Resources in the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library: the Ella Mary Leather manuscript collection.
Upon its publication in 1912, Ella Mary Leather's The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire was immediately recognized as a model of scientific scholarship. The former president of the Folk-Lore Society, Charlotte S. Burne, described it as 'the most complete account of the folklore of any English county that has yet appeared', noting with approval that in the thirty years since the publication of her own Shropshire Folklore (1883-86), 'the advance of folklore study has turned what were then thought interesting parallels and explanations into mere truisms and padding. Mrs Leather has therefore been well advised to omit all but the very slightest tincture of commentary from her collections. '(1) Burne added that Leather had 'been peculiarly successful in recovering traditional songs and music, aided by Dr. Vaughan Williams, who reduced her phonographic records to writing [...] her survey of the field has throughout been singularly thorough.' Reading this glowing review, it is sobering to dwell upon the fact that much of the work and most of the papers of both reviewer and subject were to suffer similar fates. It seems probable that Charlotte Burne's work was destroyed by an uncharitable sibling. (2) Ella Leather's papers were dispersed owing to a combination of factors: her unexpected death from a heart attack in 1928 at the age of fifty-four; followed by her husband's death seventeen months later; and then the total break-up of their estate upon the death of their surviving son, Godfrey, in 1943. (3)
Consequently, as with Burne, until recently it was necessary to reconstruct Leather's work from her publications, a meagre selection of correspondence, and a handful of posthumous biographical sketches. This task is more problematic than in the case of the older folklorist, not least because, unlike Burne, Leather did not keep a diary, and her narrower interests--essentially the folkways of a single county--meant not just that she left a substantially smaller body of work but that she inhabited a much narrower social circle, leaving us with fewer reminiscences from contemporaries. In describing Leather as inhabiting a restricted social circle, I do not mean specifically in terms of class, but simply that she was a collector who was conditioned by the concentration of her work on one area, and that she rarely travelled beyond her native county. She was what Richard Dorson termed a 'County Collector'; (4) later described by Simpson and Roud as one who conducted fieldwork. 'in their native area which they knew well, and whose collections have added greatly to our store of folklore knowledge, but who did not otherwise play a large part in the greater world of folklore studies'. (5)
Be that as it may, with regard to social distinctions, most of the anecdotal evidence suggests a personage who, though a pillar of the local community, (6) was not totally conditioned by the more stifling class conventions then prevalent. Examples include the occasion in 1908 when she joined in with the hop-picking at the Homme Farm in order better to make the acquaintance of Gypsy singers, many of whom she subsequently went on to describe as her 'friends';(7) the visits from John Lock (sometimes noted, especially in Sharp's manuscripts, as Locke), the fiddler whom she introduced to Sharp in 1909, and who would announce himself 'by playing away under our windows until we came to listen'; (8) and her numerous sessions at Weobley workhouse, taking down songs from William (listed initially as Thomas) Colcombe. These activities, plus her directing during the war years of the Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) at Sarnesfield Court hospital, where she was affectionately known as the 'Commandant',(9) argue a personage who did not stand on ceremony.
If, as anecdotal evidence also suggests, she became less easy to work with in her last decade, the same sources also indicate that this change in her character was very much caused by the loss of her eldest son, John Francis, who signed up on the first day of the First World War and served in both Gallipoli and France, only to succumb to the influenza pandemic three weeks before the Armistice. (10) Nevertheless, the abiding memories of her in Weobley are invariably positive: 'She was a lovely person, she loved children, she was a friend to everybody. She didn't think herself any better than anybody else. She liked to think she was on an equal with everybody'; (11) 'If anyone poor in the village was ill, she would send them some soup, or fish or something like that [...] She was always thinking of others--not of herself [...] People would come to her with troubles and she would sit and listen to them. But she was always quiet and would never brag about it.' (12) If one adds to these humanitarian qualities her understanding of her county, its people, and their ways, one can see why she was such an able folklorist. As she herself explains in the Preface to The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire: 'It is useless for the collector of folk-lore to ask bald leading questions; like travellers of another sort, it is well to carry samples, for your old countryman loves to hear a story: having heard, he longs to tell you one as good, or better. Of course it may not be of the kind that is wanted, but it is well to listen patiently.' (13)
Thankfully, recent discoveries within the manuscript archives of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library (VWML) now give us a much better idea of Ella Leather's legacy. Her recently reacquired Notebook covers not only her earliest collecting work, when she relied upon a network of friends and associates to transcribe tunes for her, but also the beginnings of her use of one of the Folk-Song Society's Edison phonograph recorders, and her subsequent work with Ralph Vaughan Williams. As well as its importance as a central repository of Leather's work at this crucial juncture, the Notebook is also important in providing us with a ready-made guide to her handwriting and that of her collaborators. In consequence, it is now possible to go through other collections in the VWML and publications of the Folk-Song Society identifying songs from Leather's collection that have previously been attributed to other collectors, or that have simply languished as being of unknown provenance. It is hoped that in compiling this list of her collection, and indicating where the songs can be found, a better appreciation of this engaging figure from the Edwardian revival will be possible.
