on the vesica. Since all the members do not have such distinct blades, however, the general body shape and vestiture are sometimes important for generic recognition.

The species of Campylomma are principally discriminated by the structure of the male vesica, so that the females of most species are usually painfully difficult, or sometimes impossible, to identify. In this study, we dissected female genitalia, but could confirm the identities of two species, C. buddlejae and C. marjorae, only. Further detailed, comprehensive work is required for accurate classification of females in this genus.

Campylomma is known to include some economically important species. Predation on Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera) by Campylomma chinensis Schuh was reported (Yasunaga, 2001b). During the present study, C. lividum was observed feeding on an unidentified aphid (Fig. 4E). Numerous specimens were also collected from various flowers and by the use of light traps during our investigations.

Campylomma buddlejae, new species Figures 4A B; 5A-C; 18

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally pale greenish dorsum, almost completely dark antennil segment II (apical part of segment II more or less pale in female) (Figs. 4A, B), and smooth male genital segment lacking the thumb-like process on its left lateral side.

DESCRIPTION: Body generally pale green, elongate oval ([male]) or ovoid ([female]); dorsum shining, immaculate. Antenna dark brown; apical part (4/5-1/3) of segment II more or less pale in 9. Calli green, tinged with yellow. Apical dark spots on metafemur comparatively large. Male genitalia (Figs. 5A-C): Vesica rather stout; apical part not bifurcate but bearing many pointed spicules on its edge. Female genitalia (Fig. 18): Sclerotized rings rather large, thin-rimmed, separated from each other.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/[female]): Body length 2.54-2.59/ 2.43-2.66; head width across eyes 0.64-0.68 / 0.64; vertex width 0.26-0.28/0.30 0.36; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.14-0.16, 0.56-0.58, 0.38-0.40, 0.26/ 0.14-0.16, 0.54-0.56, 0.40, 0.26; total length of labium 0.84-0.94/0.90-0.98; mesal pronotal length 0.40-0.44/ 0.40-0.42; basal pronotal width 0.96-0.98/ 0.96-0.98; width across hemelytra 1.12-1.14/ 1.10-1.18; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.80-0.84, 1.28-1.36, 0.36/0.82-0.84, 1.18-1.30, 0.36.

ETYMOLOGY: Named from Buddleja, a generic name of the breeding host plant, B. asiatica, of this new species; an adjective.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Swayambhu, NMTU Garden, 27.425603[degrees]N 85.170913[degrees]E, 1,355m, 21 Apr 2005, T. Yasunaga, Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), l[male] (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Balkot, 27.394148[degrees]N 85.231850[degrees]E, 1,339 m, 29 Mar 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), l[male] (00384255) (NMTU); 3 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), l[male] (00384326) (NMTU); 11 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica, 9[male] (00384327-00384330), 12[female] (00384331 00384334) (NMTU); 20 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 9[male] (00384335-00384337), 8[female] (00384338-00384340) (NMTU); 28 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 9[male] (00384341-00384342, 00384345, 00384348), 10[male] (00384343-00384344, 003843464)0384347) (NMTU); 49 (00383814, 00383815) (SNU); 3[male]3[female] (3788910-0378892) (TYCN). Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85. 23594[degrees]E, 1,408 m, 28 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 8[male] (00384350-00384352) (NMTU); 31 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 8[male] (00384353-00384355) (NMTU); 9[male]1[female] (378887-00378890) (TYCN); 4 Sep 2005, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 2[male] (00384356) (NMTU); 16 Sep 2005, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 6[male] (00384357-00384358) (NMTU); 1 Oct 2005, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 10[male] (00384359-00384362) (NMTU). Sipadol, 27.385854[degrees]N 85.261087[degrees]E, 1,422 m, 31 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 7[male] (00384256, 00384365-00384366), 4[female] (00384257-00384258) (NMTU). Thimi, Shiddi Karl Choke, 27.404951[degrees]N 85.225763[degrees]E, 1,321 m, 13 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 3[male] (00384367) (NMTU); 24 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 3[male] (00384369-00384370), 3[female] (00384260, 00384368) (NMTU); 27 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 1[male] (00384371) (NMTU); 31 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 1[male] (00384259) (NMTU); 2 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 4[male] (00384261, 00384374), 20Q (00384262-00384263, 00384372-00384373, 00384375-00384377) (NMTU); 7[male]8[female] (378882-00378886) (TYCN); 4 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 2[male] (00384378) (NMTU); 16 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 19 (00384379) (SNU). Kathmandu: Samakhusi, 27.433795[degrees]N 85. 190299[degrees]E, 1,304 m, 31 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, light trap, 140"3Q (378861-00378869) (TYCN); 21 July 2005, T. Yasunaga, 15[male]9[female] (3788700-0378877) (TYCN). Swayambhu, NMTU Garden, 27.425603[degrees]N 85.170913[degrees]E, 1,355m, 21 Apr 2005, T. Yasunaga, Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), 17[male] 179 (00378782-AMNH_PBI00378794) (TYCN); 28 Apr 2005, T. Yasunaga, 12[male]3[female] (00378755-00378760) (TYCN); 3 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, 3[male]2[female] (00378761-00378763) (TYCN); 4 May 2005, T. Yastmaga, 6[male]5[female] 003787644)0378767) (TYCN); May 2005, T. Yasunaga, 12[male]3[female] (00378768 00378773) (TYCN); 11 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, 13079 (00378774-00378781) (TYCN); 12 May 2005, 11[male]5[female] (00378795-00378800) (TYCN); 18 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, 12[male]8[female] (00378801-00378808) (TYCN); 20 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, 4[female]2[male] (00378809-00378811) (TYCN); 31 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, 14[male]12[female] (00378812-00378821) (TYCN); 13 June 2005, T. Yasunaga, 23[male]6[female](00378822430378831) (TYCN); 5 July 2005, T. Yasunaga, 11[male]2[female] (00378832-00378836) (TYCN); 8 July 2005, T. Yasunaga, 3[male]2[female] (00378837-00378838) (TYCN); 5 Aug 2005, T. Yasunaga, 7[male]2[female] (00378839-00378842) (TYCN); 22 Aug 2005, T. Yasunaga, 5[male] (00378843-00378844) (TYCN); 14 Sep 2005, 1[male]1[female] (00378845) (TYCN); 12 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, 4[male]2[female] (003788464)0378848) (TYCN); 15 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, 10[male]1[female] (00378849-00378853) (TYCN); 2 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatiea (Loganiaceae), 3[male]3[female] (00378878-00378879) (TYCN); 5 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, 2[male]1[female] (00378880) (TYCN); 21 Jul 2005, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00378881) (TYCN); 4 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 2[male] (00384397), 3[female] (00384398) (NMTU); 15 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 8[male] (00384266, 00384399-00384400), 109 (00384267, 00384401-00384402) (NMTU); 26 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 107 (00384270-00384271, 00384403-00384405), 49 (00384272, 00384406) (NMTU); 5 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 15[male] (00384273, 00384407-00384410), 109 (00384274, 00384411-00384413) (NMTU); 3[female] (00383816), 6[male] (00383817-00383820) (SNU); 22 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 9[male] (00384414-00384416) (NMTU); 17 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 4[male] (00384417-00384418) (NMTU); 28 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 5[male] (00384041, 00384419) (NMTU). Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 29 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatiea (Loganiaceae), 1[male] (00384395) (NMTU); 15 Sep 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 2[male] (00384396) (NMTU); 3 Apr 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 1[male] (00384380) (NMTU); 18 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 6[male] (00384381-00384382), 1[female] (00384268) (NMTU); 23 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 6[male] (00384383-00384385) (NMTU); 23 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, 2[male]3[female] (00378859-00378860) (TYCN); 25 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 8[male] (00384264, 003843866-00384388), 3[female] (00384265) (NMTU); 30 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 7[male] (00384389-00384391), 3[female] (00384269) (NMTU); 8 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 1[male] (00384392) (NMTU); 18 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Buddleja asiatica (Loganiaceae), 5[male] (00384393-00384394) (NMTU); Castanea sp. (Fagaceae) (flower). Lalitput: Godawari, Taukhel-Kodetar, 27.360388[degrees]N 85. 210956[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 16 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, 5[male]5[female] (378854-00378858) (TYCN).

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (Kathmandu Valley).

DISCUSSION: This new species is easily distinguished from congeners exhibiting similar pale green general coloration by the almost completely darkened antennal segment II (basal 1/5-1/2 part infuscate in female) and unique structure of the vesica. The female genitalic structure is also different from congeners exhibiting similar pale coloration.

In addition to being rather strictly associated with Buddleja asiatica Lour. (Loganiaceae), numerous adult individuals were collected from the flowers of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) and

frequently attracted to light. To avoid confusion with other superficially similar species, we included female specimens that had been collected from the confirmed breeding host (B. asiatica) and have distinctly infuscate basal parts of the antennal segment II in paratypes.

Collection records suggest that C buddlejae appears to have two or more generations per year.

Campylomma chitwanense, new species Figures 5D--G; 17B

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the yellowish green, elongate oval body, immaculate dorsum, pale antennal segment II with a dark, narrow basal ring (Fig. 17B), apically constricted male genital segment without the thumb-like process, and structure of the vesica.

DESCRIPTION: Male: Body yellowish green, elongate oval. Antennal segment II pale with a dark, narrow basal ring. Labium slightly exceeding apex of mesocoxa. Male genitalia (Figs. 5DG): Male genital segment apically constricted, without thumb like process. Phallotheca weakly curved. Vesica rather slender, not bifurcate apically, with minutely spinulate subapical portion. Female: Unknown.

DIMENSIONS ([male]): Body length 2.47-2.63; head width across eyes 0.64; vertex width 0.20-0.22; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.18, 0.580.64, 0.40-0.42, 0.26; total length of labium 0.961.00; mesal pronotal length 0.42; basal pronotal width 0.92-0.96; width across hemelytra 1.08 1.12; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.82-0.84, 1.18-1.26, 0.34--0.36.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for Chitwan National Park, southern Nepal, the type locality of this new species; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Makawanpur Dist.: Chitwan National Park, Machan, 40 Km from Bharatpur air port, 28 Nov 2006-30 Nov 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae), l[male] (AMNH_PBI 00378893) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: Chitwan National Park, Machan, 40 Km from Bharatpur air port, 28 Nov 2006-30 Nov 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. Duwal, Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae), 3[male] (00378894-00378896) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (tropics and subtropics).

DiscussioN: This species is very similar in general appearance to C. lividicorne, from which it can be distinguished by the longer antennal segment II that is almost equal in length to the head width, slightly narrower vertex, and different structure of the vesica.

All known individuals were collected simultaneously from flowers of Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae) together with C. lividum and C. lividicorne. Therefore, females collected at the moment cannot be separated from the latter species.

Campylomma lividicorne Reuter Figures 4C-D; 5H-K; 18

Campylomma lividicornis Reuter, 1912:65 (n. sp.); Schuh, 1984:285 (diag., desc.), 1995:281 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:321 (cat.) [as lividicorne]; Yasunaga, 2001b: 158 (diag., fig.) [as lividicorne].

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the immaculate, generally pale green body, a narrow basal ring on the antennal segment II, smooth genital segment lacking the thumb like process, and small-sized vesica. In some individuals, the dorsal surface is significantly darkened (Fig. 4D). Schuh (1984) provided further diagnostic characters and a redescription.

DIMENSIONS ([male]): Body length 2.20-2.51; head width across eyes 0.64-0.66; vertex width 0.24; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.16-0.18, 0.52-0.58, 0.36-0.42, 0.24-0.26; total length of labium 0.90-1.00; mesal pronotal length 0.400.42; basal pronotal width 0.82-0.90; width across hemelytra 1.00-1.10; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.80-0.84, 1.16-1.26, 0.30-0.34.

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate zone to tropics), Philippines, Japan (Ryukyus), India and New Guinea.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Balkot, 27.394148[degrees]N 85.231850[degrees]E, 1,339 m, 3 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384314) (NMTU); 11 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 8[male] (00384239, 00384315-00384316) (NMTU); 20 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, l[male] (00384317) (NMTU). Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85.23594[degrees]E, 1,408 m, 28 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, 4[male] (00384238, 00384311) (NMTU); 31 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, l[male] (00384312) (NMTU); 16 Sep 2005, R. K. Duwal, l[male] (00384313) (NMTU); 1 Oct 2005, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00384236) (NMTU). Manohara, 1 km E to Bridge, 27.410634[degrees]N 85.215659[degrees]E, 1,304m, 1 Jul 2006, l[male] (00384237) (NMTU). Thimi, Shiddi Kali Choke, 27.404951[degrees]N 85.225763[degrees]E, 1,321 m, 24 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, light trap, 1[male] (00383822) (SNU); 31 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384235) (NMTU). Kathmandu: Swayambhu, NMTU Garden, 27.425603[degrees]N 85.170913[degrees]E, 1,355m, 26 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 6[male]. (00384241, 0038431800384320) (NMTU); 5 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 3[male]. (00384240, 00384321) (NMTU); 22 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 7[male]. (00384322--00384324) (NMTU); 17 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, 4[male]. (00384242, 00384325) (NMTU); 28 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, l[male] (00384243). Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 18 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 4[male] (00384244, 00384303) (NMTU); 23 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00384304) (NMTU); 25 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 9[male] (00384305-00384308) (NMTU); 3[male]. (00383824) (SNU); 30 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384245) (NMTU); 8 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male]. (00384309) (NMTU); 18 Jun 2006, 3[male]. (00384310) (NMTU); 1[male] (00383821) (SNU). Lalitpur: Badhikhel, 27.352329[degrees]N 85.210068[degrees]E, 1,475 m, 27 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384246) (NMTU). Makawanpur Dist.: Chitwan National Park, Machan, 40 Km from Bharatpur air port, 28 Nov 2006-30 Nov 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384234) (NMTU); 1[male] (00383823) (SNU). JAPAN: Ryukyus: Iriomote Is., Haemida near Toyohara, 11 May 1993, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00378897) (TYCN).

