Reviewing the rarities and prophetic prayers in the rarities pieces (bounasiri, Safi aldinhelli, aieshebaounieh).
What are obtained from the Opinions of Literary is that the meaning of <<Innovative>> revolves around design and admiration of term and concept. And goodness of speech in term of sound and beauty in telling the meaning also add the sense of beauty in speech.
What is decisive is thatall definition states the unique characteristics of innovative science. A science without speech although it is possible to express it, but it doesn't make special enthusiastic in listener.
Unlike Jahez's opinion who knows the science unique for Arab, This knowledge is current in the literature of other civilizations, no literacy cannot claim who don't need it.
The poetry of this era imitating the course of the past and its Innovation is limited and poetry's Intentions are same the previous: Praise, lyric, mention tragedy and syllable.
Religious poetry has come out from previous style and a new spirit was breathed into it and prophetic prayers were increased and poets praise attributes of the Prophet which was not common prior.
Even some poets compose long odes in praise of the Prophet Called " Innovates" .
What is known is that "IbnMoataz" is the founder of innovative. He is one of the most experienced people in the field of innovative literature who has many books. Although what has stated Ibn Moataz there is found non-innovative in it. But in the meantime Muslim ibn Walid (280) stated some innovative terminology such as pun and agree on two things together.
Exquisites has a long history in Arabic literature. At least in poetry of poets such as "Abu Tammam and Abu naves' we see some kind of innovative advantages.
Egyptian poets use innovative advantages in their poetry. When we examine the fifth century we see Poets such as "Al-Sharif alaghli" which his Poems decorate with pun, Agree on two things togetherand other figures of speech.
In the era of Ayubian, the leader of exquisites was Ghazi al-Fadhil who was the minister of Saladin Ayubi, someone who grew in court of fatemioun in the way of IbnQadous and other poems and scholar offatemi government.
And who later "Ibnhojatehamavi and alsafdi "put him against the poets due to using innovative advantages. Other famous potes as Ibnnabathe (768.h) and Aalqyraty (781.h) ibnmakanes (794.h) in the seventh century became his follower. Even poets such as Ibn al-farez followed innovative advantages (same source, 1991: 184).
In general, at that time Exquisite was a criteria and scale for the innovations of poet, these odes were adorned in praise of the Prophet which known as "The Exquisite of prophetic prayers .(Innovative system in in praise of the patron saint of the best).At the same time, aieshebaounieh (922.h) Composing 130 poems in praise of the Prophet. .
The kind of exquisite ode:
Exquisite ode from the viewpoint of commitment to the Half-truth and the kind of innovative, has two categories: Some are committed and some non-committed. It means in some of them is heard which each poetry has one or more figures of speech.
And after <<informed excellence)) and <<the goal of author in the beginning of a book>> we should regard a constant figure until end of ode, And in some of the poems except this, another advantage added of the ode. .
The first vocalizing rarity:
About the originator of vocalizing rarity, there are many speech in Arabic, "Whether Amin aldinArboli" (670.m) is the originator of this technique or "Safi aldinheli" (752.m).
The owner of "Anwar al-Rabi," and "Alghadir" believe that the principle of this initiative is Amin aldinArboli not Safi aldinheli.Arboli has vocalized odes about 60 years before his Safi aldinheli. But other Vocalizing rarity must be considered pursuant to the man .
Another popular Vocalizing rarity can name the following persons:
1) Sheikh Ezedin Ali ibn Hassan moseli (789) with this rarity:
Ingenuity facilitate tears in science A single flag is appealing
Moselli has described this poem, called depend on rarity to recourse Intercessor. His rarity verses is mentioned in "khazanatolaladab" and "anvaralrabi".
2)--Shahabuddin Ahmed, Ibnatarodmesri Neisser (794 E) the name of his rarity is <<first conquest in Mtarjh ornaments) He is a scholar from Denyser near Mardin. Among his works are <<Happiness in prophetic rarity>> and <<aroused prophetic>>. His autobiography has come in <<Pearls underlying>>, <<happiness title>> and <<revealed suspicions). .
3) SheikhTagialdinabobakrAlihamdi known as ibnhojat (837), has vocalized 141 poem Called "Treasury literature and the four goals" has been published in Egypt.Which is the best commentary After Anwar al-Rabaie.