Ella Mary Leather was born Ella Mary Smith, in Bidney, in the parish of Dilwyn, Herefordshire, in 1874. Upon her marriage to the solicitor Francis Leather in 1893, she moved to the small market town of Weobley, and it was there that she was to live for the rest of her life. (14)
The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography notes that in 1905 her friend the Revd Compton Reade persuaded her to contribute a chapter on 'The Folk-Lore of the Shire' to his Memorials of Old Herefordshire and that this, plus the inclusion of some folktales in the first issue of the Herefordshire Magazine, in 1907, stimulated her interest in the subject. But it is evident that this places the beginnings of her interest too late, not least because Memorials was published in 1904. The Preface to The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire states that 'The greater part of the present collection of Herefordshire folk-lore has been gathered since 1905', (15) that being the year in which she joined not only the Folk-Lore Society, (16) but also, on 6 April, the Folk-Song Society. (17) However, she had already sent Lucy Broadwood a first batch of Herefordshire songs in January 1905; (18) and the Folk-Song Society's minutes from two weeks before she joined indicate that she had already offered 'a large number of songs, words & music, collected by herself in Herefordshire, & that she would allow the Society to use them for a forthcoming Journal'. (19) Furthermore, the earliest entries in her Notebook go back to the previous year and represent the fruits of a network of enquiries and contacts that she must have built up over some time. Consequently, we must assume that she had already been looking into the question of folk song in Herefordshire for some time before her article in the Memorials.
Interestingly, although Leather joined both the Folk-Lore and Folk-Song Societies in 1905, she did not join the Gypsy Lore Society when it was newly reformed in 1907 (having been in abeyance since 1893). This is surprising, considering the number of Gypsy singers represented in her collection and the involvement in the Gypsy Lore Society of other Folk-Song Society members, such as Lucy Broadwood. (20) There could be a number of reasons. First and most prosaically, it could be that she simply was not aware of the Gypsy Lore Society. Another reason might be that in the personage of John Sampson (1862-1931), Librarian of the University of Liverpool, the Society already had an established and (as a noted philologist) textually more rigorous collector, whose work covered similar territory to hers. (21) Finally, it could have been due to a divergence of ideology. Leather's one publication for the Society was her 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in Herefordshire', which, although published in 1925, deals with her fieldwork of 1908-12. (22) It is a delightful, anecdotal paper, discussing pre-Reformation carols, John Lock's meeting with Sharp at Leominster, and Harriet Jones's muttered incantations, which Leather noted only to be told by the then Honorary Secretary of the Society, T. W. Thompson, that 'they were too horrible to translate'. (23) However, it ends abruptly with the following conclusion: 'the Gypsies sing English folk-songs and carols, and play traditional dance tunes, in no way distinguishable from those collected from English folk, or house-dwellers as the Gypsy would say. They borrow their music, as they do their religion, from the country of their adoption.' (24) Leather was certainly not alone in this evaluation of Gypsy culture. Eight years later, Frank Howes was to write, 'it now seems to be established that the Gypsies are not a creative people and have no folk-music of their own composition'. (25) One can imagine such assertions being accepted, possibly with caveats, in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society or Folk-Lore, but they seem highly unlikely to have found favour with members of the Gypsy Lore Society, whether academic philologists such as Sampson or idealizing romantics like the artist Augustus John, with his sky-blue and canary-yellow caravans. (26)
The manuscript Notebook
Until recently, our main sources for Ella Leather's collecting work were published ones: her 1910 article 'Carols from Herefordshire, Collected by Ella M. Leather', the culmination of her initial publication enquiries from 1905; The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire (1912); her collaboration with Ralph Vaughan Williams, Twelve Traditional Carols from Herefordshire (1920); and the 1925 article 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in Herefordshire'. In addition, there are Lavender Jones's short biography, 'A Nest of Singing Birds' (1978), which contains as an appendix seven pages of photocopies of her manuscripts, prepared by Dave Jones, containing a total of eighteen songs. Twelve years before this last publication, however, the VWML acquired, for the sum of [pounds sterling]5, (27) a 'Large Notebook of Songs and Dance Tunes' (EML/1/, henceforth 'the Notebook'). (28) Unfortunately, this manuscript went missing, probably at some point in the 1970s, and was only returned to the library a couple of years ago when Tony Foxworthy discovered it in a bookshop in Greenwich. (29)
The Notebook bears upon its front flyleaf the inscription 'E. M. Leather / 1907'-It is immediately apparent, however, that the manuscript covers a much wider period and is not chronological (although it contains a larger selection of songs contributed by other collectors in its first half), with entries running from 1904 to 1913. Sixteen loose sheets are tucked between the cover and front flyleaf, and there are a further eight pages of sheet music comprising an appendix at the end of the Notebook. The loose sheets, as well as containing four early songs, (30) also contain six sheets that mark her return to collecting in 1922, including a version of 'Cold Blows the Wind' with a covering letter to Ralph Vaughan Williams. (31) The pages of music in the appendix consist of Cecil Sharp's transcriptions of the dance tunes he collected from the fiddlers John Lock and William Preece in December 1909 at the meetings that Leather arranged on his behalf. (32)
The main manuscript is not really a Notebook, as its accession card describes it, but rather a scrapbook, in which Leather has pasted the words and tunes of songs collected either by herself, or by others on her behalf. The manuscript represents a scrapbook of the songs she had collected up until 1907, after which she added material as it was collected, including further variants of songs she had already collected. Where there was no more space on the relevant page, she would employ pins or brass fasteners. The Notebook gives a very good idea of the network of associates she had built up in Herefordshire who would send her songs, and it provides an invaluable, albeit selective, cross-section of her collection. Of the dozen or so contributors to the notebook, (33) the two with the most entries are her children's governess, Miss Annie M. Webb (later Mrs Brockman), (34) and the young Francis Jekyll, a protege of Lucy Broad wood's. (35) Fifteen songs collected by Webb appear in the Notebook (plus three duplicates), and ten from Jekyll (again with three duplicates). (36) A few of the songs are undated, but Webb seems to have been collecting in Herefordshire from 1904 to 1906, and Jekyll in 1906. (37) Although no correspondence has survived, it is probable that Jekyll was encouraged in his work by Leather, or possibly Webb. All of Jekyll's Herefordshire songs were collected from the same singer, William Colcombe, (38) at the Weobley workhouse; (39) and in all but one of the instances in which Jekyll collected from Colcombe a song that Webb had already collected, Jekyll was at least a year behind the other collector. For example, Webb collected 'North Country Damsel' in 1904, and Jekyll in 1906; Webb collected 'The Mountains High' in 1905, and Jekyll in 1906. (40) The importance of this work to Jekyll's brief career is that it pre-dates not only his joining the Folk-Song Society in 1907, but also marks the beginning of his collecting work with George Butterworth, in that half of the songs collected from Colcombe were noted in collaboration with the composer. (41)
Briefly, the other pre-phonograph contributors to the Notebook are as follows:
* R. Hughes Rowlands, the local schoolmaster, whom Leather described as 'a little Welshman who has noted some tunes for me, very well'. (42) Seven songs (two duplicated), though it should be noted that this only makes up half of his overall contribution to Leather's collection, the other seven songs being dispersed around the other manuscripts.
