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Response of Recent benthic foraminiferal assemblages to contrasting environments in Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea, Northwest Atlantic.

(Received 3 May 2010; accepted in revised form 6 December 2010)

ABSTRACT. Modern deep-water benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea, Western North Atlantic, were sampled from box cores and analyzed to determine assemblage composition. The two marine basins are separated by the shallow waters of Davis Strait. Assemblages of Baffin Bay contained only agglutinated foraminifera, whereas samples from the Labrador Sea contained both calcareous and agglutinated species, which resulted in significantly higher species richness. The absence of benthic calcareous taxa in Baffin Bay is attributed to cold, saline, [CO.sup.2]-rich bottom waters related to the Baffin Bay Bottom Water and the Baffin Bay Atlantic Water. Modern foraminiferal assemblage distribution supports the model of increased organic flux under seasonal open-water conditions that feed a rich agglutinated assemblage, but lead to oxidation of organic matter and increased carbonate dissolution. Deep-water sediments contain ice-rafted coarsegrained components and biogenic elements such as sponge spicules that are heavily used by numerous agglutinated species for test construction. Robust, tubular suspension feeders occupy regions under the influence of bottom currents that deliver nutrients. Although disturbances of the sediment-water interface cannot be excluded with sampled box cores, small-scale patchiness can be confirmed by varying abundances of infaunal taxa. Absolute counts of specimens in subsamples vary significantly, whereas species evenness among subsamples is less variable. These findings call for caution when interpreting lateral faunal changes on the basis of small core samples.

Key words: benthic foraminifera, Baffin Bay, Labrador Sea, carbonate dissolution, faunal patchiness

RESUME. Nous avons echantillonne des assemblages modernes de foraminiferes benthiques d'eau profonde preleves dans la baie de Baffin et le nord de la mer du Labrador, Atlantique du Nord-Ouest, a partir de carottes a boite, puis nous les avons analyses afin d'en determiner la composition. Les deux bassins marins sont separes par les eaux peu profondes du detroit de Davis. Les assemblages de la baie de Baffin ne renfermaient que des foraminiferes agglutinants, tandis que les echantilions de la mer du Labrador contenaient a la fois des especes calcaires et des especes agglutinantes, ce qui a donne lieu a une richesse d'especes considerablement superieure. L'absence de taxons calcaires benthiques dans la baie de Baffin s'explique par la presence d'eau de fond froide, saline et riche en CO2 provenant de l'eau de fond de la baie de Baffin et de l'eau atlantique de la baie de Baffin. La repartition des assemblages foraminiferes modernes cadre avec le modele du flux organique accru moyennant des conditions saisonnieres en eaux libres qui alimentent un riche assemblage agglutinant, mais qui se traduisent par l'oxydation de la matiere organique et l'intensification de la dissolution du carbonate. Les sediments en eau profonde contiennent des composantes glacielles a grains grossiers et des elements biogenes tels que le spicule de spongiaire dont dependent de nombreuses especes agglutinantes pour la construction de tests. Des suspensivores robustes et tubulaires occupent les regions sous l'influence de courants de fond qui deposent des nutriments. Bien que la perturbation de l'interface sediment-eau ne puisse pas etre excluse l'aide des carottes a boite, une microrepartition a petite echelle peut etre confirmee au moyen de l'abondance variable des taxons benthiques. Les denombrements absolus de specimens des sous-echantillons varient considerablement, tandis que l'homogeneite des especes parmi les sous-echantillons est moins variable. Ces constatations font appel a la prudence quand vient le temps d'interpreter les changements fauniques lateraux en fonction de petites carottes.

Mots cles: foraminifere benthique, baie de Baffin, mer du Labrador, dissolution du carbonate, microrepartition faunique

Traduit pour la revue Arctic par Nicole Giguere.

INTRODUCTION

Davis Strait separates Baffin Bay from the Labrador Sea, and its shallow depth contributes to deep-water circulation patterns that in turn result in contrasting ecological environments for deep-water biota. Modern deep-water benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea in the Western North Atlantic are influenced by oceanographic circulation patterns, water mass distribution, and lithofacies and their geochemical processes. Sediment distribution is controlled by biogenic productivity, calcium carbonate dissolution, and sediment input from turbidites and ice rafting (Aksu and Piper, 1979; de Vernal et al., 1992). Distribution of recent diatom assemblages in Baffin Bay and Davis Strait was reported by Williams (1986). Zooplankton community structure in Davis Strait and the northern Labrador Sea was presented by Huntley et al. (1983). In the past, sediments and their foraminiferal faunas in these regions have been studied from cores to investigate Quaternary glacial and interglacial cycles, carbonate dissolution patterns, and lithofacies changes related to climate change (e.g., Baker and Friedman, 1973; Aksu and Piper, 1979; Aksu, 1983; Osterman and Nelson, 1989; de Vernal et al., 1992). These core studies do not provide details on the composition and distribution of Recent agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages that form the dominant faunal component in these bottom sediments, which are influenced by corrosive conditions at the sediment-water interface. Nor do such studies contribute to our understanding of small-scale faunal distribution patterns, although they could profit from information about such patterns derived from modern analogue studies that address the patchiness of the benthic habitat.

This survey is based on seven box cores that contrast the modern deep-water benthic foraminiferal faunas of two habitats that are vastly different, though in relatively close vicinity: the northern Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The former is influenced by North Atlantic Deep Water, whereas the latter is controlled by Baffin Bay Atlantic Water and Baffin Bay Bottom Water. Each box core is represented by at least five subsamples, and their foraminiferal species were counted separately in order to address faunal patchiness, a phenomenon that is difficult to consider appropriately in studies based on piston cores or wells. This study is therefore an important modern analogue.

ENVIRONMENTAL SETTINGS OF BAFFIN BAY AND THE NORTHERN LABRADOR SEA

Baffin Bay (Fig. 1) is an elongate, semi-enclosed ocean basin between the Canadian Archipelago and Greenland. It is connected to the Atlantic Ocean through Davis Strait in the south and to the Arctic Ocean through the shallow (175-200 m) Lancaster, Jones, and Smith sounds (Baker and Friedman, 1973). Baffin Bay is on average 2400 m deep and is separated from the Labrador Sea by Davis Strait, a bathymetric high 700 m deep (Baker and Friedman, 1973). The shelf of Baffin Island is narrow and steep, less than 200 m deep, and cut by several deep trenches.

Sediments in Baffin Bay consist mainly of turbidites, debris flows, and diatom-rich muds (Baker and Friedman, 1973; Aksu and Piper, 1979). Abundant ice-rafted material is supplied by as many as 40 000 icebergs observed annually in the bay, which contribute a significant amount of sediment to the area (Aksu and Piper, 1979).

Three main water masses in Baffin Bay are recognized by their different salinity distributions and temperatures (Muench, 1971; Aksu, 1983). Baffin Bay Surface Water (BBSW) extends from the surface to 150-300 m depth and consists of a mixture of cold Arctic Water, which enters the bay through Lancaster, Jones, and Smith sounds, and warmer Atlantic water, which enters from Davis Strait (Muench, 1971; Aksu, 1983). The average temperature is between -1.8[degrees]C and 1.8[degrees]C, and salinity is low (31-34) but varies significantly over the extent of the bay because of extensive meltwater input during summers (Muench, 1971; Aksu, 1983). Below the BBSW is a layer of Baffin Bay Atlantic Water (BBAW) extending to 1300 m in depth. This water mass is also cold (0-2[degrees]C) but more saline (34.3-34.5) than the BBSW (Aksu, 1983). BBAW is derived from the Atlantic Ocean through Davis Strait and cools through mixing with the BBSW (Aksu, 1983). This water mass is derived mainly from the Atlantic Water and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The deep basin is occupied by the Baffin Bay Bottom Water (BBBW), which is the most uniform and the coldest (0[degrees]C to 0.4[degrees]C) of the three water masses, with a uniform salinity of 34.4-34.5. Below 1800 m, the dissolved oxygen content of the BBBW is low (3.2-3.5 ml/1), which may indicate that the circulation in the basin is restricted (Baker and Friedman, 1973; Tan and Strain, 1980). The BBBW originates from the Arctic Ocean and is restricted to Baffin Bay. Aksu (1983) suggested that the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) in Baffin Bay occurs between 600 and 900 m, and the foraminiferal lyso-cline may be as shallow as 100-300 m. Neither the CCD nor the lysocline seems to be associated with a particular water mass. The high alkalinity and high CO2, concentration (> 2110 [mu]mol/kg) are related to the cold surface-water masses with low dissolved oxygen (< 350 [mu]mol/kg) (Jones and Levy, 1981). The surface circulation in Baffin Bay is generally counterclockwise (Fig. 1). The Baffin Land Current flows toward the south along the western coast of the bay, transporting cold water from the Arctic Ocean. The West Greenland Current enters from the Atlantic and flows around the southern tip of Greenland in a northerly direction (Williams, 1986).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Davis Strait, which forms a sill between Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea (Fig. 1), is occupied by the Atlantic Water on the eastern side, which ranges from the surface to 1000 m depth, and by the Arctic Water on the western side. South of the strait, where two of our samples were located, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) reaches approximately from 2000 to 4000 m depth. It is moved counterclockwise by the western boundary undercurrent (Fig. 1) with its high-velocity core between 2500 and 3000 m depth (Hillaire-Marcel and Bilodeau, 2000). Temperatures range between 2[degrees]C and 4[degrees]C, and salinity is 34.9 or higher (Warren, 1981; Dickson and Brown, 1994). A detailed description of the composition of the NADW can be found in Smethie et al. (2000) and Dickson and Brown (1994). The NADW is overlain by the Labrador Sea Water, which is characterized by temperatures varying between 3[degrees]C and 3.5[degrees]C and salinities between 34.8 and 34.9.

The northern Labrador Sea is represented by two box cores, No. 1 from the continental slope at 825 m and No. 4 from the continental rise at 2140 m. Baffin Bay was sampled at five locations (box cores 6, 9, 13, 14, and 15), which cover a depth range from 966 m on the continental slope to 2100 m on the continental rise (Table 1, Fig. 1).
TABLE 1. Visual descriptions of the sand-sized fraction
of each box core.

Location                                Sample Description (> 63
                                        [mu]m)

Box core 1, Labrador Sea                * Few sand grains
62[degrees]01'07"N, 60[degrees]40'36"W  * Few pebbles (1-2 mm)
825 m                                   * Abundant sponge spicules
                                        * Rare diatoms
                                        * Intact sponges, echinoderms
                                        (brittle star)
                                        * Common nematode and
                                        polychaete worms
                                        * Amphipod crustaceans
                                        * Common bivalves and
                                        ostracods
                                        * Very abundant planktic
                                        foraminifera
                                        * Abundant calcareous and
                                        agglutinated
                                        benthic foraminifera

Box core 4, Labrador Sea                * Common fine to coarse sand
62[degrees]04'65"N, 58[degrees]57'16"W  grains
2140 m                                  * Common pebbles (0.5-30 mm)
                                        * Few sponge spicules
                                        * Common diatoms, few
                                        radiolarians
                                        * Few nematodes
                                        * Rare polychaetes and
                                        bivalves
                                        * Rare amphipod crustaceans
                                        * Moderately abundant planktic
                                        foraminifera
                                        * Calcareous and agglutinated
                                        benthic foraminifera

Box core 6. Baffin Bay                  * Mostly fine to coarse sand
70[degrees]29'37" N, 64[degrees]41'06"  * Common pebbles (0.5-20 mm)
W 2029 m                                * Common diatoms
                                        * Rare sponge spicules
                                        * Rare nematodes, polychaetes,
                                        and amphipods
                                        * No calcareous foraminifera
                                        or other calcareous material

Box core 9, Baffin Bay                  * Mostly diatoms (ooze)
70[degrees]33'70"N,63[degree]'28" W     * Few clastic grains
2100 m                                  * Common pebbles (0.5-20 mm)
                                        * Few sponge spicules
                                        * Few radiolarians
                                        * Rare nematodes, polychaetes,
                                        and amphipods
                                        * No calcareous foraminifera
                                        or other calcareous material

Box core 13, Baffin Bay                 * Fine to coarse sand
70[degrees]16'94"N,65[degrees]16'39" W  * Few cohesive mud lumps
966 m                                   * Rare pebbles
                                        * Rare diatoms
                                        * Rare sponge spicules
                                        * No calcareous foraminifera
                                        or other calcareous material

Box core 14, Baffin Bay                 * Fine to medium sand
70[degrees]22'04" N, 65[degrees]36'39"  * Few pebbles
W 1360 m                                * Many cohesive mud lumps
                                        * Rare diatoms
                                        * No calcareous foraminifera
                                        or other calcareous material

Box core 15, Baffin Bay                 * Fine to coarse sand
70[degrees]25'47" N, 65[degrees]02'56*  * Few pebbles
W 1631 m                                * Rare sponge spicules
                                        * Rare diatoms
                                        * No calcareous foraminifera
                                        or other calcareous material


METHODS

Samples were collected in Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea during cruise 85-027 of the CSS Hudson, using a box corer with a 50 X 50 cm dimension. After each box core was retrieved and brought on deck, surface water was siphoned off through a 63 [mu]m sieve to retain specimens that might have been disturbed and separated from the sediment. Each box core was subdivided with a partitioning frame into nine squares of equal size. Samples were taken by shaving off approximately the upper 3 cm of sediment within each square (~16 X 16 cm) and preserved in an etha-nol-water solution. Wollenburg and Mackensen (1998), who studied living infaunal vs. epifaunal benthic foraminifera from the Arctic Ocean, found that the great majority of living benthic species occurred in the upper 2 cm of sediment. On the basis of those findings, we believe that our sampling method did not exclude significant infaunal components. The box cores preserved sediment at the sediment-water interface relatively undisturbed (Fig. 2), although some specimens were displaced, as seen in samples that contained the siphoned-off water. The sampling equipment used by Snider et al. (1984), which takes a subsample through an attached tube at the time the corer penetrates the seafloor, was not available. Bett et al. (1994), who describe the sampler bias in metazoan deep-sea meiobenthos studies by comparing box-core data with multiple corer data, demonstrated that a considerable faunal loss occurs with box corers because of the instrument's inability to preserve the sediment surface accumulations of phytodetritus. Epifaunal live foraminiferal assemblages are associated with the phytodetritus layer (Lambshead and Gooday, 1990), and consequently, some faunal loss (particularly of epifaunal taxa) and disturbance of the sediment surface layer cannot be excluded.