4) Abdul Rahman Hafiz JalaluddinSuyutimesri (911), who has two rarity which feel obliged to mention the kind of rarities forms, with the informed:
From the Garnet and motioned the peace Ingenuity eye inception in blood
This rarity known as "rarity systems in praise of the best intercessor" That Suyuti wrote its own account.  And had intended to conflict with rarity of Ibnhojat.
And in the second type which has no commitment to mention the rarity.
5) Aieshebaounieh. Aieshebaounieh, benteyusefibn Ahmad ibnnacerdameshgi (922), He also has two rarities: a)Alfathol Mobin fi Madhel Amin"<< outlined conquest in praise Amin>>
About antecedent and announcement and Jeraa of association do not forget an event mentioned and dairy science
B) A kind of innovative where the type of innovative don't mention:
At first by appearance of the beautiful, in the land of zi salaam, as Long Mountain, became apparent among lovers.
Causes and motivations of composing innovative
Undoubtedly, innovative poets try to consider aims which shows several factors affect motivation in creating innovative that in this paper, we will briefly mention some of them:
Willingness to compose rarities:
Safi aldinheli is the first composing rarities, in the introduction of his book, his first aim is develop a book which collect a kind of figures of speech who he has read, Although the immanence of disease deprive the opportunity.
But he collected all the things in the books of the ancients, and also added lyrics were extracted in poemsof ancestors, decided to develop a book include the most important types of rarities. So the speech has a reason that demonstrates the willingness and enthusiasm of Safi aldin in writing the rarities.
Enthusiasm in praise of the Prophet:
Perhaps the main reason for compose the rarities is praising the prophet. As in the introduction of Safi aldin's book (Safi aldin Court) says:
"Since I got the disease and the time was long, I saw Prophet Mohammad during sleep who asked me praise and hoped me to heal through it. And so I gave up to compile book on which types include rarities. Decide to praise the Prophet in terms of rarities, I composed 145 verses in praise of the Prophet and in terms of Byst.
It consider that two factors led that Safi aldin compile his book in the rarity category: The first factor is the desire to develop the kind of rarity that has collected in her mind, and wants convert it to paper.
And second Factor, the propensity to accept the praise of Prophet, Hope to heal and getting rid of illness. Bosiri was infected to this disease before him.
Trying to acquire the reputation
If you see that the poets have gathered around "lamie", "Da'bal", and have challenged with it and they have pursued their way.
When Ezedin Ali ibn Hassan moseli reached the rarity reputation of Safi aldin trying to compose Ode rarity to oppose with him.ShabanAlasary didn't Suffice compose one rarity.
But three ode rarity in 178 poems composed against safialdin.andibnhojathamavi by composing a rarity, challenge against safialdinheli and moseli.
Acceptance community of that day:
In addition to the above factors, the public welcomed to the new technology brought enthusiasm to the poets in writing rarities. However, shortly before this era, other poets paid little attention to it and indirectly contributed to it.
But in this era, many poets have little relation to other non-Arab rulers Instead they were close to the people and this makes the public interest to rarity technic. This is a means that the poets and writers be able to compose rarities and gained more popularity among the people and find a place for his poetry to be flourished.
And because the audiences of this era isn't rulers and elite, but are public people, so the language of poetry at this time easier and close to public language.
The most important rarities composer
--Hajjajibn al-Saadi: That certain verses of his rarity is not available except one which has mentioned in the introduction of his rarity.
--Alasary Shaaban, who has three rarities:
a) A rarity who composed in the following of the rarity of Safialdinheli. With the first sentence:
Avoid the goods from you and steals from the people of the home Vinegar and peaceful Lucille what the generosity
That is "Eye-Badi in praise intercessor" and a hundred ten bits.
Second, based on the previous rarity and with this informed:
If badarafbat comes, and relegate the peace and praise the Ahmad The best of Arabs and Persians
--Thirdrarity: follow the way of Ezedin Ali ibn Hassan muesli.
The benefit of ingenuity is praise the God in speech peace and praise the Ahmad The best of Arabs and Persians
In the beginning, I follow the rule of Arab who has peace ingenuity facilitate the tears and science
--Shahab Aldinkafhami: he didn't Committed itself not to mention the exquisite lines of his poem. And his first sentence of his poem is:
The goods come from the vessel in their tents and if a person house like a generous person, the blood come from his tears
The emergence of praise:
As we know, admiration and praise of others, does not have a specific time and place, but it is in the nature and character of every human being and with his/her creation this technique has been formed. And when the man recognize himself, and understand social differences, facilities and your talents with others, Knowing the custom and manner of period.