DISCUSSION: This species can be distinguished from C buddlejae by the paler antennal segment II that is darkened only at the extreme base and from C lividum by the male genital segment lacking the thumb-like process. The genital capsule as well as the vesica of this species is significantly smaller in size than congeners.

The confirmed host plants are Chrysanthemum spp., Artemisia spp. and some other species of Asteraceae. Many adults have been collected from inflorescences of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) and Sambucus adnata Wallich ex. DC. (Sambucaceae). The adults are frequently attracted to light. This species appears to have more than two generations per year.

Campylomma lividum Reuter Figures 4E--H; 5L--O

Campylomma livida Reuter, 1885:199 (n. sp.); Schuh, 1984:282 (diag., desc.), 1995:280 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:321 (cat.) [as lividum]; Yasunaga, 2001b: 158 (diag., fig.) [as lividum].

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally pale green body, a narrow, black, basal ring on the antennal segment II, and a thumb-like process on left side of the genital capsule (Fig. 5L). The dorsal coloration sometimes variable and some individuals become noticeably darkened (Fig. 4H). Schuh (1984) provided further diagnostic characters and a redescription.

DIMENSIONS ([male]): Body length 2.31-2.40; head width across eyes 0.64-0.68; vertex width 0.220.26; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.14, 0.56-0.60, 0.36-0.40, 0.22-0.24; total length of labium 0.90-1.00; mesal pronotal length 0.40; basal pronotal width 0.90-0.96; width across hemelytra 1.04-1.08; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.76-0.78, 1.16-1.20, 0.36-0.38.

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (tropics to temperate zone), Australia, India, Sri Lanka and Philippine Is1s. Records from Japan (Volcano Islands) and Taiwan are doubtful.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Kathmandu valley: Bhaktapur: Balkot, 27.394148[degrees]N 85.231850[degrees]E, 1,339 m, 11 May 2006, 13[male] (00384247, 0038428000384283) (NMTU); 20 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 3[male] (00384284-00384285) (NMTU); 28 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, l[male] (00384286) (NMTU). Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85.23594[degrees]E, 1,408 m, 16 Sep 2005, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00383825) (SNU). Suryabinayak, 27.392232[degrees]N 85.252031[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 1 Sep 2005, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384248) (NMTU). Thimi, Shiddi kali choke, 27.404951[degrees]N 85.225763[degrees]E, 1,321 m, 6 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384250) (NMTU); 13 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 3[male] (00384249, 00384291) (NMTU); 31 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00384299) (NMTU); 2 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384300) (NMTU). Kathmandu: Swayambhu, NMTU Garden, 27.425603[degrees]N 85.170913[degrees]E, 1,355m, 26 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00384288) (NMTU); 5 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 3[male] (00383827) (SNU); 22 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384287) (NMTU). Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 8 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00384289-00384290) (NMTU); 18 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 5[male] (00384251, 00384292-00384293) (NMTU); 23 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 8[male] (00384252, 0038429400384296) (NMTU); 3[male] (00383826) (SNU); 25 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00384297) (NMTU); 30 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00384298) (NMTU); 8 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00384301) (NMTU). Kaski Dist.: Pokhara, Phewa lakeside (north), 28.121622[degrees]N 83.575035[degrees]E, 809 m, 22 Aug 2006-23 Aug 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, light trap, 5[male] (00384253, 00384302) (NMTU); 14 Sep 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, light trap, l[male] (00384254) (NMTU).

DISCUSSION: The male of this species is principally distinguished from superficially similar congeners in Nepal by the presence of thumb-like process on the genital segment (Fig. 5L). The basic coloration is usually pale green, but some individuals are considerably darkened (Figs. 4EH).

The confirmed host plants are Chrysanthemum spp., Artemisia spp. and some other species of Asteraceae. Many adults have been collected from inflorescences of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) and Sambucus adnata Wallich ex. Dc. (Sambucaceae). A male of this species was observed feeding on an unidentified aphid (Fig. 4E). Sometimes numerous adults are attracted to light. This species appears to have more than three generations per year.

Campylomma marjorae Schuh Figures 4I K; 5P-R; 18; 20

Campylomma marjorae Schuh, 1984:287 (n. sp.); 1995:281 (cat.).

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the orange to red, small, ovoid body, usually wholly dark antennal segment II (pale with a dark basal ring in female), and contrasting pale apices of the corium and cuneus (Figs. 41-K). Female is somewhat larger in size than the male and slightly ovoid.

DESCRIPTION: Body generally reddish but varying from orange to red, small, ovoid; dorsum shining, with uniformly distributed, pale pubescence. Antenna dark brown ([male]), pale brown ([female]); segment II incrassate ([male]), pale with dark basal ring ([female]). Pleura deep red, with pale pubescence. Apices of cuneus and the corium contrastingly pale or white. Pro- and mesofemur pale; metafemur usually deep red; tibia and tarsus pale brown (Figs. 4I-K). Male genitalia (Figs. 5P-R): Vesica with short and slender apical blades that are not much separated from each other. Female genitalia (Fig. 18, 20): Dorsal labiate plate continuous; sclerotized rings ovoid, small, situated near lateral margins.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 2.05-2.17/ 2.01-2.25; head width across eyes 0.60-0.62/ 0.56-0.60; vertex width 0.20/ 0.24-0.26; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.14, 0.56-0.58, 0.300.32, 0.22/ 0.14, 0.50-0.54, 0.34-0.36, 0.22; total length of labium 0.86-0.90/ 0.90-0.94; mesal pronotal length 0.36-0.38/ 0.38-0.40; basal pronotal width 0.78-0.82/ 0.82-0.92; width across hemelytra 0.88-0.92/ 0.96-1.12; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.66-0.76, 1.02-1.04, 0.30-0.32/0.70, 1.00-1.10, 0.30-0.36.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Balkot, 20 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00378913, 00378914) (TYCN). Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85.23594[degrees]E, 1,408 m, 8 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, l[male] (00383828) (SNU). Kathmandu: Swayambhu, NMTU Garden, 21 Apr 2005, T. Yasunaga, Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), l[male] (00378900) (TYCN); 11 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), 1[female] (00378901) (TYCN); 12 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), l[male] (00378902) (TYCN); 18 May 2005, T. Yasunaga Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), 2[male] (00378903, 00378904) (TYCN); 26 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00378905, 00378906) (TYCN); 28 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[female] (00378906) (TYCN). Samakhusi, 27.433795[degrees]N 85.190299[degrees]E, 1,304 m, 29 May 200521 Jul 2005, light trap, T. Yasunaga, 2[male] (00378915, 00378916) (TYCN). Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 23 May 2006, Castanea sp. (Fagaceae), T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 2[male]3[female] (00378908-00378910) (TYCN); 30 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 2[female] (00378903, 00378904) (TYCN). Kaski Dist: Pokhara: Pame Bazar, 22 Aug 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 1[female] (00378899) (TYCN). Phewa Lakeside, 22 Aug 2006-23 Aug 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, light trap, l[male] (00378898) (TYCN). THAILAND: Saraburi, Kyusei Organic Farm, mango flowers, 20 Jan 2009-22 Jan 2009, T. Yasunaga, K. Yamada, 3[male]2[female] (00378917, 00378918) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (warm temperate and temperate zones); Philippine Islands, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

DISCUSSION: This new species is easily distinguished from congeners by the distinct red or orange coloration (Fig. 6I-K). Campylomma marjorae is rather similar to some species of Deeomioides Schuh (e.g., D. schneirlai Schuh from South East Asia), but members of that genus are significantly smaller than those of Campylomma.

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

The breeding host is currently not confirmed, but the adults were collected from the flowers of Ligustrum indicum (Lour.) Merr. (Oleaceae), Quercus sp. and Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (Fagaceae) and Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). On such inflorescences, C. marjorae was frequently found together with C. buddlejae, C. lividicorne and C. lividum. However, population density of C. marjorae is apparently much less than that of the others.

DECOMIA POPPIUS

Decomia Poppius, 1915:73 [n. gen.]; Schuh, 1995: 307 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:341 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999:193 (diag.), 2001b: 160 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Decomia cephalotes Poppius, 1915 (by original designation).

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the concave head, short appressed shining pubescence on dorsum, a dark spot at each apex of the embolium and cuneus in all Nepalese species, greatly enlarged metafemur, the large pulvilli covering almost the entire interior surface of the claws, splayed out left paramere (Fig. 7A), untwisted, C- or J-shaped vesica, well developed secondary gonopore situated near apex (Fig. 7B), and the thin, continuous dorsal labiate plate and ovoid, thin-rimmed sclerotized rings in the female genitalia (Fig. 18, 20). Further diagnostic characters were provided by Schuh (1984).

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

DISCUSSION: This principally tropical genus contains more than 30 species in the Old World and Pacific Islands, and is easily recognized by the

broad ovoid body, hyaline hemelytron, and tumid metafemur. The enlarged metafemur allows the bugs to jump considerable distances when disturbed.

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

We have recognized three species from Nepal. All these Nepalese members were found on the inflorescences of broad-leaved trees. However, true breeding host and immatures are yet to be confirmed for any members.

Decomia bhaktapurana, new species Figures 7A-B; 8A; 17C-D; 18

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally pale brown, oval body, sanguineous apices of the embolium and cuneus, and dark mesal part of the mesoscutum and apex of the scutellum (Figs. 8A, 17C-D).

DESCRIPTION: Body generally pale brown and ovoid. Head concave behind. Antenna pale brown; segments II, III and IV dark apically. Labium reaching apex of mesocoxa. Pronotum pale brown; mesal part of mesoscutum and apex of scutellum darkened. Corium and cuneus with red apices. Leg pale brown; metafemur darkened apically. Male genitalia (Figs. 7A-B): Vesica J-shaped, not twisted, with apical region rounded, flattened, and a little widened. Female genitalia (Fig. 18): Sclerotized rings ovoid, thin-rimmed.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 2.30-2.35/ 2.40-2.44; head width across eyes 0.60-0.63/ 0.61-0.63; vertex width 0.33-0.35/ 0.37-0.38; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.14-0.15, 0.42-0.44, 0.20-0.24, 0.25/ 0.13-0.15, 0.41-0.45, 0.23-0.24, 0.26-0.29; total length of labium 0.75/ 0.78-0.90; mesal pronotal length 0.38-0.40/0.400.45; basal pronotal width 1.00-1.01/ 1.02-1.05; width across hemelytra 1.11-1.13/ 1.14-1.20; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.80-0.81, 1.07-1.13, 0.36-0.40/ 0.85-0.90, 1.11-1.13, 0.340.38.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the type locality of this new species, Bhaktapur in Kathmandu Valley; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Balkot, 27.394148[degrees]N 85.231850[degrees]E, 1,339 m, 11 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, l[male] (00378919) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Suryabinayak, 27.392232[degrees]N 85.252031[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 26 Apr 2006, R. K. Duwal, Schima wall# chii (Theaceae), IcY (00378920) (TYCN). Lalitpur: Godawari, Taukhel-Kodetar, 27.360388[degrees]N 85.210956[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 16 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[female] (00378921) (TYCN). Kaski Dist.: Phedi, Ghatte Khola (Riverside), 1,450m, 9 Mar 2007, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, Maesa chisia (Myrninaceae), 1[[female] (00378922) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate and warm temperate zones).

DISCUSSION: Based on the key and description by Schuh (1984), this new species is possibly a close relative of D. srilankensis Schuh, from which it can be distinguished by the clearly J-shaped vesica (Fig. 7B).

The breeding host is yet to be determined. Every specimen was collected from flowers of Ligustrum indicum (Lour.) Merr. (Oleaceae), Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth (Theaceae), or Quercus sp. (Fagaceae).

Decomia chiangdaoensis Schuh Figure 17E-F; 18; 20

Decomia chiangdaoensis Schuh, 1984:328 (n. sp.); 1995:308 (cat.).