In the laboratory, samples were washed through a 63 [mu]m sieve to remove the silt and clay fractions and stained with Rose Bengal to distinguish living from dead specimens at the time of collection. Samples were kept in an ethanol-water solution at all times. Samples were divided by using an Otto microsplitter for wet sediments. Wet subsamples were examined for foraminifera, and after preparing key slides for taxonomic identifications, we counted a minimum of 300 specimens in each subsample. Appendix 1 presents these specimen counts as relative abundance of a species within each subsample, total counts of specimens per species per box core, percentages of species per box core, and total counts of foraminifera. In box cores 1 and 4 from the northern Labrador Sea, planktic foraminifera were counted for completeness, but not included in percentage calculations; however, box cores from Baffin Bay did not yield planktic foraminifera. Statistical analysis was performed with the PAST software by Hammer et al. (2001). Species diversity is expressed as simple species richness and by the Fisher's alpha index as defined by the formula S = a ln(l + n/[alpha]), where S is the number of taxa, n is the number of individuals, and a is the Fisher's alpha (Murray, 1991). Evenness was calculated as eH/S, where S is the number of taxa, and H is a number derived from the Shannon diversity index (Buzas and Gibson, 1969).

Tubular species such as Argillotuba argillacea, Rhab-dammina agglutissima, and Dendrophyra arborescens are often found fragmented, but remain recognizable. Each fragment was counted as one individual, exaggerating their total numbers. Living populations are not discussed because thick-walled agglutinated species do not reveal their stained protoplasm body without being crushed. Other problems with the Rose Bengal method are discussed by Jorissen et al. (1995). In order to contrast modern benthic assemblages of the two sampled basins, we chose to report total numbers including counts of living and dead specimens. The authors are aware of the complexities that stem from taphonomic loss and the advantage of using only dead assemblages as outlined by Murray (2000). In this study, however, we have no core samples to address the downcore preservation potentials of individual species. Original references of all identified taxa are provided in Appendix 2.

RESULTS

Sediment composition varies among samples, with variable amounts of coarse-grained ice-rafted debris and mud (Fig. 2). Meio - and macrofaunal communities are most extensive in box cores 1 and 4 from the northern Labrador Sea and 6 and 9 from Baffin Bay (see Table 1 for sample locations, depths, and sediment descriptions). Although siliceous sponge spicules and diatoms occur in all locations, sponges form a dense mat of spicules in box core 1 (Fig. 2), and diatoms become particularly abundant in box cores 6 and 9 from Baffin Bay. A total of 78 agglutinated, 82 calcareous, and 2 planktic foraminiferal species were identified and counted. Live specimens of most species were encountered in variable proportions. The two box cores from the Labrador Sea locations are the only samples containing calcareous benthic and planktic foraminifera and other calcareous organisms; the samples from Baffin Bay are entirely composed of agglutinated foraminifera lacking calcium carbonate. In the following discussion of species distribution, the entire box-core surface assemblage is taken into account. Faunal differences between subsamples within box cores are discussed separately.

Foraminiferal Species Distribution in the Northern Labrador Sea

Box core 1, located at 825 m on the continental slope in the northern Labrador Sea, contains the largest foraminiferal species richness, with 40 agglutinated species, 62 calcareous species, and two planktic species (Neoglobo-quadrina pachyderma and Globigerina bullhides). The calcareous species form 61% of the total number of specimens (not counting planktic specimens), the most common species being Cibicidoides lobatulus (14%), Nonionella auricula (11%), and Epistominella pacifica (9%) (Figs. 3, 4). The genus Cribroelphidium comprises 7%, with numerous species representing less than 1%. Calcareous foraminifera (benthic and planktic) show minor signs of abrasion or dissolution. The agglutinated fraction is dominated by Dendrophrya arborescens (5%) and Earlandammina incon-spicua (3%). The abundant sponge spicules can be found in the tests of Marsipella cylindrica (Fig. 5, specimen 9). Toly-pammina vagans attaches its test to spicules (Fig. 5, specimen 2). Planktic foraminifera were abundant (500-2300 specimens in 5% of any subsample).

Box core 4, located at 2140 m on the continental rise, contains 51 agglutinated species, 49 calcareous species, and one planktic taxon (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, sinistrally coiled). This sample is dominated by agglutinated species, which make up 78% of the total number of specimens. Dominant taxa are Hyperammina spp. and Rhabdammina spp. (28%), Astrorhiza crassatina (15%), and Globotrochamminopsis bellingshauseni (7%) (Fig. 3). Although fragmentation might have artificially increased the numbers of tubular taxa, the abundance of these species is clearly visible on the box-core surface at this locality (Fig. 2). The sediment contains a small amount of sponge spicules, which have been used by specimens of Saccorhiza ramosa for test construction (Fig. 5, specimen 6), a common phenomenon with this taxon (Schroder, 1986). Among calcareous species, Stainforthia concava is the most abundant (16%), whereas all other calcareous species make up less than 2% of the total population. The vast majority of calcareous species are well preserved, with the exception of specimens of Buccella frigida and Epistominella spp., two relatively fragile taxa that might have been transported downslope from shallower depth. Planktic foraminifera are common, but in numbers approximately one-fifth of those observed in box core 1.
Box core 1

Cibicidoides lobatulus            14

Nonionella auricula               11

Epistominella pacifica             9

Cribroelphidium spp.               7

Dendrophrya arborescens            5

Eahandammina inconspicua           3

Astrononion gallowayi              2

Bolivina subspinescens             2

Other agglutinated foraminifera   13

Other calcareous foraminifera     34

Box core 4

Hyperammina/Rhabdammina           28

Stainforthia concava              16

Astrorhiza crassatina             15

Globotrochramminabellingshauseni   7

Saccorhiza ramosa                  3

Textulaha torquata                 2

Ammobaculites agglutinans          2

Dendrophrya arborescens            2

Other agglutinated foraminifera   19

Other calcareous foraminifera      6

FIG. 3. Relative abundance of selected species in
box cores 1 and 4. northern Labrador Sea.

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Foraminiferal Species Distribution in Baffin Bay

Foraminiferal assemblages of all localities sampled in Baffin Bay are entirely of agglutinated nature, causing reduced species richness when compared with the northern Labrador Sea. Box core 9 at 2100 m (Figs. 6, 7, 8) is strongly dominated by Adercotryma glomerata (48%). Other common taxa include Argillotuba argillacea (17%), Recurvoides contortus (6%), Rhabdammina agglutissima (6%), and Textularia wiesneri (5%), among other less common ones. The sediment is rich in diatoms, with only minor sponge spicules.

Box core 6 at 2029 m contains 30 agglutinated species and is dominated by Adercotryma glomerata (32%), Reophax guttifer (13%), Recurvoides contortus (10%), Astrorhiza crassatina (8%), Rhabdammina agglutissima (8%), and Textularia wiesneri (7%) (Fig. 6). Sediments contain a significant amount of diatoms, but only rare sponge spicules (Table 1).
Box core 6

Adercotryma glomerata            32

Reophax guttifer                 13

Recurvoides contortus            10

Astrorhiza crassatina             8

Rhabdammina agglutissima          8

Recurvoides sp. 1                 7

Textularia wiesneri               7

Argillotuba argillacea            6

Other agglutinated foraminifera   9

Box core 9

Adercotryma glomerata            48

Argillotuba argillacea           17

Rhabdammina agglutissima          6

Recurvoides contortus             6

Textularia wiesneri               5

Recurvoides sp. 1                 4

Reophax guttifer                  2

Hyperammina/Rhabdammina           2

Other agglutinated foraminifera  10

Box core 13

Hyperammina/Rhabdammina          21

Lagenammina laguncula            20

Rhabdammina discreta             14

Argillotuba argillacea           11

Reophax guttifer                  8

Recurvoides contortus             7

Cribrostomoides wiesneri          4

Reophax bilocularis               3

Other agglutinated foraminifera  12

Box core 14

Hyperammina/Rhabdammina          23

Argillotuba argillacea           15

Rhabdammina discreta             15

Lagenammina laguncula            10

Rhizammina algaeformis            9

Recurvoides contortus             4

Reophax guttifer                  4

Reophax scorpiurus                4

Other agglutinated foraminifera  16

Box core 15

Recurvoides contortus            42

Reophax scorpiurus               11

Rhabdammina agglutissima         11

Argillotuba argillacea           10

Rhabdammina discreta              7

Lagenammina laguncula             3

Hyperammina cylindrica            3

Hyperammina/Rhabdammina           3

Other agglutinated foraminifera  10

FIG. 6. Relative abundance of selected species
in five box cores from Baffin Bay.

Note: Table made from bar graph.


The most common species in box core 13 (966 m) are Lagenammina laguncula (20%), Rhabdammina discreta (14%), Argillotuba argillacea (11%), and Reophax guttifer (8%) (Fig. 6). Box core 14 (1360 m) is dominated by Argil-lotuba argillacea (15%), Rhabdammina discreta (15%), Lagenammina laguncula (10%), and Rhizammina algae-formis (9%) (Fig. 6). Box core 15 (1631 m) contains common, coarse-grained agglutinated species and is dominated by Recurvoides contortus (42%), Reophax scorpiurus (11%), and Rhabdammina agglutissima (11%) (Figs. 6, 7). Box cores 13 (966 m), 14 (1360 m), and 15 (1631 m) are similar in both sediment types and species richness. Box core 13 contains the largest amount of diatoms of the three samples, and box core 14 contains the largest amount of fine-grained sand, while core 15 contains abundant coarse-grained sand. This difference in sediment texture is reflected in faunal composition. A significant percentage of Rhabdammina agglutissima (11%), possessing a particularly coarse-grained test (Fig. 8, specimens la-d), is associated with the coarser substrate of box core 15.

Foraminiferal Patch Structure

Box cores were subsampled into nine squares, and five to eight of these were studied for foraminiferal content. Patch-iness is most pronounced in box cores from Baffin Bay, where only agglutinated foraminifera are present. As mentioned under Methods, a certain degree of sediment-water interface and loss of phytodetritus cannot be excluded with our sampling procedure; therefore, only box core 6 from Baffin Bay was chosen to illustrate varying abundances of dominant species between subsamples (Fig. 9). Total numbers of all other subsamples can be found in Appendix 1. Infaunal species would have suffered fewer disturbances than epifaunal species during box-core retrieval. Certain robust tubular species, as suspension feeders anchored in the sediment, might have shifted less than strictly epifaunal species. Among the selected taxa in Figure 9, Textularia and Reophax might be regarded as infaunal, and Rhabdammina as a suspension feeder. Adercotryma glomerata is reported to prefer an epifaunal to shallow infaunal habitat in the Arctic Ocean (Wollenburg and Mackensen, 1998), and in laboratory experiments, Adercotryma preferred an epifaunal habitat (Heinz et al., 2002). Adercotryma shows a significant difference by varying between 15.84% and 42.29% in abundance among subsamples (Fig. 9). Its preferred habitat would suggest that counted numbers might reflect some disturbance of the in-situ community. In contrast, varying abundances of Textularia and Reophax with an infaunal habitat might confirm a certain patchiness, discounting disturbance during sampling. Varying abundances of tubular species might also result from different degrees of breakage. Total numbers per subsample in box core 6 vary significantly, from 1 to 4293 specimens (Fig. 9), showcasing an extreme variability in foraminiferal abundance on a small scale. Species richness, diversity as measured with the Fisher's alpha index, and evenness within subsamples are also variable in all box cores (Table 2). Assemblages of the northern Labrador Sea are marked by high diversities and relatively low evenness, whereas Baffin Bay assemblages show low, but variable species diversity with a higher degree of evenness. Within box core 6, the total number of species per subsample varies from 14 to 24, and the Fisher's alpha index ranges from 2.75 to 4.25. However, subsample 6BB is not included in that calculation or listed in Table 2 and Figure 9 (relative abundance charts) because only one specimen was recovered.
                      6AA    6CC    6DD    6EE    6GG    SHH    6II

Textularia wiesneri   1.81   6.36   6.56   4.44  10.76   7.56   6.26

Rhabdammina          14.93   9.54   8.27   4.17   8.33   9.23   5.63
agglutissima

Reophax guttifer      2.04  12.62  16.38   9.29  15.00  14.24  10.44

Recurvoides          26.92   8.63   9.76   3.50   8.03  13.53  10.16
contortus

Astrorhiza           22.40  14.26   3.53   7.40   6.29   8.17   5.72
crassatina

Argillotuba           4.75   5.81   5.57  13.06   4.02   6.33   5.81
argillacea

Adercotryma          15.84  23.98  35.30  42.26  32.35  22.41  42.29
glomerata

6AA   442

6BB     1

6CC  4293

6DD  1813

6EE  2823

6GG  1320

6HH  1138

6II  1102

FIG. 9. Absolute abundance of agglutinated species within seven
subsamples of box core 6 demonstrates patchy foraminiferal
distribution in Baffin Bay. Subsample 6BB contained only one
specimen and is included in the graph comparing absolute
numbers in each subsample.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

TABLE 2. Diversity indices (species richness, evenness, and
Fisher's alpha index) of all subsamples in box cores.