He recognized one is rich and needless and the other is poor and downtrodden and try to obtain his satisfaction and pleasure and in this way, took advantage of all the possibilities and Sometimes with language and beautiful speech, sometimes with his behavior, stated his friendship, This behavior is prepared into praise.
Whether it be internal or esoterically, or it be external and orally. As Mustafa al Sadiqalrafei points out this note in his book: "praise is something esoterically and it exists in the human mind and it interpreted a great feel, and is hidden inside the human and the human counts and depends to it. (Al-Ansari: 1991, 3 / 94).
It is not believed that previous generations were unaware of praise method, and the future will not unaware of that. Although the methods and modes of praise may be differences in the past and present. There is no information about how past generations have admiration and praise. Because the historydidn't give us information.
The only evidence that remains is what is written on the petroglyphs, Revealed the praise and admiration of past generations. Which have praised the kings and rulers. Also the title given to them, in the literature known as praise.
DoctorShoghizaifspeech reveals this fact that he says: "The fact is that the history don't provide evidence passed over poems which praise is one of that .
Sami aldohansays: whether all the praises be over the bamboo Or fabrics of silk or plants and rocks, indicate the attitude of respect and friendship .
Praise in Arabic poetry:
Despite all the changes and developments that occurred in Arabic poetry and meaning and concept, and extensive intellectual evolution witnessed in the Abbasid era, praise technique didn't be outside the circle of Arabic poetry and didn't weak. But praise technique was the base and the other arts, were branch and surrounding it.
The poets were turned to praise technique and seems to attach that could not take it away from his prose and verse. Abu hage elsewhere says: If any nation has a privilege to be separated from other nations, and has a techniques that separates it from other techniques, the Scores of Arabic poetry relate to praise technique. This technique is superior to all other techniques.
Since human was created on this planet and understood its differences with others, and find His/her endowments of God to him/her and compared to other, Mention tragedy and praise technique have created.
The praises was divided into different types, one of the most important classification is "prophetic prayers".
Since the advent of Islam, these prayers were entered into Arabic literature and poetry.so the prophetic prayers is a branch of public prayers, has close relationship with praise technique, which Arabs at the time of their creation obtained it.
It seems this technique has not much space with the general style of praise in Arabic poetry. Prophetic Prayers poets have imitated their previous poets in style and their content. Because of this, prophetic prayers has a relationship with public technique in Arabic prayers.
As we know, the praise mention moral virtues for the praised human, prophetic prayers expresses these features, he added other valuable features to Arabic Poetics technique. And the praise has allotted to who that God says about him(he has a good moral).
For this reason it is necessary that a large part of the prayers devoted to this noble character. And praise to the prophet Mohammad which has difference in both style and content with what others are saying, because the character of prophet is a great character that all the prayers are confused to described him and could not understand his nature.
Almost we cannot find an era or period that Muslims history is free from Prophetic prayer, but in each period we found some prayers which express poem or prose to praise him. But the improvement of praise is excellence and in the period of Arab literature (declining period) came into existence as an independent technical.
Prophetic praise is a color of religious poetry which started to spread until Countries period. For this reason, a number of researchers, praise of ahlebeit and enthusiasm to saint are a part of prophetic prayers. And the Prophet's prayers were considered as a part of mystical poetry.
Although up to the countries period there were mixture between prophetic prayers and other techniques were achieved, mystical made no difference between prophetic prayers and the birth of Prophet. But there are many differences between the prophetic prayers and other events.
Prophetic praise that is written in imitation of others, Is different from that in the countries, period is regarded as prophetic prayers. And also between the praise of ahlebiet and mystical poetry. And enthusiasm to holy places.
We can say that the main difference between the prophetic prayers of praise and what about praise of ahlebiet and others is based on main purpose of composing odes. If the object is praise of ahlebiet and mention mystical states and admiration to the holy places, undoubtedly has main difference with prayers that have been written about the Prophet .
