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Revision of the Neotropical huntsman spider genus Vindullus Simon (Araneae, Sparassidae).

As is the case with several genera of the spider family Sparassidae, proposed by Simon between 1880 and 1897, the taxonomic history of the genus Vindullus Simon 1880 is quite confusing, even more than that of the recently revised Macrinus Simon 1887 (Rheims 2007). Vindullus was originally proposed by Simon (1880) to include V. viridans Simon, described from Tefe, Amazonas, Brazil. The genus remained monotypic until 1890 when V. similis was described from Guatemala by O. Pickard-Cambridge (1890). In 1897 Simon transferred V. viridans to Sparassus Walckenaer stating that the eye arrangement was not enough to justify the generic status. Nevertheless, he maintained Vindullus as a species group within which he described Sparassus (Vindullus) guttipes Simon from Natal, Oriental Africa. Pocock (1898) followed Simon's grouping and described Sparassus (Vindullus) stictopus from South Africa. Although Simon (1897) transferred the type species V. viridans to Sparassus and thus synonymized both genera there was no formal transfer of the remaining Vindullus species, V. similis, which was transferred to Sparassus by F.O. Pickard-Cambridge (1900).

A few years later Simon (1903) again transferred V. viridans, this time placing it in Olios Walckenaer. Once again, nothing was said about the species placed in the Vindullus group of Sparassus, which were only transferred to Olios in 1911 by Petrunkevitch.

The genus was implicitly revalidated by Caporiacco (1955), who described Vindullus kratochvilli Caporiacco 1955 based on a female from Rancho Grande, Aragua, Venezuela. Once again, nothing was said about either S. similis, S. guttipes, nor S. stictopus, which to date remain in the genus Olios. Although these species are clearly not congeneric with the type species of Olios, O. argelasius (Walckenaer 1805), they cannot, at present, be placed in any other known genus of Sparassidae. None of the three species is congeneric with the type species of Vindullus. Thus, until the present study, the genus Vindullus was composed of only two species, V. viridans and V. kratochvilli (Platnick 2008).

In this study, a revision of the genus Vindullus is presented. The type species, V. viridans, is redescribed and Olios gracilipes Taczanowski 1872 is transferred to the genus. Vindullus kratochvilli Caporiacco 1955 is found not to be congeneric with the type species, V. gracilipes, and, thus, is placed as incertae sedis until further knowledge on the Neotropical Sparassidae fauna is attained.

METHODS

The material examined belongs to the following institutions (Abbreviation and curator in parenthesis): American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH, N.I. Platnick); Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo (IBSP, A.D. Brescovit); Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem (MPEG, A.B. Bonaldo); Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad San Marcos, Lima (MUSM, D. Silva); Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, Paris (NMHN, C. Rollard), Polish Academy of Science, Museum of the Institute of Zoology, Warsaw (MZPW, K.W. Tomaszewska, T. Huflejt); Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (MZSP, R. Pinto da Rocha).

Abbreviations used throughout the text are: ALE = anterior lateral eyes; ALS = anterior lateral spinnerets; AME = anterior median eyes; d = dorsal; p = prolateral; PLE = posterior lateral eyes; PLS = posterior lateral spinnerets; PME = posterior median eyes; PMS = posterior median spinnerets; r = retrolateral; RTA = retrolateral tibial apophysis; v = ventral. Measurements are given in millimeters. The epigynum was dissected and submerged in clove oil to study internal structures. Micrographs were obtained with a JEOL (JSM 840A) scanning electron microscope from the "Laboratorio de Microscopia Eletronica do Departamento de Fisica Geral do Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)." Coloration pattern was described based on preserved material.

TAXONOMY

Family Sparassidae Bertkau 1872

Genus Vindullus Simon 1880

Vindullus Simon 1880:288; Caporiacco 1955:404; Platnick 2008.

Sparassus Walckenaer: Simon 1897:46 (in part).

Olios Walckenaer: Simon 1903:1025; Bonnet 1959:4797.

[FIGURES 1-6 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 7-10 OMITTED]

Type species.--Vindullus gracilipes Tackzanowski 1872.