                         Species               Fisher's
              Subsample  richness  Evenness  alpha index

Box core 1:         1AA        65    0.3818        14.53

                    ICC        70     0.332        17.13

                    1EE        68    0.3551        17.33

                    1GG        63    0.3862        17.04

                     HI        54    0.4514        15.61

Box core 4:         4AA        50    0.2327        11.56

                    4BB        58    0.2784        12.03

                    4DD        52    0.2475        10.58

                    4EE        56    0.2505        11.68

                    4FF        56    0.2374        11.25

Box core 6:         6AA        14    0.4813         2.75

                    6CC        20    0.5143         3.47

                    6DD        19    0.4158         2.96

                    6EE        22    0.3689         4.25

                    6GG        24    0.3802         4.16

                    6HH        23    0.4436         4.08

                    611        21    0.3564         3.68

Box core 9:         9BB        12    0.6184         2.78

                    9CC        15    0.2626         2.47

                    9DD        22    0.2608         3.77

                    9EE        13    0.2735         1.99

                    9FF         9    0.8211         2.33

                    9HH        11    0.3429         2.19

                    911         9    0.4979         1.89

Box core 13:       13AA        17    0.5011         3.11

                   13CC        17    0.5011         3.11

                   13DD        22    0.4282         4.74

                   13EE        15    0.5449         2.59

                   13FF        23    0.4205         4.53

                   13GG        19    0.5033         3.98

                   I3II        22    0.4571         4.34

Box core 14:       14AA        17     0.513         3.52

                   14BB        16    0.5034         3.05

                   14CC        18    0.4581         3.56

                   14DD        22    0.4642         4.56

                   14EE        22    0.4524         4.54

                   14GG        18    0.5641         3.55

                   1411        24    0.4709         5.11

Box core 15:       15AA        15    0.3621         2.58

                   15CC        19    0.2928         3.88

                   15DD        15    0.4551          2.8

                   15EE        12    0.5202         2.21

                   I5FF        17     0.437         3.51

                   15GG        16    0.4409         3.19

                   1511        23    0.4474         5.11


DISCUSSION

Comparison of foraminiferal assemblages in surface sediments of Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea indicates different ecological environments, particularly for calcareous species. The most striking commonality to all Baffin Bay assemblages covering a depth range of 900 to 2100 m is the lack of calcareous foraminifera. Several studies (Stehman, 1972; Stehman and Gregory, 1973) reported planktic foraminifera occurring abundantly in surface waters in Baffin Bay. Therefore, the absence of calcareous foraminifera in bottom sediments has to be a function of dissolution and corrosive bottom waters. The lack of calcareous fauna in this area of Baffin Bay agrees well with the shallow CCD between 600 and 900 m in this region, as suggested by Aksu (1983), who found that the carbonate content of sediment samples decreased rapidly below 300 m in depth. Scott and Vilks (1991) reported similar results from the Yermak Plateau in the Arctic Ocean and proposed that the absence of calcareous species from some parts of the Arctic shelf is due to the presence of corrosive water that inhibits secretion of calcareous tests, as well as removing any calcium carbonate present in the water column before it can accumulate in sediments. The absence of calcareous foraminifera on the Yermak Plateau is unusual because most of the Arctic shelf is characterized by mixed faunas that contain both calcareous and agglutinated species (Phleger, 1952; Loeblich and Tappan, 1953; Vilks, 1969; Lagoe, 1977; Wollenburg, 1992). Other areas in the Arctic where carbonate dissolution is an important factor are the Laptev Sea (Wollenburg and Kuhnt, 2000), the Fram Basin (Scott and Vilks, 1991), and areas of the western Canadian Archipelago (Vilks, 1989). Wollenburg and Kuhnt (2000) stated that carbonate dissolution in the Arctic Ocean increases with decreasing water depth and increasing duration of ice retreat, whereas calcareous faunas under perennial ice cover remain well preserved. Rich calcareous foraminiferal assemblages under perennial sea ice in the Arctic Ocean were also reported by Schroder-Adams et al. (1990). In polar regions, calcium carbonate dissolution is enhanced by cold, saline, dense bottom water production in areas of sea ice. In these oxygenated waters, decaying organic matter on the sea floor causes increased [CO.sub.2] concentrations at the sediment-water interface, which in turn cause dissolution of calcium carbonate (e.g., Steinsund and Hald, 1994).

The water mass distribution in Baffin Bay (Muench, 1971) suggests that the CCD is not entirely associated with the extent of the BBBW where dissolution occurs in areas shallower than the recorded depths of the BBBW. Aksu (1983) suggested that water of low temperature and high [CO.sub.2] content is the primary control on carbonate dissolution and accounts for the very shallow CCD in Baffin Bay. Since dissolution occurs at shallow and deep levels in Baffin Bay, it can be concluded that the presence of both BBAW and BBBW (both of which have low temperatures) contributes significantly to the dissolution of carbonate material. The absence of significant calcareous fauna in the sediments of Baffin Bay at depths between 100 and 850 m has also been documented by Schroder-Adams et al. (1990), who found that areas with seasonal ice cover and a large melt-water input during the summer have dominantly agglutinated assemblages. Scott and Vilks (1991) further state that it is the absence of permanent ice cover that permits the formation of the low-salinity, corrosive Arctic surface water. The Quaternary record, as seen in sediment cores from Baffin Bay, shows a cyclic pattern in carbonate preservation and dissolution that coincides with glacial and interglacial periods, dissolution of carbonate being more pronounced during interglacial stages (Aksu, 1983). Core studies by de Vernal et al. (1992) confirmed the Baffin Bay pattern of this study in Davis Strait. There, the use of organic foraminiferal linings vs. shell ratios demonstrated increasing carbonate dissolution during interglacial times, which are associated with cold, low-salinity surface waters; cold and poorly oxygenated deep waters; and high carbon flux. In contrast, glacial intervals are characterized by perennial sea ice restricting [CO.sub.2] exchange, low organic-matter flux resulting from low surface productivity, and increased northward flow of warm bottom waters.

In Baffin Bay, box cores 6 and 9 represent the two deepest localities (Table 1) and are dominated by Adercotryma glomerata (Fig. 6), a common species in both the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans (e.g., Schroder, 1986; Hunt and Corliss, 1993). The high numbers of this species are associated with the cold BBBW at this depth. This species moves into shallower water along the continental margin of Nova Scotia, where its preference for cold-water masses is associated with the cold Labrador Current (Williamson et al., 1984). Box cores 13, 14, and 15 differ from their deeper counterparts in being dominated by suspension feeders of Hyperammina and Rhabdammina, and by Recurvoides contortus, a species that is reported from a wide depth range. These localities are occupied more or less by the BBAW.

In the northern Labrador Sea, agglutinated foraminifera dominate the location on the continental rise compared to the continental slope (Fig. 3). This pattern agrees well with the observation by Aksu (1983) that carbonate dissolution also occurred in Davis Strait as depth increased, albeit to a smaller degree than in Baffin Bay. BBBW is absent from the northern Labrador Sea because of the topographic ridge of Davis Strait, reaching 700 m, which separates the two basins. This ridge also forms a barrier to the BBBW, so that the northern Labrador Sea is primarily influenced by the NADW (Warren, 1981).

A striking difference between the two localities in the northern Labrador Sea is the dominance of several tubular suspension feeders such as Hyperammina and Rhabdammina in box core 4 compared to box core 1. Suspension feeders have shown a preference for deep-water marine habitats where bottom currents deliver food sources (Linke and Lutze, 1993). At the location of box core 4, it is the western boundary undercurrent moving NADW in a counterclockwise direction south of Davis Strait (Fig. 1) that might be responsible for nutrient delivery. A similar fau-nal pattern occurs farther south along the continental slope and rise off Nova Scotia, where the same tubular taxa occur abundantly and are likewise associated with this deep-water current flowing southward (Schroder, 1986). In contrast, the fragile, branching, suspension-feeding taxon Dendrophrya arborescens is more common in box core 1 (Fig. 3), suggesting a position below the influence of the Labrador Current on substrates. Coarse-grained sediment, particularly in box core 4, might result partly from current winnowing and partly from ice-rafting.

Box core 1 is marked by a dense mat of siliceous sponge spicules (Fig. 2). Schroder-Adams et al. (1990) documented rich calcareous assemblages that occur in association with siliceous sponge communities in the Axel Heiberg Shelf region, which at the time of sampling was a perennially ice-covered area of shallow water (samples taken between 100 and 300 m). That fauna is similar to the foraminiferal assemblage and sponge community recovered from box core 1 in the northern Labrador Sea, which represents a deeper location with only intermittent ice cover. This environment shows a good example of the occurrence of selective agglutinated species, specifically Marsipella cylindrica (Fig. 5). This species prefers sponge spicules to build its test; therefore, as indicated by sampling of the other box cores, it is absent from areas where sponge spicules are lacking or present only in small numbers. Other selective species are illustrated in Figure 8. Box cores 6 and 9 differ from other box cores in the high content of diatoms in the sediment as the pelagic component increases in the deepest water localities. The reduced content of sand-sized clastic grains at these localities is reflected in the types of foraminifera found there. These box cores contain only a few specimens of Hyperammina, Rhabdammina, and Recurvoides, while finely agglutinated forms like Ader-cotryma glomerata and Argillotuba argillacea are the dominant species (Figs. 6, 8). The only common coarsely agglutinated species in both cores is Rhabdammina agglut-issima (8% in core 6, 6% in core 9), indicating that this species may be the only one selectively using larger grains to build tests. It is important to note that there is no difference in the appearance ofR. agglutissima tests between all seven cores, showing the availability in all samples (Fig. 8:1a-d) of the ice-rafted coarse grains that this species prefers for test construction. The main species found in this study that are non-selective with respect to test grains, including Hyperammina spp., Rhabdammina spp., and Reophax scorpiurus, are illustrated in Figure 7. These species are found over a large bathymetric range.

The abrasion and dissolution observed on some calcareous species (notably Buccella frigida and Epistominella spp.) in box core 4 may indicate that these specimens were transported downslope. In contrast, specimens of the same species found in box core 1 (a shallower location) showed no such abrasion or dissolution. This finding agrees with the concept that turbidites and debris flows are a major aspect of sediment transport along the continental slope into the deeper parts of Davis Strait and the Labrador Sea (Aksu and Piper, 1979). These processes of downslope transport, combined with ice-rafting, account for the coarse sediment and pebbles found in the deeper areas of the basin.

Patchy distribution of benthic foraminifera is a widely recognized phenomenon (e.g., Boltovskoy and Wright, 1976; Hunt and Corliss, 1993; Jorissen et al., 1995; Jannink et al., 1998; Fontanier et al., 2003). Patchy distribution has been found to vary both temporally and spatially. Bernstein and Meador (1979) showed that the patch structure in benthic foraminiferal communities persists through time (at least through several generations, as seen in positive correlations between living and dead specimens) and suggested that this persistence is a result of both active habitat selection by benthic species and reproductive patterns within the community. Jannink et al. (1998) found that for most species, there was no significant difference between the distribution of smaller (63-150 [mu]m) and larger (> 150 [mu]m) specimens, indicating that there was no change in micro-habitat preference during their life cycles.