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by pale brown head, totally shining fuscous pronotum, medially infuscate mesoscutum and scutellum, reddish brown apices of embolium and cuneus, darkened coxae, pale pro- and mesofemora, and dark brown metafemur (Figs. 17E-F). For detailed description, see Schuh (1984). The female genitalia are for the first time illustrated (Fig. 18, 20).

DIMENSIONS ([female]): Body length 2.32-2.33; head width across eyes 0.63-0.66; vertex width 0.370.38; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.130.14, 0.40, 0.24-0.25, 0.25-0.26; total length of labium 0.81-0.83; mesal pronotal length 0.400.41; basal pronotal width 1.04-1.08; width across hemelytra 1.16-1.19; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.25-0.26, 0.83-0.84, 1.13-1.14, 0.34-0.38.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Balkot, 27.394148[degrees]N 85.231850[degrees]E, 1,339 m, 3 May 2006-11 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Ligustrum indicum (Oleaceae), 2[female] (00378923, 00378924). Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 23 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Castanea sp. (Fagaceae), 1[female] (00378925) (TYCN). THAILAND: Saraburi, Kyusei Organic Farm, 14.3275[degrees]N 101.0471[degrees]E, flowers of mango, 20 Jan 2009-22 Jan 2009, T. Yasunaga, K. Yamada, 9[male]1[female] (00378926-00378932) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate zone); Thailand.

DISCUSSION: The identity of this species was confirmed by the external appearance and female genitalic structures, because no male specimen was collected in Nepal. Our determination of these Nepalese female specimens as D. chiangdaoensis is on the basis of comparison with recently collected material near the type locality in Thailand.

The breeding host has not been determined but adults were collected from flowers of Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. (Fagaceae) and Ligustrum indicum (Lour.) Merr. (Oleaceae). In Thailand, many adult individuals were collected from inflorescences of mango trees (Yasunaga, unpublished data).

Decomia near okutoshii Yasunaga Figure 8B

Decomia okutoshii Yasunaga, 1999:193 (n. sp.); 2001b: 160 (diag., fig.).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the widely pale, shining, orange brown small body, hyaline hemelytron, dark brown (not reddish) apices of the embolium and cuneus, and apically orange brown metafemur with two black contiguous spots (Fig. 8B). Yasunaga (1999) provided a detailed description.

DIMENSIONS ([female]): Body length 2.07; head width across eyes 0.60; vertex width 0.37; lengths of antennal segments I IV: 0.12, 0.44, 0.25, 0.27; total length of labium 0.80; mesal pronotal length 0.38; basal pronotal width 0.98; width across hemelytra 1.09; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.78, 1.00, 0. 25.

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate zone), Japan (Ryukyus).

HOLOTYPE: JAPAN: Ryukyus: Ishigaki Is., Mr. Yarabudake, 2 Oct 1998, light trap, K. Takahashi, 1[male] (00378933) (TYCN).

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 23 May 2006, Castanea crenata (Fagaceae), T. Yasunaga, 1[female], without USI labels (TYCN).

DISCUSSION: The single known female is currently placed in Decomia okutoshii Yasunaga which was described from the Ryukyus, Japan. Absolute determination of this taxon awaits examination of the male genitalia. The female was collected from flowers of a Japanese chestnut, Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. (Fagaceae).

EUROPIELLA REUTER

Europiella Reuter, 1909:83 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995: 312 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:343 (cat.); Schuh et al., 1995:379 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Agalliastes stigmosus, 1893, by original designation.

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the elongate oval (o') or ovoid ([female]) body that is covered with dark, semierect, slivery scale like setae (Figs. 6A, C-F), broad, truncate apex of the right paramere, vesica that is twisted medially and with a pair of processes at apex, and subapical secondary gonopore (Figs. 7F, I).

DISCUSSION: The discovery of Europiella species from Nepal represents the first records from the Oriental Region. However, the distributions of the Nepalese members are apparently restricted to the temperate and subboreal zones (above 1,300 m altitude) of the Himalayas. No specimens have been found in lowlands below 1,000 m altitude.

Europiella was frequently confused with Plagiognathus Fieber until Schuh et al. (1995) provided detailed diagnostic characters and recognized both genera as independent monophyletic groups.

Members of Europiella are usually associated with Asteraceae (Yasunaga, 2001b; Schuh, 2004). Sometimes numerous adults and nymphs heavily damage these plants (Fig. 6B). Two Nepalese species were confirmed to be associated with Artemisia herbs that are widely used as medicinal plants in Asia.

Europiella langtangensis, new species Figures 6A; 7C-F

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the whitish, pale green dorsum, pale antennal segments I and II each with a narrow, black basal ring, and yellowish femora each with dark spots on its apical half.

DESCRIPTION: Body elongate oval, subparallel sided ([male]), ovoid ([female]); dorsum whitish green, with both simple black setae and pale pubescence. Antenna yellowish brown; segments I and II with narrow basal ring; segments III and IV brown. Labium reaching apex of mesocoxa. Calli pale green; pleura yellow, rather shining. Membrane smoky brown, with pale veins. Legs pale yellow; pro- and mesofemur with sparsely distributed, dark spots on apical half; metafemur densely spotted (Fig. 6A). Male genitalia (Figs. 7C-F): Vesica with relatively short, sharp spines at apex (Fig. 7F). Female genitalia: Not examined, as available female specimens appear teneral.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 4.34/4.53; head width across eyes 0.78/ 0.78; vertex width 0.40/ 0.40; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.24, 1.10, 0.82, 0.52/0.24, 1.04, 0.78, 0.50; total length of labium 1.06 / 1.16; mesal pronotal length 0.60/ 0.64; basal pronotal width 1.30/1.28; width across hemelytra 1.72/ 1.72; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.34, 2.02, 0.56/1.40, 2.20, 0.54.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for its occurrence in the Langtang Himal National Park; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Langtang Himal National Park: Rimche~Bamboo, 1,950~2,400 m, 8 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae), l[male] (AMNH_PBI_00378723) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: Langtang Himal National Park: Rimche~Bamboo, 1,950~2,400 m, 3 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae), l[male] (00378724) (TYCN). Rasuwa Dist.: Dhunche, 1,950 m, 8 Jun 2006-9 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, light trap, 1[female] (00378725) (TYCN). Solukhumbu~Ramechhap Dist.: Kenja 1,620 m ~ Changma 2,200 m, 13 Oct 1979, M. Tomokuni, 2[male] (00378726, 00378727), 29 (00378727, 00378728) (NSMT).

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Parbat Dist.: Hille, 1,450 m, 14 Oct 1981, M. Tomokuni, 1[female], without USI labels (NSMT). Kiumrung~Chhomrong, 1,800-2,100 m, 18 Oct 1981, M. Tomokuni, 2[female], without USI labels (NSMT).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate to sub-boreal zones).

DISCUSSION: This new species is primarily recognized by the pale green coloration and simple, dark setae and pale pubescence. Based on the similarity of the general appearance and the structure of the vesica, it is considered to be related to E. livida (Reuter) and E. leucopus (Kerzhner), from which E. langtangensis can be easily distinguished by the dense spots on the metafemur.

This new species is associated with Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae). Collection records suggest E. langtangensis has a bivoltine life cycle.

Europiella puspae, new species Figures 6B-F; 7G-I; 19; 20

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally fuscous, elongate oval (o') or oval ([female]) body, weakly shining dorsum with densely distributed, silvery, scalelike setae, and the femora with yellow bases (Figs. 6C-F).

DESCRIPTION: Body generally blackish brown, elongate oval, nearly parallel-sided ([male]), ovoid ([female]); dorsum with densely distributed silvery, scalelike setae and uniform dark setae. Antennal segments I and II uniformly black, segments III and IV brown or pale brown. Labium reaching or slightly surpassing apex of mesocoxa. Pronotum, mesoscutum, and scutellum almost concolorously fuscous; pleura darkened, except for creamy yellow scent gland opening. Hemelytron generally fuscous, outer margin of clavus, embolium, and base and apex of cuneus sometimes more or less pale; membrane dark smoky brown, with whitish veins. Pro- and mesofemora pale brown with small black spots on apical half, sometimes completely darkened apically; metafemur black with pale brown base and darker spots or stripes on darkened part; tibia brown, with black spots at bases of spines (Figs. 6C-F). Abdomen fuscous, with dense, silvery scalelike setae. Male genitalia (Figs. 7G-I): Median protuberance of left paramere rather tumid. Vesica strongly twisted near base, with long, slender, apical spines. Female genitalia (Fig. 19, 20): Bursa copulatrix with fields of minute spinules between sclerotized rings; sclerotized rings comparatively thin-rimmed.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 3.72-4.49/ 2.96-3.01; head width across eyes 0.78-0.84/ 0.78-0.82; vertex width 0.40/ 0.44-0.46; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.26-0.32, 0.90-0.98, 0.66-0.72, 0.40-0.50/ 0.30-0.32, 0.84-0.90, 0.520.66, 0.44-0.46; total length of labium 0.94-1.06/ 1.02-1.08; mesal pronotal length 0.50-0.62/0.500.52; basal pronotal width 1.18-1.38/ 1.18-1.26; width across hemelytra 1.28 1.52/ 1.40-1.56; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.14-1.40, 1.88-2.16, 0.50-0.58/ 1.18-1.84, 1.70-1.80, 0.480.50.

ETYMOLOGY: Named after Ms. Pusp Keshari Shrestha, Entomologist, Natural History Museum, who greatly encouraged our research in Nepal; a noun in genitive case.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Lalitpur: Godawari, Taukhel-Kodetar, 27.360388[degrees]N 85.210956[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 21 Apr 2006, T. Yasunaga, Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae), l[male] (00378934) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: North of Balkot near to river, 27.401376[degrees]N 85.231850[degrees]E, 1,305 m, 3 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 3[male] (00384131), 29 (00384130) (NMTU). Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85.235940[degrees]E, 1,408 m, 3 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 14[male] (0038407000384074) (NMTU); 20 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 6[male] (00384075-00384077) (NMTU); 3[female] (00383717) (SNU); 28 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 2[male] (00384078) (NMTU); 3 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 6[male] (00384079-00384080) (NMTU); 1 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 14[male] (0038408100384085), 2[female] (00384091) (NMTU); 6[male] (00383713, 00383714) (SNU); 8 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 24[male] (0038408600384090, 00384092-00384095) (NMTU); 3[male] (00383718) (SNU); 15 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 14[male] (0038409600384100), 7[female] (003841014-00384102) (NMTU); 3[male] (00383715) (SNU); 18 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, 50[male] (00383622-00383664, 00383706-00383712), 40[male] (00383665-00383704) (SNU); 22 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 6[male] (0038410300384104), 4[female] (00384105-00384106) (NMTU); 29 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 30[male] (00384107-00384108, 00384110-00384117), 2[female] (00384109) (NMTU); 5 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 1[female] (00384119) (NMTU); 12 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 14[male] (00384118, 0038412000384124) (NMTU); 15 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 4[male] (00384125), 1[female] (00384126) (NMTU); 3[male] (00383716) (SNU); 28 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 3[male] (00384127) (NMTU); 7 Oct 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 2[female] (00384129) (NMTU); 8 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 13[male] (00383726, 00383727, 0038372900383731), 16[female] (00383732-00383736, 00383705) (SNU); 22 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 16[male] (00383728, 00383737-00383748), 189 (00383749-00383765) (SNU); 18 Jul 2007, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00383768), 1[female] (00383767) (SNU). Kamerotar, 27.405187[degrees]N 85.232373[degrees]E, 1,322 m, 4 Oct 2005, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00384139), 2[female] (00384138) (NMTU); 6 Sep 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 07 (00384132-00384134), 9[female] (00384135-00384137) (NMTU); 3[female] (00383723) (SNU). Manohara, 1 km E. to Bridge, 27.410634[degrees]N 85.215659[degrees]E, 1,304m, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00384161) (NMTU). Sipadol, 27.385854[degrees]N 85. 261087[degrees]E, 1,422 m, 31 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 27[male] (00384140-00384143, 003841474-00384151), 27[female] (00384140384146, 00384152-00384160) (NMTU). Suryabinayak, 27.392232[degrees]N 85.252031[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 1 Sep 2005, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 5[male] (00384168-00384169), 11[female] (00384165-00384167, 00384170) (NMTU). Thimi Shiddi Kali Choke, 27.403280[degrees]N 85.225595[degrees]E, 1,307 m, 24 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 3[male] (00384162), 3[female] (00384163) (NMTU); 22 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 2[male] (00384164) (NMTU). Kirtipur: Chalnakhel, 27.375634[degrees]N 85.165204[degrees]E, 1,379 m, 23 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp., 2[male] (00384172), 3[female] (00384171) (NMTU). Lalitpur: God awari, Botanical Garden, 27.353502[degrees]N 85.232688[degrees]E, 1,310 m, 23 Sep 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae), 1[female] (00384233) (NMTU). Godawari, Taukhel-Kodetar, 27.360388[degrees]N 85.210956[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 21 Apr 2006, T. Yasunaga, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 7[male]4[female] (00378935-003378938); 27 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 20[male] (00384225-00384232) (NMTU); 29 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae), 1[female] (00383766) (SNU). Mt. Pulchoki, 27.344778[degrees]N 85.2244[degrees]E, 1,500-1,800 m, 21 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 3[male] (00383725) (SNU); 4 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 46[male] (00384173-00384188), 3[female] (00384189) (NMTU); 18 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 64[male] (00384201 00384224) (NMTU); 3[male] (00383724) (SNU); 2 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 15[male] (00384190-00384195), 11[female] (00384196-00384200) (NMTU); 3[male] (00383720), 9[female] (00383719, 00383721, 00383722) (SNU).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate zone).