For example, a poem that was written about the birth of the Prophet. We can say that in fact is an enamel of the prophetic prayers; because it states a meaning of the prophetic prayers or period of the Prophet's life. But in the countries period it cannot be regarded as prophetic prayers. Although in the appearance of the prophetic prayers has not been effective during this period.
In fact, naming the prophetic prayers on poetry that was written after the death of the Prophet, is unforgivable errors that many of the Scholars fall into it. Because such poetry for the new purpose that appeal to the Prophet and asked for his help and assistance to him and have been written to solve the problems and troubles.
A praise which mention for kings is noted for achieving seleh and award or achievement the Rank in the world, but an award which the prayers of Prophet request,(PBUH), is not a kind of gift ,but It aims to appeal to him to eliminate misfortune and tragedy. So the poet of prophetic prayers tries to appeal and ask him to intercede for them.
The structure of prophetic Prayers:
Although many prophetic prayers has various forms. And they did not follow a same structure, But most of them had a structure consisting of three parts: Introduction, or the first ode, the middle of ode and final section.
Bringing an Introduction for Ode is a longstanding tradition to Arabic poem who the ancient poets in his odes, at the beginning of the piece of his friends waited and asked the companions to cry over ruins and meadows along with them.
Therefore, many of odes in the first Arabic literature period start with a Sonnet introduction and talks about migration to a friend and praising.
Poets who praise Prophet Mohammad, were started with the imitated introduction, because prophet was a novelty for them and they were n't understand the meaning, but gradually granted the color of prayers and Islamic religion and entered religious concepts into the Introduction of his odes in praise of the Prophet.
Thus, instead of standing on ruins and meadows and speaking about home and mention about friend, express the sites such as Hejaz and holy places like Medina and prophetic Shrine of the and expressed their joy to this places.
Instead of migration to a friend and praising, ordered their journey to the holy places to pilgrimage and the hardness of the way and the places where they were going.
Introduction of the many past odes is sonnets, the praise of the Prophet is not devoid of sonnet, but this sonnet shall be consistent with the authority of the Prophet and Islamic teachings. Therefore, in the countries era for beginning sonnet has laid some condition. Which have been laid in the book of khazanatol Adab.
Like the poet, for example, should be ashamed in these sonnet. Modestly tell Sonnets and be jollification with the name of Ramah, azib and sol. And avoid juvenile with beauties of rejection and love to play with a small waist and legs white or red cheeks. .
In the introduction of the prophetic odes other issues such as: Prayer, forgiveness, apology, and resort to the Prophet and pray to remove the sorrow have been seen. Introduction of the Odes is advice and wisdom. Joseph Nabhan says about this introduction: "It is better to start the poet with advice wisdom, because is not beautiful in terms nature and religious " .
The middle of ode is the main section of prophetic odes prayers. In this section, the poet admire the physical and spiritual qualities of the Prophet. And show religious status. And extracted miracles of prophet from the books and ordered in this section.
Virtue and ethics and heroism of the Prophet Muhammad and controversy with scripture and prophetic truth has brought in this section. And praise him and his family and companions are included in this section. The third part is the end of the ode. In this part poet deals the prophetic odes to prayer and meditation and prayers invoking the intercession of the Prophet. And ode brought to an end with blessings peace be upon Mohammad and his holy family and his companions.
Prophetic prayers from the beginning to the present, bear extensive changes in meanings, form and content. But what can we express as a principle in prophetic prayers and also a common denominator, is the personality of the Prophet.
Despite the evolution of various historical periods, it has always been of interest to writers and poets and the goal in the studying of rarities of prophetic prayers is the content and meaning of prophetic prayers which rarities became as independent technique, In fact it was a period that caused prayers of the Prophet came out of a classic and imitation form. And the emergence of great poets like bousiri, Safi aldinheli, Ibn Nabathe, aieshebaounieh added to its prosperity.
Received 26 September 2014
Received in revised form 20 November 2014
Accepted 25 December 2014
Available online 2 January 2015
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ShahramRezayi, Akbar Ghazanfari, Mohammad Jannati far
Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Qom branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran
Corresponding Author: Akbar Ghazanfari, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Qom branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran E-mail: Gazanfari.email@example.com
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|Author:||ShahramRezayi; Ghazanfari, Akbar; Far, Mohammad Jannati|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Article Type:||Critical essay|
|Date:||Dec 15, 2014|
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