Studies of bathyal and sublittoral sites indicate that foraminiferal communities show seasonal (as well as shorter time-scale) changes resulting from the level of primary production (Gooday, 1993; Thomas and Gooday, 1996; Schmiedl et al., 2000; Fontanier et al., 2003) and organic carbon flux (Wollenburg and Kuhnt, 2000). These changes occur as increases or decreases in both total foraminiferal numbers and species diversity. Figure 9, which depicts small-scale distribution changes in box core 6, certainly confirms significant variation in total foraminiferal numbers and diversity measurements (Table 2). Opportunistic species (such as Epistominella exigua) show the greatest increase in numbers during such input events (Gooday, 1996). Such patterns have been used in the geologic record to reconstruct organic matter fluxes in oceans (Smart et al., 1994; Thomas et al., 1995). The amount of phytodetritus present on the seafloor also varies spatially as a result of primary production, currents, microtopography, and biotur-bation (Rice and Lambshead, 1994; Rice et al., 1994), and this distribution will be mirrored by foraminifera that take advantage of phytodetritus as a food source. This relationship is most clearly seen in epifaunal and shallow infau-nal species (Gooday, 1996). Our strategy of sampling only the upper 3 cm of sediment means that species observed in this study are mainly epifaunal and shallow infaunal, although we cannot exclude the possibility that bioturbation also added deep-infaunal species. Gooday's observation, however, accords with our finding that the epifaunal or shallow infaunal taxon Adercotryma glomerata shows the largest variation in abundance, as seen within box core 6 (Fig. 9). Vertical distribution of foraminifera in surface sediment was not addressed in this study; however, Gooday (1986) reports that the majority of deep-sea foraminifera (NE Atlantic) can be found on the sediment surface or in the top 2.5 cm of sediment, although some living specimens are found as deep as 15 cm. Hunt and Corliss (1993) report similar (up to 13 cm depth) vertical distributions for shallower areas on the Arctic shelf. Fontanier et al. (2003) report that the distribution of benthic foraminifera shows distinct patchiness that varies with time and can be correlated to phytoplankton blooms.

Results of extreme patchy distribution of specimen numbers and species (Fig. 9, Table 2, Appendix 1) highlight the problems inherent in working with sediment cores that represent only a small surface area. Much smaller faunal changes than the ones observed here between subsamples have been interpreted in horizontal and vertical dimensions within core studies as representing significant ecological change. This study demonstrates the complexity of such interpretations.

Another aspect of using agglutinated and calcareous foraminiferal assemblages in paleoecological studies is their sometimes poor preservation potential. This study has also shown that fragile tests (e.g., those of the genera Den-drophrya, Rhizammina, Thurammina) disintegrate when handled, dried out, or compacted, so it is very unlikely that they will be preserved in the fossil record, or even in unlithified but slightly compacted sediment. The importance of taphonomic processes in paleoecological studies is abundantly documented (e.g., Schroder, 1986; Murray and Alve, 1999). The geological record shows a strong bias toward hard-shelled forms (calcareous and agglutinated) even though the majority of species found in the deep ocean are soft-shelled agglutinated species (Gooday, 1996). When the low preservation potential of some species is considered together with the patchy distribution, it has to be concluded that a small sample in a sediment core will not resemble the biocoenosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea have high abundances and species richness. Deep-water assemblages in the sampled area of Baffin Bay are composed exclusively of agglutinated taxa, while the northern Labrador Sea contains calcareous as well as agglutinated foraminifera.

The absence of calcareous foraminifera in Baffin Bay is attributed to the combination of increased organic flux during ice-free seasons and the production of cold, oxygenated, saline bottom waters that sink, resulting in oxidation of organic matter that causes dissolution at the sediment-water interface. Adercotryma glomerata, an indicator for cold-water masses, dominates the deeper parts of Baffin Bay influenced by the Baffin Bay Bottom Water, and Hyperam-mina and Rhabdammina as suspension feeders, together with Recurvoides contortus, dominate where the Baffin Bay Atlantic Water flows.

Sediment composition and grain size in these deep-water areas reflect a high amount of ice-rafted material, which added a coarser grain size. In addition, box cores under the influence of the western boundary undercurrent are coarse in nature because of winnowing effects. These areas are dominated by coarse-grained, tubular suspension feeders that profit from the nutrients delivered through currents. Distribution of sediments, including biogenic components such as siliceous sponge spicules, is reflected to a certain degree in the tests of agglutinated taxa.

The study of subsamples within box cores demonstrates that epifaunal species, shallow infaunal species, and suspension feeders are patchily distributed with respect to simple species richness, diversity as measured by the Fisher's alpha index, and absolute abundance. However, given the nature of our sampling instrument, we cannot exclude the possible influence of surface disturbances when comparing strictly epifaunal species abundances within box-core subsamples. The biological patch structures of benthic foraminifera generate caution in interpreting paleoecologi-cal changes on the basis of small core samples.

Agglutinated species will often disintegrate as a result of taphonomic processes, which adds another challenge in paleoecological studies. For many deep-sea agglutinated species encountered in this study, preservation potential is low; therefore, a small sample within a sediment core may not reflect the biocoenosis of a certain time slice.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank Jutta Wollenburg, Jerry Lloyd, and one anonymous reviewer for their constructive comments, which considerably improved this manuscript. This study was undertaken with financial support from an NSERC Discovery grant to Schroder-Adams and an NSERC USRA grant to Van Rooyen. We thank the crew of the CSS Hudson for assisting our sampling programme. Schroder-Adams would like to thank Franco Medi-oli for his much-appreciated support. Susan Burbidge, Rebecca Stritch, and Simon Sage are thanked for technical assistance. The manuscript has benefited from an early review by A. Gooday.

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APPENDIX 1: Foraminiferal data from two box cores from the northern
Labrador Sea and five from Baffin Bay. The following parameters are
listed: 1) percent of each subsample counted (second row); 2)
relative abundance of each species within each subsample and relative
abundance of each species within the box core taking all subsamples
into account (last column); 3) total counts of all calcareous species
(last row of calcareous section) and of all agglutinated species
(last row of agglutinated section) per box core; and 4) total counts
of all foraminifera per box core (second-last column). Specimens found
in drained surface water of each box core are listed; however, since
these specimens are not in place, they are not included in actual
percentage calculations. Planktic foraminifera are not listed.

                           Surface  Surface  Surface
Box core 1                    1        2        3      1AA    ICC

% counted                        5        5      100      5      5
in subsample

Calcareous species

Astacolns remformis             --       --       --     --     --

Astrononion gallowayi         1.32     1.62       --   2.50   2.92

Bolivina suhspinescens        2.10     2.31     9.59   3.27   1.89

Buccella floriformis          5.45     7.34       --   6.42  15.06

Buccellafrigida               4.36     1.62       --   2.50   0.63

Cassidulina laevigata         2.18     1.62       --   1.35   1.10

Cassidulina reniforme         0.39     0.43       --   0.26   0.79

Cassidulina neoteretis          --     0.94       --   0.83   0.63

Cibicides sp.                17.20     7.00    19.18  14.96   9.38

Cibicidoides lobatulus        0.78       --       --   1.28   1.18

Cibicidoides                    --     0.17       --   0.32   0.32
wuellerstorfi

Crihroelphidium hartletti     0.78     0.77       --   0.90   0.32

Crihroelphidium clavatum      0.62     0.34       --   0.71   0.32

Crihroelphidium excavatum     0.70     0.34     0.68   0.83   0.32

Crihroelphidium incertum      0.31     0.26       --   0.96   0.39

Crihroelphidium                 --     0.85       --     --     --
subarcticum

Crihroelphidium spp.          2.33     2.22     2.05   2.50   1.74

Epistominella takayanagii     0.08       --       --     --     --

Eponides frigidus               --       --    14.38     --     --

Favulina hexagona             0.39     0.51       --     --   0.08

Favulina melo                 0.08       --       --   0.19     --

Fissurina bradyii               --     0.09       --     --     --

Fissurina fimbriata             --       --       --   0.06   0.16

Fissurina marginata           2.41     1.71       --   1.41   1.26

Fiss urina orbignyana           --       --       --   0.06   0.08

Gvroidina orbiculare            --     0.34       --     --   0.16

Hanzawaia sp.                 1.79       --       --   0.39   0.47

Haynesina germanica             --     1.02     3.42   0.39   0.32

Hoglundina elegans              --     0.51       --   0.19     --

Involuting sp.                  --       --       --   0.13     --

Lagena gracilis                 --     0.09       --   0.19   0.08

Lagena nehulosa                 --       --       --     --     --

Lagena semilineata              --       --       --     --   0.16

Lagena stelligera             0.23       --       --   0.06   0.24

Laryngosigma hyalascidia      0.08       --       --     --     --

Lenticulina gibha               --     0.09       --     --   0.08

Margin ulina obesa              --       --       --   0.06   0.08

Melonis zaandami              0.93     0.68       --   0.90   2.05

Nodosaria calomorpha            --     0.09       --     --     --

Nonionella auricula           6.30    12.89     8.22  11.30  12.07

Nonionellina lahradorica      0.62     0.09       --   0.19   0.24

Oolina apiculata                 -       --       --     --     --

Oolina glohosa                0.08     0.68       --     --   0.08

Oolina williamsoni            0.16       --       --     --     --

Parafissurinafusiiiformis     0.39     0.51       --   0.26   0.16

Patellina corrugata           0.08     0.17       --   0.26   0.16

Procerolagena distoma         0.08       --       --     --     --

Procerolagena                 0.54     0.26       --   0.39   0.16
quadrilatera

Protelphidium orbiculare      1.32     0.34       --   0.83   0.71

Put tenia bu I hides          0.86     1.71       --   1.09   0.95

Pullenia osloensis            0.23       --     0.68     --     --

Pullenia quinqueloba            --     0.17       --   0.45   0.16

Pyrgo murrhina                0.08       --     1.37     --   0.16

Quinqueloculina seminula      0.08     0.34       --     --   0.08

Robertinoides                 0.23     0.34       --     --   0.08
charlottensis

Robertinoides pumilum         0.08       --       --     --     --

Rutherfordoides cf.           3.66     0.51       --   2.25   0.71
mexicana

Stainforthia concava            --       --     2.05     --   0.08

Triloculina frigida             --     0.26       --     --     --

Triloculina trxhedra          0.47       --       --   0.13     --

Uvigerina peregrina             --       --       --   0.06     --

                                                Total   Relative % in
                                                             all
Box core 1                  1EE    1GG    III   counts    subsample;

% counted                      5      5      5
in subsample

Calcareous species

Astacolns remformis           --     --   0.21      1            0.00

Astrononion gallowayi       1.27   1.58   0.41     105           2.01

Bolivina suhspinescens      2.18   2.19   2.70     130           2.49

Buccella floriformis        5.36   8.40  13.69     485           9.28

Buccellafrigida               --   2.68   3.32      85           1.63

Cassidulina laevigata       1.73   0.61   0.62      62           1.19

Cassidulina reniforme       0.55   0.24   0.21      23           0.44

Cassidulina neoteretis      0.27   0.73   0.62      33           0.63

Cibicides sp.              14.91  16.08  20.12     745          14.25

Cibicidoides lobatulus      2.27   0.85   0.62      70           1.34

Cibicidoides                1.36   0.85     --      31           0.59
wuellerstorfi

Crihroelphidium hartletti   0.45   0.97   0.62      34           0.65

Crihroelphidium clavatum    0.55   0.97   1.45      36           0.69

Crihroelphidium excavatum   0.55   0.85   2.70      43           0.82

Crihroelphidium incertum    0.36   0.12   1.04      30           0.57

Crihroelphidium             0.82   0.85   1.24      22           0.42
subarcticum

Crihroelphidium spp.        2.00   3.41   7.47     147           2.81

Epistominella takayanagii   0.09     --     --       1           0.02

Eponides frigidus             --     --     --                   0.00

Favulina hexagona           0.18   0.12   0.21       5           0.10

Favulina melo               0.18     --     --       5           0.10

Fissurina bradyii           0.18   0.24   0.21       5           0.10

Fissurina fimbriata           --     --   0.21       4           0.08

Fissurina marginata         0.82   1.10   0.62      59           1.13

Fiss urina orbignyana         --     --     --       2           0.04

Gvroidina orbiculare        0.36   0.37     --       9           0.17

Hanzawaia sp.               0.55   0.49     --      22           0.42

Haynesina germanica         0.36   0.85   0.21      22           0.42

Hoglundina elegans          0.27   0.37   0.62      12           0.23

Involuting sp.                --     --     --       2           0.04

Lagena gracilis             0.18     --     --       6           0.11

Lagena nehulosa               --   0.12     --       1           0.02

Lagena semilineata            --     --     --       2           0.04

Lagena stelligera             --     --     --       4           0.08

Laryngosigma hyalascidia      --     --     --                   0.00

Lenticulina gibha             --   0.12     --       2           0.04

Margin ulina obesa            --   0.12     --       3           0.06

Melonis zaandami            1.18   1.34   1.04      69           1.32

Nodosaria calomorpha          --            --                   0.00

Nonionella auricula        12.45  12.30   4.77     590          11.28

Nonionellina lahradorica    0.27   0.24   0.83      15           0.29

Oolina apiculata              --     --     --                   0.00

Oolina glohosa              0.18     --     --       3           0.06

Oolina williamsoni            --     --     --                   0.00

Parafissurinafusiiiformis   0.18     --     --       8           0.15

Patellina corrugata           --     --     --       6           0.11

Procerolagena distoma       0.18   0.12   0.21       4           0.08

Procerolagena                 --   0.12     --       9           0.17
quadrilatera

Protelphidium orbiculare    0.82   0.37     --      34           0.65

Put tenia bu I hides        1.27   0.61   1.04      53           1.01

Pullenia osloensis            --     --                          0.00

Pullenia quinqueloba          --   0.37   0.83      16           0.31

Pyrgo murrhina                --     --     --       2           0.04

Quinqueloculina seminula    0.09     --     --       2           0.04

Robertinoides               0.64   0.24   0.21      II           0.21
charlottensis

Robertinoides pumilum         --     --     --                   0.00

Rutherfordoides cf.         0.64   2.07   2.70      81           1.55
mexicana

Stainforthia concava          --     --     --       1           0.02

Triloculina frigida         0.09     --     --       1           0.02

Triloculina trxhedra        0.18     --     --       4           0.08

Uvigerina peregrina         0.09   0.12     --       3           0.06

                         Surface  Surface  Surface   1AA   ICC   1EE
Box core 1 - continued:        1        2        3

Uvigerina sp.                 --     0.09       --    --    --    --

Valvulineria arctica        3.35     0.34       --  0.77  0.08  0.27

Calcareous total counts      811      286       90   960   736   620

Agglutinated species

Ammodiscus incertus         0.08       --     0.68  0.06  0.08  0.09

Arenoturrispirillina        0.08       --       --    --    --    --
sp.