DISCUSSION: Judging from the similar dark coloration, this new species is related to Europiella artemisiae (Becker) and E. decolor (Uhler), from which it can be distinguished by the larger size, denser silvery setae, and base of femur always pale.

Europiella puspae is commonly collected on Artemisia in Kathmandu Valley. The adults and immatures occur together and were often observed to damage the host plants severely during our field investigations (Fig. 6B). These plant species have medicinal value in Asia, including Nepal. Therefore, E. puspae can be regarded as economically important.

Collection records suggest that this species has a bivoltine life cycle, but population density of the assumed second generation during September and October seems lower than that of the spring or early summer generation.

Leucophylus, new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Leucophylus variegatus, new species

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the whitish, elongate oval body with weak sexual dimorphism, densely, sparsely, or rarely not (Fig. 8D) spotted dorsal surface with both simple dark setae and the pale pubescence, and pale green, rather shining calli and mesoscutum.

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

DESCRIPTION: Body generally whitish, elongate, not sexually dimorphic in general coloration or shape; dorsal surface densely, sparsely or rarely not spotted (Figs. 8C-E), with both simple dark setae and pale pubescence. Head oblique. Antenna rather elongate. Labium surpassing apex of mesocoxa. Hemelytron weakly shining, a little shagreened. Legs rather long; tibial spines dark, prominent. Male genitalia (Fig. 9): Phallotheca elongate, rather slender, with pointed apex (Figs. 9A). Vesica large and broad, with two sharp processes apically (Figs. 9C-D). Female genitalia (Fig. 19, 20): Bursa copulatrix broadly membranous; dorsal labiate plate thin; sclerotized rings triangular, comparatively large and thinrimmed; posterior wall membranous, spinulate posteriorly, with narrow interramal sclerite.

ETYMOLOGY: From Greek, leucos (=white), in combination with the phyline generic name Phylus Hahn; gender masculine.

DISCUSSION: Although the present new genus is similar in general appearance to Compsidolon Reuter, the similarity is apparently superficial. The shape of the vesica of the new genus resembles that of Heterochlorillus Putshkov, but Leucophylus can be distinguished from Heterochlorillus by the more coiled and apparently bifurcate vesica. A sister group relationship for the new genus has yet to be determined.

Judging from the distribution, restricted to cold climate zone in Nepal, Leueophylus appears to be an element of the Palearctic fauna.

Leucophylus variegates, new species Figures 8C-G; 9; 19, 20

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally greenish white body, whitish dorsum with variable density of dark spots, brown antenna, greenish calli, sparsely distributed brown spots on apical parts of the pro- and mesofemora, and obvious dark spots on the metafemur. Final instar nymph is recognized by the whitish green, ovoid body, almost smooth dorsum, and nearly the same metafemoral color pattern as in the adult (Fig. 8G).

DESCRIPTION: Body greenish white; dorsal surface usually with small spotsof variable density. Antenna brown; segment I nearly equal to width of vertex, with narrow brown basal ring; segment II nearly equal to basal width of pronotum. Calli darkened. Pro- and mesofemora with sparsely distributed faint brown spots apically; metafemoral spots darker and distinct. Male and female genitalia as mentioned in generic description.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 3.11-3.80/ 2.96-3.39; head width across eyes 0.70-0.72/ 0.664).68; vertex width 0.30-0.32/ 0.38-0.40; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.24-0.30, 1.08-1.22, 0.68-0.82, 0.42-0.48/ 0.26-0.30, 0.92 0.98, 0.644).76, 0.42-0.44; total length of labium 1.24-1.36/1.26-1.30; mesal pronotal length 0.460.48/ 0.44-0.46; basal pronotal width 1.02-1.18/ 1.04-1.16; width across hemelytra 1.36-1.46/ 1.32-1.46; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.20-1.38, 1.98-2.04, 0.50-0.52/ 1.00-1.22, 1.70-1.88, 0.36-0.50.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, variegatus (=variable), referring to the variable dorsal color pattern of this new species; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Lalitpur: Godawari, Pulchoki, 27.344778[degrees]N 85.2244[degrees]E, 1,500-1,800 m, 4 Jul 2006, T. Yasunaga, Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae), 1[male]. (00378939) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: North of Balkot near to river, 27.401376[degrees]N 85.231850[degrees]E, 1,305 m, 20 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 2[male] (00383946), 3[female] (00383941-00383942) (NMTU); 3[male] (00383564) (SNU); 28 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00383940), 6[female] (0038393800383939) (NMTU); 2[male] (00383565), 1[female] (00383566) (SNU). Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85.23594[degrees]E, 1,408 m, 28 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal & T. Yasunaga, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 3[female] (00383562) (SNU); 20 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00384005), 5[female] (00384003AMNH_PBI00384004) (NMTU); 1 July 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 17[male] (00383948, 00383954-00383957, 00384000), 21[female] (00383947, 00383949-00383953, 00383958, 00384001) (NMTU); 8 July 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 24[male] (0038397400383982), 45[female] (00383959-00383973) (NMTU); 15 July 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 6[male] (00383984-00383985), 21[female] (0038398600383992) (NMTU); 22 July 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 4[male] (00383995, 00383999), 12[female] (00383993-00383994, 0038399600383998) (NMTU); 29 July 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 2[female] (00384002) (NMTU); 12 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, T. Yasunaga, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00384006), 3[female] (00384007) (NMTU); 1[male] (00383573), 2[female] (AMNH_ PBI 00383574) (SNU); 8 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 14[male] (0038358200383591), 29[female] (00383592-00383604, 0038361800383620) (SNU); 22 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 5[male] (00383605-00383607, 00383769), 16[female] (00383608-00383617, 00383770 00383774) (SNU). Kamerotar, 27.405187[degrees]N 85.232373[degrees]E, 1,322 m, 6 Sep 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 12[female] (0038402000384023) (NMTU); 6 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, 5[male] (00383575, 00383576), 1[female] (00383577) (SNU). Sipadol, 27.385854[degrees]N 85.261087[degrees]E, 1,422 m, 31 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 4[male] (00383943-00383944), 3[female] (00383945) (NMTU); 2[male] (00383569), 1[female] (00383570) (SNU). Thimi Shiddi Kali Choke, 27.403280[degrees]N 85.225595[degrees]E, 1,307 m, 31 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 29 (00384029-00384030) (NMTU). Katlunandu: Swayambhu, NMTU Garden, 27.425603[degrees]N 85. 170913[degrees]E, 1,355 m, 22 Jun 2006, 1[female] (00383621) (SNU). Kirtipur: Chalnakhel, 27.375634[degrees]N 85.165204[degrees]E, 1,379 m, 23 May 2006, T. Yasunaga & R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 1[female] (00384031) (NMTU); 3[female] (00383563) (SNU). National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 18 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 6[male] (0038402400384025), 9[female] (00384026-00384028) (NMTU). Lalitpur: Godawari, Taukhel-Kodetar, 27.360388[degrees]N 85.210956[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 21 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00384016), 1[female] (00384015) (NMTU); 27 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae), 2[male] (00384017), 6[female] (00284018-00384019) (NMTU); 29 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00383567), 3[female] (00383568) (SNU). Mt. Pulchoki, 27.344778[degrees]N 85.2244[degrees]E, 1,5001,800 m, 21 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 5[male] (00384008-00384009), 2[female] (00384010) (NMTU); 4 Jul 2006, Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae), T. Yasunaga, 1[female] (00378940) (TYCN); 4 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00383572), 1[female] (00383571) (SNU); 18 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, 6[male] (00383983, 00384011), 8[female] (00384012-00384014) (NMTU); 4[male] (00383578, 00383579) (SNU); 18 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[female] (00383580, 00383581) (SNU). Langtang Himal National Park: Bamboo-Rimche, 1,960-2,440 m, 3 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00378941) (TYCN). Dhunche, 1,950 m, 8 Jun 2006-9 Jun 2006, light, T. Yasunaga, 2[female] (00378942) (TYCN). Solu-Khumbu Dist.: Benkar, Tok-Tok, 2,700 m, 30 Aug 2005, T. Yasunaga, 1[female] (00378943) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate and subboreal zones).

DISCUSSION: This new species is similar in overall appearance including form of the male vesica to Plagiognathus pallescens known from mountain areas in Szechwan, China. However, the Chinese species has the concolorously yellowish body without any spots on the dorsum. Based on the original description and figures of the male genitalia (Zheng and Li, 1991), pallescens appears not to be a member of Plagiognathus and is better included in Leucophylus. In Plagiognathus, the vesica is more slender and the secondary gonopore is situated near the apex.

Leucophylus variegates was confirmed to be associated with Artemis& spp., on which this species and both of the Europiella species frequently co-occur. All specimens were collected from the temperate and subboreal zones and a bivoltine life cycle is assumed.

The vesica is sometimes strongly coiled (Fig. 9D), but this form is considered to be only an interspecific variation, because no significant differences are exhibited in the size, external structure and coloration.

MOISSONIA REUTER

Moissonia Reuter, 1894:148 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995:353 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 372 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999:195 (diag.), 2001b: 166 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Agalliastes punctatus Fieber, 1861.

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the weakly concave head, subhyaline to hyaline hemelytron, relatively fleshy parempodia, distinct ventral longitudinal keel on the male genital capsule, and the single apical spine on the vesica furnished with a series of notches subtending the secondary gonopore. The female genitalia are found to be distinctive; sclerotized rings are usually toughened, thick-rimmed and separated from each other, and seminal depository is more or less furnished with minute spinules (Fig. 19). Further diagnostic characters were provided by Schuh (1984).

DISCUSSION: This genus resembles Opuna Kirkaldy in general shape and the hyaline hemelytron, but Moissonia differs in having a ventral longitudinal keel on the male genital segment and a series of notches on the apical part of the vesica. Moissonia includes more than 30 species in the Old World tropics and subtropics (Yasunaga, 1999).

Four species have been found in Nepal, and two were confirmed to be undescribed.

Moissonia importunitas (Distant) Figures 10A; 11A-C; 19

Ragmus importunitas Distant, 1910:18 (n. sp.). Moissonia importunitas: Schuh, 1984: 416 (diag., desc.), 1995:355 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:372 (cat.).

Opuna pallidula Yasunaga, 1999:194 (n. sp.); 2001b: 167 (diag.). NEW SYNONYMY

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the pale green body, almost immaculate, shiny dorsum, hyaline hemelytron, greenish head and pronotum, narrow dark brown basal ring on the antennal segment II (Fig. 10A), single apical spine on the vesica that is provided apically with minute spinules (Fig. 11C), and generally large female bursa copulatrix with the toughest sclerotized rings (Fig. 19). Schuh (1984) provided further diagnosis and redescription under Ragmus, a synonym of Opuna; Yasunaga (1999) described Opuna pallidula, a synonym of the present species.

DIMENSIONS ([male]): Body length 2.87-2.98; head width across eyes 0.67-0.69; vertex width 0.37 0.38; lengths of antennal segments I IV: 0.20, 0.77-0.88, 0.62-0.64, 0.38-0.39; total length of labium 0.83-0.88; mesal pronotal length 0.470.49; basal pronotal width 1.00-1.07; width across hemelytra 1.25-1.30; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.98-1.04, 1.62 1.63, 0. 40-0.44.

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate zone), widely distributed in the Old World tropics and subtropics.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Kathmandu: Samakhusi, 27.433795[degrees]N 85.190299[degrees]E, 1,304 m, 30 Jun 2005-3 Jul 2005, T. Yasunaga, light trap, 2[male] (00378964, 00378965) (TYCN). JAPAN: Ryukyus: Yona, Kunigami vii., Okinawa Is., 20 May 1993-25 May 1993, T. Yasunaga, light trap, 1[male] (00378955) (holotype of Opuna pallidula, TYCN); same data, 7[female] (00378956-00378958) (paratypes of O. pallidula, TYCN). Maesato, Ishigaki Is., 14 Sep 1998, K. Takahashi, 1[female] (00378959) (TYCN). W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Taiping, Bukit Larut (Maxwell Hill), 1,1001,300 m., 19 Jul 1989, T. Yasunaga, l[male]3[female] (00378960-00378963) (TYCN).

