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Responsion in the Rigveda.

[section]0. AMONG THE FORMS OF REPETITION found in the Rigveda, the most abstract is that of syntactic pattern. Where the repeated pattern is itself a construction rather than a set of appositional terms occupying the same syntactic rank, it is traditionally termed a responsion. In this paper I wish to investigate the nature and types of stanza-internal responsions in the Rigveda.

[section] 1. The most characteristic feature of responsions is that they typically possess a vertical dimension. That is, their internal linear (= horizontal) constituents may generally be placed in vertical alignment and match up, to a greater or lesser extent, on a word-for-word basis. Where the alignment is exact, we may speak of a perfect (vertical) responsion. In a restricted number of cases the correspondence may be not only word-for-word, but syllable-for-syllable. We shall term such instances parisyllabic. The following passages both represent perfect responsions, the first of which is parisyllabic:

(1) a. IX.106.6ab asmabhyam gatuvittamo I devebhyo madhumattamah For us, the best of the finders of a way; for the heavenly ones, the best of those possessing sweetness.

b. VI.28.1b sidantu gosthe ranayantv asme Let them sit in the cowstall; let them rejoice among us.

The two cola of (a) are articulated over a stretch of two padas, one colon per pada. Semantically, they represent a contrast (asmabhyam/devebhyah). In (b) the responsion appears within a single tristubh pada, the five-syllable opening housing one colon and the six-syllable break + cadence the second.

Responsive cola may be overtly conjoined (2a-c). They may show parallel or chiastic word-order (a, b, respectively), as well as slight differences in their internal structures (c):

(2) a. VI.60.1a snathad vrtram uta sanoti vajam He pierces the obstacle and wins booty.

b. VI.69. 1c jusetham yajnam dravinam ca dhattam Enjoy the worship and create wealth.

c. VII.24.1d dado vasuni mamadas ca somaih Thou shalt give goods, and thou shalt exhilarate thyself with the somas.

In (2b, c) the presence of ca loosens the rigid word-correspondence of the individual cola. Elsewhere, the responsion is interrupted by additional words, which may appear initially, finally, or medially (3a-c, respectively). In the latter two passages the extra word is a verb gapped in the partner colon. In (d) the two medial words of each colon are balanced but not themselves responsive:

(3) a. III.24.1ab agne sahasva prtana / abhimatir apasya O Agni, win the battles; cast off those plotting evil.

b. I.32.9c uttara sur adharah putra asit Above was the mother, below the son.

c. II.32.8cd indranim ahva utaye / varunanim svastaye I have called Indrani for aid, Varunani for well-being.

d. I.29.4ab sasantu tya aratayo / bodhantu sura ratayah Let these non-givers sleep; let the givers awake, O hero.

Among the cohesive features linking the terms of the above responsions are homoioteleuton (sasantu/bodhantu, indranim/varunanim, utaye/svastaye) and paronomasia (aratayo/ratayah). Semantically, we find similar actions (a, c), contrast of position (b), and double antithesis (of subject and verb) (d). All of these passages show parallel word-order with the exception of (a), which is chiastic.

The responsions seen in (1)-(3) all involve dicola. Responsive tricola and tetracola are also attested. (4a-c) illustrate two-word tricola occurring within a single pada, two padas, and one and a half padas, respectively:

(4) a. VI.23.4b babhrir vajram papih somam dadir gah Bearer of a cudgel, drinker of soma, giver of cows...

b. I.l18.2cd pinvatam ga jinvatam arvato no / vardhayatam asvina viram asme Swell the cows; quicken our coursers; strengthen, O Asvins, the hero among us.

c. VIII.101.l5ab mata rudranam duhita vasunam / svasadityanam amrtasya nabhih Mother of the Rudras, daughter of the Vasus, sister of the Adityas, the nave of immortality...

(a) is notable for its verb + object structure involving three agent nouns in -i- built to reduplicated stems. In (b) the responsive cola form a Behaghel sequence with additions of nah at the end of colon 2 and vocative as well as final pronoun in colon 3. Here a tighter link between the first two cola than between these and the third is indicated by rhyming verb stems, semantic similarity of objects, and the pada-boundary. (c) might actually be thought to contain a tetracolon. To the three tightly constructed sequences of noun of relationship (fem.) + genitive in the initial three cola is added a fourth containing the same construction in reverse order; moreover, the term nabhih may be seen as signaling a relational status superior to those of the temporal world.