Argillotuba argillacea        --       --       --    --    --    --

Armorella sphaehca          0.16     0.34       --  0.19    --  0.09

Cribrostomoides               --       --       --    --    --    --
subglobosus

Cribrostomoides             0.08     0.17       --  0.19  0.16  0.18
wiesneri

Cyclammina pusilla            --       --       --  0.13    --  0.18

Dendrophyra arborescens     3.89     7.00    11.64  5.13  4.50  6.91

Deuterammina goughensis     0.23       --       --    --    --  0.18

Deuterammina grahami        1.09     0.60       --  0.51  0.87  1.00

Earlandammina               3.81     3.59       --  3.66  3.15  3.45
inconspicua

Globotrochamminopsis          --     0.77       --    --  0.39  0.82
bellingshauseni

Glomospira gordialis        0.23     0.51       --  0.13  0.24  0.55

Haplophragmoides            0.31     0.26       --  0.26  0.63  0.36
canariensis

Hormosina globulifera         --       --       --    --    --    --

HyperamminalRhabdammina     1.25     0.60       --    --  0.16    --

Karreriella novangliae      0.16       --       --  0.13    --    --

Lagenammina tubulata        0.08     0.09       --  0.19  0.24  0.27

Marsipella cylindrica       1.25     1.71       --  1.41  0.79  0.91

Paratrochammina             0.86     1.02     2.74  0.96  0.39  0.91
earlandi

Pelosina bicaudata            --     0.09       --    --    --    --

Pelosina cylindrica         0.08     0.09       --    --  0.16    --

Placopsinella                 --       --       --  0.06  0.16  0.09
aurantiaca

Psammosphaerafusca          0.16       --       --    --    --    --

Pseudotrochammina             --     0.17       --    --  0.24    --
arenacea

Pseudotrochammina             --     0.17       --    --    --    --
echolsi

Recurvoides contortus         --       --       --    --    --    --

Recurvoides scitulus          --     0.09       --    --    --    --

Recurvoides sp.               --     0.09       --    --    --    --

Reophax bilocularis           --     0.43       --  0.32  0.71  0.09

Reophax guttifer              --     0.17       --    --    --  0.09

Reophax scorpiurus          0.47     0.17     1.37  0.96  0.95  1.73

Repmanina charoides         0.31     0.26       --  0.26  0.47  0.36

Rhizammina algaeformis      1.25     0.51       --  0.19  0.63  0.55

Rhizammina indivisa           --     0.17       --  0.77  0.55  0.09

Saccammina sphaerica        1.48     0.94       --    --  0.95    --

Saccorhiza ramosa           0.16     0.17       --  0.51  0.55  0.18

Subreophax aduncus          0.23     0.85       --  0.83  1.42  0.82

Textularia torquata           --     0.34       --  0.19  0.24  0.27

Textularia wiesneri         0.31     0.26     2.74  0.26  0.16  0.18

Thurammina papillata        0.08     0.43       --  0.06    --  0.27

Thurammina papyracea          --     0.09       --  0.32  0.08  0.09

Tolypammina vagans          0.39     2.05       --  1.48  2.13  1.09

Agglutinated total           237      283       28   299   266   240
counts

Foraminifera total          1048      569      118  1259  1002   860
counts

                          1GG   III   Total   Relative % in
                                                  all
Box core 1 - continued:              counts    Subsamples

Uvigerina sp.              --    --                   0.00

Valvulineria arctica       --    --      16           0.31

Calcareous total counts   519   341    3176          73.00

Agglutinated species

Ammodiscus incertus        --    --       3           0.27

Arenoturrispirillina       --    --                   0.00
sp.

Argillotuba argillacea     --    --                   0.00

Armorella sphaehca       0.85  0.21      12           1.09

Cribrostomoides          0.37    --       3           0.27
subglobosus

Cribrostomoides            --    --       7           0.64
wiesneri

Cyclammina pusilla       0.24  1.87      15           1.37

Dendrophyra arborescens  3.78  2.70     257          23.43

Deuterammina goughensis    --  0.21       3           0.27

Deuterammina grahami     0.61  0.83      39           3.56

Earlandammina            1.46  1.66     155          14.13
inconspicua

Globotrochamminopsis     0.97  0.83      26           2.37
bellingshauseni

Glomospira gordialis     0.37  0.62      17           1.55

Haplophragmoides         0.37  0.41      21           1.91
canariensis

Hormosina globulifera    0.49    --       4           0.36

HyperamminalRhabdammina    --    --       2           0.18

Karreriella novangliae   0.12    --       3           0.27

Lagenammina tubulata       --    --       9           0.82

Marsipella cylindrica    1.10  3.94      70           6.38

Paratrochammina          0.61  1.45      42           3.83
earlandi

Pelosina bicaudata         --    --                   0.00

Pelosina cylindrica        --    --       2           0.18

Placopsinella            0.24    --       6           0.55
aurantiaca

Psammosphaerafusca         --    --                   0.00

Pseudotrochammina          --    --       3           0.27
arenacea

Pseudotrochammina          --  0.41       2    0.18 [beta]
echolsi

Recurvoides contortus    0.12  0.41       3           0.27

Recurvoides scitulus       --  0.62       3           0.27

Recurvoides sp.            --  0.62       3           0.27

Reophax bilocularis      0.85  0.83      26           2.37

Reophax guttifer           --    --       1           0.09

Reophax scorpiurus       1.83  0.21      62           5.65

Repmanina charoides      0.24    --      16           1.46

Rhizammina algaeformis   0.61  0.41      24           2.19

Rhizammina indivisa        --    --      20           1.82

Saccammina sphaerica     1.10  3.11      36           3.28

Saccorhiza ramosa          --  2.07      27           2.46

Subreophax aduncus       0.73  1.04      51           4.65

Textularia torquata      0.24  0.41      13           1.19

Textularia wiesneri      0.12  0.83      13           1.19

Thurammina papillata     0.37  1.04      12           1.09

Thurammina papyracea     0.12    --       8           0.73

Tolypammina vagans       0.49  2.49      78           7.11

Agglutinated total        151   141    1097
counts

Foraminifera total        670   482    4273            100
counts

                 Surface  Surface  4AA   4BB   4DD   4EE   4FF
Box core 4             1        2

% counted in        12.5     12.5  12.5  12.5    25  12.5  12.5
subsample

Calcareous
species

Astacolus             --     0.14  0.23    --  0.14    --  0.06
reniformis

Astrononion           --       --    --    --    --  0.07    --
gallowayi

Bolivina              --       --    --    --    --  0.29    --
subspinescens

Buccella              --       --    --    --    --  0.14    --
frigida

Cibicides           0.05       --    --    --    --    --    --
rugosus

Cibicides sp.       0.05     0.07  0.35    --  0.28  0.14  0.12

Cibicidoides        0.90     0.85  0.12  1.42  1.33  1.14  0.43
lobatulus

Cibicidoides        0.37     0.50  0.70  0.20  0.21  0.50  0.12
wuellerstorfi

Cribroelphidium     0.05       --  0.35  0.14  0.21  0.21    --
excavatam

Cribroelphidium       --       --  0.12    --    --  0.07    --
subarcticum

Cribroelphidium       --       --  0.23  0.07    --    --    --
sp.

Dentalina fro         --       --    --  0.07    --    --    --
bis here ns is

Epistominella         --       --    --  0.07    --    --    --
exigua

Fissurina           0.05       --    --    --    --    --    --
bradyii

Fissitrina          0.58     0.78  1.39  0.68  1.40  0.71  1.48
fimbriate *

                 Total   Relative % in
                              all
Box core 4       counts    subsamples

% counted in
subsample

Calcareous
species

Astacolus             5           0.07
reniformis

Astrononion           1           0.01
gallowayi

Bolivina              4           0.06
subspinescens

Buccella              2           0.03
frigida

Cibicides                         0.00
rugosus

Cibicides sp.        11           0.16

Cibicidoides         64           0.94
lobatulus

Cibicidoides         21           0.31
wuellerstorfi

Cribroelphidium      11           0.16
excavatam

Cribroelphidium       2           0.03
subarcticum

Cribroelphidium       3           0.04
sp.

Dentalina fro         1           0.01
bis here ns is

Epistominella         1           0.01
exigua

Fissurina                         0.00
bradyii

Fissitrina           76           1.12
fimbriate *

                           Surface  Surface   4AA    4BB    4DD
Box core 4 - continued:          1        2

Fissurina kerguelensis          --       --     --     --     --

Fissurina marginata           0.05     0.14   0.46   0.07     --

Fissurina semimarginata         --       --     --     --     --

Fissurina seminiformis          --       --     --     --     --

Fissurina sp.                 0.47     0.14     --     --     --

Gyroidina orbiculare            --       --     --   0.07     --

Haynesina germanica             --       --   0.12   0.27   0.14

Hoglundina elegans            0.26     0.14   0.81   0.27   0.21

Lagenaftatulenta                --     0.14   0.35   0.07   0.14

Lagena hispida                  --     0.07     --     --     --

Lagena hispidula                --       --     --     --     --

Lagena meridionalis             --       --     --     --     --

Lagena nebulosa                 --       --   0.46     --     --

Lagena semilineata            0.11     0.14     --   0.07   0.14

Laryngosigma hyalascidia        --       --     --   0.07     --

Lenticidina gibba             0.42     0.07     --     --   0.49

Marginulina obesa             0.05       --     --     --     --

Marginulinopsis linearis      0.05       --     --     --     --

Melonis zaandami                --       --     --   0.07     --

Nodosaria calomorpha            --       --     --     --     --

Nonionella auricula             --       --     --   2.03   0.49

Nonionellina labradorica      0.26     0.14     --     --   0.14

Oolina apiculata                --       --     --     --   0.07

Oolina globosa                0.11       --     --     --     --

Oridorsalis umbonatus           --       --   0.23     --     --

Oridorsalis sp.                 --       --     --     --     --

Parafissurinafusiliformis     0.05       --     --     --     --

Parafissurina lateralis       0.05       --     --     --     --

Parafissurina sp.               --     0.07   0.23     --     --

Pullenia bulloides            0.16     0.28   0.12     --   0.28

Pullenia osloensis            0.47     0.64   0.70   0.54   0.56

Pullenia quinqueloba            --     0.21   0.35     --     --

Pyrgo murrhina                  --       --   0.35   0.20   0.14

Stainforthia concava          2.90     8.17  11.36  21.61  24.01

Calcareous total counts        142      179    165    414    435

Agglutinated species

Ammobaculites agglutinans     4.06     2.49     --   1.42   2.65

Ammodiscus incertus           0.11     0.07     --     --     --

Ammoscalaria tenuimargo       0.74     0.36     --   1.35   0.49

Arenoturrispirillina sp.        --       --     --     --     --

Argillotuba argillacea        0.32     0.21   0.12   0.61   0.42

Armorella sphaerica             --       --     --     --   0.14

Astrorhiza crassatina        16.62    24.16  17.38  14.52   3.14

Bathysiphon rufus             0.11       --     --     --     --

Cribrostomoides wiesneri        --     0.50   0.23     --     --

Cyclammina pusilla            0.32     0.28   0.12   0.14   0.49

Cystammina pauciloculata      0.05     0.07   0.12   0.07   0.14

Dendrophyra arborescens       0.79     2.70   1.16   3.85   3.00

Deuterammina goughensis       0.95     1.21     --   1.22   1.47

Globotrochamminopsis          5.65     6.97   4.17   4.73   8.79
bellingshauseni

Glomospira gordialis          0.05       --     --   0.20   0.07

Haplophragmoides              0.53     1.35   0.70   0.54   1.54
canariensis

Hormosina globulifera         0.26     0.14     --   0.34   0.14

Hyperammina elongata          0.63     0.57   0.81     --   0.56

HyperamminalRhabdammina      30.40    24.88  34.65  19.92  29.52
fragments

Jaculella acuta                 --     0.36     --     --     --

Karreriella novangliae        0.11     0.21   0.35     --     --

Lagenammina tubulata            --       --     --   0.07     --

Lituituba lituiformis           --       --   0.12     --     --

Marsipella cylindrica         1.27     0.50     --   0.74     --

Marsipella elongata             --       --   0.46   0.34     --

Placopsinella aurantiaca        --       --     --   0.07     --

Pelosina bicaudata              --       --     --   0.07   0.21

Pelosina cylindrica           0.32       --   0.12   0.14     --

Psammosphaera fusca             --     0.50     --   0.54   0.28

Recurvoides contortus         0.84     1.07   1.27   0.74   0.07

Recurvoides scitulus          1.42     1.49     --   0.88   1.19

Recurvoides sp.               0.74     1.28   1.27   0.34   0.84

Reophax bacillaris              --       --     --     --   0.07

Reophax bilocularis             --     0.07   0.46     --     --

Reophax ovicula                 --       --   0.12     --     --

                                                  Relative
                            4EE    4FF   Total    % in all
Box core 4 - continued:                  counts  subsamples