* Mr F. Gwilliam. Six songs (two duplicated). The name is written as 'Gwilliam' in the first two Notebook entries, the only times when the collector's name is not in Leather's hand. Confusingly, it appears as 'Gwillim' for the remaining entries and in the Broadwood collection, in one case (LEB/5/244) being rewritten after Leather had initially written his name illegibly. 'Gwillim', furthermore, is the spelling used for his one appearance in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society. But against this evidence must be weighed that of the 1901 census, where Frank Gwilliam, a lodger at 56, the High Street, Weobley, is listed as a 29-year-old 'Surveyor of Highways Worker' from Clodock, Cwm Dulas. As he was the only 'F. Gwilliam' or 'F. Gwillim' in the village at that time, I have followed this spelling.
* Mr J. Griffiths, the local miller's son. (43) Three songs (two duplicated) plus a fourth song in the Lucy Broadwood collection.
* Dr King. Two songs (one a single-line fragment).
* The Revd Edwin King. One song (plus a further, duplicated, song in the other manuscripts).
* Eleanor Andrews and Dr Qui n ten Darling, 'friends' of Leather's from Eardisley. (44) One song.
* Miss Nellie Smith. One song.
* A harmonized setting by W. D. V. Duncombe, sent to Leather by the Revd Custos Duncombe (with a further song in the other manuscripts).
* Mr Walter Pilley, a local worthy who left a considerable collection to Hereford City Library. (45) One song (though this might have been copied from his broadside collection).
* Miss Nona Swire, a ward of Colonel Leather's, who contributed one duplicated song in the Notebook, 'The King and the Keeper', from Mrs Brace, Weobley. (46)
Writing to Lucy Broadwood in May 1905 about possible publications in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society, Leather admitted: 'I am rather greedy. I should like to keep the "K. & Keeper" tune! i.e. if it is good. It seems to me pretty. But you shall have it if worthy of a place in the journal, as I want to encourage my little niece. She is still at school, & I hope she may join the society when she leaves next year.' (47) That she must have been at least partially successful in encouraging Nona's interest in folk song is apparent from Nona's reminiscences: 'Ella used to take me round in the dog-cart, to visit old folk where she had heard folk songs could be sung. My part was to note them down with the aid of a tuning-fork and my own ear! Later a phonograph was produced and we sallied forth with that. Pembridge was about the greatest distance we covered.' (48)
Finally, there is one song in the Notebook copied from H. E. D. Hammond's collection, 'Rose in June', unattributed but textually identical to George Dowden's version. A slip in Lucy Broadwood's handwriting has been pasted to it, stating boldly, 'Copied from M. S. sent by H. E. D. Hammond E[squire]. Clevedon, Somerset. To whom you apply if you wish to use them in public or in print', (49) thus showing the store that the early collectors set on ownership and accountability. The remainder of the pieces in the Notebook--twelve songs in all (plus one duplicate)--consists of phonograph work. Using the phonograph, and thus freed from having to arrange for music transcriptions by local amanuenses, Leather could concentrate on noting the texts, knowing that the transcription would be left to the capable hands of Ralph Vaughan Williams. I will consider these entries in the next section.
For those acquainted only with Leather's collection from published sources, a number of things become apparent from a consideration of the Notebook: (i) the extended network of friends and assistants that she established; (ii) the wide range of songs that she collected, much greater than just those that saw publication; and (iii) the number of songs from her collection that were published but that were not credited to her.
With regard to the first of these points, certainly it can be put down in part to her position and influence in the village of Weobley, but it must also have been a consequence of her growing reputation as an authority on the subject of local folkways, either via word of mouth or through her occasional publications. Her reputation was such that by late 1907 we find informants passing her name on to other collectors. Pattie Leaper wrote to Frank Sidgwick in December of that year:
There is a lady, Mrs. Leather, whose address is, Weobley Herefordshire, Who has written a great deal about folk lore, & last Xmas she had written something about this carol which we call "The Bitter withy' in The Hereford Times. I think she could give you much information. (50)
As well as being a noted editor of old ballads, (51) and from 1909 until his death in 1939 managing director of the publishing firm Sidgwick & Jackson, (52) Frank Sidgwick is also credited with 'discovering' "The Bitter Withy'. (53) He would therefore have been eager to pool resources with another collector of early ballads and carols who had independently noted other variants of it. Sidgwick's first letter to Leather does not survive, but evidently he acted upon his informant's information, since a correspondence had begun by, at the latest, the following February. This is apparent from items preserved in the two volumes of Frank Sidgwick's 'Bitter Withy' folder, which was presented to the VWML in 1976 and 1987 and comprises a selection of letters, cuttings, and notes that Sidgwick made over many years on the subject of this curious ballad. Again, Leather's first letter to Sidgwick has not survived, but a subsequent letter is extant, which not only reiterates Nona Swire's point about the logistical problems of distance when collecting, but alludes to other pertinent issues such as the place of folk song collecting among Leather's other domestic responsibilities. (54) The whole is leavened with gentle humour and is worth quoting in full:
Feb: 23: 1908.