The ambiguous status of (4c) may serve as a transition to those passages containing rather clear instances of two-word tetracola:

(5) a. VIII.48.3ab apama somam amrta abhuma / aganma jyotir avidama devan We have drunk soma; we have become immortal; we have gone to the light; we have found the heavenly ones.

b. IX.71.3b.d vrsayate nabhasa vepate mati //.../ nenikte apsu yajate parimani Through the (rain-)cloud he becomes a bull; through the thought he becomes inspired.... He is washed in the waters; he is worshipped in fullness.

c. II.16.2cd jathare somam tanvi saho maho / haste vajram bharati sirsani kratum In his stomach soma, in his body great power, he bears a cudgel in his hand, determination in his head.

VIII.48.3ab is probably the best known responsive tetracolon in the Rigveda. Its uninterrupted structure, its perfect vertical parisyllabism (5+6/5+6), coming as close to horizontal isosyllabism as the tristubh meter allows, as well as the loftiness of its content have all contributed to its familiarity and the high esteem in which it is held. Less obvious is the responsion in (b), whose cola appear in the final padas of each distich of this jagati stanza. We find here a chiastic vertical syllable count (7+5/5+7), and the different padas show variant verb-initial syntactic constructions ([V+N.sub.instr] in b, [V+N.sub.loc] in d). (c) illustrates a gapped responsive tetracolon with bharati applying to each of the locative + object structures. Notable in the second colon is the addition of the rhyme-producing maho (saho maho).

All the passages cited so far have contained two-word responsions. Three-word responsions are illustrated in (6a-c):

(6) a. II.15.7c prati srona sthad vy anag acasta The lame one stood firm; the sightless one looked out.

b. VIII.35.12a hatam ca satrun yatatam ca mitrinah Smite the rivals and align the friendly ones (on your side).

c. I.10.1ab gayanti tva gayatrino / (a)rcanty arkinah The singers sing thee; the praisers sing the song of praise.

Each of these passages shows vertical word-for-word correspondence, either within the pada (a, b) or across a pada-boundary (c). Because ca appears within each colon in (b), we have counted it as an integral member of the responsion. Notable in (c) is the widespread paronomasia (gayanti... gayatrinah, arcanty arkam arkinah).

An example of a three-word responsive tricolon is the following:

(7) I.70.11a-c sadhur na grdhnur / asteva suro // yateva bhimah Eager (for battle) like an excellent (horse), heroic like a shooter, fearsome like a (mounted) driver.

Here the threefold simile evokes forcefully the image of power in battle, sharpened by the abrupt structures of the five-syllable dvipada viraj lines and climactically rounded off by the stanza's final pada: tvesah samatsu "impetuous in the battles."

Four-word responsive dicola are seen in the following passages:

(8) a. X.76.8cd vamam-vamam vo divyaya dhamne / vasuvasu vah parthivaya sunvate (Let) every desirable thing of yours (be) for the heavenly domain; (let) every one of your goods (be) for the earthly presser.

b. I.44.14a.c srnvantu stomam marutah sudanavah /...// pibatu somam varuno dhrtavratah Let the Maruts, having good gifts, hear the praise.... Let Varuna, whose vow is lasting, drink the soma.

c. III.52.3ab purolasam ca no ghaso / josayase giras ca nah Thou shalt eat our cooked rice, and thou shalt enjoy our songs.

The first two of these passages represent perfect vertical parisyllabic responsions. The parallelism in (a) is even extended to the employment of amreditas at the beginning of both padas. In (b) the responsion is localized in the opening pada of each distich. (c) shows word-order variation involving fronting of the verb in the second colon. Semantically, we find the homoioteleutic opposition divyaya dhamne/parthivaya sunvate at the core of (a) and the characteristic stoma/soma opposition in (b), the latter a phonological play as well. In (c) the god is called upon to manifest the desired response to two simultaneous ritual acts.

