Reverse age-related weight gain.
This is evidenced not only by excess body fat storage, but also higher glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels seen in maturing individuals.
A consistent finding in the scientific literature reveals that compounds that induce weight loss also facilitate beneficial reductions in blood glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol.
These studies provide a strong rationale for controlling the consumption and absorption of excess calories by taking the proper supplements before the two heaviest meals of the day.
An agent of particular interest in this category is called propolmannan. By maintaining its viscous structure throughout the digestive tract, propolmannan can decrease appetite and help impede the absorption of ingested calories.(1), (2)
What does this translate into as far as weight loss? In placebo-controlled human studies, those taking propolmannan before meals lost 5.5 to 7.92 pounds after eight weeks without changing their diets. The placebo groups in these studies showed no significant weight loss. The propolmannan groups also showed reductions in blood lipid/glucose levels. (1), (3)
We understand that most aging people today need to shed more than seven pounds of body fat. That is why propol-mannan has been included in a new powder mix that contains three additional ingredients that have demonstrated weight loss effects of 8 to 30 pounds in controlled human trials, along with substantial reductions in waist circumferences. (4-6)
In the propolmannan studies, human subjects were told not to change their usual diet (no restrictive diet or exhaustive exercise)--and they still lost weight. Life Extension[R], on the other hand, advocates aging individuals follow dietary patterns aimed at reducing overall calorie intake.
In a pilot trial on overweight individuals who had failed all other weight loss programs, those who took a low dose of propolmannan combined with three other ingredients in a powder mix before meals lost on average almost 12 pounds after eight weeks.
If you are seeking to lose weight, identify a program you can adhere to over the long term. By taking compounds before meals that decrease appetite, impede absorption of carbohydrates-lipids and control regulators of body fat storage, the benefits of a calorie-control program can be substantially augmented.
This article describes the human clinical research conducted on four proprietary nutrients that resulted in significant reductions in weight and abdominal fat.
For years, nutrition scientists experimented with different types of dietary fibers that absorb many times their own weight.
The problem with these fibers is that they contain enzymes used by the original, living plant for its own well being. During digestion, these enzymes cause the fiber sponge to break apart and lose its ability to mop up excess calories. The result is that excess calories readily absorb into the bloodstream and too often convert to surplus body fat stores. (1), (2)
So while these fibers provide some benefit of early satiety, they do not always maintain their structure long enough to remain intact in the stomach and small intestines.
A proprietary process has been developed that removes these enzymes so that the absorbent fiber sponges do not break down in the digestive tract. (7-11) This enables this specialized fiber to block some excess calories from being absorbed until they are eliminated from the body.
THE ROLE OF BILE ACIDS IN DIETARY FAT ABSORPTION
Bile acids are excreted from the liver into the small intestine where they facilitate the absorption of dietary fats into the bloodstream. The absorption of dietary fats is dependent on bile acids and the lipase enzyme. An intact soluble fiber binds to bile acids in the small intestine, thus helping to impede absorption of dietary fats (while simultaneously reducing serum LDL and cholesterol).
Specially processed, propolmannan is a polysaccharide fiber derived from a plant that grows only in the remote mountains of Northern Japan. Propolmannan is patented in 33 countries as a purified fiber that does not break down in the digestive tract.
Published studies reveal propolmannan's ability to not only increase the amount of bile acids in the feces, but also reduce the rate of carbohydrate absorption and the subsequent glucose/insulin spike in the blood. When propolmannan is taken before meals, consistent and significant reductions in blood triglyceride, LDL, and cholesterol are observed. (2)
Some people might think that by reducing the body's dietary load, propolmannan by itself would induce substantial weight reduction. Unfortunately, our aging bodies do not convert calories into energy production the same way we did in youth. We instead have a biological propensity to store even the reduced numbers of calories we may be ingesting. That is why while propolmannan can help impede the consumption and absorption of ingested calories, in practical terms it represents only one important component of a comprehensive weight management program.
SCIENTIFIC STUDIES BACKING PROPOLMANNAN
There are so many questionable weight loss products claiming "miraculous" results that overweight people might view propolmannan by itself as being inferior because it does not make fat people thin.
