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Retinal dystrophies.

A range of hereditary retinal dystrophies is presented to test the practitioner's recognition, interpretation and knowledge skills.

Optometrists [OCULAR DISEASE]

Therapeutic optometrists [KNOWLEDGE]


01 What type of lesion is the arrow pointing to?

a) 'Egg yolk' lesion at the macula

b) Softdrusen

c) Macular hole

d) Choroidal neovascular membrane

02 Which retinal layer does the lesion affect?

a) Retinal nerve fibre layer

b) Retinal pigment epithelium

c) Choriocapillaris

d) Ganglion cell layer

03 Which stage of the disease is this commonly classified as?

a) Stage 1 pre-vitelliform

b) Stage 2 vitelliform

c) Stage 3 pseudohypopyon

d) Stage 4 vitelliruptive

04 What abnormality is represented in the image?

a) Peripheral retinal tears

b) Retinoschisis

c) Gyrate atrophy

d) Retinitis pigmentosa

05 Which of the following would be least likely to be associated with this presentation?

a) Myopia

b) Posterior subcapsular cataract

c) Nyctalopia

d) A:V nipping of the retinal veins

06 Which of the following diseases has a similar inheritance to the above condition?

a) Stickler syndrome

b) Ocular albinism

c) Choroideremia

d) Leber's congenital amaurosis

07 Which sign is not commonly observed on examination of patients with the condition shown?

a) Peripheral retinal bone spicule pigmentation

b) Arteriolar narrowing

c) Waxy optic disc

d) Anterior polar cataract

08 Which is the most common syndrome linked to the condition shown?

a) Kearns-Sayre syndrome

b) Bardet-Biedl syndrome

c) Usher syndrome

d) Refsum disease

09 How can the condition shown be inherited?

a) Autosomal dominant

b) Autosomal recessive

c) X linked

d) All of the above

10 Which condition is shown in the image?

a) Wet AMD

b) Cone dystrophy

c) Pathological myopia

d) Stargardt disease

11 What diagnostic test is being used?

a) Fluorescein angiography

b) Fundus autofluorescence

c) Optical coherence tomography

d) Red-free fundus photograph

12 What are the yellow and red arrows pointing to?

a) Pisciform lipofuscin flecks and RPE atrophy

b) Hard drusen and macular oedema

c) Soft drusen and neovascular membrane

d) Dot retinal haemorrhage and macular atrophy

Exam questions and references

Under the enhanced CET rules of the GOC, MCQs for this exam appear online at Please complete online by midnight on 8 April 2017. You will be unable to submit exams after this date.

For references, visit, and click on the 'Related CET article' title to view the article and accompanying 'references' in full.


The authors and publishers acknowledge the University of Iowa and for permission to reproduce this copyrighted material from for Image B

Course code: C-54869 Deadline: 8 April 2017

Learning objectives

* Be able to recognise a range of ocular abnormalities (Group 6.1.5)

* Understand the natural progress of a range of ocular abnormalities (Group 1.1.1)

Prashant Shah MCOptom, PGDipOphth, DipClinOptom and Yashita Shah MCOptom, PGDipOphth

* Prashant Shah is an optometrist with postgraduate diplomas in ophthalmology and in clinical optometry, and works in routine practice.

* Yashita Shah is an optometrist working in independent practice. She holds a postgraduate diploma in ophthalmology.

Caption: Image A A 15-year-old male patient presents for a routine sight test.

Caption: Image B A 25-year-old female patient presents with reduced peripheral vision.

Caption: Image C A 20-year-old patient presents with reduced night vision.

Caption: Image D A 25-year-old female patient presents with visual acuities of 6/36 in both eyes.
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Title Annotation:VRICS
Author:Shah, Prashant; Shah, Yashita
Publication:Optometry Today
Date:Mar 1, 2017
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