Fissurina kerguelensis        --   0.06       1        0.01

Fissurina marginata         0.14   0.06       8        0.12

Fissurina semimarginata       --   0.06       1        0.01

Fissurina seminiformis        --   0.06       1        0.01

Fissurina sp.                 --   0.06       1        0.01

Gyroidina orbiculare        0.07     --       2        0.03

Haynesina germanica         0.79     --      18        0.26

Hoglundina elegans          0.14   0.74      28        0.41

Lagenaftatulenta              --   0.06       7        0.10

Lagena hispida                --     --                0.00

Lagena hispidula            0.07     --       1        0.01

Lagena meridionalis         0.07     --       1        0.01

Lagena nebulosa               --     --       4        0.06

Lagena semilineata          0.14   0.12       7        0.10

Laryngosigma hyalascidia      --     --       1        0.01

Lenticidina gibba           0.14     --       9        0.13

Marginulina obesa             --     --                0.00

Marginulinopsis linearis      --     --                0.00

Melonis zaandami              --     --       1        0.01

Nodosaria calomorpha        0.07     --       1        0.01

Nonionella auricula         1.00     --      51        0.75

Nonionellina labradorica    0.14   0.12       6        0.09

Oolina apiculata              --     --       1        0.01

Oolina globosa                --   0.12       2        0.03

Oridorsalis umbonatus         --     --       2        0.03

Oridorsalis sp.             0.07     --       1        0.01

Parafissurinafusiliformis     --     --                0.00

Parafissurina lateralis       --     --                0.00

Parafissurina sp.             --     --       2        0.03

Pullenia bulloides          0.21     --       8        0.12

Pullenia osloensis          0.36   0.56      36        0.53

Pullenia quinqueloba          --     --       3        0.04

Pyrgo murrhina                --   0.25      12        0.18

Stainforthia concava       16.20   4.44    1061       15.61

Calcareous total counts      321    145    1480          22

Agglutinated species

Ammobaculites agglutinans   1.78   4.69     160        2.35

Ammodiscus incertus           --   0.06       1        0.01

Ammoscalaria tenuimargo     0.71     --      37        0.54

Arenoturrispirillina sp.      --   0.06       1        0.01

Argillotuba argillacea      0.43   0.12      24        0.35

Armorella sphaerica         0.14     --       4        0.06

Astrorhiza crassatina      23.84  17.96    1035       15.23

Bathysiphon rufus             --     --                0.00

Cribrostomoides wiesneri    0.14   0.31       9        0.13

Cyclammina pusilla          0.57   0.49      26        0.38

Cystammina pauciloculata    0.14   0.12       8        0.12

Dendrophyra arborescens     1.57   1.17     151        2.22

Deuterammina goughensis     0.43   1.91      76        1.12

Globotrochamminopsis        5.35   9.63     463        6.81
bellingshauseni

Glomospira gordialis          --     --       4        0.06

Haplophragmoides            0.50   1.48      67        0.99
canariensis

Hormosina globulifera       0.64   0.06      17        0.25

Hyperammina elongata        0.29   0.25      23        0.34

HyperamminalRhabdammina    21.20  31.17    1819       26.76
fragments

Jaculella acuta               --     --                0.00

Karreriella novangliae        --   0.12       5        0.07

Lagenammina tubulata          --     --       1        0.01

Lituituba lituiformis         --     --       1        0.01

Marsipella cylindrica       0.29   0.49      23        0.34

Marsipella elongata           --   0.25      13        0.19

Placopsinella aurantiaca      --     --       1        0.01

Pelosina bicaudata            --     --       4        0.06

Pelosina cylindrica         0.07   0.19       7        0.10

Psammosphaera fusca         0.29   0.31      21        0.31

Recurvoides contortus       1.86   0.74      61        0.90

Recurvoides scitulus        0.57   0.99      54        0.79

Recurvoides sp.               --   0.49      36        0.53

Reophax bacillaris            --   0.12       3        0.04

Reophax bilocularis           --     --       4        0.06

Reophax ovicula               --     --       1        0.01

Box core 4 -        Surface  Surface  4AA   4BB   4DD   4EE   4FF
continued:             1        2

Reophax                0.90     1.07  1.16  2.84  1.67  1.50  2.10
scorpiurus

Repmanina                --       --    --  0.14    --    --    --
charoides

Rhabdammina              --     0.21  0.70  0.34  0.14  0.29  0.31
abyssorum

Rhabdammina            1.58     1.49  1,27  0.54  0.70  0.14  0.62
agglutissima

Rhabdammina            1.48     0.85  4.29  0.88  0.35  1.28  1.79
linearis

Rhizammina            12.08     3.70  1.39  2.16  1.81  2.93  0.99
algaeformis

Rhizammina             0.90     0.50  0.70  1.62  1.12  1.28  1.23
indivisa

Portatrochammina         --       --    --    --    --    --  0.06
antarctica

Pseudotrochammina      0.16     0.36    --  0.41  0.49  0.57  0.31
arenacea

Pseudotrochammina        --       --    --  0.14    --    --  0.12
echolsi

Saccamina                --     0.07    --  0.54  0.70  0.79  1.23
sphaerica

Saccorhiza ramosa      7.12     2.06  6.26  1.89  1.74  1.21  6.05

Subreophax             1.06     2.20  0.23  1.96  0.35  1.00  1.42
aduncus

Textularia             0.63     1.07  0.70  2.30  3.28  3.21  0:68
torquata

Textularia             0.26     2.13  0.58  2.84  1.95  2.07  0.93
wiesneri

Thurammina               --     0.14    --  0.41    --    --    --
papillata

Trochamminopsis        0.05       --  0.12  0.27  0.14    --    --
conicus

Agglutinated total     1753     1228   699  1067   998  1080  1475
counts

Foraminifera total     1895     1407   864  1481  1433  1401  1620
counts

                    Total   Relative % in
Box core 4 -                    all
continued:          counts    subsamples

Reophax                131           1.93
scorpiurus

Repmanina                2           0.03
charoides

Rhabdammina             22           0.32
abyssorum

Rhabdammina             41           0.60
agglutissima

Rhabdammina            102           1.50
linearis

Rhizammina             127           1.87
algaeformis

Rhizammina              84           1.24
indivisa

Portatrochammina         1           0.01
antarctica

Pseudotrochammina       26           0.38
arenacea

Pseudotrochammina        4           0.06
echolsi

Saccamina               49           0.72
sphaerica

Saccorhiza ramosa      222           3.27

Subreophax              73           1.07
aduncus

Textularia             143           2.10
torquata

Textularia             119           1.75
wiesneri

Thurammina               6           0.09
papillata

Trochamminopsis          7           0.10
conicus

Agglutinated total    5319          78.00
counts

Foraminifera total    6799         100.00
counts

Box core 6               Surface    6AA     6BB    6CC    6DD    6EE

% counted in subsample        95     95      95     25     95     25

Agglutinated species

Adercotryma glomerala      11.11  15.84      --  23.98  35.30  42.26

Ammodiscus incertus           --     --      --     --   0.06     --

Argillotuba argillacea     22.22   4.75      --   5.81   5.57  13.06

Aschemonella ramulifera       --   0.90      --     --   0.50   1.08

Aschemonella scabra           --     --      --   0.18   0.61   0.40

Astrorhiza crassatina         --  22.40      --  14.26   3.53   7.40

Cribrostomoides               --     --      --   0.09   0.17   0.13
wiesneri

Dendrophyra arborescens       --     --      --     --     --     --

Deuterammina goughensis       --     --      --     --     --   0.27

Globotrochamminopsis        7.41     --      --     --     --   0.13
bellingshauseni

Hyperammina elongata          --     --      --     --     --     --

HyperamminalRhabdammina       --     --      --   0.73   0.77   0.13
fragments

Pelosina bicaudata            --     --      --     --     --   0.40

Psammosphaerafusca            --   0.23      --   6.54   0.50   2.56

Pseudonodosinella             --     --      --     --   0.11     --
nodulosa

Recurvoides contortus      25.93  26.92      --   8.63   9.76   3.50

Recurvoides sp.             7.41   8.82      --   4.18   7.83   1.88

Reophax bilocularis           --     --      --   2.18     --   2.02

Reophax distorts              --     --      --   0.82     --     --

Reophax fusiformis            --     --      --     --     --     --

Reophax guttifer              --   2.04      --  12.62  16.38   9.29

Reophax ovicula               --   0.23      --   0.36   1.16   0.67

Reophax scorpiurus          3.70   0.23      --   1.54   2.48   3.36

Rhizammina algaeformis        --     --  100.00   1.63     --   0.81

Rhizammina indivisa         7.41   0.45      --   0.09     --   0.81

Rhabdammina                   --  14.93      --   9.54   8.27   4.17
agglutissima

Saccammina sphaerica          --     --      --   0.18     --     --

Subreophax aduncus            --   0.45      --   0.27   0.39   1.21

Textulaha wiesneri         14.81   1.81      --   6.36   6.56   4.44

Thurammina papillata          --     --      --     --   0.06     --

Total counts                  27    442       1   1101   1813    743

Box core 6                6GG    6HH    6II   Total    Relative
                                                         % in
                                              counts      all
                                                      subsamples

% counted in subsample      95     95     95

Agglutinated species

Adercotryma glomerala    32.35  22.41  42.29    2436       31.80

Ammodiscus incertus       0.08     --   0.09       3        0.04

Argillotuba argillacea    4.02   6.33   5.81     472        6.16

Aschemonella ramulifera   1.21   0.44   2.00      64        0.84

Aschemonella scabra       0.53   0.35     --      27        0.35

Astrorhiza crassatina     6.29   8.17   5.72     614        8.02

Cribrostomoides           1.29   0.62   0.36      33        0.43
wiesneri

Dendrophyra arborescens   0.08     --     --       1        0.01

Deuterammina goughensis   0.08     --     --       3        0.04

Globotrochamminopsis        --     --     --       1        0.01
bellingshauseni

Hyperammina elongata      0.30   0.09   0.09       6        0.08

HyperamminalRhabdammina   0.83   1.14   0.54      53        0.69
fragments

Pelosina bicaudata          --   0.09     --       4        0.05

Psammosphaerafusca          --   1.85   0.45     127        1.66

Pseudonodosinella         0.30   0.18     --       8        0.10
nodulosa

Recurvoides contortus     8.03  13.53  10.16     789       10.30

Recurvoides sp.           5.68   9.84   6.72     502        6.55

Reophax bilocularis       0.30   0.53   0.27      52        0.68

Reophax distorts            --     --     --       9        0.12

Reophax fusiformis          --   0.18     --       2        0.03

Reophax guttifer         15.00  14.24  10.44     989       12.91

Reophax ovicula           0.68   1.23   1.18      67        0.87

Reophax scorpiurus        2.05   0.88   1.18     138        1.80

Rhizammina algaeformis    1.44   0.88     --      54        0.70

Rhizammina indivisa       0.15   0.09   0.09      13        0.17

Rhabdammina               8.33   9.23   5.63     629        8.21
agglutissima

Saccammina sphaerica      0.08     --   0.18       5        0.07

Subreophax aduncus          --   0.18   0.27      26        0.34

Textulaha wiesneri       10.76   7.56   6.26     527        6.88

Thurammina papillata      0.15     --   0.27       6        0.08

Total counts              1320   1138   1102    7660         100

Box core 9                 9BB    9CC    9DD    9EE    9FF    9HH

% counted in subsample       95     95     95     95     95   62.5

Agglutinated species

Adercotryma glomerata      5.37  65.07  50.80  67.01   9.26  11.47

Ammodiscus incertus        0.00   0.00   0.00   0.07   0.00   0.00

Argillotuba areillacea    30.73   3.46  23.94   8.19  12.04  48.62

Aschemonella ramulifera    0.00   0.37   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Aschemonella scabra        0.00   0.00   2.93   0.15   0.00   0.00