Relationships.--Evidence for the placement of Vindullus in Sparassinae includes the presence of only two promarginal teeth in the chelicerae, absence of intermarginal denticles, median hook of trilobate membrane as large as or slightly larger than lateral projections and a short-toothed female palpal claw (Jager 1998). Within Sparassinae the genus seems to be closest to Macrinus Simon and Nolavia Kammerer with whom they share the presence of only two pairs of ventral spines on tibiae I-IV, the tegulum slightly spiraled perpendicularly to the main palpal axis, towards the tip of the cymbium (Figs. 16, 19, 22, 25, 31; Rheims 2007:figs. 22, 28, 34) and the female epigynum with simple, rounded lateral lobes partially covering the median septum (Fig. 28; Rheims 2007:figs. 24, 30, 36).

Diagnosis.--Species of the genus Vindullus are distinguished from the remaining Sparassinae genera by the presence of a distal laminar, triangular projection, bent at the tip and bearing a small hyaline protuberance (Figs. 12, 25, 31) and a serrated keel at the base of a filiform embolus, curved prolaterally dorsad, running a semicircle behind tegulum, appearing retrolaterally and pointing ventrad in the male palp (Figs. 16, 19, 22, 25, 31) and by the combination of a strongly sclerotized medium septum with a posterior, blind shaped atrium in the female epigynum (Figs. 27) and a strongly sclerotized duct system in the female vulva (Fig. 28).

Description.--Total length (males and females) 6.0-11.8. Prosoma as long as wide. Cephalic region slightly higher than thoracic region, gradually flattened posteriorly. Fovea conspicuous on posterior third of prosoma. Eyes arranged in two rows, the anterior recurved, AME similarly sized as ALE and farther apart from each other than from ALE. Posterior row straight, PME smaller than PLE and equidistant (Figs. 13, 14). Clypeus low, equal or slightly less than AME diameter. Chelicerae longer than wide with two promarginal teeth, the basal smaller and four or five retromarginal teeth, three subequal and most basal smaller (Fig. 1). Intermarginal denticles absent. Internal keel with 4-5 strong setae arranged in a row (Fig. 2). Labium rebordered, slightly wider than long. Endites longer than wide, slightly convergent, with dense scopulae on internal margin. Serrula with a single row of denticles. Sternum as long as wide, slightly projected between coxae IV. Legs laterigrade (2143). Leg spination in males: femora I-III: p1-1-1; d0-1-1; r1-1-1; femur IV: p1-1-1; d0-1-1; r 0-0-1; tibiae I-IV: p1-0-1; d0-0-1; r1-0-1; v2-2-0; metatarsi I-IV: p1-1-0; r1-1-0; v2-2-0. Leg spination in females as in males except femora II-IV: p0; r0-0-1; tibiae I-IV d0. Metatarsi I-IV with trilobate membrane with median hook slightly more developed than laterals (Fig. 3). Tarsi and distal half of metatarsi scopulate. Tarsal organ capsulate with oval opening, located dorsally at distal end of tarsi (Fig. 5). Trichobothria present on dorsal tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi, arranged in two parallel rows that converge into a single file on proximal half of tarsi and metatarsi. Trichobothrium with dorsal plate with few transverse grooves projected over a smooth basal plate (Fig. 4). Tarsi with pair of pectinate claws with 15 to 20 teeth and claw tufts (Fig. 6). Female pedipalp with single pectinate claw with 7-9 short and slightly curved teeth. Opisthosoma oval, longer than wide. Males with three or more clusters of epiandrous spigots (Fig. 7). Six spinnerets: ALS contiguous, conical and bi-segmented. Basal segment slightly elongate and cylindrical. Distal segment short and truncated with one major ampullate gland spigot, nubbin, tartipore and more than 20 piriform gland spigots (Fig. 8). AMS conical and short with one minor ampullate gland spigot, tartipore and approximately ten aciniform gland spigots (Fig. 9). PLS conical and bi-segmented. Basal segment slightly elongate. Distal segment short and truncated with 15-20 aciniform gland spigots (Fig. 10).

[FIGURES 11-12 OMITTED]

Palp: tibia short, slightly longer than half cymbium length, with one prolateral, one retrolateral and one dorsal strong spine. RTA short, not reaching alveolus, and conical (Figs. 17, 20, 23, 26, 32). Cymbium with strong dorsal scopula and rounded median alveolus. Tegulum slightly spiraled perpendicularly to the main palpal axis, towards the tip of the cymbium, with distal laminar, triangular projection, bent at the tip and bearing a small hyaline protuberance and a serrated keel at the base of a filiform embolus, curved prolaterally dorsad, running a semicircle behind tegulum, appearing retrolaterally and pointing ventrad in the male palp (Figs. 11, 12, 16, 19, 22, 25, 31). Conductor absent.