I send you another tune for the Bitter Withy.
Mr. Brimfield is much disappointed that he has not had a letter from you! An acknowledgment in the paper is not enough for him. I am writing to thank him for the tune. Miss Andrews tells me he knows of other folk singers, but alas! he is ten long miles away from me, & I am a mother to a small Person of six years, & Haus frau, & other things before folk-song collector.
It is very nice of you to flatter me so much in the Hereford Times. Have we any mutual friends? I cannot remember revealing any antiquarian leanings in my correspondence.
The tune of the 'Juniper Tree' which is promised me from the Monmouthshire border, has not arrived yet, nor have I been able to go to Pembridge to look for the singer of 'Bells in Paradise', the weather is so rough when I have time,
E M Leather
Accompanying the letter is an insert with the tune to Mr Brimfield's version of "The Bitter Withy', as noted by Edith Andrews. Unfortunately, no more of their correspondence survives, but it must have continued throughout 1908, since Sidgwick's folder contains other versions of "The Bitter Withy' from Leather's collection, as well as three of Leather's photographs: one, a landscape photo of willows, on which Leather has written, quoting the ballad, 'It shall be, the very first tree / To perish at the heart' (Figure 1); and two photos of singers, one of Mrs Wheeler and one of William Colcombe (Figure 2). (55)
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
The two issues of what the Notebook can tell us about the wide range of songs she collected, and the number of songs from her collection that were published but that were not credited to her, can be considered together. Those acquainted only with the published material could be forgiven for imagining the vernacular song culture of Herefordshire to have been predominantly pre-Reformation, sacred, and of specifically Gypsy provenance. But while it is to be expected that any collector would wish to concentrate on the most ancient, unique, or unusual of their finds, the Notebook does give a much more rounded overview of the song repertoire in Herefordshire at that time. For every 'The Moon Shines Bright', there is a 'Pretty Ploughboy' or 'Basket of Eggs'; for every carol, a broadside. Nevertheless, there are unusual variants of common ballads, and even the occasional secular song of great rarity. To mention but a few, 'The Mountains High', collected from William Colcombe, (56) is a version of the rare 'Captain Barniwell' (Roud 955), otherwise noted only by Alfred Williams in Berkshire (twice), (57) H. E. D. Hammond in Dorset, Sharp in Somerset, Christie in Banffshire, and Greig in Aberdeenshire, along with a couple of American versions. Two unique hunting songs are 'The Fox-Hunting Chase' ('Come all you bold sportsmen') (Roud 22252), (58) and "The Fox-Hunt' ('All you that love hunting attend to my song') (Roud 22251), (59) both of which were printed in The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire (the latter under the title 'The Herefordshire Fox-Chase') but without the tunes included in the Notebook. Another curiosity is 'The Honest Weaver' (Roud 22255), which Annie Webb took down from the singing of a Mr C. Burton. (60) The song is an extended, albeit incomplete, text of seemingly great age--but it is actually a near-verbatim recitation of a verse narrative entitled "The Three Gifts: A Tale of North Germany' by the American poet John Godfrey Saxe (1816-87), from his Clever Stories of Many Nations Rendered in Rhyme (1865). (61) It would be interesting to know by what paths this art setting came to be in the mouth of a middle-aged wheelwright of Dilwyn.
As well as the unusual songs that were not published, the Notebook also reveals the number of songs from Leather's collection that were published but that are not generally known as being from her collection. 'Carols from Herefordshire' is rightly considered her main contribution to the Journal of the Folk-Song Society, and in light of the contents of the Notebook it is apparent how quickly the Society took up her suggestion that it publish from her 'large number of songs, words & music'. (62) However, in following the journal's house rules of noting only the name of the music transcriber, she was rarely credited as the collector. J. Griffiths, F. Gwilliam, and Annie Webb are all noted as collectors of some songs, but not Ella Leather. (63) Occasionally a credit is given in the succeeding notes, such as 'noted and communicated by Mrs. Leather'. (64) Sometimes, too, a piece of further information testifies to Leather's role as collector, such as the additional note accompanying aversion of 'Oh, Have You Heard and Seen Our Saviour's Love' from Mrs Caroline Bridges: 'Mrs. Leather, who communicates this tune, describes the fine effect produced by Mrs. Bridges' beautiful deep voice.' (65) In consequence, a careful reading of the entries from Herefordshire in the pages of the Journal of the Folk-Song Society for 1905 alongside the Notebook and other loose papers (EML/2/) reveals that eleven songs from her collection were published, (66) rather than just the four that mention her in the song notes. (67)
While it is evident that there was no intention on the part of the editorial board to marginalize Leather's contributions, (68) the house rules did mean that she received less credit than was her due--a matter that was of little consequence when those involved were still alive to correct any misconceptions (or to explain the journal's rules of attribution), but is of greater consequence for subsequent historical accuracy. This matter of attribution in the pages of the journal was, albeit to a lesser extent, also to be an issue with regard to Leather's later work, with the phonograph.