Cribrostomoides wiesneri   0.00   0.19   0.13   0.30   0.00   0.00

Globotrochamminopsis       0.00   0.00   0.13   0.00   0.00   0.00
bellingshau.seni

HyperamminalRhabdammina    0.00   1.87   0.93   3.43   2.78   2.75
fragments

                                          Relative
                                 Total    % in all
Box core 9                 9II   counts  subsamples

% counted in subsample       95

Agglutinated species

Adercotryma glomerata      0.00    2023       48.10

Ammodiscus incertus        0.00       1        0.02

Argillotuba areillacea    61.09     710       16.88

Aschemonella ramulifera    0.00       4        0.10

Aschemonella scabra        0.00      24        0.57

Cribrostomoides wiesneri   0.00       7        0.17

Globotrochamminopsis       0.00       1        0.02
bellingshau.seni

HyperamminalRhabdammina    0.00      82        1.95
fragments

Box core 9 - continued:    9BB   9CC   9DD   9EE    9FF    9HH    9II

Lagenammina laguncula      0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00   0.00   0.00  10.33

Paratrochammina            0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00   0.00   0.00   1.82
challengeri

Pelosina bicaudata         0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00   0.00   0.92   0.00

Psammosphaerafusca         0.00  0.00  1.06  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Recurvoides contortus     15.12  6.27  1.20  4.77  15.74  21.56   3.34

Recurvoides sp.           13.17  6.09  0.27  3.57  14.81   6.88   0.00

Reophux bilocularis        0.00  0.09  1.46  0.60   0.00   0.00   0.00

Reophax brevis             0.00  0.47  0.00  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Reophax gullifer           1.95  0.75  0.80  4.32   7.41   0.00   0.91

Reophax ovicula            0.49  0.47  0.00  0.45   0.00   0.00   0.00

Reophax pilulifer          1.95  0.00  0.00  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Reophax scorpiurus         1.46  1.03  0.66  0.07   5.56   0.00   2.13

Rhabdammina agglutissima  12.20  5.71  6.12  7.07  27.78   0.46   3.34

Rhizammina algaeformis     0.00  0.00  1.46  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.30

Rhizammina indivisa        0.49  0.00  0.53  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.30

Saccammina sphaerica       0.00  0.00  0.80  0.00   0.00   0.92   0.91

Subreophax aduncus         0.00  0.00  1.06  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Texlularia wiesneri       11.71  7.77  4.39  0.00   4.63   6.42  15.50

Thurammina papillata       5.37  0.00  0.93  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Thurammina papyracea       0.00  0.37  0.40  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Total counts                205  1068   752  1343    108    329    218

                                    Relative
                          Total     % in all
Box core 9 - continued:   counts   subsamples

Lagenammina laguncula         34         0.81

Paratrochammina                6         0.14
challengeri

Pelosina bicaudata             2         0.05

Psammosphaerafusca             8         0.19

Recurvoides contortus        246         5.85

Recurvoides sp.              173         4.11

Reophux bilocularis           20         0.48

Reophax brevis                 5         0.12

Reophax gullifer              87         2.07

Reophax ovicula               12         0.29

Reophax pilulifer              4         0.10

Reophax scorpiurus            33         0.78

Rhabdammina agglutissima     269         6.40

Rhizammina algaeformis        12         0.29

Rhizammina indivisa            6         0.14

Saccammina sphaerica          11         0.26

Subreophax aduncus             8         0.19

Texlularia wiesneri          210         4.99

Thurammina papillata          18  0.43 [beta]

Thurammina papyracea           7         0.17
Total counts                4023          100

Box core 13                    13AA   13CC   13DD    BEE   13FF   13GG

% counted in subsample           25     25   12.5     25     25     25

Argil lot uba argillacea      16.53   7.53   7.22   2.63  21.75  15.30

Astrorhiza arenaria            0.00   0.13   0.21   0.00   0.14   0.00

Bathysiphon rufus              0.00   0.13   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Cribrostomoides wiesneri       2.34   0.52   1.65   5.61   1.52   7.11

Crithionina hispida            0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Haplophragmoides canariensis   0.00   0.26   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Hippocrepinella hirudinea      0.14   0.13   0.00   0.00   0.42   0.22

tiyperammina cylindnca         0.41   2.21   3.09   0.36   2.08   2.37

Hyperammina elongata           0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

HyperamminalRhabdammina       16.25  27.27  26.39  21.00  18.98  20.04
fragments

Lagenammina laguncula         24.38  19.22   7.42  28.52   9.83  17.67

Lagenammina tubulata           0.00   0.39   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Paratrochammina challengeri    0.55   0.26   0.62   2.03   0.69   1.51

Placopsinella aurantiaca       0.00   0.00   0.21   0.00   0.00   0.00

Recurvoides contortus          3.17   4.03  12.58  10.74   5.96   5.39

Reophax bilocularis            8.95   1.69   2.06   0.60   3.88   4.53

Reophax distans                0.00   0.00   0.41   0.00   0.00   0.00

Reopha fusiformis              0.00   0.00   0.21   0.00   0.00   0.00

Reophax guttifer              13.64   6.36   9.07   7.28   7.06   4.31

Reophax ovicula                0.00   0.00   0.21   0.00   0.14   0.00

Reophax scorpiurus             2.07   1.95   1.65   0.00   0.55   0.22

Reophax spp.                   0.14   0.26   1.44   2.74   0.42   1.08

Rhabdammina abyssorum          0.00   2.73   2.68   1.07   4.85   3.23

Rhahdammina agglutissima       0.00   0.13   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Rhabdammina discreta           6.75  18.83  20.41  12.17  17.59  15.30

Rhabdammina irregularis        0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.14   0.00

Rhabdammina linearis           0.41   0.00   0.21   0.00   0.28   0.00

Rhizammina algaeformis         2.89   3.51   0.82   1.91   2.35   0.22

Rhizammina indivisa            0.14   0.39   0.00   0.00   0.14   0.00

Saccammina sphaerica           0.00   0.00   0.21   0.00   0.42   0.65

Saccorhiza ramosa              0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.14   0.22

Textularia wiesneri            1.24   1.95   1.24   3.22   0.69   0.43

Thurammina papyracea           0.00   0.13   0.00   0.12   0.00   0.22

Total counts                    726    770    485    838    722    464

                                               Relative
                                      Total    % in all
Box core 13                    13II   counts  subsamples

% counted in subsample           25

Argil lot uba argillacea       8.64     522       11.13

Astrorhiza arenaria            0.00       3        0.06

Bathysiphon rufus              0.00       1        0.02

Cribrostomoides wiesneri       8.35     177        3.78

Crithionina hispida            0.29       2        0.04

Haplophragmoides canariensis   0.00       2        0.04

Hippocrepinella hirudinea      0.00       6        0.13

Hyperammina cylindnca          1.32      73        1.56

Hyperammina elongata           0.73       5        0.11

HyperamminalRhabdammina       17.42     981       20.93
fragments

Lagenammina laguncula         26.35     933       19.90

Lagenammina tubulata           0.73       8        0.17

Paratrochammina challengeri    1.02      45        0.96

Placopsinella aurantiaca       0.00       1        0.02

Recurvoides contortus          6.59     318        6.78

Reophax bilocularis            0.88     148        3.16

Reophax distans                0.15       3        0.06

Reopha fusiformis              0.00       1        0.02

Reophax guttifer               6.88     371        7.91

Reophax ovicula                0.00       2        0.04

Reophax scorpiurus             0.88      49        1.05

Reophax spp.                   1.76      53        1.13

Rhabdammina abyssorum          1.90     106        2.26

Rhahdammina agglutissima       0.00       1        0.02

Rhabdammina discreta          11.86     674       14.38

Rhabdammina irregularis        0.15       2        0.04

Rhabdammina linearis           0.00       6        0.13

Rhizammina algaeformis         0.73      91        1.94

Rhizammina indivisa            0.44       8        0.17

Saccammina sphaerica           0.44      10        0.21

Saccorhiza ramosa              0.00       2        0.04

Textularia wiesneri            2.49      81        1.73

Thurammina papyracea           0.00       3        0.06

Total counts                    683    4688         100

Box core 14        Surface   14AA   14BB   14CC   14DD  14EE   14GG

% counted in                   50     50     50    25   37.5     50
subsample

Agglutinated
species

Adercotryma           0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  0.18   0.00   0.00
glomerata

Aggerostramen         0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  0.00   0.00   0.00
rusticum

Argillotuba          40.40  21.33  20.10  22.50  8.39  10.82  18.18
argillacea

                                  Relative
                         Total    % in all
Box core 14        14II  counts  subsamples

% counted in       37.5
subsample

Agglutinated
species

Adercotryma        0.18       2        0.05
glomerata

Aggerostramen      0.18       1        0.03
rusticum

Argillotuba        8.15     588       15.45
argillacea

Box core 14                Surface  14AA   I4BB   14CC   14DD   14EE
- continued:

Astrorhiza                    0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
crassatina

Bathysiphon rufus             0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00

Cribrostomoides               0.00   0.00   0.00   0.18   0.00   0.00
subglobosus

Cribrostomoides wiesneri      0.51   0.00   0.17   0.00   0.00   0.17

Dendrophyra arborescens       0.51   0.69   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.35

Hippocrepinella hirudinea     0.00   0.00   0.17   0.18   0.18   0.17

Hyperammina cylindrica        0.51   0.00   0.00   4.36   0.18   1.40

Hyperammina elongata         24.75   1.15   5.42   2.90   0.00   0.00

HyperamminalRhabdammina       0.00  21.56  25.17  18.69  20.71  28.27
fragments

Lagenammina laguncula         3.54  16.74   8.92   2.36  21.43  11.69

Lagenammina tubulata          0.00   0.23   0.00   0.18   0.71   0.17

Paratrochammina               0.51   2.06   1.40   0.00   0.89   1.22
challengeri

Placopsinella aurantiaca      0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.18   0.00

Pseudonodosinella             0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.18   0.00
nodulosa

Recurvoides                   1.52   2.75   2.80   4.17   4.29   6.46
contortus

Reophax bilocularis           0.00   0.00   0.00   0.18   6.25   0.70

Reophax distans               0.00   0.23   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.35

Reophax                       0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.36   0.00
fusiformis

Reophax guttifer              2.02   3.44   3.32   0.18   9.82   5.06

Reophax                       0.00   0.00   0.52   0.00   0.00   0.00
ovicula

Reophax scorpiurus            1.52   2.75   1.92   2.18   4.29   8.55

Reophax spp.                  0.51   0.00   0.00   0.00   1.07   1.05

Rhabdammina                   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.73   0.00   0.00
abyssorum

Rhabdammina                   4.55   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
agglutissima

Rhabdammina discreta          0.00   6.42  17.66  23.23  10.00  13.26

Rhabdammina linearis          0.00   3.44   2.45   1.63   1.61   0.70

Rhizammina                    9.60  14.45   9.62  12.16   7.32   5.41
algaeformis

Rhizammina                    0.00   1.15   0.17   2.18   0.00   1.22
indivisa

Rhizammina spp.               8.59   0.00   0.00   2.00   0.71   2.09

Saccammina                    0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.89   0.00
sphaerica

Saccorhiza                    0.51   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.52
ramosa

Textularia wiesneri           0.00   0.46   0.00   0.00   0.36   0.35

Thurammina                    0.51   1.15   0.17   0.00   0.00   0.00
papillata

Total counts                   198    436   572.    551    560    573

                                                  Relative
Box core 14                       Total            % in all
- continued:                14GG   14II   counts  subsamples