The reality is that when used in conjunction with a healthful diet and lifestyle, propolmannan can accelerate weight loss and in the process, help normalize excess levels of lipids and glucose in the blood.
In a clinical study conducted on young obese individuals, subjects were not asked to make any changes in their diet except for the addition of 1 gram of propolmannan before each of the day's three meals. After eight weeks, subjects lost an average of 9.44 pounds. The placebo group only lost an average of 1.69 pounds. The propolmannan group also whittled their waistlines by more than an inch. (12)
In a second study, adults taking propolmannan experienced significant reductions in blood lipid levels. Propolmannan-supplemented individuals dropped cholesterol by 21.7 (mg/dL), triglycerides by 23.4 (mg/dL) and LDL by 15.0 (mg/dL). In the placebo group, cholesterol and LDL increased while triglycerides showed only a small decline. (1) (See chart 1 above.)
In this adult study where participants were not asked to alter their eating habits, those taking propolmannan lost an average of 5.5 pounds after eight weeks, compared to no significant weight change in the placebo group. (1)
In a similar study where subjects were allowed to eat anything they wanted, those taking propolmannan lost 7.92 pounds compared to no significant weight changes in the placebo arm of the study. (3) (See chart 2 above.)
These and other studies document that humans taking propolmannan experience weight loss and improvements in blood lipids compared to those taking placebo. (3), (13), (14)
One challenge is getting overweight and obese individuals into the habit of taking calorie-blocking agents like propolmannan before most meals. When one understands the urgent need to protect their body against the lethal effects of excess calorie intake, the argument for taking low-cost supplements like propolmannan become much more compelling.
Propolmannan is one component of a new metabolic management powder drink mix designed to be taken before the two heaviest meals of the day.
NEUTRALIZE YOUR CARBOHYDRATE-ABSORBING ENZYME
In response to eating a large meal, people gain fat pounds because of the rapid rise in blood glucose and the subsequent insulin spike. This elevation in blood glucose contributes to the synthesis of fat on our bodies (and triglycerides in our blood).
Large meals overload the bloodstream with calories and later cause a rebound increase in appetite when blood sugar levels plummet in response to excess release of insulin. One way of impeding this after-meal glucose-insulin surge is to take nutrients before meals that neutralize a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme called alpha-amylase.
UCLA School of Medicine researchers have successfully used extracts from the white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to target alpha-amylase. In a study of 30 obese adults, half took either a placebo or Phaseolus vulgaris extract. After eight weeks, those taking the Phaseolus vulgaris extract lost 3.8 pounds in weight, and more importantly 1.5 inches of abdominal fat. (17)
The group taking the Phaseolus vulgaris also had a three-fold reduction in triglyceride levels compared with the placebo recipients, which helps corroborate the role of weight loss and simultaneous reduction in artery-clogging triglyceride levels. (17)
A more impressive human study of Phaseolus vulgaris showed that those who consumed the most carbohydrates lost the most weight. In this study, subjects who supplemented with Phaseolus vulgaris and consuming the highest levels of dietary starch lost 8.7 pounds compared with only 1.7 pounds in the control group in only four weeks. Even more impressive was the 3.3 inches of belly fat lost in the Phaseolus vulgaris group versus only 1.3 inches in the controls. (5)
In a double-blind study on 60 overweight volunteers, half the study participants received Phaseolus vulgaris while the other half were given a placebo. Both groups were placed on a 2,000-2,200/day-calorie diet. After only 30 days, those taking Phaseolus vulgaris lost 6.5 pounds of weight and 1.2 inches in waist size compared with 0.8 pounds and 0.2 inches in the placebo group. (18)
As we age, it becomes increasingly difficult to keep the belly fat off. At the same time, we are challenged to keep blood glucose levels in optimal ranges (which are around 80 mg/dL). The exploding rates of type 2 diabetes and obesity are a testament to the dual problem of weight gain caused by the absorption of too many simple carbohydrate calories.
It makes sense for those seeking to lose weight to take Phaseolus vulgaris, which is why it is contained in a new powder mix designed to be taken before the two largest meals of the day.