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Kathmandu: Samakhusi, 27.433795[degrees]N 85.190299[degrees]E, 1,304 m, 30 Jun 2005-3 Jul 2005, T. Yasunaga, light trap, 2[male] (00378964, 00378965) (TYCN).

DISCUSSION: This species is distinguished from congeners by the immaculate, pale greenish dorsum, the narrow black basal ring on the antennal segment II, hyaline hemelytron, and developed female sclerotized rings. During our examination, Opuna pallidula Yasunaga was found to be conspecific with M. importunitas. Thus we herein treat M. pallidula as a junior primary synonym of O. importunitas, a widely distributed species in the Old World.

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]

All specimens used in this paper were collected by light traps. No other information is available on the habit and habitat.

Moissonia punctata (Fieber) Figures 10B; 11D-F; 19

Agalliastes punctata Fieber, 1861:311 (n. sp.). Moissonia punctata: Reuter, 1894:149 (n. comb.);

Schuh, 1995:367 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:373 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999:195 (diag., desc.), 2001b: 166 (diag.).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally pale green dorsum usually with densely distributed, dark, minute spots, relatively short labium, broadly darkened base and apex of the antennal segment II, sub-hyaline, spotted hemelytron (Fig. 10B), ventral longitudinal keel on the male

genital segment, barbules on apical spine of vesica, about 9-10 notches subtending the secondary gonopore (Fig. 11F), and small, ovoid female sclerotized rings (Fig. 19). Schuh (1984) provided further diagnosis with description of the male genitalia under the name, Ellenia obscuricornis (Poppius, 1914), a junior synonym of punctata.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 2.77-2.83/ 2.97-3.23; head width across eyes 0.68-0.73/ 0.76-0.79; vertex width 0.36-0.38/ 0.42-0.44; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.15-0.17, 0.67-0.72, 0.50-0.53, 0.33-0.35/ 0.18-0.19, 0.68-0.69, 0.56-0.57, 0.35-0.37; total length of labium 0.68-0.73/ 0.63-0.75; mesal pronotal length 0.41-0.44/ 0.51-0.52; basal pronotal width 0.97-1.04/ 1.13-1.18; width across hemelytra 1.08-1.14/ 1.35-1.39; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.93-0.94, 1.33-1.44, 0.38-0.43/ 1.03-1.07, 1.57-1.59, 0.45-0.47.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Nepal: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: North of Balkot near to river, 27.401376[degrees]N 85.231850[degrees]E, 1,305 m, 3 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00383918), 19 (00383919) (NMTU). Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85.23594[degrees]E, 1,408 m, t4 Sep 2005, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00383921)(NMTU). Sallaghari, 27.402796[degrees]N 85.244217[degrees]E, 1,330 m, 1 Sep 2005, R. K. Duwal, 3[male] (00384038), 6[female] (00384039-0384040) (NMTU); 1[male] (00383798), 2[female] (00383799, 00383800) (SNU). Thimi Shiddi Kali Choke, 27.404951[degrees]N 85.225763[degrees]E, 1,321 m, 2 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 19 (00383920) (NMTU). Kathmandu: Swayambhu, NMTU Garden, 27.425603[degrees]N 85.170913[degrees]E, 1,355m, 22 Jul 2005, R. K. Duwal, Bidens sp. (Asteraceae), 39 (00384048-00384050) (NMTU); 29 (00383804, 00383805) (SNU); 5 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, Bidens sp. (Asteraceae), 29[male] (00383922, 00383924-00383931, 00383933), 15[female] (00383932, 00383934-00383937) (NMTU); 5 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, Bidens sp. (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00384046), 1[female] (00384047) (NMTU); 5 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, Bidens sp. (Asteraceae), 3[male] (00384035), 17[female] (00384036-0384037, 00384042-00384045) (NMTU). Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 28 Jul 2005, R. K. Duwal, (Asteraceae), 4[male] (00383912-0383913, 00384051), 8[male] (00383911, 00384052) (NMTU); 2[male] (00383801), 1[female] (00383802) (SNU); 2 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, 1[female] (00383803) (SNU); 9 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, 11[male] (00383902-00383905), 14[female] (00383900-00383901, 00383906-00383908) (NMTU); 29 Aug 2005, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00383910, 00384052), 1[female] (00383909) (NMTU); 30 Apr 2006, 5[male] (00383915-00383916), 5[female] (00383914, 00383923) (NMTU). Tokha, Chandeshwari, 27.4648[degrees]N 85.1948[degrees]E, 9 Sep 2005, R. K. Duwal, (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00383917), 1[female] (00384054) (NMTU).

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: More than 300 specimens were examined from the following localities: JAPAN: Ryukyus: Amami-Oshima, Okiuawa, Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands. Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands: Hahajima (Coffin) Is.

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (tropics to temperate zone), widely distributed over the Old World tropics and subtropics, Pacific Islands, Spain.

DISCUSSION: The confirmed host plants are Bidens spp. (Asteraceae). Serious damage by both adults and immatures was frequently observed during our field research. The adults are frequently attracted to light. A multivoltine life cycle is assumed for this common phyline.

Moissonia schuhi, new species

Figures 10C-D; 11G-I; 19

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally pale, oval body, yellowish shiny dorsum, large brown patches and black spots on the mesoscutum and scutellum, hyaline hemelytron, a dark brown spot each on the apices of the clavus, embolium, and the inner medial margin of the cuneus, and almost entirely pale legs (Figs. 10C-D).

DESCRIPTION: Body generally pale, ovoid, dorsum yellowish brown, shining, with simple dark setae and pale pubescence. Antenna brown; segment II with dark base and apex; segments III and IV darkened. Mesoscutum and scutellum shining, with brown patches and fuscous spots. Hemelytron subhyaline, with apices of clavus, embolium, and inner medial margin of cuneus each with a dark brown spot. Legs pale yellowish; metafemur tinged with red apically. Male genitalia (Figs. 11G-I). Phallotheca broad basally (Fig. 11G). Vesica with 4-5 notches subtending secondary gonopore and with short apical spine (Fig. 11I). Female genitalia (Fig. 19): Sclerotized rings large, pointed or a little projected laterally.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 2.60-2.90/ 2.77-3.08; head width across eyes 0.73-0.77/ 0.73-0.77; vertex width 0.35-0.37/ 0.37-0.38; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.18-0.19, 0.9, 0.56-0.57, 0.42-0.43/ 0.18-0.19, 0.77-0.82, 0.50, 0.40-0.43; total length of labium 1.00-1.03/ 1.02-1.13; mesal pronotal length 0.48-0.50/ 0.50-0.52; basal pronotal width 1.06-1.12/ 1.10-1.15; width across hemelytra 1.26-1.33/ 1.30-1.40; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.06-1.07, 1.56-1.58, 0.384-0.39/ 0.93-1.07, 1.37-1.54, 0.3743.38.

ETYMOLOGY: Named in honor of Dr. Randall Tobias Schuh, who contributed much to the clarification of the Oriental phyline fauna; a noun in genitive case.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 23 May 2006, Castanea crenata (Fagaceae), T. Yasunaga, 10. (00378966) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: North of Balkot near to river, 27.400947[degrees]N 85.222297[degrees]E, 1,304 m, 11 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 29 (00384033-00384034) (NMTU); 39 (00383808) (SNU); 20 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 10. (00378973) (TYCN). Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85.23594[degrees]E, 1,408 m, 12 May 2006, 1[male]. (00384032) (NMTU); 8 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, 1[male]. (00383806), 1[female] (00383807) (SNU); 22 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, 19 (00383809) (SNU); 28 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 20.29 (00378968-00378971) (TYCN); 1 Jul 2006, R. K. Duwal, 10. (00378972) (TYCN). Thimi Shiddi Kali Choke, 27.403280[degrees]N 85.225595[degrees]E, 1,307 m, 27 May 2006, 1[male] (00384275), 1[female] (00384276) (NMTU). Kathmandu: Swayambhu, NMTU Garden, 27.425603[degrees]N 85.170913[degrees]E, 1,355m, 22 Jun 2006, R. K. Duwal, 19 (00378974) (TYCN). Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 23 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[male]1[female] (00378967) (TYCN); 25 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00384277), 1[female] (00384278) (NMTU); 30 May 2006, 1[female] (00384279) (NMTU). Lalitpur: Badhikhel, 27.352329[degrees]N 85.210068[degrees]E, 1,475 m, 27 Jun 2006, T Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 19 (00383810) (SNU).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (temperate zone).

DISCUSSION: This new species is similar in general appearance to M. terai, new species and M. befui Yasunaga, from which it is easily distinguished by the pale head, pronotum, and pleura.

The breeding host is not confirmed. Adults were collected from inflorescences of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae), Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. (Fagaceae) and Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth (Theaceae).

Moissonia terai, new species

Figures 10E; 11J-L; 19

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally pale, ovoid body, shining, pale yellow dorsum, large dark patches and fuscous spots on the mesoscutum and scutellum, a dark spot each on apices of the clavus, embolium, and inner medial margin of the cuneus, yellow coxae, and darkened femora basally pale and apically tinged with red (Fig. 10E).

DESCRIPTION: Body pale, ovoid; dorsum pale yellow, with simple dark setae and pale shining pubescence. Antenna brown; segment I, with narrow black basal ring; segment II, with black markings on base and apex; segment III and IV darkened. Labium reaching the apex of procoxa. Mesoscutum and scutellum with large dark patches and thoracic pleura orange brown. Hemelytron subhyaline, with a dark spot each on apices of clavus, corium and inner medial margin of cuneus. Coxa pale yellow; pro- and meso- and metafemora darkened, basally and apically pale yellow, tinged with red. Male genitalia (Figs. 11J-L): Phallotheca slender, with sharpened apex (Fig. 11J). Vesica with 6 notches subtending secondary gonopore; apical spine short and pointed at tip (Fig. 11L). Female genitalia (Fig. 19): Similar to schuhi; sclerotized rings enlarged, rounded and thickened posteriorly, with projecting anterior inner angle.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 2.77-3.12/ 3.04-3.16; head width across eyes 0.76-0.78/ 0.76; vertex width 0.36-0.38/ 0.38-0.40; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.18-0.20, 0.86-0.90, 0.60, 0.40/ 0.20, 0.86-0.88, 0.56-0.58, 0.42; total length of labium 1.14-1.16 / 1.16; mesal pronotal length 0.52 / 0.52; basal pronotal width 1.14-1.18/ 1.20-1.22; width across hemelytra 1.32-1.36/ 1.44-1.46; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.02-1.04, 1.58, 0.40/1.04, 1.56-1.62, 0.40-0.46.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the Terai Plain, southern Nepal, the type locality of this new species; a noun in apposition.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Makawanpur Dist.: Chitwan National Park, Machan, 40 Km from Bharatpur air port, 28 Jul 2006-30 Jul 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, Mikania micrantha (Asteraceae), 1[male] (00378975) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Makawanpur Dist.: Chitwan National Park, Machan, 40 Km from Bharatpur air port, 28 Jul 2006-30 Jul 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, Mikania micrantha (Asteraceae), 1[male], 3[female] (00378976-00378979) (AMNH, TYCN). Kaski Dist.: Phedi, Ghatte Khola (Riverside), 9 Mar 2007, T. Yasunaga, R.

Duwal, Maesa chisia? (Myrninaceae), 1[male]1[female] (00378980) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (tropics to warm temperate zone).

DISCUSSION: This new species is at first sight very similar to M. befui Yasunaga, from which it can be distinguished by the weaker spots at the apex of the clavus, a weakly elongate inner medial spot on the cuneus, reddish apices of the femora, and tiny apical spine of the vesica. From M. schuhi, the present new species is separable by the darker coloration of the head, pronotum, scutellum and femora, more slender and sharp phallotheca, pointed apical process of the vesica, and larger female sclerotized ring with a rounded posterior rim.

Based on the similarity exhibited in general appearances and shape of the vesicae, M. schuhi, M. terai, and M. befui are considered to constitute a monophyletic group.

Moissonia terai was collected from Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae) and Maesa near chisia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (Myrninaceae). However, the breeding host remains unconfirmed. Collection records suggest this phyline has two generations per year.

OPUNA KIRKALDY

Opuna Kirkaldy, 1902:140 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995: 365 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:380 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999:194 (note), 2001b: 167 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: O. hawaiiensis Kirkaldy, 1902, a synonym of Psallus sharpianus Kirkaldy, 1902, monotypic.

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the hyaline hemelytron (Fig. 10F), flattened and apically convergent parempodia, and weakly curved, slender vesica that lacks any notches subtending the secondary gonopore. Further diagnostic characters were provided by Schuh (1984).

DISCUSSION: This is a small genus composed of six described species from the Old World tropics (Schuh, 1984; Yasunaga, 1999). Opuna is separated from an assumed sister genus, Moissonia, by the simple vesica that lacks any notch-like structure and the smaller, ovoid sclerotized ring in the female genitalia.

