Review of adaptogenic mechanisms: Eleuthrococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, Schisandra chinensis and Withania somnifera.
To identify the precise mechanisms of action of the five most common adaptogens currently used in Western Herbal Medicine in order to understand their therapeutic significance in a clinical situation.
Research design and method
Searches of data bases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROQUEST and EBSCO were conducted in order to isolate as many animal studies that elucidated mechanisms of action of the different adaptogens. The library catalogue of the National Herbalists Association of Australia and the E-journal catalogue at Sydney University were searched. Many relevant articles were not in English and therefore could not be included. Because this paper aims to investigate how adaptogens work rather than their efficacy and safety, articles that deal with clinical trials have been excluded. Thirty nine articles that examined mechanisms of action of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, Schisandra chinensis and Withania somnifera were selected. These are the five most commonly used adaptogens by western herbalists, as western herbal medicine in the post modern era incorporates herbs from Chinese, Ayurvedic and other cultural traditions. The adaptive mechanisms identified in this body of articles have been organised in table form for each herb. Six of the 39 articles are reviews. They clarify the conceptual rationale for the use of adaptogens in the non-specific adaptation to stressors that may be perpetuating the disease process. Their conclusions are discussed and summarised.
Adaptogenic activity was seen in all herbs. Mechanisms of action to improve adaptation to stress were as follows: E. senicocus showed activity on the HPA axis and on enzyme inhibition; P. ginseng demonstrated activity on the CNS on the HPA axis, on mitochondrial function, and demonstrated antioxidant action; Rhodiola spp demonstrated possible CNS activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions; W. somnifera demonstrated activity on the HPA axis, on the CNS and also had an antioxidant action; S. chinensis displayed antioxidant activity as its main mechanism to improve adaptation to physical stress. For a small number of studies the mechanism of action was unclear.
Mechanisms of action for adaptogenic activity seem to fall into 3 categories: those that act to regulate the stress response via the neuro-endocrine HPA axis, those that act as antioxidants and those that either inhibit or enhance CNS activity. Anti-inflammatory and enzyme inhibition or stimulation was also reported albeit rarely.
In the 1940s research was conducted by the Soviet Academy of Science in Vladivostok, Siberia in order to investigate substances that were already known to increase resistance in a non-specific way. They found a strong and widespread traditional use of herbs with harmonising, tonic and adjustive actions by the well established medical systems of the world including Persian, Ayurvedic, Chinese and Japanese medicine. Although the term 'adaptogen' is a recent one and was first coined by Dr NV Lazarov in the 1950s, herbs with adaptogenic activity have existed for many centuries. Unlike conventional western medicine that treats the malady or dysfunctional system in isolation, the traditions of both Eastern and Western herbal medicine relate disease or malfunction to the whole body system including the psyche (Davydov 2000). The use of these broad acting herbs is fundamental to a holistic based therapeutic approach.
Knowledge of the mechanisms of action that improve adaptation may elucidate the specific actions and indications of adaptogens which can then be applied more reliably in a clinical situation. Panossian has reviewed both the earlier and more recent mechanisms of action of modern adaptogens. While the earlier studies focus on protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and antioxidant actions, studies from the 1990s have attributed the main mechanism of action to its effect on the neuroendocrine and immune systems that are affected and mediated by the stress response. Cortisol is recognised as a hormone common to both the endocrine and immune systems and it has been suggested that cortisol regulation by adaptogens may have an impact on both the immune and nervous systems (Panossian 1999a).
An understanding of the dynamic nature of the stress response and maintenance of "stability through change" (Spelman 2004) may also assist in understanding how adaptogens work. Adaptation occurs in response to physiological and psychological stressors including climate changes, pollution, disease and social encounters. The fundamental nature of an organism's relation to the environment sets up a dynamic where constant change or stress is being accommodated by shifts in the body's internal environment.
Allostasis describes this state where stability is maintained in the face of stress or change and is defined by neuroendocrine, autonomic nervous system and immune system activity. The burden of constant stress causes a state of allostatic load, which occurs as the necessary chemical mediators that would normally maintain stability through change fail. This prevents a smooth transition to restoration and often marks the beginnings of a slow decline in health (Panossian 1999a, Spelman 2004).
While some adaptogens reduce stress and improve immunity by intervening at the neuroendocrine level to counteract the adverse affects of excessive switch on / switch off stress responses (Panossian 1999a) the findings of Davydov (2000) in his review of the adaptogen E. senticosus led him to conclude that nonspecific resistance may occur as a result of antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, immune modulating, cholesterol lowering, hypoglycemic and choleretic actions (Davydov 2000).
Research design and methods
The five most commonly used adaptogens were chosen in order to investigate their main mechanisms of action. MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO and PROQUEST were searched to find original research papers on individual mechanisms of action based on animal studies. Human trials were excluded since they focus on outcomes related to efficacy and safety rather than the actual mechanisms of action. The library catalogue of E-journals at Sydney University and the library catalogue of the National Herbalists Association of Australia were also searched.
Because research of adaptogens was first conducted by the Russians in the 1960s much of the literature is in Russian and therefore could not be included. Other relevant material was excluded due to limited access to the fully published work. As published research on adaptogens and their mechanisms of action is scarce, the search was not limited by a date of publication. Of all the adaptogens, literature on E. senticosus was the most difficult to obtain.