Responsions involving more than four words are fairly rare. A five-word responsion whose two cola each fill up an anustubh distich is seen in (9a), while six-word responsions are illustrated in (b) and (c):

(9) a. I.50.12 sukesu me harimanam / ropanakasu dadhmasi // atho haridravesu me / harimmanam ni dadhmasi Upon the parrots, upon the Ropanaka-birds do we set my jaundice. And upon the Haridravas do we set my jaundice.

b. VI.34.lab sam ca tve jagmur gira indra purvir / vi ca tvad yanti vibhvo manisah On thee have the many songs united, O Indra; and out from thee goes the outstanding wisdom.

c. I.53.7ab yudha yudham upa ghed esi dhrsnuya / pura puram sam idam hansy ojasa Thou goest boldly unto battle after battle; citadel after citadel dost thou smite here together with thy power.

Of these passages, (a) shows the least exact degree of responsion, with the unmatched ropanakasu in pada b. Aside from this, however, the word order following atho of pada c is vertically congruent. (b) and (c) are both remarkable in their vertical alignments. (c) in particular shows perfect vertical parisyllabism and internal structural congruence, including parallel opening instrumental + accusative constructions, medial preverb + verb structures, and final trisyllabic adverbial adjuncts. (b) shows the semantic opposition sam ca tve jagmuh.../ vi ca tvad yanti, an intrusive vocative in pada a alone breaking up the word-for-word vertical parallelism.

[section]2. In the responsions discussed so far I have avoided structures involving anaphora. In its strictest form (initial, non-polyptotic repetition), anaphora facilitates responsion by providing a constant form in a fixed grammatical role within a set position, and the poet has consequently less to match up in the rest of the structure. Responsions involving anaphora are therefore legion, and we can provide only some characteristic examples here. Asyndetic responsions-cum-anaphora, both within the line and across a pada-boundary, are the following:

(10) a. ta a gamantu ta iha sruvantu Let those come hither; let those hear here.

b. VI.49.10b rudram diva vardhaya rudram aktau Strengthen Rudra by day, Rudra by night.

c. IV.1.20ab visvesam aditir yajniyandm / visvesam atithir manusanam (He is) the Aditi of all those worthy of worship, the guest of all mortals.

d. I.129.2de yah suraih svah sanita / yo viprair vajam taruta Who conquers the sun with his heroes, who wins booty with his inspired poets...

e. I.89.8ab bhadram karnebhih karnebhih srnuyama deva / bhadram pasyemaksabhir yajatrah May we hear an auspicious (word) with our ears, O heavenly ones; may we see an auspicious thing with our eyes, O ye worthy of worship.

(a), (c), and (d) are perfect responsions, the latter two also parisyllabic. (b) shows verbal gapping with word-for-word parisyllabism to each side of the verb, and (e) shows chiastic placement of line-internal verb and instrumental. Remarkable in (c) is not only the vertical word-for-word identity of stem type, but also the phonetic feature correspondence of medial aditir/atithir, including both vowel assonance and identity of place of articulation of its consonants. Semantically, (b) shows the complementary opposition diva/aktau 'by day/at night', and (e) shows a sensory opposition expressed by both the name of an organ and its own verbum sententiae nestled between the initial anaphoric term and a following vocative in each pada. The remaining passages involve parallel actions or descriptors.

Conjoined anaphoric responsions include the following:

(11) a. V.81.1a yunjate mana uta yunjate dhiyah They yoke the mind, and they yoke the thoughts.

b. X.160.2a tubhyam sutas tubhyam u sotvasah For thee are the pressed (somas), and for thee are the ones to be pressed.

c. X.7.7ab bhava no agne (a)vitota gopa / bhava vayaskrd uta no vayodhah Become an aider and protector for us, O Agni. Become a maker of strength and a designator of strength for us.

Both (b) and (c) are characterized by paronomasia (sutah/sotvasah, vayaskrt/vayodhah), but the second of these shows a significant degree of vertical variation.

Related to anaphora is epiphora or colon-final repetition. A number of responsions are characterized by this phenomenon as well (12a, b), and the combination of anaphora and epiphora (complexio) is also represented among Rigvedic responsions (c):

(12) a. VIII.47.1ef (=2-18ef) anehaso va utayah/suutayo va utayah Faultless are your aids; of good assistance are your aids.

b. VIII.35.10b prajam ca dhattam dravinam ca dhattam Create offspring and create wealth.

c. V.39.5de giro vardhanty atrayo / girah sumbhanty atrayah The Atris increase (their) songs, the Atris beautify (their) songs.