Sharp, Vaughan Williams, and collecting with the phonograph
Leather's difficulties in arranging for transcriptions of tunes have already been touched upon, and her surviving correspondence with Lucy Broadwood emphasizes the problems she and her transcribers faced: 'Miss Webb said the "Pride of Glencoe" was very hard to write down, although she had it "in her head" quite clearly & is sure it is right. She has left us, & sent it to me, & I can't fit it with the words, but probably you can. I send you the 8th verse, as that is the one that went best.' (69) This must have been just a temporary absence from Weobley, since Annie Webb was transcribing from William Colcombe and Mrs Powell the following year, but it seems that at least one carol defeated her, finally being transcribed by J. Griffiths: 'Miss Webb tried to get the "Man that lives", but found it difficult. Am I right in thinking it an old modal tune? That E flat is ugly, but Mr. Griffiths has a fine ear, & it is right, [postscript] I can't get any more sensible conclusion to the carol. There must be some more.' (70) At times it was not possible to get a transcription at all, as described in a note to an undated list of songs that Leather sent to Lucy Broadwood for possible inclusion in the journal; 'I have not had time to see Mr. Gwilliam about tune yet, but will write again. Most of the words I have taken myself, it is all I can do!' (71) Thankfully, this cry for help was to be answered and, by December 1906, (72) "Miss Lucy Broadwood, then Honorary Secretary of the Folk-Song Society, decided that the matter was deserving of expert attention, and secured for me the invaluable assistance of Dr. Vaughan Williams, who lent an Edison phonograph, with recorder and reproducer from which the music could be noted.' (73)
The old assumption that the great and the good of the Folk-Song Society viewed the phonograph with suspicion, and failed to act upon Percy Grainger's clarion call to utilize the new recording medium when his 'Collecting with the Phonograph' was published in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society in 1908, (74) has been shown to be an oversimplification. (75) It is true that objections were raised, but these were mainly practical ones, based on the limitations of the new technology, although criticism did occasionally concentrate on the new medium's challenge to the established methodologies of collecting and publishing songs. (76) In general, though, the Society had a measured position towards the new technology, as represented by the editorial note added to Grainger's article: 'About the phonograph as an aid to collecting there can be no doubt; whether it is sufficiently perfect as yet to be preferred as a substitute for the human ear is still a disputable point. Similar careful records and analysis of the performances of trained singers and instrumentalists would therefore be of great value in helping to determine this. '(77)
Compared with other ethnomusicological groups the Society had in fact acted promptly and efficiently to acquire one of the new machines. (78) The idea of acquiring a phonograph was mooted at a committee meeting as early as 1904; (79) James Campbell Maclnnes made recordings on the Isle of Skye in 1905 with, one assumes, either his own or borrowed equipment (to the best of my knowledge, none of these recordings has survived); (80) and an Addendum slip pasted to the inner title page of the journal in 1906 specifically proposes the purchase of a machine:
December 10th, 1906.
The Hon. Secretary has recently received a donation of [pounds sterling]5, to be applied at her discretion for the benefit of the Folk-Song Society.
She therefore proposes with this sum to open a fund for the purchase of the most satisfactory kind of Phonograph, or other recording machine, and invites further donations. (81)
Furthermore, Percy Grainger was given financial assistance by the Society for the making of his Lincolnshire recordings; (82) and by 1908 Lucy Broadwood had purchased the machine with which she was to embark on her highly successful series of London-based Gaelic recordings. (83) The 106 surviving phonograph recordings that can be attributed to these early efforts of the Folk-Song Society (Grainger's work excepted) are now to be found in London, British Library Sound Archive, EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection; and among them are four cylinders of Herefordshire songs and tunes which are discussed further below.
Cecil Sharp, later to be recognized as the most successful and influential of the collectors, only made, posthumous documentation suggests, half a dozen or so cylinder recordings. (84) It should be remembered, however, that while he did recommend the use of the new technology, (85) he was personally constrained by the logistics of transporting equipment by bicycle down the country lanes of Somerset. (86) Furthermore, as his avowed intention as a collector was firmly pedagogic, he required a publishing process that had a printed score as its final aim, not a documentary field recording. It was not going to be practicable to provide every school in the land with a phonograph, but it was eminently possible to provide them with songbooks.
Leather's work with Sharp, arranging for him to see Mr Trill's Brimfield morris men on Boxing Day 1909, and to meet with John Lock the following day and with William Preece on 29 December, has been considered elsewhere. (87) However, since one of Sharp's surviving cylinder recordings and three of the phonograph transcripts in his notebooks are certainly the product of this work, they should be considered briefly. Unfortunately, we possess only three items relating directly to their work together, of which one comprises the eight pages of sheet music of Herefordshire dance tunes that Sharp sent to Leather, (88) and another is Leather's letter of condolence to Sharp's widow. (89) Nonetheless, the one surviving letter is very informative, especially since it pre-dates their collecting work and once again shows very clearly how wary the early collectors were of infringing on one another's territory. (90) It is worth quoting in full:
189 Ad[elaide], R[oad]:
Dear Mrs. Leather.
I agree with everything in your letter of the 6'. I will gladly look through the dance & same portion of your forthcoming book and do all I can to help you. You in return will help me to see dances in your neighbourhood wh[ich] is most kind of you.
I will never publish anything wh[ich] I note directly through y[ou] r assistance, without your permission.
I don't think we shall disagree!
etc etc etc
Both were as good as their word. Leather would acknowledge Sharp in her Preface to The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire as having 'given me the benefit of his great experience in noting morris and country dances, and has noted the dance tunes'. (91) Sharp was introduced by Leather not only to the fiddlers John Lock and William Preece, but also to the Brimfield morris and to further examples of morris at Madley and Weobley. The fruits of this collecting tour can be found in the appendix to the Notebook and in Sharp's Folk Tunes and Folk Words manuscripts, (92) but what specifically concern us here are the four references to, and three transcriptions from, phonograph recordings.