The original research on E. senticosus is in Russian therefore a thorough understanding of the herb has been confined to literature in English which is in itself limited. A comprehensive review by Davydov (2000) concludes that the adaptogenic effect of E. senticosus may be due to its antioxidant effect that exerts a protective and/or inhibitory action on endogenous and exogenous factors that compromise health including free radicals (Davydov 2000).
This conclusion is arrived at from various studies into the potential pharmacological actions of the plant's constituent profile and knowledge of these constituents from other plant chemistry studies.
According to these studies syringin protects against radiation, reduces radiation induced leucopenia and is immunostimulatory. Sesamin is hypocholesterolemic and has been known to reduce LDL cholesterol as well as being immunostimulatory, hepatoprotective and anticancer. [beta]-sitosterol has anticancer, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, hypocholesterolemic, antihyperglycemic actions and is insulin reducing; isofraxidin is anticancer and choleretic; caffeic acid is antioxidant; and coniferyl aldehyde has anticancer, antibacterial and antioxidant properties (Davydov 2000).
In a study by Kimura et al (2004) swimming time, natural killer (NK) activity and corticosterone levels in forced swimming stressed mice were reduced by E. senticosus root bark in which eleutheroside E was predominantly expressed (Kimura 2004). Given the knowledge that glucocorticoids play a role in adaptation to stress via the neuroendocrine pathway and immune systems (Panossian 1999a), these results support the theory that adaptogens may modify stress via an effect on the HPA axis and the sympathoadrenal system (SAS).
Another study testing the effect of E. senticosus on mast cell dependant anaphylaxis demonstrated an inhibitory effect on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-induced production from mast cells and inhibited anaphylaxis from mast cell mediated anaphylaxis. While this shows promising results, the dose in this study was too high to be of therapeutic significance however speculation that E. senticosus may regulate mast cell granulation by stabilising membrane fluidity was postulated (Yi 2002). In his analysis of the stress response, Panossian discusses the role of corticosteroids as regulators and protectors from overreacting to stress stimuli (Panossian 1999a). Anaphylaxis can be viewed as an over reaction to a stimulus marking a failure of adaptation. In this case intervention at the corticosteroid level would be a useful modulator of the stress response.
Glucocorticoid action may also be evident in a study to test the effect of E. senticosus on the prevention of bone resorption from steroid induced osteoporosis. The urinary excretion of calcium and hyydroxyproline decreased by 3.7 - 1.4 times (5118%) respectively compared to controls (p<0.05) in vivo. These results matched treatment with Ipriflavone a synthetic daidzein derivative. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were also normalised in the treatment group. Breaking strength of femoral diaphyses and vertebrae increased by 42.3+29.4% in treatment group (insignificant result), but similar to ipriflavone (Kropotov 2002). These results demonstrate that E. senticocus reduces bone resorption which may lead to osteoporosis induced by corticosteroids. While the mechanism of action was not arrived at, nor was it the purpose of this study to do so, it was included because the bone resorption had been caused by excess glucocorticoids which are known to be excessive in some states of stress. E. senticosus has been shown to decrease corticosteroids as an adaptive response to stress.
P. ginseng has been researched since the 1960s in order to understand how it exerts its nonspecific action. Extrapolations from pharmacological studies have revealed that P. ginseng has a profound effect on the whole body as it aids in the resistance to stress and aging.
According to the literature reviewed in this paper the mechanisms of action that are responsible for this effect are those that resist stress via an antioxidant action, those that act on the CNS and those that regulate neuro-endocrine level pathways (Nocerino 2002).
Facino et al (1999), Sha et al (2005), Kim et al (2005) and Oliveira et al (2005) in four different studies have all associated P. ginseng with a strong antioxidant action. The prevention of myocardial damage from post ischemic reperfusion occurs according to Facino et al as P. ginseng quenches oxygen radicals, saving the heart endothelium from oxidative stress. Additionally it was proposed to stimulate the transcription of cupric zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) or coronary endothelium nitric oxide (NO) synthase and endothelial cyclic GMP (Cgmp) production of NO which is now considered to be an important antioxidant (Facino 1999).
By testing P. ginseng on a global and focal model of ischemia, Shah et al (2005) have attributed the herb's protective effect on ischemic-induced neuronal damage to an antioxidant action where lipid peroxidation is reduced and scavenger enzymes (GSH, GR, CAT, GST, [GP.sub.x] and SOD) * are increased. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is now known to occur during stress as a nonspecific response and scavenger enzymes are believed to enhance defence of neuronal tissue leading to a reduction in damage (Shah 2005).
Kim et al (2005) also found that P. ginseng exerted an antioxidant action in a study to test its effect on exercise induced exhaustion. It was reported to have stimulated the production of CAT and SOD scavenger enzymes leading to a decrease in lipid peroxidation (Kim 2005). De Oliveira et al (2005) found P. ginseng to be protective of exercise induced muscle due to a reduction in protein oxidation.
Another indicator of the adaptive response to exercise is an increase in capillary density and mitochondrial volume. Ferrando et al (1999) found that P. ginseng exerted a similar effect to exercise on muscle oxidative capacity and capillary density however it did not have a cumulative effect when administered during exercise.
The adaptogenic effect of P. ginseng is also believed to occur due to its action on the HPA axis of the neuroendocrine pathway. According to the review by Nocerino et al (2000), adaptation is enhanced due to ginsenoside stimulation of steroidogenesis by indirectly acting on the pituitary gland. In this way it is believed to affect memory, learning and exercise endurance (Nocerino 2000). The studies of Petkov et al (1993) support this theory even though they did not set out to test the mechanism of action on stress.