Epigynum: epigynal field divided into a pair of simple, rounded lateral lobes and a strongly sclerotized, heart-shaped medium septum, with a posterior blind ended atrium and pair of anterior copulatory openings (Fig. 27). Internally with strongly sclerotized duct system. Copulatory duct medially curved, bearing an anterior seminal receptacle. Spermathecae with a small cylindrical head and a larger, rounded base, from which emerges a long, medially twisted fertilization duct pointing laterad (Figs. 28, 29).

Distribution.--Known from northern South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and northern Brazil).

Composition.--Vindullus gracilipes (Taczanowski) new combination, Vindullus undulatus new species, Vindullus gibbosus new species, Vindullus angulatus new species and Vindullus concavus new species.

Incertae sedis.--Vindullus kratochvilli Caporiacco 1955:406, fig. 58 (Male holotype from Rancho Grande, Aragua, Venezuela, deposited in MUCV 844, examined); Platnick 2008.

Vindullus gracilipes (Taczanowski 1872) new combination Figs. 15-17

Olios gracilipes Taczanowski 1872:77 (Two male syntypes from French Guiana, Department de la Guyane, Cayenne [04[degrees]55'60"N; 52[degrees]19'60"W], R. Yelski leg., W.C. Taczanowski det., MZPW, examined). Mello-Leitao 1918:48, fig. 24; Platnick 2008.

[FIGURES 13-14 OMITTED]

Sparassus gracilipes: Keyserling 1880:241, p1.7, fig. 30.

Vindullus viridans Simon 1880:288 (Male, female and juvenile syntypes from Brazil, Amazonas, Tefe [03[degrees]22'S; 64[degrees]42'W], MNHN 1122, examined. Male lectotype herewith designated; female paralectotype does not belong to Vindullus). Caporiacco 1955:406; Platnick 2008. New synonymy.

Sparassus viridans: Simon 1897:36.

Olios viridans: Simon 1897:36. Petrunkevitch 1911:503; Mello-Leitao 1918:43; Bonnet 1958:3182.

Diagnosis.--Males of V. gracilipes Taczanowski 1872 are distinguished from those of the remaining species of the genus by the male palp with small distal area of the tegulum, only half as wide as the median area (Fig. 16), and by the RTA very slender and straight in retrolateral view (Fig. 17).

Description.--Male (MNHN 1122). Coloration: prosoma, chelicerae and legs pale orange; sternum pale yellow with darker margins; labium and endites pale orange, distally yellow; opisthosoma pale yellow. Total length 11.7. Prosoma 4.7 long, 4.2 wide. Opisthosoma 6.4 long, 3.6 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.44, ALE 0.32, PME 0.26, PLE 0.30, AME-AME 0.24, AME-ALE 0.04, PME PME 0.38, PME-PLE 0.34, AME-PME 0.20, ALE-PLE 0.18. Leg measurements: I: absent; II: femur 9.2, patella 2.7, tibia 10.3, metatarsus 10.6, tarsus 2.2, total 35.0; III: 7.3, 2.1, 6.8, 6.8, 1.7, 24.7; IV: 8.3, 2.1, 7.6, 8.6, 1.9, 28.5. Spination follows the generic pattern. Palp: tibia with one prolateral, one retrolateral and one dorsal strong spine. RTA short, conical, slightly curved prolaterally at tip in ventral view and straight in retrolateral view. Subtegulum visible in ventral view (Fig. 16). Tegulum with small distal area. Distal triangular projection medially bent, with tip pointing ventrad in retrolateral view (Fig. 17). Conductor absent.

Female unknown.

Distribution.--French Guiana (Cayenne; type locality), Brazil, (Amazonas: Tefe) (Fig. 33).