A single species, O. annulata, is herein reported from Nepal.

Opuna annulata (Knight)

Figure 10F; 19

Campylomma annulatus Knight, 1935:197 (n. sp.). Opuna annulata: Schuh, 1984:401 (n. comb.), 1995: 366 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 380 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999: 194 (diag., fig.), 2001b: 160 (diag., fig.).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the pale green dorsum, distinctly annulated antennal segment II (annulations sometimes obscure in 9), hyaline hemelytron, three distinct black spots (one on the apex of the clavus and two on the inner margin of the cuneus as in [Fig. 10F]), slender, tapered phallotheca, weakly curved vesica, and small, ovoid female sclerotized rings that are separated from each other (Fig. 19).

DIMENSIONS (([male]/ [female]): Body length 2.45-2.53/ 0.22-2.28; head width across eyes 0.67-0.72/ 0.65-0.69; vertex width 0.41-0.44/ 0.37-0.38; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.17-0.18, 0.56-0.58, 0.50-0.52, 0.37-0.40/ 0.15, 0.62-0.64, 0.55, 0.38; total length of labium 0.77-0.79/ 0.77-0.78; mesal pronotal length 0.37-0.39/ 0.36-0.38; basal pronotal width 0.97-1.02/ 0.85-0.88; width across hemelytra 1.12-1.19/ 1.01-1.03; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 0.86-0.88, 1.26-1.33, 0.38-0.43/ 0.87-0.94, 1.25-1.32, 0.37-0.39.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Kathmandu: Samakhusi, 27.433795[degrees]N 85.190299[degrees]E, 1,304 m, 3 Jul 2005, T. Yasunaga, light trap, 1[male] (00383811)(SNU); 13 Jul 2006, 1[male] (00378981), 19 (00378982) (TYCN); 27 Jul 2006, 1[male] (00378983), 1[female] (00378984) (TYCN); 30 Jul 2006, 2[female] (00378985, 00378986) (TYCN). Kaski Dist.: Pokhara: Phewa Lakeside, 28.232622[degrees]N 88.575035[degrees]E, 22 Jul 2006-23 Jul 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 29 (00378987, 00378988) (TYCN). JAPAN: Ryukyus: Okinawa Is., Naha City, Shurisakiyama, 5 Nov 1992, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00379020) (TYCN). Okinawa Is., Chinen Peninsula, 17 Apr 1986, T. Yasunaga, 1[male], (TYCN). Ishigaki Is., Yoshihara, 24 Nov 1997, T. Yasunaga, 1[male]3[female] (00378989, 00378990) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (warm temperate to temperate zones); widely distributed in the Old World tropics and subtropics, including some Pacific Islands.

DISCUSSION: Yasunaga (2001b) reported that O. annulata is usually found on Bidens sp. in the Japanese Ryukyus. Available specimens from Nepal

were collected only by light traps, however.

Psallomorpha, new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Psallomorpha castanopsis, new species.

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the elongate, subparallel-sided body in male, variable coloration of dorsum with the uniformly distributed, simple dark setae and pale, silky pubescence, distinct dark spots on the dorsal surface, and characteristic, slender, simple form of the vesica. Sexual dimorphism is recognizable in the body shape and length of antennal segment II; the body is elongate-ovoid and antennal segment II is shortened in the female. DESCRIPTION: Body elongate ([male]), elongate oval ([male]); dorsum usually with densely distributed, dark spots, and with both pale simple (or sometimes sericeous) pubescence and dark setae. Head usually oblique; eyes moderately large. Antenna pale brown to dark; segment I slightly longer than width of vertex and with a basal ring; segment II elongate, nearly equal or longer than the basal width of pronotum and considerably darkened at base and apex; segments III and IV darkened. Labium long, reaching or surpassing apex of mesocoxa. Calli distinct. Hemelytron more or less shiny. Metafemur slender, not thickened; tibia with black or brown spines and with a dark brown or black spot at base of each spine; tarsus long; parempodia setiform, parallel; pulvillus small. Male genitalia (Figs. 13-14). Right paramere spindle-shaped, flattened. Phallotheca elongate. Vesica slender, rather sigmoid, with a single, long apical spine; secondary gonopore well developed and subapically situated.

ETYMOLOGY: Named after the phyline genus Psallus Fieber, to which this new genus is superficially similar; gender feminine.

DISCUSSION: This new genus is distinguished by the distinctly spotted or speckled dorsum and very simple, slender vesica. In general appearance, Psallomorpha is similar to the large Holarctic genus Psallus Fieber, and the Afrotropical Austropsallus Schuh and Coatonocapsus Schuh, but the simple, slender form of the vesica is not found in latter genera. However, similar vesical form is found in Badezorus Distant (Fig. 3I), but members of this genus have completely different general appearance and surface structure (Fig. 1I).

Psallomorpha currently contains six new species described below. Three are confirmed to be associated with broad-leaved trees and all occur in temperate and subboreal zones in Nepal.

Psallomorpha alba, new species

Figures 12A; 13A-C; 14A

DIAGNOSIS: Readily recognized by the whitish brown body, numerous spots on the dorsum, with some red, small spots on the vertex and calli (Fig. 12A), and secondary gonopore situated on apical 1/3 of vesica (Fig. 14A).

DESCRIPTION: Body generally whitish brown, elongate; dorsum less shining, rather shagreened, with densely distributed, numerous dark brown spots and with several red spots intermixed with black ones on vertex and calli. Antenna dark brown; basal half of segment II pale brown except for dark extreme base. Lateral margins and mesal transverse border of mesoscutum brown; scutellum with dark apex. Membrane dark smoky brown with some pale spots and whitish veins. Metafemur spotted on distal half; tibia with dark brown spots at bases of spines. Male genitalia (Figs. 13A-C, 14A): Vesica slender, sigmoid, with short apical part elongate, curving (Fig. 14A).

DIMENSIONS (0.): Body length 4.50-5.00; head width across eyes 0.80-0.83; vertex width 0.24 0.25; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.35-0.38, 1.62-1.68, 0.81-0.87, 0.414).42; total length of labium 1.60-1.62; mesal pronotal length 0.61-0.66; basal pronotal width 1.20-1.38; width across hemelytra 1.63 1.76; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.65-1.69, 2.66-2.69, 0.56-0.64.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, albus (=white, whitish), referring to the whitish general coloration of this new species; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Langtang Himal National Park: Ghora Tabela (3,000 m)--Gomnachok (2,700 m), 7 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, Cotoneaster affinis (Rosaceae), 1[male]. (00378991) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Langtang Himal National Park: Ghora Tabela (3,000 m)--Gonmachok (2,700 m), 7 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, Cotoneaster affinis (Rosaceae), 5[male] (00378992-00378995) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (subboreal zone of Langtang Himal).

DISCUSSION: This new species is easily recognized by the generally whitish, large body, and was collected only from the sub-boreal zone on the broadleaf, Cotoneaster affinis Lindley (Rosaceae) that we considered to be the breeding host.

[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]

Psallomorpha castanopsis, new species

Figures 12B-D; 13D-F, 14B; 19

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the small body, less shining, mostly brown, speckled dorsum with dense vestiture, vertex with three small reddish brown spots, femora with distinct dark spots, and medially situated secondary gonopore (Fig. 14B).

DESCRIPTION: Body generally brown, speckled with dark brown markings or spots, small in size, elongate oval ([male]) or ovoid ([female]); dorsal surface less shining. Head brown, tinged with greenish yellow; vertex with three red, small triangularly-arranged spots. Antenna pale brown; segment I dark ([male]) or pale with an obscure, subapical ring ([female]); segment II with fuscous base and apex; segments III and IV dark brown. Pronotum somewhat shining, with densely distributed, numerous dark spots intermixed with several dark red spots; mesoscutum and scutellum dark brown, partly pale. Pleura dark chocolate brown. Coxa brown; all femora distinctly spotted, with darkened apices;

tibiae with dark spines with dark bands. Hemelytron somber brown; basal margin and apex of cuneus whitish brown; membrane smoky brown, with some contrasting pale marks and pale veins. Ventrolateral margin of abdomen more or less with dark black spots. Male genitalia (Figs. 13D-F, 14B): Vesica tapered and hooked apically; secondary gonopore situated medially, with an apical, small, spine-like process (Fig. 14B).

[FIGURE 13 OMITTED]

Female genitalia (Fig. 19): Sclerotized rings ovoid, enlarged, comparatively thin-rimmed.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 3.76-3.84/ 3.69; head width across eyes 0.76-0.78/ 0.70; vertex width 0.22-0.24/ 0.32; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.34, 1.26-1.30, 0.66, 0.30/ 0.28, 1.06, 0.62, 0.32; total length of labium 1.42-1.46/ 1.36; mesal pronotal length 0.56/0.56; basal pronotal width 1.18-1.22/ 1.20; width across hemelytra 1.46-1.52/ 1.58; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.44-1.48, 2.22-2.28, 0.46-0.48/ 1.42, 2.02, 0.46.

[FIGURE 14 OMITTED]

ETYMOLOGY: Named after Castanopsis, an Asian oak genus and one of the assumed host plants of this new species; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Lalitpur: Godawari, 5 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, Castanopsis indica (Fagaceae), 1[male] (00378996) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Dadhikot, 27.382185[degrees]N 85.235940[degrees]E, 1,408 m, 8 May 2006, R.K. Duwal, 1[female] (00383795) (SNU). Suryabinayak, 27.392232[degrees]N 85.252031[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 3 Mar 2006, R.K. Duwal, Schima wallichii (Theaceae), 1[male] (00384068), 2[female] (00384067) (NMTU); 30 Mar 2006, R.K, Duwal, Schima wallichii (Theaceae), 1[male] (00383792) (SNU); 24 Apr 2006, R. K. Duwal, l[male] (00379000) (TYCN); 26 Apr 2006, R. K. Duwal, Sehima wallichii (Theaceae), 1[male] (00384069) (NMTU); 39 (00383793, 00383794) (SNU). Kathmandu: Mt. Nagarjun, 1,800 m, 17 May 2005, Quercus sp. (Fagaceae), T. Yasunaga, 2[male] (00378997) (TYCN). Lalitpur: Godawari, Botanical Garden, 27.353502[degrees]N 85.232688[degrees]E, 1,310 m, 10 May 2007, R. K. Duwal, 19 (00383796) (SNU). Godawari, Taukhel-Kodetar 27.360388[degrees]N 85.210956[degrees]E, 1,418 m, 5 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[female] (00384066) (NMTU); 5 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, Castanopsis (Fagaceae), 1[male]1[female] (00378998, 00378999) (TYCN).

[FIGURE 15 OMITTED]

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (Kathmandu Valley).

DISCUSSION: This new species is readily distinguished from its congeners by the small size, basically brown and partly mottled or speckled coloration, dense vestiture on the dorsum, and distinct dark spots on the femora.

Psallomorpha castanopsis was collected from oaks, Quercus sp., and Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (Fagaceae) in temperate Kathmandu Valley. A univoltine life cycle is assumed for this phyline. Newly emerged adults appear in late March.

Psallomorpha kathmandu, new species

Figures 15A; 19

DIAGNOSIS: Readily recognized by the small size, whitish brown, somewhat flattened body that is partly tinged with orange, small and sparse spots on the dorsum, and pale antenna darkened only at extreme base of segment II.

DESCRIPTION: Female: Body generally whitish brown, elongate oval; dorsal surface somewhat shining, with sparsely distributed, wooly, semierect setae. Head pale brown, with small, sanguineous markings on vertex and frons. Antenna almost wholly pale brown; segment I with brown and reddish spots; extreme base of segment II with a fuscous ring. Labium pale brown, reaching apex of metacoxa; segment IV brown. Pronotum, scutellum and thoracic pleurites uniformly pale. Hemelytron with sparsely distributed, small, dark brown spots; membrane pale yellowish brown, with some pale spots and apically white veins. Metafemur spotted on distal 2/3; spots on pro- and mesofemora weak; tibiae with reddish brown spots at bases of dark spines. Female genitalia (Fig. 19): Sclerotized ring rather large, sub-triangular. Male: Unknown.

DIMENSIONS ([female]): Body length 3.36-3.41; head width across eyes 0.58-0.60; vertex width 0.27-0.30; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.22-0.24, 0.94-0.96, 0.560.59, 0.31-0.33; total length of labium 1.15-1.20; mesal pronotal length 0.44-0.47; basal pronotal width 0.96-0.98; width across hemelytra 1.26-1.30; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.10-1.13, 1.76-1.80, 0.43-0.50.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the type locality, Kathmandu Valley; a noun in apposition.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Kathmandu: Mt. Nagarjun 1,600-1,800 m, 16 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, Quercus sp. (Fagaceae), 1[female] (00379001) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Suryabinayak, 27.392232[degrees]N 85.252031[degrees]E, 30 Mar 2006, R. K. Duwal, Schima wallichii (Theaceae), 39 (00379002, 00379003) (TYCN). Kathmandu: Dachinkali [=Daksinkali], 2 Apr 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[female] (00379004) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (Kathmandu Valley).