Their results showed decreases in adrenaline and prolactin (in older rats) and increases in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in both young and old rats with P. ginseng administration. Because ACTH and adrenaline are involved in the neuroendocrine stress response these studies suggest that up or down regulation of these hormones may affect the adaptive response.
Other CNS mechanisms were observed by Provalova et al (2002), Park et al (2005) and Ni et al (1993). A reduction in bone marrow erythropoeisis during paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) was used as a study model to test the effect of adaptogens by Pravalova et al. P. ginseng more than the other adaptogens in this study, was seen to stimulate bone marrow erythropoeisis during PSD via modulation of neurotransmitter systems including serotonergic and cholinergic structures in the brain (Provalova 2002a).
Another study testing the neuroprotective effect of P.ginseng by Park et al (2005) on a hypoxic ischemic model revealed a protective effect that could be attributed to an increase in calmodulin-dependant kinase II (CaMKII). Finally Ni et al 1993) tested the effect of P. ginseng using a spatial working memory disruption model. P. ginseng was seen to dose dependently improve maze performance disruption and performance deficits. Interaction of P. ginseng with cholinergic function was suggested as the main mechanism of action.
Rhodiola rosea spp
Research into the adaptogenic effects of the herb has revealed that there are many different species of Rhodiola, however R. rosea is the most extensively researched. Although most of the research in this review is conducted on R. rosea, two papers on other species were included as they shed some light on the herb as an adaptogen.
In a Review by Brown et al (2002), phytochemistry and mechanisms of action are discussed at length. Hypotheses from scientific research as to how learning and memory is affected by R. rosea include activity on neurotransmitters in neuronal pathways, suppressed inhibition of acetylcholine ACh) with age associated memory loss and reduction in oxidative damage all of which are consequences of stress. Original research by Hillhouse et al (2004) supports ACh modulation as an acetylchline esterase (AChE) inhibitor which may be the mechanism of action for improved memory.
R. rosea has been seen to reduce symptoms of physically and psychiatrically induced asthenia and to increase intellectual capacity. It has been shown to improve the effects of tricyclic antidepressants TCA) and decrease their side effects. Dopaminergic activity has been suggested as a mechanism behind relieveing parkinsonian symptoms as a side effect of neuroleptics (Brown 2002).
Other reviewed studies suggested that increased resistance to nonspecific stress may be due to a serotonergic action, an increase in [beta]-endorphins and that it moderates opioid peptide, an excess of which may damage the brain and heart. R. rosea was seen to act on the neuroendocrine system similarly to other adaptogens and to have strong antioxidant properties where toxicity from drugs is decreased and some anticancer drug actions can be enhanced (Brown 2002).
Laboratory research generally confirms the above actions. Ohsugi et al (1999) isolated 19 active compounds that had oxygen scavenging activities against superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radical. They have hypothesised that the antiaging activity may be due to oxygen scavenging molecules that reduce imbalanced redox reactions and restore defense against free radicals.
Induction of iNOS gene expression by R. sachalinensis leading to NO synthesis was another proposed mechanism of action (Seo 2001). Changes in ATP content in mitochondria are indicative of stress from exercise. Abidov et al (2004) suggested that improved tolerance to exercise in an exhaustive swimming test model may be due to stimulation of ATP production.
While Boon-niermeijer et al (2000) found R. rosea to be protective against lethal heat shock and superoxide radical, a mechanism of action could not be arrived at. The hypothesis that synthesis of stress proteins as an adaptive response was responsible for this action was excluded.
The regulatory effect of adaptogens including R. rosea, E. senticocus, Bergenia and P. ginseng on granulomonocytopoeisis may be due to neurotransmitter activity (Provalova 2002b). Additionally a study to test the effect of Astragalus and Rhodiola species on noise stress observed a reduction in hepatic glycogen, lactic acid and cholesterol which may be ultimately controlled by the HPA axis as an adaptive response (Zhu 2003).
Finally an anti-inflammatory action was seen as a mediator of adaptation as levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) were reduced in untrained volunteers before exercise in treatment group (Abidov 2003).
According to a review by Hancke et al (1999) increases in GST in the liver and inhibition of LPO as measured by reductions in malondialdehyde (MDA) is a major antioxidant action of S. chinensis and this action may be largely responsible for its adaptogenic activity. Ip et al (1995), Zhu et al (1999) and Chiu et al (2002) have all observed modulation of the hepatic detoxification enzymes including of GST, glutathione reductase (GRD), 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and [gamma]-glutamylcysteine, Cyt P450, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGOT) and these have been associated with hepatoprotection from C[Cl.sub.4] toxicity.
Its effect on physical performance has been associated with reductions in transaminase, creatine phosphse kinase (CPK) and lactate levels as well as increases in antioxidant status measured by decreases in LPO and MDA. An anticarcinogenic effect of the herb may be due to a stimulating effect on cytP450 enzyme action and GST which are associated with the elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are known carcinogens (Zhu 1999).
Kim et al (2004) observed a reduction in intracellular calcium by isolated lignins of S. chinensis alongside protection of glutamate induced toxicity. NO is driven by calcium dependant channels and is also associated with glutamate toxicity due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NO. A decrease of NO due to a reduction in calcium and therefore calcium dependant enzymes was the proposed mechanism of action.