In each of the cola here two of the three words are fixed, leaving room for variation only in the remaining word, whose position and syntactic role are themselves necessarily determined.

Responsions showing three or four cola are also found in association with anaphora and epiphora:

(13) a. V.5.11 svahagnaye varunaya / svahendraya maradbhyah / svaha devebhyo havih (We pour) an oblation with a Svaha to Agni, to Varuna, with a Svaha to Indra, to the Maruts, with a Svaha to the heavenly ones.

b. I.27.13ab namo mahadbhyo namo arbhakebhyo / namo yuvabhyo nama asinebhyah Reverence to the great ones, reverence to the small ones, reverence to the young ones, reverence to the old ones.

c. VII.103.6ab gomayur eko ajamayur ekah / prsnir eko harita eka esam One lows like a cow, one bleats like a goat; one is speckled, one of them is bay-colored.

d. VI.44.21ab vrsasi divo vrsabhah prthivya / vrsa sindhunam vrsabha stiyanam Thou art the bull of heaven, the bull of earth, the bull of the (moving) rivers, the bull of the standing waters.

e. VI.47.1ab svadus kilayam madhuman utayam / tivrah kilayam rasavan utayam Sweet, indeed, is this, and full of honey is this. Sharp, indeed, is this, and tasty is this.

f. X. 129.5bc adhah svid asi3d upari svid asi3t // retodha asan mahimana asan Was it below? Was it above? There were creators of seed; there were powers.

Of these passages, (a) is a tricolon with ellipsed verb throughout and the object expressed once in the final pada in lieu of a second dative. (b) is the most tightly constructed tetracolon in the Rigveda, a perfect parisyllabic responsion made up of elemental ritual shouts. The pada-boundary correlates with a semantic division into dative objects indicating size (ab) and age (cd). The same may be said of (c), whose epiphoric structure is extended by an enclitic genitive complement in pada b and whose padas refer to sound and color, respectively. (d) is notable in showing a synonymous double anaphora (vrsa/vrsabhah) with semantic division by pada, once again, into heaven and earth vs. types of waters. In (e) the four cola could be taken to represent two perfect parisyllabic responsions, one in each pada; and this type of division is even clearer in (f), based upon both illocutionary structure (question vs. statement) and the different epiphoric verb forms in each pada.

In another group of responsions one finds repeated verb forms that are neither anaphoric nor epiphoric but rather occupy various positions within their cola. These passages never show perfect vertical word-for-word equivalence. Examples involving asyndetic three- and four-word structures across a pada-boundary are the following:

(14) a. I.164.51cd bhumim parjanya jinvanti / divam jinvanty agnayah While the rainclouds quicken the earth, the fires quicken heaven.

b. X.85.40ab somah prathamo vivide / gandharvo vivida urrarah Soma found (i.e., received) her first; Gandharva received her next.

c. IX.97.34cd gavo yanti gopatim prchamanah / somam yanti matayo vavasanah The cows go asking after the cowherd; the thoughts go longing for the soma.

d. X.13.4ab devebhyah kam avrnita mrtyum / prajayai kam amrtam navrnita He chose death over the heavenly ones; he did not choose immortality over offspring.

The first two of these passages are three-word responsions showing the alignments 123/132. (c) is a four-word parisyllabic responsion with the order 1234/3214, subject and object showing inverted positions surrounding a fixed, second-position verb. Inversion of verb and object, together with an unmatched negation in the second colon, is seen in (d). Semantically, the opposition heaven/earth paralleled by variant subjects is seen in (a), whereas (b) shows a temporal sequence (prathamah/uttarah). (c) presents an exact metaphorical opposition between animate and inanimate subjects (gavah/matayah), whereas (d) constitutes a litotic tautology with a secondary opposition of gods and (human) offspring.

Conjoined responsions showing variantly positioned repeated verb forms include the following:

(15) a. VIII.35.16a brahma jinvatam uta jinvatam dhiyah Quicken the formulation and quicken the thoughts.

b. III.34.9a sasanatyan uta suryam sasana He won the coursers and he won the sun.

c. VII.19.5d dhan ca vrtram namucim utahan He smote Vrtra and he smote Namuci.