Two of the dances in the Notebook appendix are known to have been recorded at the time: 'Sheepskins', which Sharp noted as 'Tested by phonographic record taken by Mrs. Leather'; (93) and 'The Morris Dance', subsequently published in The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, (94) which was initially titled 'Sheepskins' in the Notebook appendix but subsequently re-titled, as Sharp explains, 'This was noted from phonographic record taken by Mrs. Leather. Locke told her this was "Sheepskins" but he gave me the other tune (2416) by that name.' (95) Unfortunately, one of the four surviving Herefordshire cylinders, labelled on the box, 'There is an Ale house / Dance Tunes / played by Locke', merely replicates this confusion, in that on the bottom of the box is written 'There is / an ale house / Gipsy / Locke / [begin strikethrough]Sh[ee]pskins[end strikethrough] / Hornpipes'. (96) While the fiddle tune is very probably from Lock (the singer of 'There Is an Ale House' has not been unidentified), the tune bears no resemblance at all to any of the John Lock tunes in any of the manuscripts, least of all to those that Sharp finally decided to call either 'Sheepskins' or 'The Morris Dance'. That subsequent articles have christened it 'John Lock's Polka' is convenient, but brings us no closer to knowing its true title.
Nevertheless, assuming that this recording is of Lock, some other provisional conclusions can be derived from this cylinder: first, that it is distinct from the other surviving Herefordshire recordings; and secondly, that it is Sharp's work rather than Leather's. The first conclusion is supported by a number of factors. Two of the other Herefordshire cylinders are housed in plain cardboard boxes with blue card tops and bottoms, (97) the same packaging as is found with Vaughan Williams's own recordings. (98) The remaining one, admittedly, is in a blue Edison Bell 'Gold Moulded' box, and therefore must belong to a different series from the others.(99) However, all three have identical, generic, 'With Care' stickers pasted on to them, with the titles written in Vaughan Williams's worst handwriting. The final piece of evidence that these three cylinders are from the same collection is that not only are they all made from the same brown wax, but each was recorded at 140 rpm. The Lock cylinder is a very different beast, for not only is it in a different, hand-made, plain blue box, but the generic label gives the details in a very different, unidentified hand. Furthermore, this recording was made at 160 rpm, and it was cut on to a hard black wax, more like Bakelite than the softer brown wax of the other recordings. (100) Consequently, whether or not this recording was made at the same time as Leather's no longer extant cylinders of Lock, the substantial differences from the other surviving cylinders, in terms of packaging, type of wax, speed, and inscriptions, argue that this item is from Sharp's collection, rather than Leather's. If it seems curious that the hornpipe is not to be found in the Sharp manuscripts, it is worth remembering that in a few of the other instances where we know that Sharp made recordings, he did not bother to write them up in his fair-copy manuscripts but simply gave the title on a blank page. Examples include his recordings of Priscilla Cooper's 'The Indian Lass' and 'The Basket of Eggs'. (101) His reasoning was probably that, as he had a phonograph recording, he could rely on that for later reference. It appears that with the Lock hornpipe he took this process a step further.
The last of the references that concern us here are the two in which Sharp asks Leather to make him phonograph recordings of tunes of which he is uncertain. The first of these is William Preece's 'Jack off the Green', where Sharp notes, 'It would be well to get a phonographic record of this if you can, in order to rectify it. I am not too sure about it.' (102) As far as is known, no recording was made of this tune; certainly there is nothing to suggest this in Sharp's manuscripts. The second is Lock's version of 'Boyne Water', of which Sharp writes in the Notebook appendix, 'I should like a phonographic record of this. He may have forgotten (partially) second strain.' (103) In this case, Sharp's fair-copy manuscripts indicate that this recording was indeed made, for while p. 2420 of Folk Tunes gives the tune as noted on 27 December 1909, p. 2419 gives it as 'noted from phonograph. Jan 26. 1912'. (104) So we know not only that Sharp and Leather were in continuing correspondence after their initial joint collecting work, but that Leather made more than one series of recordings of John Lock.
As already noted, while the new technology was impractical for Sharp to use consistently in the field, and of little use to his evangelistic work in education, these issues were not of relevance to Leather. Her main dilemma was always over the transcription of tunes, and while she had invited Ralph Vaughan Williams to Herefordshire specifically for this purpose, his first visit being in late July-early August 1908, (105) this was still not a long-term solution to the problem. The phonograph, therefore, was an eminently suitable solution, an ever-present and scientific amanuensis. She found the new technology less off-putting for her singers than the Cassandras in the Folk-Song Society had anticipated: 'The surprise of the singers when they heard their songs immediately reproduced was great, and acted as an inducement to those reluctant at first to sing.' (106) Not that the technology was without its problems. Her earliest surviving letter to Vaughan Williams, on 3 November 1908, notes the usual set of problems that a collector--with or without a phonograph--could expect to face when collecting in the field:
vii. Mrs. Whatton, voice feeble, words scrappy, but will send them if tunes arc any good. [vii.] b. is I fear almost same as Mrs. Bridges'.
ix. Prosser had a cold, first verse is repeated at end his very loudest.
xii. Is two verses of same from Mrs. Herbert. She has sung in choirs a good-deal, & has had some training.
