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Revision of spider taxa described by Kyukichi Kishida: part 1. Personal history and a list of his works on spiders.

ABSTRACT. The personal history of forgotten Japanese arachnologist, Kyukichi Kishida (1888-1968) is described for the first time based on information collected from the literature and through interviews with the late Prof. Seikichi Kishida (1931-2002), the fourth son of K. Kishida. A complete list of Kishida's works on spiders is provided. Much confusion resulted from the species and higher taxa descriptions or species designations made by Kishida. In many cases he first proposed a new name for an undescribed species found but left its description to his followers. Therefore, some species were really described by another person, while many nomina nuda were produced. A revision of each taxon with systematical and nomenclatural problems will be given in forthcoming parts of this serial (in preparation).

Keywords: Bibliography, arachnology, Kyukichi Kishida, Japan

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Kyukichi Kishida (1888-1968) was a Japanese zoologist who studied morphology and systematics of various groups of animals including spiders, mites, pseudoscorpions and other arachnids, myriapods and insects, as well as sipunculids, birds and mammals. He described from Japan not only small animals such as spiders, mites and beetles, but also some mammals such as a bat, a vole and even a wolf.

He was a pioneer in the history of Japanese arachnology. Because nobody presented lectures on arachnology in Japanese universities at that time, he taught himself with European literature and founded some zoological societies in Japan. His students included: Seiji Yuhara (1906-1929), Toshio Uyemura (1909-1988), Makoto Yoshikura (1911-2003), Koji Nakatsuji (1911-1945), Toshihiro Komatsu (1911-1982), Izumi Kayashima (1911-), Yasunosuke Chikuni (1911-2005), and Takeo Yaginuma (1916-1995). Most present-day Japanese arachnologists including the present author were influenced intellectually by T. Yaginuma who made an effort to popularize arachnology in Japan with his book, 'Spiders of Japan in Colour' (Yaginuma 1960).

In 1929, Kishida established Lanzan-kai, The Society of Arachnology and Zoology, in Tokyo and published the journal, Lansania (Fig. 1). The figure on its cover indicates Lanzan Ono (1729-1810) to whom Kishida paid respect. Lanzan Ono was an active herbalist in the Edo Era (1603-1867), who published a series of books on Japanese flora and fauna. The society of Lanzan-kai was, however, not always successful and became inactive after only a few years. The Arachnological Society of East Asia was established in 1936 under Kishida and took the place of the Lanzan-kai, and the organ Acta Arachnologica has been continuously published for about 70 years.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Despite these accomplishments, Kishida's legacy is poorly known and some of his spider taxonomy has created considerable confusion. For instance, of more than 100 publications by K. Kishida (see the following pages), only four are listed in Roewer (1942), three in Bonnet (1945), 24 in Brignoli (1983), and only a few are included in the newest international database (Platnick 2005). His works were forgotten even by Japanese arachnologists.

Many of the taxa named by Kishida were not always described correctly and the depository of his collection was unknown. Consequently, these were left as nomina nuda. Only a few cases have been solved, for instance, Prodidomus imaidzumii Kishida 1914 was redescribed by Platnick (1976), the salticid Chirothecia insulana Kishida 1914 was revised and transferred to Harmochirus by Logunov et al. (1997), the corinnid genus Utivarachna Kishida 1940 was recognized by Deeleman-Reinhold (2001), and a small theraphosid from Taiwan, Yamia watasei Kishida 1920 was recently redescribed by Haupt & Schmidt (2004).

The purpose of this study is to bring the whole aspect on problematical names of spiders caused by Kishida's treatment to light by providing: 1) his personal history and a character sketch, 2) a list of his publications on spiders, 3) a list of spider taxa named by him, 4) a list of valid names extracted from these, 5) a list of nomina nuda, and 6) information on type specimens. This contribution deals with parts 1 and 2. The remaining sections will be provided in forthcoming publications.