Vindullus undulatus new species Figs. 18-20

Type material.--Male holotype from Colombia, Cesar, Valledupar [10[degrees]28'37"N; 73[degrees]15'02"W], 22-24 May 1968, B. Malkin leg., deposited in AMNH. Paratypes: 4 males, 1 juvenile, 15 July 1968, (AMNH); 1 male, 1-3 September 1968 (AMNH); 1 male, 1 juvenile, 4-9 June 1968 (AMNH); 1 male, 15 July 1968 (IBSP 63813); all with the same locality and collector as holotype. 1 male, Venezuela, Bolivar, Puente Cocuizas, 70 km W. Bolivar [03[degrees]07'20"N; 62[degrees]32'59"W], 19 June-3 July 1987, S. & J. Peck leg. (AMNH).

[FIGURES 15-17 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 18-20 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 21-23 OMITTED]

Etymology.--The species name is derived from the Latin noun "unda" meaning "wave," referring to the undulated dorsal margin of the RTA in a retrolateral view; adjective.

Diagnosis.--Males of Vindullus undulatus new species resemble those of Vindullus gibbosus new species by male palp with distal area of the tegulum almost as wide as median area and by RTA with a wide base and narrow tip curved ventrad (Figs. 19, 20, 22, 23). They are distinguished by the RTA abruptly narrowed at tip (Fig. 20) and by the triangular projection very large and wide (Figs. 19, 20).

Description.--Male (AMNH). Coloration: prosoma orange, eye borders black; chelicerae orange, slightly darker than dorsal prosoma; labium brown, distally cream colored; endites cream colored, slightly darker at base; sternum orange with darker margins; legs and pedipalps orange; opisthosoma dorsally cream colored, faintly mottled light brown; spinnerets slightly darker than opisthosoma. Total length 6.5. Prosoma 2.9 long, 2.6 wide. Opisthosoma 3.5 long, 2.1 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.24, ALE 0.20, PME 0.18, PLE 0.20, AME-AME 0.16, AME-ALE 0.04, PME-PME 0.26, PME-PLE 0.22, AME-PME 0.22, ALE-PLE 0.14. Leg measurements: I: femur 3.6, patella 1.5, tibia 3.7, metatarsus 4.0, tarsus 1.1, total 13.9; II: 4.3, 1.7, 4.3, 4.6, 1.2, 16.1; III: 3.2, 1.2, 2.7, 2.8, 1.0, 10.9; IV: 3.7, 1.2, 3.2, 3.7, 1.1, 12.9. Spination follows the generic pattern. Palp: tibia with one prolateral, one retrolateral and one dorsal strong spine. RTA short, conical, wide at base and abruptly pointed at tip. Subtegulum visible in ventral view (Fig. 19). Tegulum with wide distal area. Distal triangular projection medially bent, with tip pointing towards tip of cymbium in retrolateral view (Fig. 20). Conductor absent.

Variation.--Nine males: total length 6.0-7.9; prosoma 2.83.6; femur I 3.6-5.6.

Female unknown.

Distribution.--Northern South America: Colombia and Venezuela (Fig. 33).

Vindullus gibbosus new species Figs. 21-23

Type material.--Holotype male from Peru, San Martin, Ekin, E. Tarapoto [06[degrees]30 05"S; 76[degrees]21 56"W], 9-21 March 1947, F. Woytkowski leg. (AMNH).

Etymology.--The species name is derived from the Latin noun "gibbus" meaning "hump," referring to the hump at the dorsal margin of the RTA in a retrolateral view; adjective.

Diagnosis.--Males of Vindullus gibbosus new species resemble those of Vindullus undulatus new species by the distal area of the tegulum almost as wide as the median area and by RTA with a wide base and narrow tip curved ventrad (Figs. 19, 20, 22, 23). They are distinguished by the RTA gently curved ventrally and gradually pointed (Fig. 22) and the smaller triangular projection with a narrower tip (Figs. 21, 22).