Panossian et al (1999) also demonstrated a connection between S. chinensis and NO. Salivary NO was seen to increase after treatment similar to athletes and to decrease after physical exercise. In the same study a rise in cortisol similar to athletes and a decrease after physical exercise were also observed. Because NO and cortisol play a role in the switch on (NO) switch off (cortisol) phases of the neuroendocrine stress axis they may be used as markers for stress and their activation and suppression may be indicative of the adaptive process. The authors concluded from this that S. chinensis has a pro-stressor effect as NO and cortisol are stimulated in order to improve adaptation.
A study by Hernandez et al (1988) on the other hand claimed that S. chinensis had no effect on stress induced gastric ulceration which suggests that the cortisol-immune pathway may not have been affected.
In his review of S. chinensis, Hancke (1999) discusses the suggestion of a stimulating effect on the CNS and cholinergic activity as inhibition of barbiturate activity was revealed under experimental conditions. Together with antioxidant activity in the brain this may account for increased memory and intellectual performance associated with the herb.
In a review of W. somnifera by Mishra et al (2000), the authors found minimal material on the mechanisms responsible for the adaptogenic actions of the herb. Original papers using mainly animal studies however do shed some light on potential mechanisms of action that elucidate the complexity of the herb.
Kaur et al (2003) tested the adaptogenic activity of W. somnifera by administering a previously untested) withanolide compound (1-oxo-5[beta], 6[beta]-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide) on rats in a cold-hypoxia-restraint model (C-H-R-Stress). Stress parameters were reduced in treatment group compared to controls and blood parameters revealed a decrease in CPK, lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) and LPO in treatment group compared to controls. There was also a reduction in serum corticosterone in treatment group compared to controls.
While the authors did not specifically refer to antioxidant action as such, they did conclude that an increased tolerance to stress was in part due to a decrease in CPK, LDH and LPO. A reduction in corticosterone levels during stress was also seen in treatment groups. This suggests HPA axis activity where corticosteroid levels are known to modulate the stress response and either improve or hinder adaptation.
W. somnifera was also seen to suppress OVA-specific IgE antibody and to down regulate OVA-specific IgE antibody response (Amara 1999). The IgE hypersensitivity response is an example of poor adaptation to stress.
In testing adaptogenic and cardioprotective actions as well as biochemical parameters of blood coagulation in the forced swimming test model, upregulation of anabolic processes and activity on catecholamine and mitochondrial processes was also postulated as a mechanism of action (Dhuley 2000). Battacharya et al (2002) attributed the mechanism of action to an antioxidant action rather than CNS activity in reduced symptoms in a tardive dyskinesia model.
In another study swimming time increased (p<0.01) and body weight increased (p<0.05) in treatment groups compared to controls in a mice swimming stress model. The anabolic activity of the herb was attributed to the presence of steroid compounds. W. somnifera contains steroidal lactones called withanolides. It was also postulated that the anabolic effect may be due to an anti-seratonergic activity which would lead to an increase in appetite and therefore weight gain (Grandhi 1994). In another paper Battacharya et al (2000) attributed the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions of isolated glycowithanolides to GABA-mimetic activity.
Activity on the HPA axis was postulated as a mechanism of action by Battacharya et al (2003) in a study to test the adaptogenic effect of W. somnifera on chronic stress using a footshock model. The symptoms of stress from footshock manifest in a variety of nonspecific maladies including gastric ulcer, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, increased plasma cortisone, sexual dysfunction in males, cognitive deficits, immunosuppression and mental depression.
For all of the above symptoms administration of W. somnifera decreased stress induced by footshock (p<0.05). While this paper does not specify exactly how, it proposes that W. somnifera acts upon the HPA axis and increases the resistance phase of the stress response in order to prevent exhaustion.
This particular test supports its reputation as having a wide ranging action that is nonspecific.
Much of the research on adaptogens and how they improve adaptation are extrapolated from animal research that tests specific effects of the herb by using experimental models. A definitive mechanism cannot always be found. On the other hand theories derived from these studies can be useful in understanding the herb scientifically as well as learning about the stress response and the successes and failures of human and animal adaptation.
The adaptogens dealt with in this paper have demonstrated activity on the CNS and the HPA axis as well as having profound antioxidant properties. Identified actions on the CNS include neurotransmitter function (catecholamines), ACh regulation and a serotonergic effect which may be responsible for memory enhancing and cognitive function. P. ginseng and W. somnifera demonstrated this particular mechanism of action most strongly.
All of the herbs demonstrated some activity on the HPA axis including cortisol and NO regulation, catecholamine activity such as adrenalin and noradrenalin, and steroidogenesis leading to anabolic effects. Panossian (1999a) interprets the regulation of cortisol as being pivotal to an adaptogenic activity where acute administration with the herb stimulates ACTH and steroidogenesis and chronic treatment regulates stress hormones which prevents exhaustion.
W. somnifera was the only herb that demonstrated a GABA-mimetic effect which plays an important role in reducing psychological stress, a well known factor in the evolution of diseased states (Sternberg 2000).
As research into antioxidants has developed in the last 20 years, their potential in adaptation is beginning to be more understood. Antioxidant action in herbal adaptogens is associated with increased physical and mental performance and was demonstrated most strongly in P. ginseng, Rodiola spp and S. chinensis.
This review was limited by availability and accessibility to original research. This is in part due to the fact that much of the research particularly on the adaptogenic action of E. senticocus is in Russian.
Because these herbs are from cultures other than Western, much of the research exists in foreign journals that were inaccessible. Unfortunately very little attention was paid to adaptogens and their role in immunity which involves the neuroendocrine and central nervous systems where cortisol is a hormone that is common to both systems.
Nevertheless this paper does reflect some of the most current research on adaptogens shedding light on their differences and similarities.