METHODS

Information about Kishida's personal history was acquired through interviews with the late Prof. Seikichi Kishida (1931-2002), the fourth son of Kishida. Publications by Kyukichi Kishida were found by searching the library complexes of universities in Japan, and a complete list of his works was made. The missing depositories of his spider collection were followed up. All the Latin names of spiders made by K. Kishida were listed from his papers as well as those of other Japanese arachnologists and their originality and authorship were determined according to the past and present rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The systematic position of species with valid names was judged based on comparison with specimens in the arachnid collection of the Department of Zoology, National Science Museum in Tokyo. Some new synonymies are determined. Valid names as well as remaining nomina nuda are herein listed.

RESULTS

Brief Personal History of Kyukichi Kishida.--Kyukichi Kishida was born in 1888 at Maizuru in Kyoto Prefecture, in central Japan. He grew up during the middle of the Meiji Era (1868-1912), during which Japan became very quickly westernized. Between 1603 and 1867 (Edo Era) this country was closed and isolated from European sciences. Since Ludwig Koch (1878) first reported on Japanese spiders with Latin names, only European people led this field. Bosenberg & Strand (1906) described about 400 species and recorded almost all the common species in the Japanese spider fauna.

After graduating from the Teachers' College of Kyoto Prefecture in 1908, Kishida began his career as a teacher in a primary school. At the same time he learned zoology from the European literature and published his first report (1907) on a spider. This paper was the first by a Japanese researcher to describe a spider species in Latin. Between 1913 and 1914, he published a monograph of Japanese spiders serially in 12 parts in the Scientific World.

In 1915, he moved to a junior high school in Odate, northern Japan, and gave lectures on biology, geology and even music. However, after three years he resigned and entered the Department of Zoology of Tokyo University to study zoology. In 1921, he was employed at the Ministry of Agriculture as a scientist. Some of his most important papers were written at that time, for instance on Yamia Kishida 1920 (Kishida 1920) and Heptathela Kishida 1923 (Kishida 1923). He always considered it more important to place species in a systematic context within the Araneae rather than to record and describe each species.

In 1940, he was employed at Waseda University as a lecturer but had to be evacuated from Tokyo in 1944 due to the situation created in the city from the events of World War II. He moved to his home in Kyoto to escape the bombings by the American Air Force. After the war he returned to Tokyo in 1948 and was employed at the Forestry Agency. Unfortunately, the great confusion in social conditions that prevailed in Japan for about ten years during and after the war decreased his activities in arachnology and his interest tended mainly toward mammalogy and ornithology during this period.

Late in life in 1961, he received the Doctor of Science degree at Hiroshima University with a study in osteology of the Japanese Serow Capricornulus (an artiodactyle) and in the next year he received the Doctor of Agriculture at Tokyo University of Agriculture with a study of Lagomorpha.

He died at the age of 80 in 1968 from Parkinson's disease. Many unpublished manuscripts found at his home after death suggested that his erudition with extensive knowledge in zoology may not be shown in full. In 1969, the Arachnological Society of East Asia published Nos. 49/50 of Atypus as a memorial issue for K. Kishida. M. Yoshikura, T. Komatsu, I. Kayashima, K. Morikawa, T. Yaginuma and T. Uyemura wrote memoirs of him.

It is both a strong and a weak point of his character that he had such a wide range of knowledge and interests in zoology. At the time, he was the only specialist in Japan who knew the names of spiders. This led him to assign a new name first without providing a formal description, particularly when he obtained undescribed species collected during zoological expeditions and was asked to identify the specimens. The formal descriptions he left to his followers and sometimes he returned the specimens to the collectors. It depended on his followers whether this new species would be really described or only cited with Latin names probably assigned by Kishida. Therefore, many nomina nuda exist, while some were described by other researchers. For example, an araneid, Suzumia orientalis named by Kishida was described three times by Yuhara (1931), Nakatsudi (1943) and Kayashima (1943) from different type localities in Japan and Taiwan. Although the species was regarded as a junior synonym of Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall 1857) sensu lato, the authorship needs to be confirmed for the future phylogenetic analysis on this group (Ono 1994). Explanation of each systematic and nomenclatural problem will be given in the coming parts of this subject (in preparation).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Works on spiders (Araneae) of Kyukichi Kishida.--The titles were translated from original Japanese to English by Ono, excepting those with asterisks which were original; [dagger]: published after death.