TAKE CONTROL OF YOUR FAT-REGULATING FACTORS
Fat cells (called adipocytes) secrete leptin, a hormone that tells your brain you've eaten enough. Leptin also facilitates the breakdown of stored (triglyceride) fat in our adipocytes. (19), (20)
Overweight people have higher blood levels of leptin, indicating their cells have become resistant to the leptin that enables thin people to not put on so many fat pounds. (21-23)
Irvingia gabonensis is a West African plant extract that has been shown to help support leptin sensitivity in overweight people. When study subjects take Irvingia, their leptin levels drop, indicating that their cells are picking up the leptin and utilizing its beneficial fat-regulating properties. Study subjects taking Irvingia report consuming fewer calories, which makes sense, based on the enhanced leptin sensitivity brought about by this plant extract. (6)
In a double-blind study on 60 overweight volunteers, those taking Phaseolus vulgaris lost 6.5 pounds of weight and 1.2 inches in waist size compared with 0.8 pounds and 0.2 inches in the placebo group.
Researchers know that more than leptin sensitivity is involved in Irvingia's weight loss abilities. It turns out that Irvingia also has alpha-amylase-inhibiting properties (24) similar to Phaselolus vulgaris. Inhibiting amylase helps slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption, thus reducing the caloric impact of starchy-sugary foods.
Scientific data suggests that Irvingia also helps support healthy adiponectin levels. (6) Adiponectin is a hormone that helps maintain insulin sensitivity of energy-producing cells. Large fat cells found on overweight people produce less adiponectin. These means these individuals need to be concerned about maintaining enough adiponectin to support insulin sensitivity, something normally lost as we age.
The majority of body fat consists of triglycerides that are stored in our fat cells. A reason that weight loss and triglyceride reduction go hand-in-hand is that triglycerides make up the bulk of our fat storage. We get triglycerides directly from the fat we eat and also from conversion of excess glucose in our blood to triglycerides that is stored in fat cells.
Glucose is converted to triglycerides storage in fat cells by an enzyme called glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Irvingia inhibits glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, thus reducing the amount of ingested sugars that are converted to body fat. (25)
So Irvingia functions to reduce stored body fat by:
1. Up-regulating the expression of adiponectin, thereby improving insulin sensitivity. (6)
2. Restoring the dual weight control effects of leptin. (6)
3. Inhibiting the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, thereby reducing fatty acid storage in fat cells. (25)
4. Inhibiting alpha-amylase, thus reducing the amount of ingested starches that will be absorbed as glucose. (6), (24), (25)
The most impressive published study on Irvingia demonstrated beneficial effects on leptin blood levels, followed by a weight loss of over 20 pounds on average in 10 weeks. This kind of impressive result, however, has not consistently been shown in those who take Irvingia by itself. (6)
Irvingia is included in the new powdered drink mix formula to better enable people to control critical fat regulators (leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) while also further inhibiting the amylase enzyme.
TRIPLE THE WEIGHT LOSS EFFECTS OF CALORIE REDUCTION
As we age, we lose the ability to efficiently burn ingested food as energy. The result of excess calorie intake is unwanted body fat stores.
The encouraging news is that a proprietary green tea delivery system has been documented to substantially enhance the weight loss effects of eating healthier--while also trimming belly fat.
Green tea's weight loss benefits are attributed to polyphenol compounds that increase metabolic energy expenditure and calorie burning. The problem is getting a sufficient amount of green tea's polyphenols absorbed into the blood.
A group of researchers created a proprietary green tea phytosome that increased the capacity of polyphenols to be absorbed into the blood.