Undergrad copy is a section for the benefit of undergraduates of herbal medicine, to encourage the contribution of the excellent work that is frequently prepared by students during the course of their studies. Student material is not subject to the peer review process of the journal and is selected on its value at presentation.
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* GSH Glutathione; GR Glutathione reductase; CAT Catalase; GST glutathione-S-transferase; GPx Glutathione peroxidase; SOD superoxide dismutase
Laura Wilson is a recently qualified herbalist and has just opened her own herbal medicine practice called "The Herbal Tradition" in Kiama on the south coast of NSW. This literature review was her final paper in herbal medicine at Nature Care College in Sydney. Laura has a major interest in herbal medicine for animals and also runs a natural therapy centre for cats and dogs.
Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Eleutherococcus senticocus Objective/method Herb Reference of study E. senticocus Kropotov AV et al To test prevention of steroid 2002 induced osteoporosis (in vivo) Kimura Y et al To compare E. senticocus 2004 extracts on swimming time, NK activity and serum cortisone (in vivo) Yi J-M et al 2002 To test effect on mast cell dependent anaphylaxis (in vivo, in vitro) Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Panax ginseng P. ginseng Facino RM et al To test the effect of P. 1999 ginseng on HBO induced post ischemic reperfusion and endothelial function (in vivo, in vitro) Shah ZA et al To test the neuroprotective 2005 effect of P. ginseng on ischemia induced brain damage (in vivo) Kim SH et al To test the effect of P. 2005a ginseng on oxidative stress markers in exercise induced exhaustion (in vivo) De Oliveira AC et To test the effect of P. al 2005 ginseng on exercise induced muscle NO oxidation, muscle protein oxidation and mitochondrial changes in muscular damage (in vivo) P. ginseng Ferrando et al 1999 To test the effect of P. ginseng on enzymatic activity, typical muscle composition. P. ginseng and Petkov VD et al To test the effects of P. Ginkgo biloba 1993 ginseng and G. biloba on levels of biogenic amines prolactin, growth hormone, and ACTH (in vivo) P. ginseng, Provalova NV et al To test the effect of herbal E. senticosus, 2002a adaptogens on erythropoesis R. rosea, after paradoxical sleep bergenia and deprivation (PSD) pantohematogen P. ginseng Park JK et al 2005 To test the neuroprotective effect of P. ginseng on a hypoxic ischemic model (in vivo) Ni XH et al 1993 To test the effect of P. ginseng on spatial working memory disruption (in vivo) Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Rhodiola spp. R. rosea Hillhouse B et al To investigate potential 2004 acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitory effect on mental performance (in vitro) R. sacra Ohsugi M et al To evaluate 70 herbal 1999 medicines for their oxygen scavenging activity in the prevention of ageing (in vitro) R. sachalinensis Seo WG et al 2001 To examine the effect of R. sachalinensis on expression of iNOS gene to induce NO synthase (in vitro) R. rosea Abidov M et al To test the effect of R. R. crenulata 2003 rosea and R. renulata on ATP in muscle mitochondria using an exhaustive swimming test model (in vivo) R. rosea Boon-Niermeijer To evaluate the protective E. senticocus EK et al 2000 effect against stress induced embryos of snails and the role of heat shock protein synthesis (in vitro) R. rosea Provalova NV et al To evaluate the potential of E. senticocus 2002b herbs to modulate Bergenia granulocytopoiesis on neurosis P. ginseng induced paradoxical sleep pantohematogen deprivation PSD Astragalus and Zhu B-W et al 2003 To test the effect of both rhoiolae spp. herbs on hepatic glycogen, lactic acid and cholesterol during noise stress R. rosea Abidov M et al To test the effect of R. rosea 2004 on levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) in untrained volunteers before/after exercise Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Schisandra chinensis S. chinensis Ip SP et al 1995 To test the effect of schisandran B on glutathione enzyme activity with C[Cl.sub.4] activity (in vitro) Zhu M et al 1999 To evaluate the potential of S. chinensis to restore hepatic drug metabolism in C[Cl.sub.4] damaged liver In vivo Chiu PY et al 2002 To compare the antioxidant action of sch. B and emodin by testing their effect on hepatic mitochond. GSH with C[Cl.sub.4] intoxification. (in vivo) Kim SR et al 2004b To test the neuroprotective effect of 5 lignins from S. chinensis on glutamate induced neurotoxicity (in vitro) S. chinensis Panossian AG et al To test effect on serum NO Bryonia alba 1999b and cortisol levels during physical exercise (in vivo) S. chinensis Hernandez DE et al To evaluate the antiulcer and Aralia elata 1988 antisecretory activity in models of gastric ulcer and gastric secretion (in vivo) Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Withania somnifera W. somnifera Kaur P et al 2003 To test the isolated biological fractions and compounds for their adaptogenic activity on stress (in vivo) Amara S et al 1999 To test effect on down regulation of antigen specific 1gE antibody response Dhuley JN 2000 To evaluate the adaptogenic, cardioprotective, and coagulatory effects + other biochemical parameters Battacharya SK et To test the preventive effect al 2002 of W. somnifera on tardive dyskinesia (TD) W. somnifera