Kishida, K. 1907. Notes on the spider's name "Joro-gumo." Hakubutsu-no-tomo (a journal of natural history) 47:358-360.

Kishida, K. 1908a. Real and common Japanese names of Argiope amoena. Hakubutsu-no-tomo 48:27.

Kishida, K. 1908 b. Instructions to publish books on spiders. Hakubutsu-no-tomo 56: 284-286.

Kishida, K. 1908c. Topics on the spiders (part 1). The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo (Hakubutsugaku-zasshi) 8(90):21-28.

Kishida, K. 1909a. Some specimens of spiders. The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo 104:19-22.

Kishida, K. 1909b. Topics on the spiders (part 2). Studies on Japanese names of spiders (continued from volume 8, number 90). The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo 108:7-12.

Kishida, K. 1909c. Topics on the spiders (part 3). Collecting and preservation. The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo 110:10-16.

Kishida, K. 1909d. Topics on the spiders (part 4). Studies on their classification. The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo 111:14-23.

Kishida, K. 1909e. Topics on the spiders (part 5). Methods and discussions. The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo 113:6-11.

Kishida, K. 1909f. Supplementary notes of "topics on the spiders." The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo 114:11-13.

Kishida, K. 1909g. On spiders used for educational material in primary schools. Continued. Kyoto-fu Kyoiku-kai Zasshi (Bulletin of the Educational Association in Kyoto) 208:16-19.

Kishida, K. 1909h. On spiders used for educational material in primary schools. Kyoto-fu Kyoiku-kai Zasshi 206:19-23.

Kishida, K. 1910a. Some specimens of spiders. Second report. The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo 115:13-15.

Kishida, K. 1910b. Some specimens of spiders. Third report. The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo 117:1-9.

Kishida, K. 1910c. Supplementary notes on spiders. The Magazine of Natural History, Tokyo 118:1-9.

Kishida, K. 1910d. Notes on lycosid spiders of Japan, Part 1. Hakubutsu-no-tomo 74: 99-101.

Kishida, K. 1911. Notes on a jumping spider, Icidella interrogations. Hakubutsu-notomo 80:38-40.

Kishida, K. 1912. Examples of mimicry in spiders. The Scientific World (Kagaku- sekai) 5(10):76-78.

Kishida, K. 1913a. Mating of thomisid spiders. Science, Kyoto 3(8):369-374.

Kishida, K. 1913b. Notes on Joro-gumo (Nephila clavata). The Scientific World 7(3): 27-31.

Kishida, K. 1913c. Spiders of Japan, Part 1. The Scientific World 7(4):19-22, 1 pl.

Kishida, K. 1914a. Spiders of Japan, Part 2. The Scientific World 7(5):31-34.

Kishida, K. 1914b. Spiders of Japan, Part 3. The Scientific World 7(6):30-33.

Kishida, K. 1914c. Spiders of Japan, Part 4. The Scientific World 7(7):39-43.

Kishida, K. 1914d. Spiders of Japan, Part 5. The Scientific World 7(9):40-43, 1 pl.

Kishida, K. 1914e. Spiders of Japan, Part 6. The Scientific World 7(11):36-40.

Kishida, K. 1914f. Spiders of Japan, Part 7. The Scientific World 7(12):37-42.

Kishida, K. 1914g. Spiders of Japan, Part 8. The Scientific World 7(13):35-38, 1 pl.

Kishida, K. 1914h. Spiders of Japan, Part 9. The Scientific World 8(1):44-47, 1 pl.