[FIGURES 24-29 OMITTED]

Description.--Male (holotype). Coloration: prosoma orange, slightly darker along fovea and striae; chelicerae orange with faint longitudinal brown stripe; labium dark orange, distally lighter; endites pale orange, distally cream colored; sternum orange with darker margins; legs and pedipalps orange; opisthosoma brownish gray, faintly variegated cream colored. Total length 9.0. Prosoma 4.3 long, 4.3 wide. Opisthosoma 4.7 long, 3.3 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.34, ALE 0.36, PME 0.24, PLE 0.26, AME-AME 0.22, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.38, PME-PLE 0.38, AME-PME 0.28, ALE-PLE 0.20. Leg measurements: I: femur 6.8, patella 2.4, tibia 7.3, metatarsus 7.6, tarsus 2.0, total 26.1; II: 7.6, 2.5, 8.2, 8.5, 2.0, 28.8; III: 5.5, 1.8, 4.9, 5.0, 1.4, 18.6; IV: 6.2, 2.0, 5.6, 6.1, 1.5, 21.4. Spination follows the generic pattern. Palp: tibia with one prolateral, one retrolateral and one dorsal strong spine. RTA short, conical, wide at base and abruptly pointed at tip. Subtegulum visible in ventral view (Fig. 22). Tegulum with wide distal area. Distal triangular projection medially bent, with tip pointing towards tip of cymbium in retrolateral view (Fig. 23). Conductor absent.

Female unknown.

Distribution.--Known only from the type locality (Fig. 33).

Vindullus angulatus new species

Figs. 1-12; 24-29

Type material.--Holotype male from Peru, Loreto, Cocha Shinguito [05[degrees]08'S; 74[degrees]45'W], May-June 1990, T. Erwin & D. Silva leg. (MUSM). Paratypes: 1 male, 1 female, same collection data as holotype (MUSM); 1 male, same collection data as holotype (IBSP 80705).

[FIGURES 30-32 OMITTED]

Etymology.--The species name is derived from the Latin adjective "angulatus, -a, -um," meaning "angled," referring to the almost right-angled indentation at the dorsal margin of the RTA in a retrolateral view (Fig. 29); adjective.

Diagnosis.--The males of Vindullus angulatus new species resemble those of Vindullus concavus new species by the RTA very wide and curved dorsally (Fig. 26, cf. Fig. 32) and by the very long and strong serrated keel at the base of the embolus in the male palp (Fig. 25, cf. Fig. 31). They are distinguished by the RTA abruptly bent dorsally and with a bifid tip (Fig. 26). The females are distinguished by the combination of a strongly sclerotized medium septum with a posterior, blind shaped atrium in the female epigynum (Fig. 27) and a strongly sclerotized internal duct system in the female vulva (Fig. 28).

Description.--Male (holotype). Coloration: dorsal shield of prosoma orange; chelicerae, legs, and pedipalps slightly lighter than dorsal prosoma; labium and endites pale orange, distally cream colored; sternum pale yellow with darker margins; opisthosoma brownish gray. Total length 9.3. Prosoma 3.7 long, 3.4 wide. Opisthosoma: 5.2 long, 2.8 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.30, ALE 0.28, PME 0.22, PLE 0.26, AME-AME 0.20, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.28, PME-PLE 0.26, AME-PME 0.24, ALE-PLE 0.16. Leg measurements: I: femur 6.2, patella 2.0, tibia 6.6, metatarsus 7.2, tarsus 1.7, total 23.7; II: 7.1, 2.0, 7.4, 7.9, 1.7, 26.1; III: 4.9, 1.6, 4.5, 4.5, 1.3, 16.8; IV: 5.6, 1.7, 5.2, 5.7, 1.3, 19.5. Leg spination follows the generic pattern. Palp: tibia with one prolateral, one retrolateral and one dorsal strong spine. RTA short, conical, wide at base, dorsally curved and bifid at tip (Fig. 26). Subtegulum visible in ventral view (Fig. 25). Tegulum with wide distal area and strong serrated projection at embolus base. Distal triangular projection medially bent, with tip pointing towards tip of cymbium in retrolateral view (Fig. 26). Conductor absent.

Female (paratype). Coloration as in male. Total length 11.8. Prosoma 4.3 long, 4.3 wide. Opisthosoma 7.2 long, 5.0 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.34, ALE 0.36, PME 0.24, PLE 0.32, AME-AME 0.30, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.40, PME-PLE 0.44, AME-PME 0.30, ALE-PLE 0.24. Leg measurements: I: femur 5.6, patella 2.2, tibia 5.4, metatarsus 5.7, tarsus 1.5, total 20.4; II: 6.3, 2.4, 6.0, 6.1, 1.5, 22.3; III: 4.5, 1.8, 3.8, 3.7, 1.3, 15.1; IV: 5.1, 1.9, 4.5, 4.6, 1.2, 17.3. Spination follows the generic pattern. Epigynum: epigynal field divided into a pair of simple, rounded lateral borders and a strongly sclerotized, heart-shaped medium septum, with a posterior blind ended atrium and pair of anterior copulatory openings (Fig. 27). Internally with strongly sclerotized duct system. Copulatory duct medially curved, bearing an anterior seminal receptacle. Spermathecae with a small cylindrical head and a larger, rounded base, from which emerges a long, medially twisted fertilization duct pointing laterad (Figs. 28-29).