DISCUSSION: This new species is currently known from five female individuals collected in the Kathmandu Valley. Based on the external appearance and female genitalic structure, this species is placed in Psallomorpha.

Psallomorpha kathmandu is at first sight similar to P. alba, from which it is easily distinguished by the smaller, somewhat flattened body, sparser and smaller spots on the dorsum that is partly tinged with orange, and pale antennal segment I.

Psallomorpha quercicola, new species

Figures 12E-G; 13G-H; 14C; 17K; 19

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the principally reddish brown body, variable coloration of the dorsum with numerous fuscous spots sometimes forming wide dark regions, and the elongate vesica with the secondary gonopore situated at apical 1/4.

DESCRIPTION: Body basically reddish brown; dorsum moderately shining, provided with numerous black spots (Figs. 12E-F) sometimes fused together and forming wide fuscous areas (Fig. 12G). Antenna dark brown except segment I with a narrow, pale ring basally and segment II pale brown except for dark apex and extreme base. Apex of scutellum black. Hemelytron sometimes broadly infuscate (Fig. 12G); membrane smoky brown, with pale red veins. Legs pale reddish brown; metafemur with distinct black spots that are sometimes enlarged and fused together; tibiae with fuscous spots at bases of spines. Male genitalia (Figs. 13G H, 14C): Vesica long, comparatively slender, with apical part weakly curved; secondary gonopore situated at apical 1/4 (Fig. 14C). Female genitalia (Fig. 19): Sclerotized rings small, sub-triangular.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 4.17-4.44/ 3.75-3.93; head width across eyes 0.72-0.78/ 0.73-0.77; vertex width 0.24-0.25/ 0.33-0.35; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.28-0.36, 1.43-1.64, 0.75-0.82, 0.35-0.40/ 0.31-0.33, 1.12-1.27, 0.70-0.75, 0.37-0.40; total length of labium 1.42-1.54/ 1.37-1.43; mesal pronotal length 0.52-0.60/ 0.53-0.57; basal pronotal width 1.21-1.36/ 1.25-1.28; width across hemelytra 1.61-1.74/ 1.61-1.62; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.47-1.66, 2.37-2.58, 0.56-0.66/ 1.38-1.40, 2.15 2.25, 0.55-0.57.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the genus Quercus, with which this new species is associated; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Langtang Himal National Park: Rimche-Lama Hotel, 1,970-2,440 m, 3 Jun 2006, Quercus sp. (Fagaceae) [possibly Q semecaprifolia], T. Yasunaga, 1(7 (00379005) (NMTU).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Langtang Himal National Park: Rimche-Lama Hotel, 1,970-2,440 m, 3 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, Quercus sp. (Fagaceae), 5[male]2[female] (00379006-00379009) (TYCN); same locality and plant, 8 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00379013) (TYCN), 7[female] (00379030-00379033) (TYCN). Bamboo-Rimche, 1,960-2,440 m, 3 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, Quercus sp. (Fagaceae), 1[female] (00384055) (NMTU); 1[male] (00384056) (SNU); 2[male]1[female] (00379010, 00379011) (TYCN). Ghora Tabela-Gomnachok, 3,000-2,700 m, 7 Jun 2006, T. Yasunaga, Quercus sp. (Fagaceae), 1[male]1[female] (00379012) (TYCN).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (Quercus forests of subboreal zone).

DISCUSSION: This new species is principally recognized by the reddish coloration and moderate size. The distribution and density of the fuscous dorsal spots are very variable.

All the specimens were collected from inflorescences of Quercus spp. (mostly Q. semecarpifolia) that are apparently breeding hosts of the present new species.

Psallomorpha tenella, new species

Figures 13I-L; 14D; 17G-H, M

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the whitish, delicate body, generally long antenna, long antennal segment II much greater in length than basal pronotal width and equal in length to metafemur.

DESCRIPTION: Male: Body generally whitish, elongate, nearly parallel-sided; dorsal surface somewhat shining, slightly tinged with gray, with uniformly distributed, brown spots, each bearing either a dark or brown seta. Antenna pale brown, long; segment II as long as metafemur; segment III greater than head width across eyes. Hemelytron shiny; membrane pale smoky brown, semitransparent. Legs pale brown, long; metafemur with small brown spots apically; apices of metatibia and metatarsus tinged with red. Male genitalia (Figs. 13I-L, 14D): Vesica long and slender, with weakly curved apical part (Fig. 14D). Female: See discussion below.

DIMENSIONS ([male]): Body length 4.80-5.16; head width across eyes 0.74-0.75; vertex width 0.24-0.26; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.31-0.33, 1.65-1.68, 0.90-0.92, 0.51-0.54; total length of labium 1.63-1.67; mesal pronotal length 0.58-0.60; basal pronotal width 1.18-1.20; width across hemelytra 1.50-1.53; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.65-1.68, 2.82-2.85, 0.60-0.69.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, tenellus (=soft, delicate), referring to the whitish, delicate body of this new species; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Jumla Dist.: Jaljale, 3,400 m, 1 Oct 1981, M. Tomokuni, 1[male] (00378950) (NSMT).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Jumla Dist.: Jaljale, 3,400 m, 1 Oct 1981, M. Tomokuni, 4[male] (00378951-00378954) (NSMT).

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: NEPAL: Jumla Dist.: Jaljale, 3,400 m, 1 Oct 1981, M. Tomokuni, 69, without USI labels (NSMT).

DISTRIBUTION: W. Nepal (Jumla Dist.).

DISCUSSION: This new species is similar to P. alba, from which it is easily distinguished by the delicate, larger body, longer antenna, pale antennal segment I, and different shape of the vesica.

Six female specimens bearing the same label data as in males are present in the collection of NSMT. These females (Figs. 17H, M) are reddish and rather similar to P. quercicola or P. tomokunii but differ from the latter species in having paler general coloration and wholly pale antennal segment I. We cannot confirm that the female specimens are conspecific with the male holotype, based only on same collection data.

Psallomorpha tomokunii, new species

Figures 13M-O; 14E; 17I-J, L; 19

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the reddish brown body, dark antennal segment I, generally short antenna, densely distributed, dark spots on the metafemur, and shape of the vesica.

DESCRIPTION: Body reddish brown; dorsal surface weakly shining, with uniformly distributed, brown spots. Vertex darkened by fusion of spots along inner margin of eye. Antenna dark brown, generally short; segment II pale brown with darkened apical 1/4-1/3 and extreme base. Pleura chocolate brown, with paler scent efferent system. Membrane pale smoky brown, speckled with semitransparent spots, with reddish veins. Coxae and femora pale brown; base of each coxa darkened; ventral surface of metafemur with densely distributed, dark spots. Male genitalia (Figs. 13M-O, 14E): Vesica broad, with hooked apical part (Fig. 14E). Female genitalia (Fig. 19): Similar in overall shape to P. quercicola; sclerotized rings larger and more oval.

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 5.04/ 4.10-4.20; head width across eyes 0.73/ 0.70-0.72; vertex width 0.29/ 0.33-0.35; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.3, 1.35, 0.53, 0.45/ 0.28-0.30, 1.21-1.25, 0.57-0.68, 0.31-0.35; total length of labium 1.50/ 1.48-1.50; mesal pronotal length 0.60/ 0.60-0.63; basal pronotal width 1.25/ 1.29-1.31; width across hemelytra 1.73/ 1.68-1.95; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.58, 2.37, 0.59/ 1.57-1.65, 2.31-2.36, 0.55-0.60.

ETYMOLOGY: Named in honor of Dr. M. Tomokuni who collected all type material; a noun in genitive case.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Sindhu [=Sindhupalchok] Dist.: Drumthali [village], 2,420 m, 13 Nov 1979, M. Tomokuni, light trap, 1[male] (00378944) (NSMT).

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Sindhu [=Sindhupalchok] Dist.: Drumthali [village], 2,420 m, 13 Nov 1979, M. Tomokuni, light trap, 5[female] (00378945-00378949) (NSMT).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (Sindhupalchok Dist.).

DISCUSSION: This new species is very similar in general appearance to P. quercicola, from which it can be distinguished by the shorter antennal segment III that is less than the head width across eyes, denser dark spots on the metafemur that are not distributed only at the base of the metafemur, and different form of the vesica.

Since P. tomokunii is currently only represented by the type series collected by light trap, no information is available on its biology.

RUBROCUNEOCORIS SCHUH

Rubrocuneocoris Schuh 1984: 11 (key), 424 (n. gen.), 1995: 427 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 420 (cat.); Yasunaga, 2001a: 117 (n. sp., diag., fig.), 2001b: 179 (diag., figs.).

[FIGURE 16 OMITTED]

TYPE SPECIES: R. acuminatus Schuh, 1984, original designation,

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the small size, simple vestiture on the dorsum, presence of distinct red spots at the apices of the embolium and cuneus, and enlarged metafemur (Figs. 15B-C). Detailed diagnosis and description were provided by Schuh (1984).

DISCUSSION: Up to now this compact genus has been known from two Eastern Palearctic and three Pacific members, and is easily recognized by the characters diagnosed above. The present discovery of an undescribed species from Nepal represents the first record from the Oriental Region.

Rubrocuneocoris nigriceps, new species

Figures 15B-C; 16A-C; 19; 20

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the black head, pronotum, posterior part of the corium and metafemur, and red apices of the embolium and cuneus.

DESCRIPTION: Body small, elongate oval; dorsum provided with simple dark setae and sericeous pubescence. Head, pronotum, mesoscutum, scutellum, and posterior part of hemelytron usually broadly black (Figs. 15B-C). Antenna brown; segments III and IV darker. Labium elongate, exceeding apex of the metacoxa. Thoracic pleura black. Apices of embolium and cuneus red; 9 red marks smaller (Fig. 15C). Leg pale brown; pro- and mesofemora pale; metafemur black; tibiae without dark spots at base of spines; basal part of metatibia broadly infuscate. Male genitalia (Figs. 16A-C): Phallotheca sword shaped. Vesica coiled and conspicuously bifurcates, with somewhat complicated apical structures (Fig. 16C). Female genitalia (Fig. 19): Bursa copulatrix with a circular sclerotized rim surrounding membranous vestibulum; dorsal labiate plate spinulate anterior to sclerotized rings; sclerotized rings small, ovoid, separated from each other.

[FIGURE 17 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 18 OMITTED]

DIMENSIONS ([male]/ [female]): Body length 2.88-3.12/ 3.01-3.16; head width across eyes 0.66-0.70/ 0.66-0.68; vertex width 0.28/ 0.32; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.20, 0.70-0.80, 0.40-0.42, 0.40/ 0.20, 0.72-0.74, 0.40, 0.40-0.42; total length of labium 1.42-1.46/ 1.42-1.48; mesal pronotal length 0.46/ 0.46-0.48; basal pronotal width 1.04-1.08/ 1.04-1.10; width across hemelytra 1.26-1.28/ 1.30-1.38; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.02-1.04, 1.46-1.50, 0.42-0.44/ 1.04, 1.46-1.52, 0.42.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, niger (=black, fuscous) combined with ceps (=head), referring to the blackish head of this new species; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kaski Dist.: Pokhara, Begnas Tal [=Lake], 17 Oct 2005, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 1[male] (00379014) (NMTU).

[FIGURE 19 OMITTED]

PARATYPES: NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Lalitpur: Godawari, Garden, 27.353503[degrees]N 85.231947[degrees]E, 1,593 m, 15 Oct 2006, R. K. Duwal, Castanopsis sp. (Fagaceae), 19 (00384128) (NMTU); 18 Oct 2006, R. K. Duwal, Castanopsis sp. (Fagaceae), 1[female] (00383813) (SNU). Kaski Dist.: Pokhara, Begnas Tal [=Lake], 17 Oct 2005, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 39 (00379015-00379016) (TYCN); 6 Nov 2005, T. Yasunaga et al., 1[male] (00379018) (TYCN). Phewa Lakeside South, N. Slope of Peace Pagoda (Temple), 15 Oct 2005, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 1[female] (00379017) (TYCN). Phewa Lakeside North, 22 Aug 2006-23 Aug 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, light trap, 1[male] (00379019) (TYCN).

[FIGURE 20 OMITTED]

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (warm temperate to temperate zones).

DISCUSSION: Judging from the strongly bifurcate vesica, this new species appears to be most closely related to a Pacific species, Rubrocuneocoris bifidus Schuh, from which it is easily distinguished by the darkened head, pronotum, corium, and metafemur. However, the color pattern of R. nigriceps also resembles another Pacific member, R. acuminatus Schuh, but the genitalic structures are completely different from each other.