Kishida, K. 1914i. Spiders of Japan, Part 10. The Scientific World 8(2):28-32, 1 pl.

Kishida, K. 1914j. Spiders of Japan, Part 11. The Scientific World 8(3):31-34.

Kishida, K. 1914k. Spiders of Japan, Part 12. The Scientific World 8(4):32-36.

Kishida, K. 1915. Studies on egg sacs of spiders. The Scientific World 9(4):33-35.

Kishida, K. 1920a. Spider fossils from Japan. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 32:261.

Kishida, K. 1920b. Notes on Yamia watasei, a new spider of the family Aviculariidae *. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 32:299-307, pl. 3.

Kishida, K. 1920c. Occurrence of a liphistiid spider in Japan. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 32:360-363.

Kishida, K. 1921a. Retreats of Araneae theraphosae, Part 1. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 33:60-67.

Kishida, K. 1921b. Miscellaneous notes on arachnology, part 1, (1)--(2). The Scientific World 14(7):20-25.

Kishida, K. 1921c. Miscellaneous notes on arachnology, part 1, (3)--(4). The Scientific World 14(8):32-35.

Kishida, K. 1921d. Retreats of Araneae theraphosae, Part 2. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 33:109-118.

Kishida, K. 1921e. Exihibition of a marine spider and Heterothele Kimurai. In the secretary's reports on the regular meeting (26th March) of the Zoological Society of Japan. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 33:135.

Kishida, K. 1921f. Miscellaneous notes on arachnology, part 2, (5)--(9). The Scientific World 15(1):31-35.

Kishida, K. 1921g. Miscellaneous notes on arachnology, part 3, (10)--(14). The Scientific World 15(2):32-37.

Kishida, K. 1921h. Miscellaneous notes on arachnology, part 4, (15)--(16). The Scientific World 15(3):28-31.

Kishida, K. 1923a. Liphistiid spiders, as an example of primitive animal. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 35:134-135.

Kishida, K. 1923b. Translation of selected passages from Nils Holmgren, 1920, Zur Ontogenie der Stomodealbrucke bei den Spinnentieren. Ark. f. Zool., Stockholm, Bd. 13, Hafte 1-2, No. 1, p. 1-9. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 35:230-231.

Kishida, K. 1923c. Heptathela, a new genus of liphistiid spiders *. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 10:235-242. (Written in English.)

Kishida, K. 1923d. Translation of selected passages from Nebel Catherine Elizabeth, 1918, The amount of food eaten by the spider, Aranea sericata. Transact. Wisconsin Acad. Sci., Arts & Lett, Vol.19, pt. 1, pp. 524-530, with 4 tables. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 35:505.

Kishida, K. 1924. Spiders from northern Sakhalien, collected by Mr. T. Uchida, Bachelor of Science, with description of a new species of the genus Dolomedes from Okinawa Prefecture. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 36: 510-520.

Kishida, K. 1926. Spiders. Pp.303-343, 1 pl. In A Fundamental Study of Animals as Teaching Materials of the State Textbook of Sciences for the Fourth Year (Okazaki, J. et al.). Bunyo-sha, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1927. Araneae. Pp. 956-970 In Figuraro de Japanaj Bestoj (Uchida, S. et al.). Hokuryukan, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1928a. Notes on the spiders, Part 1. The Monthly Journal of Science, Tokyo (Ri-gakkai) 26(10):28-33.

Kishida, K. 1928b. Notes on the spiders, Part 2. The Monthly Journal of Science, Tokyo 26(11):27-31.

Kishida, K. 1928c. Arachnida. Pp.446-491. In Fuji-no-kenkyu (Studies of Mt. Fuji), Vol. 6, Fuji-no-dobutsu, Fuji-no-shokubutsu (Animals and Plants of Mt. Fuji) (Kishida, K., & Y. Yabe). Kokin-shoin, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1928d. Trapdoor spiders of Japan and their bearing on zoogeography *. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 11:385-387. (Written in English.)