Astrorhiza                  0.18   0.18       2        0.05
crassatina

Bathysiphon rufus           0.00   0.91       5        0.13

Cribrostomoides             0.00   0.00       1        0.03
subglobosus

Cribrostomoides wiesneri    1.60   0.91      16        0.42

Dendrophyra arborescens     0.00   0.00       5        0.13

Hippocrepinella hirudinea   1.78   1.27      21        0.55

Hyperammina cylindrica      3.39   1.09      58        1.52

Hyperammina elongata        0.18   0.18      54        1.42

HyperamminalRhabdammina    23.71  24.28     886       23.29
fragments

Lagenammina laguncula       4.46   8.15     394       10.35

Lagenammina tubulata        0.00   0.00       7        0.18

Paratrochammina             1.60   0.91      43        1.13
challengeri

Placopsinella aurantiaca    0.00   0.00       1        0.03

Pseudonodosinella           0.00   0.00       1        0.03
nodulosa

Recurvoides                 5.88   4.35     169        4.44
contortus

Reophax bilocularis         0.00   2.17      52        1.37

Reophax distans             0.00   0.00       3        0.08

Reophax                     0.00   0.00       2        0.05
fusiformis

Reophax guttifer            4.46   4.35     168        4.42

Reophax                     0.00   0.00       3        0.08
ovicula

Reophax scorpiurus          3.74   9.96     184        4.84

Reophax spp.                0.00   0.18      13        0.34

Rhabdammina                 0.00   0.54       7        0.18
abyssorum

Rhabdammina                 0.00   0.00                0.00
agglutissima

Rhabdammina discreta       18.54  15.94     581       15.27

Rhabdammina linearis        2.14   3.99      85        2.23

Rhizammina                  4.46   9.24     333        8.75
algaeformis

Rhizammina                  1.43   1.63      42        1.10
indivisa

Rhizammina spp.             1.96   1.09      44        1.16

Saccammina                  2.32   0.00      18        0.47
sphaerica

Saccorhiza                  0.00   0.00       3        0.08
ramosa

Textularia wiesneri         0.00   0.00       6        0.16

Thurammina                  0.00   0.18       7        0.18
papillata

Total counts                 561    552    3805         100

Box core 15                    15AA   15CC   15DD   15EE   15FF   15GG

% counted in subsample       100.00     50     25     25     25     25

Agglutinated species

Argillotuha argillacea        17.58   9.18   4.08   3.41   8.68  10.29

Aschemonella scabra            0.00   0.00   0.34   0.00   0.00   0.00

Astrorhiza crassatina          0.00   0.20   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.21

Bathysiphon rufus              0.00   0.20   0.00   0.00   0.00  .0.00

Cribrostomoides subglobosus    1.16   0.98   0.85   0.00   0.91   0.00

Cribrostomoides wiesneri       0.12   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.23   0.00

Crithionina hispida            0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.21

Hyperammina cylindrica         0.23   0.78   9.35   4.22   3.42   3.57

Hyperammina elongata           0.00   0.59   0.34   0.40   0.68   1.05

Hyperammina/Rhabdammina        6.29   3.32   0.51   0.00   0.00   1.26
fragments

Labrospira                     0.00   0.00   0.51   0.00   0.00   0.00
crassimargo

Lagenammina                    1.40   1.56   1.53   4.22   6.39   2.31
laguncula

Lagenammina                    0.12   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
tubulata

Paratrochammina                0.00   0.20   0.00   0.00   0.91   0.00
challenged

Placopsinella                  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
aurantiaca

Psammosphaera                  0.00   1.37   4.59   2.61   1.83   1.05
fusca

Recurvoides                   45.29  54.10  39.63  42.97  39.27  40.34
contortus

Reophax                        1.40   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.46   0.00
bilocularis

Reophax                        1.16   0.98   1.87   1.00   2.74   1.26
fusiformis

Reophax gultifer               1.05   0.39   0.00   0.00   1.60   0.00

Reophax                       12.11   8.40  12.24  10.04  17.81  10.71
scorpiurus

Rhabdammina                    0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.21
ahyssorum

Rhabdammina                   10.94   6.25  11.90  16.47   7.53  11.34
agglutissima

Rhabdammina                    0.00   1.76  11.73  10.24   6.16  11.55
discreta

Rhabdammina                    0.00   8.98   0.00   0.00   0.00   3.57
linearis

Rhizammina                     0.00   0.20   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
algaeformis

Rhizammina                     0.00   0.00   0.51   1.00   1.14   0.00
indivisa

Rhizammina spp.                1.05   0.59   0.00   3.41   0.00   1.05

Saccammina                     0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
sphaerica

Textularia                     0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.23   0.00
wiesneri

Thurammina                     0.12   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
papyracea

Total counts                    859    512    588    498    438    476

                                              Relative
                                     Total    % in all
Box core 15                   15II   counts  subsamples

% counted in subsample          25

Agglutinated species

Argillotuha argillacea        9.25     368        9.62

Aschemonella scabra           0.00       2        0.05

Astrorhiza crassatina         0.66       5        0.13

Bathysiphon rufus             0.00       1        0.03

Cribrostomoides subglobosus   0.22      25        0.65

Cribrostomoides wiesneri      0.44       4        0.10

Crithionina hispida           0.00       1        0.03

Hyperammina cylindrica        0.88     118        3.08

Hyperammina elongata          1.32      21        0.55

Hyperammina/Rhabdammina       4.85     102        2.67
fragments

Labrospira                    0.00       3        0.08
crassimargo

Lagenammina                   7.05     121        3.16
laguncula

Lagenammina                   0.44       3        0.08
tubulata

Paratrochammina               1.10      10        0.26
challenged

Placopsinella                 1.76       8        0.21
aurantiaca

Psammosphaera                 0.88      64        1.67
fusca

Recurvoides                  27.75    1603       41.91
contortus

Reophax                       1.10      19        0.50
bilocularis

Reophax                       0.66      52        1.36
fusiformis

Reophax gultifer              9.03      59        1.54

Reophax                       6.39     427       11.16
scorpiurus

Rhabdammina                   0.00       1        0.03
ahyssorum

Rhabdammina                  14.10     429       11.22
agglutissima

Rhabdammina                  10.79     260        6.80
discreta

Rhabdammina                   0.66      66        1.73
linearis

Rhizammina                    0.00       1        0.03
algaeformis

Rhizammina                    0.00      13        0.34
indivisa

Rhizammina spp.               0.00      34        0.89

Saccammina                    0.22       1        0.03
sphaerica

Textularia                    0.22       2        0.05

wiesneri

Thurammina                    0.22       2        0.05
papyracea

Total counts                   454    3825         100


APPENDIX 2: Foraminiferal species list (alphabetical order)

Adercotryma glomerata (Brady)

Aggerostramen rusticum (Heron-Allen and Earland)

Ammobaculites agglutinans (d'Orbigny)

Ammodiscus incertus (d'Orbigny)

Ammoscalaria tenuimargo (Brady)

Arenoturrispirillina sp.

Argillotuba argillacea (Earland)

Armorella sphaerica Heron-Allen and Earland

Aschemonella ramulifera Brady

Aschemonella scabra Brady

Astacolus reniformis (d'Orbigny)

Astrononion gallowayi Loeblich and Tappan

Astrorhiza arenaria Carpenter

Astrorhiza crassatina Brady

Bathysiphon hirudinea (Heron-Allen and Earland)

Bathysiphon rufus De Folin

Bolivina subspinescens Cushman

Buccella floriformis Voloshinova

Buccella frigida (Cushman)

Cassidulina laevigata d'Orbigny

Cassidulina neoteretis Seidenkrantz

Cassidulina reniforme Norvang

Cibicides rugosus Phleger and Parker

Cibicides sp.

Cibicidoides lobatulus (Walker and Jacob)

Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi (Schwager)

Cribroelphidium bartletti (Cushman)

Cribroelphidium clavatum (Cushman)

Cribroelphidium excavatum (Terquem)

Cribroelphidium incertum Williamson

Cribroelphidium subarcticum (Cushman)

Cribrostomoides subglobosus (Sars)

Cribrostomoides wiesneri.(Parr)

Crithionina hispida Flint

Cyclammina pusilla Brady

Cystammina pauciloculata (Brady)

Dendrophyra arborescens (Norman)

Dentalinafrobisherensis Loeblich and Tappan

Deuterammina goughensis Bronnimann and Whittaker

Deuterammina grahami Bronnimann and Whittaker

Earlandammina inconspicua (Earland)

Epistominella exigua (Brady)

Epistominella pacifica (Cushman)

Epistominella takayanagii lwasa

Eponides frigidus (Cushman)

Favulina hexagona (Williamson)

Favulina melo (d'Orbigny)

Fissurina bradyii Silvestri

Fissurinafimbriata (Brady)

Fissurina kerguelensis Parr

Fissurina marginata (Montagu)

Fissurina orbignyana Seguenza

Fissurina semimarginata (Reuss)

Fissurina seminiformis (Schwager)

Globigerina bulloides D'Orbigny

Globotrochamminopsis bellingshauseni Bronnimann and Whittaker

Glomospira gordialis (Jones and Parker)

Glomospirella sp.

Gyroidina orbiculare d'Orbigny

Hanzawaia hamadaensis Asano

Haplophragmoides canariensis (d'Orbigny)

Haynesina germanica (Ehrenberg)

Hippocrepinella hirudinea Heron-Allen and Earland

Hoglundina elegans (d'Orbigny)

Hormosina globulifera Brady

Hyperammina cylindrica Parr

Hyperammina elongata Brady

Involutina sp.

Jaculella acuta Brady

Karreriella novangliae (Cushman)

Labrospira crassimargo (Norman)

Lagena flatulenta Loeblich and Tappan

Lagena gracilis Wiesner

Lagena hispida Reuss

Lagena hispidula Cushman

Lagena meridionalis Wiesner

Lagena nebulosa Cushman

Lagena quadrilatera Earland

Lagena semilineata Wright

Lagena stelligera Brady

Lagenammina laguncula Rhumbler

Lagenammina tubulata (Rhumbler)

Laryngosigma hyalascidia Loeblich and Tappan

Lenticulina gibba (d'Orbigny)

Lituituba lituiformis (Brady)

Marginulina obesa (Cushman)

Marginulinopsis linearis (Montagu)

Marsipella cylindrica Brady

Marsipella elongata Norman

Melonis zaandami (Van Voorthuysen)

Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg)

Nodosaria calomorpha Reuss

Nonionella auricula Heron-Allen and Earland

Nonionellina labradorica (Dawson)

Oolina apiculata Reuss

Oolina globosa (Montagu)

Oolina williamsoni (Alcock)

Oridorsalis umbonatus (Reuss)

Oridorsalis sp.

Parafissurina fusiliformis Loeblich and Tappan

Parafissurina lateralis (Cushman) f. simplex (Buchner)

Parafissurina sp.

Paratrochammina challengeri Bronnimann and Whittaker

Paratrochammina earlandi Bronnimann and Whittaker

Patellina corrugata Williamson

Pelosina bicaudata (Parr)

Pelosina cylindrica Brady

Placopsinella aurantiaca Earland

Portatrochammina antarctica antarctica (Parr)

Procerolagena distoma (Parker and Jones)

Procerolagena gracilis (Williamson)

Procerolagena quadrilatera (Earland)

Protelphidium orbiculare (Brady)

Psammosphaera fusca Schulze

Pseudonodosinella nodulosa (Brady)

Pseudotrochammina arenacea (Heron-Allen and Earland)

Pseudotrochammina echolsi Bronnimann and Whittaker

Pullenia bulloides (d'Orbigny)

Pullenia osloensis Feyling-Hanssen

Pullenia quinqueloba (Reuss)

Pulvinulina frigida Cushman

Pyrgo murrhina (Schwager)

Quinqueloculina seminula (Linne)

Recurvoides contortus Earland

Recurvoides scitulus (Brady)

Recurvoides sp. 1

Reophax bacillaris Brady

Reophax bilocularis Flint

Reophax brevis Parr

Reophax di tans Brady

Reophax fusiformis (Williamson)

Reophax guttifer Brady

Reophax ovicula (Brady)

Reophax pilulifer Brady

Reophax scorpiurus Montfort

Repmanina charoides (Jones and Parker)

Rhabdammina abyssorum M. Sars in Carpenter

Rhabdammina agglutissima Hofker

Rhabdammina discreta Brady

Rhabdammina irregularis Carpenter

Rhabdammina linearis Brady

Rhizammina algaeformis Brady

Rhizammina indivisa Brady

Robertinoides charlottensis (Cushman)

Robertinoides pumilum Hoglund

Rutherfordoides mexicana (Cushman)

APPENDIX 2: Foraminiferal species list (alphabetical order) - continued

Saccammina sphaerica Brady

Saccorhiza ramosa (Brady)

Stainforthia concava (Hoglund)

Subreophax aduncus (Brady)

Textularia torquata Parker

Textularia wiesneri Earland

Thurammina papillata Brady

Thurammina papyracea Cushman

Tolypammina vagans (Brady)

Triloculina frigida Lagoe

Triloculina trihedra Loeblich and Tappan

Trochammina lituiformis Brady

Trochamminopsis conicus (Earland)

Uvigerina peregrina Cushman

Uvigerina sp.

Valvulineria arctica Green

Vermiculum marginatum Montagu

CLAUDIA J. SCHRODER-ADAMS (1), (2) and DEANNE VAN ROOYEN (1)

(1.) Carleton University, Department of Earth Sciences, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada

(2.) Corresponding author: csadams@earthsci.carleton.ca
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Author:Schroder-Adams, Claudia J.; Rooyen, Deanne Van
Publication:Arctic
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1CANA
Date:Sep 1, 2011
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