The female genitalic structure of R. nigriceps is conspicuous; the circular sclerotized rim on the bursa copulatrix is not found in any other

phylines examined in this study. Because we have not examined other congeners, this structure currently cannot be confirmed as an autapomorphy for Rubrocuneocoris.

The present new species is frequently collected from the flowers of Castanopsis indica (Roxb.)

Miq. (Fagaceae) which appears to be the breeding host.

Zanchiophylus, new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Zanchiophylus hyaloviridis, new species.

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the parallel-sided body, flabellate pulvillus along the interior margin of the claw, and broad, remarkably coiled vesica, in addition to the conspicuous color pattern as mentioned in diagnosis of the type species.

DESCRIPTION: Body elongate-oval, parallel-sided; basic coloration pale green; dorsal surface with sparsely distributed simple, pale, reclining setae. Head almost vertical. Length antennal segment II greater than the basal width of the pronotum, not much broadened. Legs rather long; pretarsus with a flabellate pulvillus along interior margin of the claws. Male genitalia (Figs. 16D-F): Vesica broad, long, coiled at middle, tapered and re-curved apically (Fig. 16F).

ETYMOLOGY: From the orthotyline generic name Zanchius Distant combined with a phyline generic name Phylus Hahn, referring to the overall similarity to Zanchius; gender masculine.

DISCUSSION: The present new genus is distinguished by the conspicuous general coloration and the structure of the male genitalia. The relationships of this new genus to other phylini are yet to be determined. Based on the similarity of external appearance, Zanchiophylus may be related to Tuponia Reuter, 1875 (Wagner, 1975; Zheng and Li, 1992), but that genus lacks the flabellate pulvillus and broadened, strongly wound vesica.

Zanchiophylus hyaloviridis, new species Figures 15D; 16D-F

DIAGNOSIS: Readily recognized by the pale green body with the conspicuous creamy spots on the head, pronotum, mesoscutum and scutellum, and many small dark spots on the hemelytron (Fig. 15D).

DESCRIPTION: Male: Body pale green; dorsal surface with seven creamy spots (one on vertex, two on pronotum, two on mesoscutum and two on scutellum) and many small dark spots on hemelytron. Head tinged with yellow. Antenna yellowish brown; segments III and IV filiform. Pronotum about three times as long as basal width; mesoscutum large; mesoscutum and scutellum tinged with yellow. Hemelytron pale green, subhyaline; cuneus whitish, with several dark spots along inner margin; membrane pale grayish brown, semitransparent. Legs pale brown; metafemur with three dark, small spots apically. Male genitalia as mentioned in generic description.

Female: Unknown.

DIMENSIONS ([male]): Body length 2.75; head width across eyes 0.64; vertex width 0.26; lengths of antennal segments I-IV: 0.34, 1.41, 0.63, 0.61; total length of labium 0.76; mesal pronotal length 0.33; basal pronotal width 0.91; width across hemelytra 1.00; and lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus: 1.00, 1.50, 0.35.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, hyalo (=transparent) combined with viridis (=green), referring to the dorsal coloration of this new species; an adjective.

HOLOTYPE: NEPAL: Kaski Dist.: Pokhara, Phewa Lakeside North, 14 Sep 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, light trap, 1[male]" (00378705) (NMTU).

DISTRIBUTION: Nepal (Kaski Dist., warm temperate zone).

DISCUSSION: Because only one male individual captured by light trap is currently available, the biology of this species remains unknown.

ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DISCUSSION

Fig. 21; Table 1

Nepal is situated between the Palearctic and the Oriental regions, on the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Various climate zones, such as boreal, temperate, warm temperate, tropical and subtropical result in rich flora and faunae. Because of the world's greatest altitudinal range, Nepal harbors various kinds of vegetation: (1) tropical and subtropical forests in the southern region (Terai); (2) temperate and warm temperate forests with both evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved trees, mixed with some tropical flora and conifers (Pinus) in the mid-hill region; and (3) sub-boreal and alpine vegetation predominantly with deciduous forest and/or conifer/deciduous mixed forests in the northern region.

The distribution patterns of Nepalese phyline genera are summarized in Fig. 21 and Table 1. Most phyline bugs appear to be adapted to a particular region. Species of Alnopsallus, Aplagiognathus, Europiella, Leucophylus, and Psallomorpha were found to occur only in the northern temperate and subboreal zones. Most of these species are considered to be related to the Palearctic fauna. For example, most members of Europiella are restricted to the temperate, cold temperate and subboreal zones of the Holarctic Region. Therefore, it is not surprising that the two Nepalese Europiella species are also considered to be restricted to temperate and subboreal zones.

[FIGURE 21 OMITTED]

Atractotomoidea orientalis, Badezorus signaticornis, Campylomma chitwanense, Moissonia terai and Zanchiophylus hyaloviridis have been found only from the warm temperate, tropical, or subtropical zones. These species seem to be adapted to the warmer climate zones and are assumed not to survive in the colder regions.

Campylomma lividicorne, C. lividum, Moissonia punctata and Opuna annulata are widespread over most of the climate zones, except for the subboreal. Judging from the generic distribution pattern, they are assumed to have originated from the Old World tropics or subtropics.

Atractotomoidea and Europiella are for the first time recorded from the Oriental Region, albeit at higher altitudes.

In Japan, more than 100 species of the Phylini were reported (Yasunaga, 2001b). Compared to the Japanese fauna, a larger number of species should occur in Nepal. Further efforts are required to clarify the actual diversity of the Nepalese Phylini fauna.

PLANT ASSOCIATION

Confirmed host plant association indicated in boldface.

Alnus nepalensis D. Don (Betulaceae)--Alnopsallus godawari.

Artemisia spp. (Asteraceae)--Aplagiognathus albopilosus, C. lividicorne, Campylomma lividum, Europiella langtangensis, E. puspae, Leucophylus variegatus.

Bidens spp. (Asteraceae)--Moissonia punctata.

Boehmeria sp. (Urticaceae)--Aplagiognathus albopilosus.

Buddleja asiatica Lour. (Loganiaceae)--Campylomma buddlejae.

Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae)--Campylomma lividicorne, C. lividum.

Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. (Fagaceae)--Atractotomoidea godawari, Decomia near okutoshii.

Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (Fagaceae)--Atractotomoidea monticola, A. orientalis, Psallomorpha castanopsis?, Rubrocuneocoris nigriceps.

Chrysanthemum sp. (Asteraceae)--Campylomma lividicorne, C. lividum.

Cotoneaster affinis Lindley (Rosaceae)--Psallomorpha alba.

Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae)--Campylomma buddlejae, C. lividicorne, C. lividum, C. marjorae, Moissonia schuhi.

Ligustrum indicum (Lour.) Merr. (Oleaceae)--Campylomma lividicorne, C. lividum, C. marjorae, Decomia bhaktapurana, D. chiangdaoensis.

Maesa near chisia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (Myrninaceae)--Decomia bhaktapurana, Moissonia terai.

Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae)--Atractotomoidea orientalis, Campylomma chitwanense, C. lividicorne, C. lividum, Moissonia terai.

Quercus spp. (Fagaceae)--Atractotomoidea monticola, Campylomma taro, Psallomorpha castanopsis, P. kathmandu, P. quercicola.

Sambucus adnata Wallich ex. DC. (Sambucaceae)--Campylomma lividicorne, C. lividum, C. marjorae.

Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth (Theaceae)--Atractotomoidea monticola, Campylomma marjorae, Decomia bhaktapurana, Moissonia schuhi, Psallomorpha castanopsis, P. kathmandu.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Special thanks are due to the following individuals and institutions for generous support of this research and field investigations, and/or hearty encouragements: Dr. S. Miyamoto (Fukuoka, Japan); Drs. R. T. Schuh and M. D. Schwartz (AMNH); the late Dr. I. M. Kerzhner (Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg); Dr. E. Heiss (Innsbruek, Austria); Dr. K. Shrestha, Assoc. Prof. P. K. Shrestha and Dr. M. Siwakoti (NHMTU); Mr. M. Takai (Kochi, Japan); Mr. B. Shishido (Hyogo, Japan); Mr. T. Hirai (Shizuoka, Japan); Ms. K. Kotani, Ms. M. Iwakiri, Ms. K. Orikasa, Ms. M. Nakayama and Ms. K. Mimura (Japan Overseas Cooperative Volunteers, JOCV); Mr. A. Pokheral (Kathmandu); Ms. S. Shrestha (Bhaktapur); JICA Nepal Office, Kathmandu; Department of National Park and Wild Life Conservation Nepal, Kathmandu; Horticulture Center, Kirtipur, Kathmandu. We are also much indebted to Dr. M. Tomokuni (NSMT) and Dr. T. Ishikawa (Tokyo University of Agriculture) for their kind permission and arrangement to examine the additional specimens in NSMT. RD is thankful to Dr. V. K. Thapa, Dr. T. K. Shrestha and Dr. A. S. Tamrakar (Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University) for their kind guidance. Thanks are extended to Drs. C. Johnson and R. T. Schuh (AMNH) for generous advices and encouragements to complete the final version of manuscript.

This study was partly supported by a cooperative program between NMTU and JICA Senior Volunteer (TY), and by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Planetary Biodiversity Inventories award (DEB-0316495) to Randall T. Schuh and Gerasimos Cassis for the study of the Miridae subfamilies Orthotylinae and Phylinae.

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RAM KESHARI DUWAL (1), TOMOHIDE YASUNAGA (2,3) AND SEUNGHWAN LEE (1)

(1) School of Agriculture Biotechnology, Department of Entomology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Silim9-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea

(2) Research Associate, Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York 10024, USA

(3) E-mail address for correspondence: tyasunaga@ amnh.org
Table 1. Distribution pattern of Phylinae of Nepal.

                    Species found in respective climate
                               zones of Nepal

                            Subtropics           Warm
Genera found        No      to tropics         temperate
in Nepal            spp      (<400 m)        (600-1,000 m)

Alnopsalls(1)        2
                     1

Aplagiognathus(1)    2     orientalis(1)     orientalis(1)
Atractotomoidea      1                       signaticornis
Bazedorus            5    chitowanense(1)     lividicorne
Campylomma                  lividicorne         livitum
                              lividum           rato(1)

Decomia              3                      bhaktapurana(1)

Europiella           2

Leucophylus(1)       1
Moissonia            4       punctata          punctata
                             terai(1)          terai(1)

Opuna                1       annulata          annulata
Psallomorpha(1)      6

Rubrocuneocoris      1                       nigriceps(1)
Zanchiophylus(1)     1                      hyaloviridis(1)

                    Species found in respective climate
                               zones of Nepal

                             Temperate         Subboreal
Genera found            (1,300-           (2,000-
in Nepal                2000 m)          3,500 m)

Alnopsalls(1)         godawari(1)
                     jiriensis(1)
                    albopilosus(1)    albopilosus(1)
Aplagiognathus(1)    monticola(1)
Atractotomoidea
Bazedorus            buddlejae(1)
Campylomma            lividicorne
                        lividum
                        rato(1)
Decomia             bhaktapurana(1)
                    chiangdaoensis
                       okutoshii
Europiella          langtangenis(1)   langtangenis(1)
                       puspae(1)         puspae(1)
Leucophylus(1)       variegatus(1)     variegatus(1)
Moissonia            importunitas
                       punctata
                       schuhi(1)
Opuna                  annulata
Psallomorpha(1)     castanopsis(1)        alba(1)
                     kathmandu(1)       tenella(1)
                                       quercicola(1)
                                       tomokunii(1)
Rubrocuneocoris      nigriceps(1)
Zanchiophylus(1)

                    Generic level distribution in other regions
                                  of the world

                                                      S
Genera found        Pale-    NE               Afrotro-   Pacific
in Nepal            artic   Asia   Oriental    pical      Isls

Alnopsalls(1)                       * (2)

                                      *
Aplagiognathus(1)            x        *
Atractotomoidea       x               x          x
Bazedorus             x      x        x          x          x
Campylomma

Decomia                               x          x          x

Europiella            x      x        *

Leucophylus(1)                        *
Moissonia             x      x        x          x          x

Opuna                        x        *          x          x
Psallomorpha(1)                       *

Rubrocuneocoris              x        *                     x
Zanchiophylus(1)

                    Generic level distribution in other
                            regions of the world

Genera found        Austra-               Neotro-
in Nepal              lian     Nearctic    pical

Alnopsalls(1)

Aplagiognathus(1)
Atractotomoidea
Bazedorus              x          x          x
Campylomma

Decomia

Europiella                        x

Leucophylus(1)
Moissonia              x

Opuna
Psallomorpha(1)

Rubrocuneocoris        x
Zanchiophylus(1)

(1) Scientific names in bold indicate new taxa

(2) * Found only from Nepal in the Oriental Region
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Author:Duwal, Ram Keshari; Yasunaga, Tomohide; Lee, Seunghwan
Publication:Entomologica Americana
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9NEPA
Date:Jan 1, 2010
Words:21942
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