Grandhi A et al To compare the efficacy of P. ginseng 1994 both herbs on antistress action and anabolic activity W. somnifera Battacharya SK et To investigate the anxiolytic al 2000 and antidepressant activity of glycowithanolides compared to benzodiazapene W. somnifera Battacharya SK et To test adaptogenic activity P. ginseng al 2003 on chronic stress--gastric ulcers, hyperglycemia, glucose intol, plasma cortisol, sexual dysfn, cognitive deficits, depression, immunosuppression. Herb Reference Intervention E. senticocus Kropotov AV et al Liquid extract of E. 2002 senticocus Kimura Y et al 5 aqueous extracts of 2004 E. senticosus bark with differing amounts of eleutheroside A,B,C,D & E Yi J-M et al 2002 Aqueous extracts of authenticated E. senticosus Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Panax ginseng P. ginseng Facino RM et al P. ginseng extract 1999 G115 Shah ZA et al P. ginseng tea 2005 (KGT) Korean ginseng tea Kim SH et al P. ginseng extract 2005a (50% EtOH) De Oliveira AC et P. ginseng extract al 2005 G115 P. ginseng Ferrando et al 1999 Stand. Extract P. ginseng G115 P. ginseng and Petkov VD et al Std. Extract of P. Ginkgo biloba 1993 ginseng G115 P. ginseng, Provalova NV et al E. senticosus, 2002a R. rosea, bergenia and pantohematogen P. ginseng Park JK et al 2005 Ginsenoside Rb1 Ni XH et al 1993 Aqueous extract of P. ginseng Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Rhodiola spp. R. rosea Hillhouse B et al Fractions of 2004 R. rosea extract R. sacra Ohsugi M et al 1999 R. sachalinensis Seo WG et al 2001 Aqueous extract of R. sachilinensis (RSE) R. rosea Abidov M et al Extracts of R. rosea R. crenulata 2003 (rosavines and silidrosides 3.02%- 0.89% dw) R. crenulata (salidroside 2.05%) R. rosea Boon-Niermeijer Aqueous extract of E. senticocus EK et al 2000 R. rosea and E. senticocus R. rosea Provalova NV et al All herbs as aqueous E. senticocus 2002b extracts Bergenia pantohematogen P. ginseng pantohematogen Astragalus and Zhu B-W et al 2003 Aqueous extracts of rhoiolae spp. Rhodiolae and Astragali (spp not specified) R. rosea Abidov M et al RHODAX/rosavine, 2004 rosarine, rosine, salidroside, rhodalgin, rosirid- ine, acetylrhodalgin Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Schisandra chinensis S. chinensis Ip SP et al 1995 Schisandrin B (Sch B) isolate Zhu M et al 1999 Aqueous extract of S. chinensis Chiu PY et al 2002 Schisandrin B Kim SR et al 2004b Dibenzocyclo- octadiene lignins- deoxyschisandrin, gomisin Ngomisin A, schisandrin, wuweizisu S. chinensis Panossian AG et al S.chinensis tabs. Bryonia alba 1999b Standardized to schizandrin and [gamma]- schizandrin S. chinensis Hernandez DE et al Liquid extract of S. Aralia elata 1988 chinensis 50% EtOH. Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Withania somnifera W. somnifera Kaur P et al 2003 Withanolide--com- pound 1 (1-oxo-5[beta], 6[beta]-epoxy-with a-2- ene-27-ethoxy-olide) Amara S et al 1999 W. somnifera extract (WSE) Dhuley JN 2000 Aqueous extract of authenticated W. somnifera root Battacharya SK et W. somnifera al 2002 glycowithanolides (WSG) W. somnifera Grandhi A et al Aqu ext suspension P. ginseng 1994 std to steroidal lactone in W. somnif & steroidal saponins in P. ginseng W. somnifera Battacharya SK et W. somnifera al 2000 glycowithanolide W. somnifera Battacharya SK et Aqueous extract of P. ginseng al 2003 W. somnifera and P. ginseng Herb Reference Results E. senticocus Kropotov AV et al [down arrow] urinary 2002 [ca.sup.2] and hydroxyproline (p<0.05). Normalised plasma [Ca.sup.2] and Ph. [up arrow] Breaking strength of femoral diaphyses similar to ipriflavone. Kimura Y et al Eleutheroside E contributed 2004 to recovery from fatigue, reduction in NK activity and inhibition of corticosterone production in swimming stress. Yi J-M et al 2002 Inhibited IgE induced TNF-[alpha]. Dose dependently inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and histamine release from mast cells. Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Panax ginseng P. ginseng Facino RM et al P. ginseng prevented 1999 myocardial ischemia, damage and impairment of end. Function due to [up arrow] ROS after HBO. L V function was restored and CPP was decreased with P. ginseng Shah ZA et al [down arrow] LPO and 2005 [up arrow] scavenger enzymes after ischemia with KGT. [down arrow] brain water content with KGT. Reversed damage from acclusion and hypoperfusion with KGT. Kim SH et al [down arrow] MDA in Tx group 2005a during exhaustive exercise (p<0.01) correlating with [up arrow] exercise tolerance. SOD and CAT were significantly increased in Tx group(p<0.01) De Oliveira AC et [down arrow] in muscle damage al 2005 in Tx group Inhibition of nitrite by stimulating NO synthase. Protected mitochondrial membrane injury in vastus and rectus muscles P. ginseng Ferrando et al 1999 [up arrow] in capillary density [up arrow] mitochondrial content of red gastrocnemic muscle equivalent to exercise. P. ginseng and Petkov VD et al G115 [down arrow] NA in the Ginkgo biloba 1993 hippocampus [down arrow] serum prolactin, [down arrow] growth hormone, [up arrow] ACTH in old and young rats, [down arrow] seratonin P. ginseng, Provalova NV et al Adaptogens prevent the E. senticosus, 2002a [down arrow] in bone marrow R. rosea, erythropoesis after PSD. bergenia and Stimulated bone marrow pantohematogen erythropoeisis during PSD P. ginseng Park JK et al 2005 Rb1 was seen to protect neurons from hypoxic damage. [up arrow] [Ca.sup.2]/ calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) Ni XH et al 1993 P. ginseng dose dependently improved maze performance disruption and performance deficits induced by stolamine Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Rhodiola spp. R. rosea Hillhouse B et al R. rosea fractions inhibited 2004 AChE by 42+3.2%. Fractions contained properties that inhibiterd AChE by 30-80% R. sacra Ohsugi M et al 19 active compounds were 1999 isolated and shown to have strong inhibitory actions against superoxide anion radical (.