[FIGURE 33 OMITTED]

Variation.--Three males: total length 8.6-9.3; prosoma 3.54.0; femur I 6.0-6.8.

Distribution.--Known only from the type locality (Fig.33).

Vindullus concavus new species Figs. 30-32

Type material.--Male holotype from Brazil, Para, Rio Tocantins (west bank) Acampamento Barragem, 20 June 1984, H.A. Nteto leg., deposited in MPEG.

Etymology.--The species name is derived from the Latin adjective "concavus, -a, -um" meaning "arched inward," referring to the concave dorsal margin of the RTA in a retrolateral view; adjective.

Diagnosis.--The males of Vindullus concavus new species resemble those of Vindullus angulatus new species by RTA very wide and curved dorsally (Fig. 32, cf. Fig. 26) and by very long and strong serrated keel at the base of the embolus in the male palp (Fig. 31, cf. Fig. 25). They are distinguished by the gently curved RTA with a pointed tip (Fig. 32).

Description.--Male (MPEG). Coloration: prosoma orange, slightly darker at cephalic area and along fovea; chelicerae, legs, and pedipalps orange; sternum pale yellow with slightly darker margins; labium and endites pale yellow; opisthosoma whitish gray with conspicuous, cream colored cardiac impression. Total length 9.2. Prosoma 3.9 long, 3.5 wide. Opisthosoma 5.1 long, 3.1 wide. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.34, ALE 0.28, PME 0.24, PLE 0.28, AME-AME 0.22, AME-ALE 0.02, PME-PME 0.28, PME-PLE 0.26, AME PME 0.30, ALE-PLE 0.18. Leg measurements and interdistances: I: absent; II: femur 8.5, patella 2.5, tibia 8.7, metatarsus 9.7, tarsus 2.0, total 31.4; III: 6.1, 2.0, 5.5, 5.9, 1.5, 21.0; IV: 6.9, 2.0, 6.3, 7.2, 1.6, 24.0. Leg spination follows the generic pattern. Palp: tibia with one prolateral, one retrolateral and one dorsal strong spine. RTA short, conical, wide at base, and dorsally curved (Fig. 31). Subtegulum visible in ventral view (Fig. 31). Tegulum with wide distal area and strong serrated projection at embolus base (Fig. 30). Distal triangular projection medially bent, with tip pointing towards tip of cymbium in retrolateral view (Fig. 32). Conductor absent.

Female unknown.

Distribution.--Only known from the type locality (Fig. 33).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We wish to thank Dr. Pedro Kyohara and Miss Simone Perche Toledo, from the Departamento de Microscopia Eletronica do Instituto de Fisica (LME/USP), for making the scanning electron micrographs. C.A.R. acknowledges financial support from the Ernst Mayr Grant from the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Fund from the American Museum of Natural History (New York) and Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (Fapesp # 06/ 61167-6). P.J. acknowledges hospitality of Christine Rollard (MNHN) and Paul Hillyard (NHM) during his visits in the particular collections and financial support by the European Union (Access to Research Infrastructure Action of the Improving Human Potential Programme: Paris--PARSYST, London--SYS-RESOURCE). Thanks also to Thomasz Huflejt (MZPW) for sending the types of Sparassus gracilipes.

Manuscript received 26 November 2007, revised 31 January 2008.

LITERATURE CITED

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Cristina A. Rheims: Laboratorio de Artropodes, Instituto Butantan, Avenida Vital Brazil, 1500, CEP 05503-900, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. E-mail: cris.rheims@butantan.gov.br

Peter Jager: Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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Author:Rheims, Cristina A.; Jager, Peter
Publication:Journal of Arachnology
Article Type:Report
Date:May 1, 2008
Words:4220
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