In a human study using this green tea phytosome, the weight-loss effects were greater than for any other compound we have ever observed. This study involved 100 overweight subjects. Half received the green tea phytosome. Both groups were placed on reduced calorie diets of approximately 1,850 calories/day for men and 1,350 calories/day for women. This is not a starvation diet (especially for the men). (4)
After three months on the reduced calorie diet the control group lost 9.9 pounds. The group taking the green tea phytosome, however, lost 30.1 pounds. This was triple the weight loss seen in the control group who did not receive the green tea phytosome. (4)
There was a 10% reduction in the abdominal fat pad in the green tea phytosome group compared with only 5% reduction in the control group. Male participants showed a 14% reduction in abdominal circumference compared with 7% reduction in the control group. (4)
This study confirmed that people can lose weight (9.9 pounds) by eating fewer calories. But when this green tea phytosome was added, the amount of weight shed tripled--while twice as much abdominal fat disappeared. (4)
The remarkable effect of this proprietary green tea compound to remove 30.1 pounds of weight is attributed to its ability to increase resting metabolic rate while reducing the absorption of dietary fats. (4) This green tea phytosome is thus an ideal nutrient to take with other compounds that reduce the rate of calorie absorption such as propolmannan and Phaseolus vulgaris.
If you are seriously seeking to shed excess body fat, it makes sense to avail yourself to the weight loss-amplifying effects of this proprietary green tea phytosome.
RATIONALE OF COMBINING FOUR INGREDIENTS INTO ONE POWDERED DRINK MIX
A new powdered drink mix provides the following nutrients at similar doses used in human clinical weight loss studies:
2. Phaseolus vulgaris
4. Green Tea phytosome
The rationale for selecting this particular combination is to enable overweight and obese individuals to modestly decrease their caloric intake without hunger (by enhancing leptin sensitivity) and reduce the amount of dietary fats and carbohydrates that are absorbed (using propolmannan and Phaseolus vulgaris). This then sets the stage for the remarkable benefits of the green tea phytosome to function in tandem with the reduced calorie burden to facilitate optimal weight loss, especially in the abdominal region.
To test this hypothesis, we took a group of overweight people who had failed all previous attempts to lose weight. These treatment-resistant individuals took a scoop of a powdered drink mixed with water 15-30 minutes before meals. After eight weeks, they lost an average of almost 12 pounds.
It would appear that continued use of this powdered drink mix before meals, along with taking individualized steps to address one's obesity-inducers, will result in a sustained reduction of body fat mass.
For those who visit our Life Extension Nutrition Center in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, we have a scuba diver weight belt that weighs 12 pounds. When a customer trivializes 12 pounds of weight loss in eight weeks, we let them walk around for 60 seconds wearing this weight belt. They quickly realize how heavy twelve pounds is and how much better they will feel after they shed this much body fat.
Aging humans seldom understand the magnitude of excess calories ingested each day. They too often think they are only eating a little more than they should.
The reality is that most of us consume far more food than our body can utilize for energy production. The result is an accumulation of unsightly fat masses that unleash deadly pro-inflammatory cytokines along with an inability to maintain glucose control and healthy blood lipid levels.
With the advent of nutritional compounds that impede dietary fat and carbohydrate absorption, manage regulators of fat storage like leptin, and boost resting metabolic rate--aging humans can realistically expect to start shedding excess pounds and inches in a safe and sustainable manner.
The challenge for all of us is to remember that excess calories are poison. We can either avoid the poison by drastically reducing our calorie intake, or take the nutrients described in this article before large meals to mitigate the effects of ingested calories, i.e., how many are absorbed and how many of the excess calories that make it into your bloodstream convert to body fat.
We suspect dedicated health enthusiasts will consider a little of both, meaning eating a little less and blunting the effects of the excess by taking the appropriate nutrients before most meals.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension[R] Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.
Caution: The remarkable fat-binding properties of propolmannan have one downside. Critical fat soluble nutrients like omega-3s, gamma tocopherol, along with vitamins D and K may not be fully absorbed. We suggest taking these fat-soluble nutrients at a different time of the day than propolmannan-containing supplements. Members typically obtain their gamma E and vitamin K in the Super Booster formula, along with a 5,000 IU vitamin D3 capsule and four softgels daily of Super Omega-3. For those who don't use the Super Booster, we have formulated a new Essential Fat-Soluble Nutrients formula that contains in one softgel:
Vitamin D 7,000 IU Vitamin K2 (as long-acting MK-7) 100 mcg Gamma tocopherol 210 mg DHA (from fish oil) 500 mg
This one softgel enables members to eliminate use of separate products. Three to four of Super Omega-3 should still be taken to obtain optimal levels of critical EPA/DHA fatty acids. A more complete description of the new Essential Fat-Soluble Nutrients appears later in this issue.