[O.sub.2]-) and hydroxyl radical (OH). R. sachalinensis Seo WG et al 2001 RSE synergistically induced inos gene expression with [gamma]-interferon but not alone. R. rosea Abidov M et al Both herbs improved swimming R. crenulata 2003 time in exhaustive swimming model R. rosea Boon-Niermeijer Both herbs demonstrated a E. senticocus EK et al 2000 protective effect against lethal heat shock. Protected against superoxide radicals induced by menadione. Small but insignificant protection against copper and cadmium R. rosea Provalova NV et al E. senticosus stimulated E. senticocus 2002b migration of neutrophils from Bergenia bone marrow to peripheral P. ginseng P. ginseng [down arrow] pantohematogen immature and mature neutrophylic granulocytesin bone marrow R. rosea and E. senticocus did not modify granulocytpoiesis Astragalus and Zhu B-W et al 2003 Rhodiloa radix suppressed the rhoiolae spp. reduction in hepatic glycogen, lactic acid and cholesterol R. rosea Abidov M et al Long term treatment with 2004 RHODAX o reduced levels of CRP and CK in volunteers undergoing exhaustive exercise Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Schisandra chinensis S. chinensis Ip SP et al 1995 Pre-Tx with Sch B for 3 days [right arrow] [up arrow] in GST and GRD. [down arrow] in MDA was observed. G6PDH and [gamma]- glutamylcysteine were down regulated Zhu M et al 1999 [up arrow] Elimination of drug 1/2 life (P<0.001) and [down arrow] clearance time with pre and post Tx. (p<0.01) Liver enzymes SGPT, SGOT and P450 were normalized with Tx Chiu PY et al 2002 Sch B [right arrow] [up arrow] GSH AO status and mtMDA [right arrow] [down arrow] oxidative stress compared to [alpha]-tocopherol used as control. Sch B protected against C[Cl.sub.4] toxicity Kim SR et al 2004b Deoxyschisandrin, gomisin N and wuweizisu [down arrow] intracellular calcium, [up arrow] GSH defense system and [down arrow] cellular peroxide formation S. chinensis Panossian AG et al [up arrow] basil level of Bryonia alba 1999b salivary NO and cortisol in athletes in the early stage. After physical exercise salivary NO and cortisol did not increase in Tx group compared to placebo. S. chinensis Hernandez DE et al S. chinensis had no effect Aralia elata 1988 on stress induced ulcer and gastric secretionsin these models. A. elata (possibly related to Aralia species found in north America which is a panacea in the Native American herbal tradition) (w&w) [up arrow] gastric Ph and [down arrow] gastric secretory volume + acidity. Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Withania somnifera W. somnifera Kaur P et al 2003 [down arrow] serum CPK, LDH, LPO and cortisol in Tx group compared to controls in chronic stress model. Amara S et al 1999 Down regulation of OVA specific IgE antibody with WSE Dhuley JN 2000 [up arrow] swimming time, heart weight and myocardial hepatic glycogen. [up arrow] duration of contractility after strophanthin K injection. [up arrow] coagulation time. Variations in hepatic transaminases. Battacharya SK et WSG inhibited haloperidol al 2002 induced tardive dyskinesia W. somnifera Grandhi A et al [up arrow] swimming times P. ginseng 1994 WS (p<0.01), PG (0.001) [up arrow] body weight more significant in WS (p<0.05) than PG.(0.5) [up arrow] levator ani muscle (dry weight) in both groups (<0.01) W. somnifera Battacharya SK et Anxioilyic effect comparable al 2000 to benzodiazepine. [down arrow] in tribulin (marker for anxiety). Antidepressant effect comparable to ipramine in swimming test W. somnifera Battacharya SK et Stress (including all of the P. ginseng al 2003 parameters listed) induced by footshock was decreased with WS and PG (p<0.05) Proposed Mechanism of Herb Reference action (MOA) E. senticocus Kropotov AV et al No MOA stated. 2002 Study included possible relationship with corticosteroid levels. Kimura Y et al ? modulate metabolic, 2004 inflammatory, neuroendocrine and immunological factors that regulate stress. Yi J-M et al 2002 E. senticosus may regulate degranulation of mast cells by stabilising membrane fluidity. Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Panax ginseng P. ginseng Facino RM et al Protects endothelium from 1999 oxidative burden by quenching [O.sub.2] radicals. AO action may be due to stimulation of coronary endothial NO synthase and cGMP NO. NO is a powerful antioxidant Shah ZA et al Neuronal protection with KGT 2005 occurs due to antioxidant effect where LPO is reduced and scavenger enzymes (GSH, GR, CAT, GST, GP and SOD) [right arrow] [up arrow] defence [right arrow] [down arrow] damage Kim SH et al P. ginseng stimulates CAT 2005a and SOD scavenger enzymes [right arrow] [down arrow] LPO [right arrow] [down arrow] MDA. The antioxidant action may contribute to [down arrow] fatigue and [up arrow] exercise tolerance. De Oliveira AC et The protective effect of al 2005 P. ginseng on damaged muscle (vastus, rectus) occurs due to improvement