Colcombe learnt Tiresome wife from an old man of 90, day before he died, & insisted on my noting it! I feel doubtful about it, & the words are horrid."(107)
The follow-up letter, of 9 November, however, concentrates more on the problems of working with the phonograph:
I send 6 more records. Some are very bad, but it is really not my fault. Mrs. Harris has no more voice, & Mrs. Powell was very shaky & I think in Pretty Caroline she shook the table. It was in No III. that Hancocks leaned on the horn. I afterwards broke the record, but have taken another: it was the Holy Well. I hope this is new: to my untrained ear its beautiful. Mrs. Powell has sung me a Thresherman, yet to come, & I think a little different. I almost despair of getting the other Claudy Banks, & doubt if one can get a good record, as poor old John Morgan is always in bed now. (108)
As mentioned above, the Notebook lists only twelve songs (plus one duplicate) that are from phonographs. Eight bear the description 'Phonographed E. M. L. / noted R. V. W.', or a variant thereof. These are 'Tailor and the Crow', 'Seasons of the Year', 'Milkmaids Song' (duplicated), 'The Bitter Withy', 'The Mantle of Green', 'There is an Alehouse', 'Sailor Boy', and 'The Trees They Do Grow High'. (109) The other four can be identified as having been recorded, either from entries in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society and The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, as in the case of 'Dilly Dove' and 'Cold Blows the Wind', (110) or because they are recognizable from a surviving recording, as in the case of 'Americkay' and 'The Bitter Withy'. (111) Furthermore, three of the dances in the Notebook appendix, 'Morris Dance', 'Sheepskins', and 'Boyne Water', are known to have been recorded, either from references in the Notebook or from Sharp's manuscripts. (112) The loose papers (EML/2/) give six songs known to have been recorded, but three of these duplicate material in the Notebook, and of the other three only 'Bold Robin Hood' is marked unequivocally 'Phono / E.M.L' and provides totally new material. (113) The remaining two songs, 'Christ Made a Trance' and 'The Holy Well', both of them fragmentary, are only given in a complete form in the published versions. (114) Two more songs, 'Under the Leaves of Life' and 'There Was a Lady in Merry Scotland', which we know were recorded, are mentioned in the loose papers, but only as titles in a list of songs collected in September 1908 which 'The gipsies sang at the Homme & Chadnor, farms near Weobley', although both exist in published forms. (115)
To these can be added three phonographed songs from Box 5 of the Lucy Broadwood Collection which are not found elsewhere. These are 'The Jeweller's Wedding', 'Claudy Banks', and an incomplete transcription of 'Got Rest You Merry Gentlemen' which is rather confusing titled 'God Our Father', the title coming from what must have been the singer's second stanza (the third stanza in most published versions), since Vaughan Williams, after giving one tune variant at the end, has written, 'Otherwise Verse 1 too bad record to note from'. (116) Also present here are versions of 'The Holy Well' and 'The Bitter Withy' that were later published. (117) Finally, one phonograph transcription is found in the second volume of Frank Sidgwick's 'Bitter Withy' folder. This is the manuscript source of Mr Holder's version, very much as found in the published versions, but of great interest for the way in which Leather has credited each of the collectors with their respective roles, namely, 'Discovered [:] FS / Phono: EML / Noted: R. V. W.' (Figure 3). (118)
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Consequently, we have twenty-six songs, either complete, incomplete, or by title only, in the Notebook (EML/1), loose papers (EML/2), the Broadwood Collection (LEB/5/), Frank Sidgwick's 'Bitter Withy' folder (FSBW/), or in Sharp's manuscripts, that can be identified as having been recorded to cylinder. To these can be added a further four of the fifteen recordings identified among Leather's published songs or tunes which do not duplicate items in the manuscripts. (119) This gives a grand total of thirty recordings made between 1907 and 1909, with a brief return to the medium in 1912-13. (120)
While thirty songs, probably recorded over some sixteen or so cylinders, (121) is certainly more than Ella Leather was previously thought to have made, based on published references and surviving recordings, this is actually only half the story. This becomes evident when looking for Leather's papers in the two volumes of the Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts and Letters held in the VWML, for here one finds not only the correspondence (quoted from above), but five lists of phonographs. (122) Three of these are described in Vaughan Williams's own 'Index of Letters, Notes, Lists and Addresses' as 'Phonograph records / Leather'. (123) Considered along with the relevant correspondence, this means that the recordings discussed above amount to less than half of those that were actually made.
As already noted, the earliest extant piece of correspondence from Ella Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams is her letter of 3 November 1908, in which she talks about Mrs Whatton's voice being feeble and laments having to record William Colcombe's 'Tiresome Wife'. A number of her papers in the Scrapbook substantially pre-date this letter, but whether they were sent to Vaughan Williams at the time, forwarded to him via Lucy Broadwood, or collated at a later date, remains impossible to determine from the surviving documentation.
The earliest, and most important, of these items is a single sheet entitled 'Fragments of Songs & Carols, from Mr. J. Probert, Weobley, Dec 1. 1906', beneath which is written 'Edison "Home" Phonograph record', followed by texts of four fragmentary recordings, 'Carol--In a Manger', 'Carol--Riches Are But Vanity', 'Abroad as I Was Walking', and 'Down by the Shining Water'. (124) The brevity of these pieces, and the singular noun 'record', indicate that this is a list relating to just one cylinder. That this was a recording made in Weobley (rather than one of the adjacent villages), and the fact that only short sections from four very different pieces were recorded, argues that it was probably a trial recording, in which the collector was acquainting herself with the equipment, discovering how much material could be sensibly included on one cylinder blank, and ascertaining the optimum speeds to use. The fact that we have documentation for only four songs recorded over the following year does not necessarily mean that there were teething problems with the new technology; it might have been that other collectors had a call on the machine, or simply that Leather had in hand too many of the 'other things' about which she wrote to Sidgwick. Without any extant correspondence, it is difficult to come to conclusions about 1907. Consequently, the beginning of her documented correspondence with Vaughan Williams in the following year provides valuable clues to her work.