RELATED ARTICLE: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: PROPOLMANNAN
* A pharmaceutical grade dietary fiber made from a tuberous plant, Amorphophallus japonica, has an extraordinary ability to absorb ingested fats and carbohydrates and block their digestion.
* Propolmannan is many times more effective than typical glucomannan products made from Konjac, a tuber of the same species used in propolmannan.
* Propolmannan can also diminish appetite, improve blood lipids, and reduce inflammation.
* In numerous clinical studies, even without caloric restriction or other dietary changes, propolmannan has been shown to produce almost eight pounds of weight loss in adults after 8 weeks.
* Propolmannan has been shown to be safe and effective for young adults, adults, and seniors.
* Propolmannan should be taken before a meal.
RELATED ARTICLE: WHAT DIFFERENTIATES PROPOLMANNAN FROM GLUCOMANNAN
Konjac glucomannan is a similar plant to propol-mannan. They both are of the Amorphophallus genus that is used in Asian cuisine to thicken sauces, make fruit jellies, and to create konyaku, a stretchy noodle that is popular in Japan. (15) Konjac glucomannan, however, does not yield the extraordinarily high quality material that makes propolmannan so effective.
Many health claims have been made for Konjac glucomannan. But only by starting with the superior propolmannan of A. japonica and completely removing its catabolic enzymes does the resulting highly soluble and highly viscous fiber in propolmannan gain the ability to remain intact in the digestive tract, where it can form a sponge that binds to bile acids and impedes dietary fat absorption. (7-11,16)
This sponge function not only decreases appetite, but delays the emptying of food from the stomach into the small intestines, slowing down the influx of carbohydrates and fats into the bloodstream. This slower rate of gastric emptying helps keep blood sugar levels more stable than the typical sharp peaks after carbohydrate foods are eaten. (2)
As you will read in Critical Need to Control Fasting and After-Meal Glucose Levels, reducing postprandial (after-meal) glucose spikes promotes the beneficial expression of longevity genes observed in organisms that are calorie restricted.
RELATED ARTICLE: HOW GREEN TEA ENHANCED EFFECTS OF REDUCED CALORIE INTAKE
When we eat less, our metabolism slows down, which causes our body to go into a fat conservation mode. By consuming this green tea phytosome and reducing calorie ingestion and/or absorption, your basal metabolic rate is increased, so more fat pounds are lost than if you only consumed fewer calories. (26)
RELATED ARTICLE: WHEN GOOD METABOLISMS GO BAD
Obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions. The simple explanation is to blame our increasingly sedentary lifestyles, nutrient depleted, highly processed foods, and a culture that often proclaims that bigger is always better--including the size of food portions. But the harsh reality is that as we age, we are unable to efficiently convert ingested calories into energy production for a variety of reasons.
Obesity is a cause of many serious health problems. Adipose tissue broadcasts highly inflammatory immune substances such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1-beta that in turn increase C-reactive protein blood levels.
Chronically elevated levels of inflammation are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, (27) arthritis and connective tissue disorders, (28) and fatigue and pain.
Obesity and inflammation often go hand in hand. Conversely, reducing weight with sensible approaches sets in motion a positive spiral of reduced inflammation and a spectrum of associated health benefits.
(1.) Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes. 1984; 8(4):289-93.
(2.) Doi K, Nakamura T, Aoyama N, Matsurura M, Kawara A, Baba S. Metabolic and nutritional effects of long-term use of glucomannan in the treatment of obesity. In: Oomura Y, ed. Progress in Obesity Research. John Libbey & Company, Ltd., 1990:507-14.
(3.) Biancardi G, Palmiero L, Ghirardi PE. Glucomannan in the treatment of overweight patients with osteoarthritis. Curr Ther Res. 1989 Nov; 46(5):908-12.