in mitochondrial function and a reduction in protein oxidation. P. ginseng Ferrando et al 1999 P. ginseng may [up arrow] tolerance to exercise by [up arrow] capillary density and oxidative capacity of muscles. [up arrow] capillary density and [up arrow] oxidative capacity of muscles may be an adaptive process in [up arrow] exercise. P. ginseng and Petkov VD et al P. ginseng may regulate Ginkgo biloba 1993 hormones that are secreted in response to stress such as adrenalin, prolactin and adrenaline. In this way it assists adaptation. P. ginseng, Provalova NV et al Bone marrow stimulation E. senticosus, 2002a during PSD has been linked R. rosea, to functional activity in bergenia and neurotransmitter systems in pantohematogen the brain. P. ginseng Park JK et al 2005 Rb1 may protect neurons from hypoxic damage due to an increase in CaMKII, the dysregulation opf which results in neuronal loss after hypoxic damage. Ni XH et al 1993 P. ginseng may interact with cholinergic function which may be responsible for improvement in spatial working memory. Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Rhodiola spp. R. rosea Hillhouse B et al Inhibition of AChE would 2004 prevent the degredation of Ach [right arrow] [up arrow] memory R. sacra Ohsugi M et al Oxygen scavenging molecules 1999 may be responsible for anti-aging effect by scavenging excess free radicals [right arrow] [down arrow] unbalanced redox reactions and restore defence against radical injury to prevent aging R. sachalinensis Seo WG et al 2001 By inducing iNOS gene expression, R. sachalinensis. Increases NO synthesis which is involved in the mechanism of non-specific immunity. R. rosea Abidov M et al Changes in ATP content in R. crenulata 2003 mitochodria are indicative of exercise induced stress. R. rosea and R. crenulata may stimulate ATP synthesis or re-synthesis in muscles during exercise R. rosea Boon-Niermeijer Mechanism of action unclear. E. senticocus EK et al 2000 Protection was not caused by synthesis of heat shock proteins which play a role in modulating heat shock and stress R. rosea Provalova NV et al The regulatory effect of E. senticocus 2002b adaptogens on Bergenia granulocytopoiesis may occur P. ginseng due to neurotransmitter pantohematogen activity Astragalus and Zhu B-W et al 2003 Because hepatic glycogen, rhoiolae spp. lactic acid and cholesterol are normally reduced with noise stress, suppression of this reduction may be improving adaptation. R. rosea Abidov M et al Reduction in inflammatory 2004 mediators would suggest that less inflammation occurs under stress leading to increased resistance and tolerance as part of the adaptive process Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Schisandra chinensis S. chinensis Ip SP et al 1995 [up arrow] GSH is associated with hepatoprotection and down regulation of G6PDH and [gamma]-glut. Improves GSH status. Zhu M et al 1999 S. chinensis has a protective effect on phase I oxidative metabolism in the liver Chiu PY et al 2002 Sch enhances mitochondrial glutathione status leading to improved mitochondrial GSH,GRD and GST [right arrow] [up arrow] hepatoprotection from C[Cl.sub.4] toxicity Kim SR et al 2004b NO which is driven by calcium dependant channels is associated with glutamate neurotoxicity due to [up arrow] ROS. A reduction in intracellular calcium may be responsible for [down arrow] NO [right arrow] [down arrow] glutamate toxicity S. chinensis Panossian AG et al S. chinensis may have a Bryonia alba 1999b pro-stressor effect where NO and cortisol, which play a role in the switch on/switch off/ phases of the neuroendocrine stress response, are being regulated under stress S. chinensis Hernandez DE et al Mechanism for anti-ulcer and Aralia elata 1988 antisecretory action of A. elata may act on the sympathetic nervous system which stimulates defence of nervous and mucosal systems as part of a non specific response. Proposed mechanisms of action for the adpatogenic effect of Withania somnifera W. somnifera Kaur P et al 2003 Decreased CPK may be associated with [up arrow] [O.sub.2] delivery. May reduce damage to injured cells. May work on HPA axis to modulate cortisol during stress. Amara S et al 1999 No mechanism of action provided. Dhuley JN 2000 [up arrow] heart weight and glycogen may be indicative of anabolic action. [up arrow] coaguability may be due to catecholamine regulation. [up arrow] transaminases activity may be due to the herbs action on mitochondrial processes. Battacharya SK et Because TD was not relieved al 2002 by GABA-mimetic antiepileptic drugs but was attenuated by 400-800 mg vit E an antioxidant rather than GABA- mimetic effect was postulated. W. somnifera Grandhi A et al Anabolic activity may be due P. ginseng 1994 to steroids (lactones and saponins). Withanolides may be more anabolic that ginsenosides. Antiseratonergic activity may of WS may [up arrow] appetite [right arrow] [up arrow] weight W. somnifera Battacharya SK et Anxiolytic and antidepressant al 2000 action may be due to GABA-mimetic activity W. somnifera Battacharya SK et Herbs may act on the HPA axis P. ginseng al 2003 on the second stage of Selyes stress model in order to prolong resistance and prevent the final stage of exhaustion.
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|Title Annotation:||Undergrad copy|
|Publication:||Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism|
|Date:||Sep 22, 2007|
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