Kishida, K. 1929a. Trap-door spiders of Japan and their bearing on zoo-geography [abstract of an oral presentation]. Pp.1054-1055. In Proceedings of the Third Pan- Pacific Science Congress, Tokyo, October 30th-November 11th, 1926, Vol. 1 (for 1928). The National Research Council of Japan, Tokyo. (Written in English.)

Kishida, K. 1929b. A Japanese translation of "Cocoon-making by the tarantula" written by Baerg, W.J. (1929). Lansania, Tokyo 1(5):65-67.

Kishida, K. 1929c. On the oviposition of a clubionid spider, Chiracanthium rubicundulum. Lansania, Tokyo 1(5):73-74.

Kishida, K. 1929d. Book review: Savory, T.H., 1928, The Biology of Spiders. Lansania, Tokyo 1(7):103.

Kishida, K. 1930a. A new scheme of classification of spider families and genera *. Lansania, Tokyo 2(13):33-43.

Kishida, K. 1930b. Geographical distribution of the spider families *. Lansania, Tokyo 2(15):65-68.

Kishida, K. 1930c. On the systematic position of a Japanese spider, Talanites dorsilineatus Doenitz et Strand, 1906 *. Lansania, Tokyo 2(16):81-87.

Kishida, K. 1930d. A key to the spider families *. Lansania, Tokyo 2(18):115-123.

Kishida, K. 1930e. A new Formosan oxyopid spider, Peucetia formosensis n. sp. * Lansania, Tokyo 2(20):145-150.

Kishida, K. 1931a. Book review: Esaki, T., 1930, Myriapods and Arachnids, Iwanamishoten, Tokyo, 128 pp. Lansania, Tokyo 3(21):4.

Kishida, K. 1931b. A key to the subfamilies, tribes and genera of the oxyopid spiders *. Lansania, Tokyo 3(21):5.

Kishida, K. 1931c. On spiders from the island of Idzu-Ohshima, Tokyo-fu, Japan *. Lansania, Tokyo 3(24):59-61.

Kishida, K. 1931d. Postscript. Pp.1-3. In A Study of Spiders (Yuhara, S.). Sogo-kagaku-shuppan-kyokai, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1931e. Life of the spiders, Part 1. The Monthly Journal of Science, Tokyo 29(9):33-36.

Kishida, K. 1931f. Life of the spiders, Part 2. The Monthly Journal of Science, Tokyo 29(10):33-36, 1 pl.

Kishida, K. 1931g. Life of the spiders, Part 3. The Monthly Journal of Science, Tokyo 29(11):31-34.

Kishida, K. 1931h. Life of the spiders, Part 4. The Monthly Journal of Science, Tokyo 29(12):31-34, 1 pl.

Kishida, K. 1932a. Book review: Savory, T.H., 1926, British Spiders, Their Haunts and Habits, Oxford, 180 pp. Lansania, Tokyo 4(31):2.

Kishida, K. 1932b. Synopsis of the spider family Gnaphosidae *. Lansania, Tokyo 4(31):3-14.

Kishida, K. 1932c. Spiders. Pp. 141-150. In Science Pictorial Series, Vol. 4, Konchu-no-Kyoui (Wonders of Insects) (Nakama, T. ed.). Shinko-sha, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1932d. Spiders. Pp. 220-222. In: Science Pictorial Series, Vol. 5, Kenbikyoka-no Kyoui (Wonders of the Microscopic World) (Nakama, T., ed.). Shinko-sha, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1933a. Ordgarius hobsoni, new to the Japanese fauna. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 45:30.

Kishida, K. 1933b. Idiobiologia Aranearum *. 82 pp. Ars, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1934. Spiders from Xingan-ling. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 46:513.

Kishida, K. 1935. Notes on two species of Japanese zodariid spiders. Journal of Zoology and Botany, Wakayama (Kishu-Doshokubutsu) 2(2):1-5.