(a) and (b) show, respectively, near and distant chiasm in the placement of their verbs. Distant chiasm of the verb is seen also in (c), which shows the peculiar conjoined sequence ahan ca...utahan.

Tricola and tetracola with variant position of the verb are illustrated in (16a, b) and (c), respectively:

(16) a. X.85.10a-c mano asya ana asid / dyaur asid uta chadih // sukrav anadvahav astam Mind was her (wedding-)carriage, and heaven was her covering (i.e., the roof of the carriage). The two lights (viz., sun and moon) were her draft-animals.

b. IV.52.3 uta sakhasy asvinor / uta mata gavam asi / utoso vasva isise And thou art a friend of the Asvins, and thou art mother of the cows; and thou art mistress of good, O dawn.

c. I.191.2 adrstan hanty ayaty / atho hanti parayati // atho avaghnati hanty / atho pinasti pinsati Coming hither, she smites the invisible (serpents), and going forth, she smites (them). And she smites them in smashing them down, and in crushing them, she crushes them (to death).

The first two of these passages could be viewed as consisting of dicola extended by additional, somewhat more loosely attached padas. Witness the variant verb forms of the third padas of each. But X.85.10c shows the same core structure as ab, and its verb differs only in person from that of the two prior padas. Moreover, IV.52.3c, though somewhat different in structure from padas a and b, is bound together with these by virtue of the anaphoric employment of uta. Similarly, I.191.2 could be viewed as containing a double dicolon with gapping of adrstan in all padas but a. Nevertheless, the overall structural similarity of all four padas suggests rather a tetracolon.

[section]3. We have seen that anaphora, whether in its strictest sense of exact colon-initial repetition or in the looser sense of repetition anywhere within the clause or colon, facilitates responsion by creating a word-for-word equation in at least one of the terms of the cola. The same is true, a fortiori, where the repetition is phrasal or involves more than a single term. A very substantial set of responsions illustrates this more extensive repetition. The occurring patterns show anywhere from three- to six-word constructions which may be asyndetic or conjoined and appear within the pada or across a pada boundary. Some examples of dicola showing parallel word-order are the following:

(17) a. I.123.7a apanyad ety abhy anyad eti One goes away; the other approaches.

b. X.56.1a idam ta ekam para u ta ekam The one here is thine, and the one there is thine.

c. V.45.11cd aya dhiya syama devagopa / aya dhiya tuturyamaty amhah Through this (poetic) thought may we be protected by the heavenly ones; through this thought may we cross beyond straitened circumstance.

d. X.137.3ab a vata vahi bhesajam / vi vata vahi yad rapah O wind, blow hither healing; O wind, blow away infirmity.

e. X.71.4ab uta tvah pasyan na dadarsa a vacam / uta tvah srnvan na srnoty enam And one, beholding, has not seen speech, and one, listening, does not hear her.

f. II.43.2de sarvato nah sakune bhadram a vada / visvato nah sakune punyam a vada From all sides speak an auspicious word to us, O bird; from every side speak a lucky word to us, O bird.

Among the relationships seen in these passages are opposite directional motion (a, d), spatial (here/there) opposition (b), sensory contrast (e), and tautology (f). Notable as well are such pronominal oppositions as anya- ... anya- (a) and tva- ... tva- (e). The perfect vertical parisyllabic responsive patterns of (a), (e), and (f) are also impressive, as is both the morphological and semantic identity of the non-repeated responsive words of (f) and the structural identity of (e). All cases of complexio (cf. V.39.5cd [=12c] above) belong here as well.

In a smaller group of passages the dicola show variations in word-order:

(18) a. II.35.3a sam anya yanty upa yanty anyah Some unite; others flow (into the sea).

b. I.103.5c sa ga avindat so avindad asvan That one found the cows; that one found the horses.

c. X.27.7b darsan nu purvo dparo nu darsat The front-line will disperse now; the rear-guard will now disperse.

d. III.43.7cd yasya made cyavayasi pra krstir / yasya made apa gotra vavartha In the exhilaration of which thou dost impel forth the races, in the exhilaration of which thou hast uncovered the cow-stalls

A subtype related to (17) and (18) consists of reciprocal responsions whose lexical repetitions are typically polyptotic:

(19) a. X.114.4d tam mata relhi sa u relhi mataram That one does the mother lick, and that one licks the mother.

b. X.14.3c yans ca deva vavrdhur ye ca devan Which ones the heavenly ones have strengthened and which ones (strengthen) the heavenly ones...

c. VII.55.4ab tvam sukarasya dardrhi / tava dardartu sukarah Do thou tear at the boar; let the boar tear at thee.

d. VIII.44.23ab yad agne syam aham tvam / tvam va gha sya aham If, O Agni, I were thou, or indeed, thou wert I.

e. X.85.37cd ya no uru usati visrayate / yasyam usantah praharama sepam Who will desirously open up her thighs for us, in whom we will desirously stick our penis...

f. X.72.4cd aditer dakso ajayata / daksad v aditih pari Daksa was born from Aditi and Aditi from Daksa.

Inversion of subject and object roles is seen in (a), (b), and (c) [genitive object]. In (e) the case relations are given by nature, whereas (d) provides a predicative relationship entailing exact formal repetition of the personal pronouns. In (f) the notion of mutual birth is articulated with inverted ablative and subject roles.

A number of passages showing phrasal word-repetition involve three or more cola. The tricola typically feature two perfect or near-perfect parisyllabic responsions and a third which shows variation:

(20) a. V.83.5 yasya vrate prthivi nannamiti / yasya vrate saphavaj jarbhuriti // yasya vrata osadhir visvarupah / sa nah parjanya mahi sarma yacha At whose command the earth bows down, at whose command the hoofed one moves about, at whose command the plants possess all forms, as that one, O Parjanya, extend great protection to us.

b. IV. 35.5a--c sacyakarta pitara yuvana / sacyakarta camasam devapanam // sacya hari dhanutarav atasta With (your) power ye made the two fathers young; with (your) power ye made the cup from which the heavenly ones drink; with (your) power ye fashioned the two bay runners.

c. IV. 33.5a--c jyestha aha camasa dva kareti / kaniyan trin krnavamety aha // kanistha aha caturas kareti The eldest said, "I will make two cups"; the younger said, "We will make three"; the youngest said, "I will make four."

In (a) and (b) the first two cola are rigid responsions differing only in their last two words, while the third is looser in structure. In (b), for example, the phrasal nature of the anaphora is dropped in the third pada with the replacement of akarta by the synonymous atasta, moved to the end of the line. In (c) the greatest vertical similarity is in padas a and c (the latter with gapping), whereas b shows variant word order relative to its neighbors, while sharing gapping with c.

Passages showing more than three cola are the following:

(21) a. VI.52.4 avantu mam usaso jayamana / avantu ma sindhavah pinvamanah // avantu ma parvataso dhruvaso / (a)vantu ma pitaro devahutau Let the dawns, being born, aid me; let the swelling rivers aid me; let the firm mountains aid me; let the fathers aid me in the invocation of the heavenly ones.

b. I.114.7 ma no mahantam uta ma no arbhakam / ma na uksantam uta ma na uksitam // ma no vadhih pitaram mota mataram / ma nah priyas tanvo rudra ririsah Do not kill our great one nor our small one, our growing one nor our grown one, neither our father nor (our) mother. Do not injure our dear bodies, O Rudra.

In (a) the first two padas are parisyllabic with word-forword grammatical parallelism, while the fourth shows variation in the grammatical role of its final word. (b) shows a strict parisyllabic responsion involving a tetracolon in the opening distich and a fuller grammatical structure with attendant word-order variation in pada c. The final pada, while parallel, is only partly responsive.

[section]4. One of the most precise sets of responsions to be found in the Rigveda comprises a group of dicola characterized, with minor exceptions, by the presence of some pada-medical term or phrase that is exactly repeated, while the words or phrases to its right and left are vertically responsive relative to the partner pada, structurally AXB/A'XB'. Examples include the following:

(22) a. I.27.9bc arvadbhir astu taruta / viprebhir astu sanita Let him conquer (booty) with his coursers; let him win with his poets.

b. I.120.9bc raye ca no mimitam vajavatyai / ise ca no mimitam dhenumatyai Designate us for wealth consisting of booty, and designate us for nourishment rich in cows.