(4.) Di Pierro F, Borsetto Menghi AM, Barreca A, Lucarelli M, Calandrelli A. Highly bioavailable green tea: Clinical study on obese subjects. Integr Nutr. 2008; 11(2):1-14.
(5.) Udani J, Singh BB. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using a proprietary fractionated white bean extract. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007 Jul-Aug; 13(4):32-7.
(6.) Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, Mbofung CM, Oben JE. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation. Lipids Health Dis. 2009 Mar 2; 8:7.
(7.) Alonso-Sande M, Teijeiro-Osorio D, Remunan-Lopez C, Alonso MJ. Glucomannan, a promising polysaccharide for biopharmaceutical purposes. Eur J Pharmaceut Biopharmaceut. 2009; 72:453-62.
(8.) U.S. Patent 3,856,945
(9.) U.S. Patent 3,928,322
(10.) U.S. Patent 3,973,008
(11.) U.S. Patent 3,767,424
(12.) Rodoriuez de Roa E, Marsicano Perez CLJ, Gomez N, Vargas E, Meneses PC. Pharmacologic intervention program in infantile obesity and dislipidemias: usefulness of the dietary fiber LuraLean[TM]. Unpublished study.
(13.) Reffo GC, Ghiradi PE, Forattini C. Glucomannan in hypertensive outpatients: Pilot clinical trial. Curr Ther Res.1988 Jul; 44(1):22-7.
(14.) Vita PM, Restelli A, Caspani P, Klinger R. Chronic use of glucomannan in the dietary treatment of severe obesity. Minerva Med. 1992 Mar; 83(3):135-9.
(15.) Chua M, Baldwin TC, Hocking TJ, Chan K. Traditional uses and potential health benefits of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch ex N.E.Br. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 24; 128(2):268-78.
(16.) Shimahara H, Suzuki H, Sugiyama N, Nisizawa K. Partial purification of--mannanases from the Konjac tubers and their substrate specificity in relation to the structure of Konjac glucomannan. Agr Biol Chem. 1975; 39(2):301-12.
(17.) Udani J, Hardy M, Madsen DC. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using Phase 2 brand proprietary fractionated white bean extract. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar; 9(1):63-9.
(18.) Celleno L, Tolaini MV, D'Amore A, Perricone NV, Preuss HG. A Dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women. Int J Med Sci. 2007 Jan 24; 4(1):45-52.
(19.) Sahu A. Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus: emphasis on energy homeostasis and leptin resistance. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2003 Dec; 24(4):225-53.
(20.) Wang MY, Orci L, Ravazzola M, Unger RH. Fat storage in adipocytes requires inactivation of leptin's paracrine activity: implications for treatment of human obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005 Dec 13; 102(50):18011-6.
(21.) Halaas JL, Gajiwala KS, Maffei M, et al. Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene. Science. 1995 Jul 28; 269(5223):543-6.
(22.) Considine RV, Sinha MK, Heiman ML, et al. Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. N Engl J Med. 1996 Feb 1; 334(5):292-5.
(23.) Hamann A, Matthaei S. Regulation of energy balance by leptin. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1996; 104(4):293-300.
(24.) Omoruyi F, Adamson I. Digestive and hepatic enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed supplements of dikanut (Irvingia gabonensis) and cellulose. Ann Nutr Metab. 1993; 37(1):14-23.
(25.) Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Blum K. Inhibition of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract (OB131) on adipogenesis as mediated via down regulation of the PPARgamma and leptin genes and up-regulation of the adiponectin gene. Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Nov 13; 7:44.
(26.) Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation. Physiol Behav. 2010 Apr 26; 100(1):42-6.
(27.) Rodondi N, Marques-Vidal P, Butler J, et al. Markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation for prediction of coronary heart disease in older adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Mar 1; 171(5):540-9.
(28.) Puntmann VO, Taylor PC, Mayr M. Coupling vascular and myocardial inflammatory injury into a common phenotype of cardiovascular dysfunction: Systemic inflammation and aging-A mini-review. Gerontology. 2010 Jun 11.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2010|
|Previous Article:||Aggressive actions needed to avert obesity crisis.|
|Next Article:||Block absorption of fat calories safely.|