Kishida, K. 1936a. Notes on Glenognatha nipponica, a Japanese Tetragnathine spider *. Lansania, Tokyo 8(75):65-67.

Kishida, K. 1936b. Argiope amoena, female and male. Acta Arachnologica 1(1): cover photograph.

Kishida, K. 1936c. A synopsis of the Japanese spiders of the genus Argiope in broad sense *. Acta Arachnologica 1(1):14-27, pl. 3.

Kishida, K. 1936d. Sheet web of Linyphia marginata. Acta Arachnologica 1(2): cover photograph.

Kishida, K. 1936e. Funnel web and egg sack of Agelena limbata. Acta Arachnologica 1(2):pl. 5.

Kishida, K. 1936f. Notes on two spider genera Chiracanthium and Clubiona *. Acta Arachnologica 1(2):34-41.

Kishida, K. 1936g. Heteropoda venatoria, female. Acta Arachnologica 1(3): cover photograph.

Kishida, K. 1936h. A synopsis of the Japanese spiders of the genus Dolomedes *. Acta Arachnologica 1(4):114-127, pl.13.

Kishida, K. 1936i. An arachnologist from Czechoslovakia, Dr. Baum visited Japan with his wife. Acta Arachnologica 1(4): 151-153, pl. 12.

Kishida, K. 1936j. Spiders from Korea. In Uyemura, T., the oral presentation by Mr. Kishida at the First General Meeting of the Arachnological Society of East Asia. Acta Arachnologica 1(4):156.

Kishida, K. 1936k. Spiders and harvestmen of Nikko. Pp.489-494. In Nikko-no Dobutsu to Shokubutsu (Fauna and Flora of Nikko) (Tosho-gu ed.). Yoken-do, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1936l. Preface; notes on the Chinese character (Kanji) of Spider; notes on the Chinese character of trapdoor spider; notes on the Japanese name of Doosia spider; notes on the Japanese name of Argiope amoena; notes on the Japanese name of Araneus ventricosus; notes on the Japanese name of a eresid spider; notes on the Japanese name of Storena hoosi; information of the Arachnological Society of East Asia. Pp. 7, 24, 46, 140, 144, 148, 152, 156, 178. In Iconographia Colorata Vivida Aranearum Japonicarum, Vol. 1 (Komatsu, S.). Ranzan-kai, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1937a. A secret of spiders. Tokyo Asahi-Shinbun Newspaper 18256 (February 8, 1937):4.

Kishida, K. 1937b. Sheet web of Linyphia marginata. Acta Arachnologica 2(1): cover photograph.

Kishida, K. 1937c. Notes on some spider-egg predators of the dipterous family Chloropidae *. Acta Arachnologica 2(3):90-94, pls. 4-5.

Kishida, K. 1937d. A synopsis of the Japanese spinous spiders of the genus Gasteracantha in broad sense *. Acta Arachnologica 2(4): 138-149.

Kishida, K. 1938. Collecting of spiders and the way of making specimens. The Monthly Journal of Science, Tokyo 36(7):36-41, 1 pl.

Kishida, K. 1939a. Diversity of spiders. Shogakusei-no kagaku (a science magazine for school children) 2(6):21(plate).

Kishida, K. 1939b. How to collect and study spiders. Shogakusei-no-kagaku 2(8):1130-1133, 5 figs.

Kishida, K. 1939c. An essay on collecting. Aspirator, mites and others. La Scienca Grafikajo, Science Pictorial 28(7):84-89.

Kishida, K. 1939d. A general view of the fauna of northern China. Kagaku-pen (a science journal) 4(11):60-75.

Kishida, K. 1939e. Widow spiders. Tokyo Asahi-Shinbun Newspaper 19291 (December 17, 1939):7.

Kishida, K. 1940a. A biography of Haruo Fukasawa. Acta Arachnologica 5(2):46-58.