c. VIII. 9.1lab yatam chardispa uta nah paraspa bhutam jagatpa uta nas tanupa Drive as protectors of (our) roof and as our protectors from the distance. Become protectors of (our) moving possession and protectors of our bodies.

d. VIII. 69.9bc godha pari sanisvanat // pinga pari caniskadat The godha will resound; the pinga will leap.

e. X. 85.lab satyenottabhita bhumih / suryenottabhita dyauh Through truth is the earth propped up; through the sun is heaven propped up.

f. VII.52.1cd sanema mitravaruna sananto / bhavema dyavaprthivi bhavantah As winners, O Mitra (and) Varuna, may we win; may we become prosperous, O heaven and earth.

The word-for-word parisyllabic vertical parallelism of these passages is perfect. Only in (f) are the medial words non-identical, and the variant translation of the cola here is owing to the pregnant meaning of the participle bhavantah. But the responsion is as fine as any in the Rigveda.

[section]5. The final set of responsions we shall consider here are dicola consisting of two-part horizontal structures such as relative-correlative, interrogative-relative, and statement plus clarifying causal explanation. These are then vertically aligned with similar structures in a responding pada. Examples are the following:

(23) a. I.164. 19ab ye arvancas tan u paraca ahur / ye parancas tan u arvaca ahuh The ones who are (coming) hither, those do they say to be (going) forth. The ones who are (going) forth, those do they say to be (coming) hither.

b. X.10.11ab kim bhratasad yad anatham bhavati / kim u svasa yan nirrtir nigachat What (good) will a brother be, if there will be lack of protection, and what (good) a sister, if destruction shall descend.

c. IX.79.3ab uta svasya aratya arir hi sa / utanyasya aratya vrko hi sah (Protect us) from the stinginess of one among us, for that one is (as) a stranger; and (protect us) from the stinginess of another (than us), for that one is a wolf.

These passages are impressive in the way they sustain vertical responsion over a complex horizontal structure.

[section]6. This study of responsion in the Rigveda, offered in felicitation and respect to an esteemed and inspiring teacher, completes a set of articles in which I have catalogued stylistic repetition in the Rigveda from the level of the root morpheme, to that of the (suffix plus) inflectional morpheme, to that of the word, and now the construction (Klein, 1999, 2000, forthcoming a, forthcoming b, forthcoming c, forthcoming d). In a certain sense this last level incorporates all the others, in that we have seen the extent to which paronomasia, homoioteleuton, anaphora (and its various subcategories of lexical repetition), even, on occasion, amreditas come into play within the responding structures. Yet, responsion is more than just a stringing together of these subconstructional effects, for not all Rigvedic responsions are necessarily characterized by any of these (cf., for example, 3a and 6a above). What responsion does show us, however, is that just as the Rigvedic bards were sensitive to phonetic effect s, so they were capable of constructing elegant poetry out of antithetical, analogical, and tautological thought patterns expressed in balanced structures completely suited to the metrical vehicle which they made so completely and distinctively their own.


Klein, Jared S. 1999. A Triadic Structural Feature of Nominal Anaphora in the Rigveda. In Gering und doch von Herzen: 25 indogermanistische Beitrage, Bernhard Forssman zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. J. Habisreitinger, R. Plath, and S. Ziegler. Pp. 119-34. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag.

_____. 2000. Polyptoton and Paronomasia in the Rigveda. In Anusantatyai. Festschrift fur Johanna Narten zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. A. Hintze and E. Tichy. Pp. 133-55. Munchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft, supp. 19, n.s. Dettelbach: Verlag Dr. J. H. Roll.

_____. Forthcoming a. Amreditas and Related Constellations in the Rigveda. To appear in JAOS.

_____. Forthcoming b. The Syntax of Style: A Typology of Word- and Morpheme-Level Repetition in the Rigveda. To appear in the Proceedings of the Wurzburger Arbeitstagung: "Indogermanische Syntax."

_____. Forthcoming c. Patterns of Verb Repetition in the Rigveda. To appear in Gedenkschrift E. C. Polome.

_____. Forthcoming d. Homoioteleuton in the Rigveda. To appear in Indo-European Perspectives, ed. M. Southern.
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Author:Klein, Jared S.
Publication:The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Apr 1, 2002
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