Kishida, K. 1940b. Notes on two species of spiders, Doosia japonica and Utivarachna fukasawana. Acta Arachnologica 5(2):138-145.

Kishida, K. 1943. Preface. Pp.i-iii. In Spiders of Taiwan (I. Kayashima). Toto-shoseki, Tokyo.

Kishida, K. 1954. New records of trapdoor spiders. Atypus, Osaka 7:28.

Kishida, K. 1955. A synopsis of spider family Agelenidae *. Acta Arachnologica 14(1):1-13.

Kishida, K. 1956. Occurrence of Heptathela kimurai on Amami-oshima Island. Atypus, Osaka 10:33.

Kishida, K. 1959. Araneae. Pp. 367-375. In An Annoted List of Animals of Okinawa Island (Okada, Y. ed.). The Society for Biological Education in Okinawa, Naha.

Kishida, K. 1962. To the memory of Mr. Haruo Takashima. Atypus 26/27:6.

Kishida, K. 1966. Personal record of Mr. Koji Kaneko. Acta Arachnologica 20(1):8.

Kishida, K. 1966a. On 15 orders of the class Arachnida; a key to the 15 orders of the class Arachnida *. 6 pp. (Based on the unpublished material made by the author in 1915.)

Kishida, K. 1966b. On 68 families of the order Araneida; a key to the spider families *. 23 pp. (Based on an unpublished material made by the author in 1938.)

Kishida, K. [dagger] 1969a. Common names of spiders. Kishidaia, Tokyo 1:1-2.

Kishida, K. [dagger] 1969b. Common names of spiders, 2. Kishidaia, Tokyo 2:1-2.

Kishida, K. [dagger] 1969c. Common names of spiders, 3. Kishidaia, Tokyo 4:1-4.

Kishida, K. [dagger] 1969d. Notes on Cibunea frontalis. Kishidaia, Tokyo 8:1-5.

Kishida, K. [dagger] 1969e. Notes on a trapdoor spider "Shinano-totategumo." Kishidaia, Tokyo 10:1-3.

Kishida, K. [dagger] 1969f. Notes on primitive spiders of the Japanese Empire. Kishidaia, Tokyo 10:3-6.

Kishida, K. [dagger] 1971. On the occurrence of eresid spiders in the eastern Asia. Atypus, Osaka 57:1-3.

Kishida, K. [dagger] 1989. Common names of spiders; common names of spiders, 2; common names of spiders, 3; notes on Cibunea frontalis; notes on a trapdoor spider "Shinanototategumo;" notes on primitive spiders of the Japanese Empire. Pp.1-3, 9-10, 23-27, 47-51, 61-63, 63-64. In Reprint of Kishidaia Nos. 1-10 (Kumada, K. ed.). Tokyo Spider Study Group, Tokyo.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author would like to express his cordial thanks to the late Professor Seikichi Kishida and his family for offering valuable information and materials concerning Kyukichi Kishida, and to Dr. Paula Cushing for critically reading the manuscript of this paper, to Ms. Yoshie Yamazaki for searching old literature, and to Dr Mark Harvey, Dr Norman I. Platnick, Dr. Shojiro Asahina, Prof. Iwao Obara, Mr. Eiichi Shinkai and late Mr. Noboru Takahashi for kind advice. This study is partly supported by the Grant-in-aid No. 16540431 for Scientific Research by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan.

Manuscript received 25 January 2005, revised 12 July 2005.

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Kishida, K. 1920. Notes on Yamia watasei, a new spider of the family Aviculariidae. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo 32:299-307.

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Hirotsugu Ono: Department of Zoology, National Science Museum, Tokyo, 3-23-1 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-0073 Japan. E-mail: ono@kahaku.go.jp
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Author:Ono, Hirotsugu
Publication:The Journal of Arachnology
Geographic Code:9JAPA
Date:May 1, 2005
Words:4285
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