As well as the trials and tribulations of collecting noted above, the first things apparent from reading the letter of 3 November 1908, and its companion list of recordings, are not only that this is unlikely to have been the first letter in their correspondence--it is written in an abrupt, truncated style, hardly that of a new correspondent, but designed to provide the maximum of information in the minimum number of words--but also that this could not have been the first set of cylinders to be sent to Vaughan Williams, because the numbering runs from VII to XII. (125) Furthermore, it is apparent that the loan of the phonograph was originally envisaged as a short-term one, for she begins the letter as follows: 'Herewith 6 records. There are 4 more taken, including repetitions of True Lover's downfall, & Divus & Lazarus (Eardisley) I have 6 blanks left, & am afraid that's all I shall be able to get at present, so will get them filled & return phonograph as soon as may be.' These '4 more taken' were promptly sent the next week, since both 'True Lover's Downfall', from Noah Richards, and 'Diverus & Lazarus', from Mrs Harris (of Eardisley), the latter spread over two cylinders, are included in the list of 9 November 1908. (126) To these were added a further three recordings (over two cylinders) from Mrs Powell, making a total of six cylinders in the batch. Confusingly, rather than continuing the numbering of the previous letters, these are numbered I-VI. With the additional two cylinders from Mrs Powell, this left four cylinder blanks remaining, and although no letter survives, the next list, from February of the next year, does indeed contain just four cylinders rather than the usual six. (127)
And there, if we were to believe the plans of 3 November, is where the recordings should have ended, with the blanks all used up and the phonograph returned to the Folk-Song Society. Surprisingly, however, this was not to be. As the last of the 'Phonograph records' lists in Leather's hand, dating from March 1909 or later, indicates, either Vaughan Williams had sent more blanks to Weobley or else a convenient source had been located in Herefordshire. Over two pages are set out her most extensive and consistently documented series of phonographs, amounting to no less than forty-three separate recordings, of thirty-six songs, recorded on sixteen cylinders, from ten different singers. (128) Again, rather than continuing from the previous lists, the numbering starts again at I; but it is evident that this is a separate series from the others, because only two of the singers, Noah Richards, a blacksmith from Moorhampton, and G. Vaughan of Dilwyn, are familiar from previous lists. (129) Furthermore, very few of the recordings in this last list duplicate any of the extant manuscripts. Of the five songs noted in the list of 11 February 1909, only two, Mrs Tristram's 'Down in the Fields of Bilberry' and 'Joys of Mary', are otherwise unknown in Leather's collection, and each cylinder includes at least one song already noted elsewhere in the manuscripts, either as a title or a transcription. In this later list, however, only three of the thirty-six songs exist elsewhere in the surviving manuscripts or publications: John Lloyd's 'The Taylor & the Crow' and Mrs Goodwin's 'Dilly Dove' and 'The Holy Well'. (130) These are all from 1909, but the date of 'The Holy Well' is given as March of that year, thus providing a better idea of the time from which the list dates.
Consequently, if we add the total number of cylinders from these lists--one (1 December 1906), six (3 November 1908), six (9 November 1908), four (11 February 1909), and sixteen (March 1909 or later)--to the sixteen or so inferred from the other manuscripts, and deduct the eight that contain material cited elsewhere, (131) we are left with a total of forty-one cylinders. This is, of course, a highly provisional total. For example, we do not yet have any way of knowing whether the six cylinders that predated the list of 3 November 1908 are among those noted in the other manuscripts; but the fact that we know of at least five songs recorded on cylinders in September and October 1908 suggests that these probably made up the first batch after the previous year's trial attempts. Nevertheless, this provisional estimate does give us a much better idea of the breadth and depth of Leather's collecting work with the phonograph.
That Leather made relatively few recordings after 1909 can be attributed not only to the time needed for seeing The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire through the press, but also to the increasing social responsibilities that went with her husbands various positions in the village over the next decade: Honorary Secretary of the local Red Cross; manager of the local branch of Lloyds Bank; Registrar of Births, Marriages, and Deaths for the village; member of the Board of Guardians of Weobley workhouse. (132) Nonetheless, 1912 did bring the most famous of her collecting experiences, when she and the Vaughan Williamses located Alfred Price Jones, who, in the twilight of a Gypsy camp, sang them 'Cold Blows the Wind', 'and while Dr. Vaughan Williams noted the tune his wife and I took down alternate lines of the words'. (133) Leather continued: 'It is difficult to convey to those who have never known it the joy of hearing folk-songs sung as we heard that pathetic ballad: the difference between hearing it there and in a drawing room or concert hall is just that between discovering a wild flower growing in its native habitat and admiring it when transplanted to a botanic garden.' Vaughan Williams was subsequently to describe this as his 'most memorable musical impression for the year 1912'. (134)
A handful of songs were noted in 1913, but with the beginning of the Great War her work as Commandant of the Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachment at Sarnesfield Court Hospital took precedence over her other activities, and folklore and folk song were put aside for the duration. Interestingly, it is from this time that most of the surviving photographs of Leather date, one an evocative portrait probably from near the end of the war (Figure 4), and three group portraits of the patients and staff at the hospital, with the Commandant seated in the middle. (135)
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Though grief-stricken by her eldest son's death in 1918, Ella Leather's last decade was certainly not one of decline, and in 1920 she and Vaughan Williams published their Twelve Traditional Carols from Herefordshire, in which, following the example of Vaughan Williams's Eight Traditional English Carols of the previous year, they allowed themselves the luxury of composite texts and musical arrangements:
The object of this volume is not scientific but artistic; it is simply to preserve these carols in a form in which they can be sung by those who value our traditional songs and melodies. The Editors have therefore not hesitated (while keeping as much of the original text as possible) to emend corruptions in the words, to correct grammatical errors and to supply missing lines and verses from other sources [...] With the melodies the case is different--here the question of verbal logic and grammar does not come in--the sole question is that of artistic value. The melodies in this volume, therefore, remain exactly as they were sung to the Editors who hope that only those of distinct musical merit have been included. (136)
Although both names are found beneath this Preface, the editorial hand of the composer is stronger than that of the folldorist. If the sentiment seems a far cry from Leather's earlier championing of the 'wild flower growing in its native habitat', it should be remembered that she was being presented here with a golden opportunity to popularize the carols of her county. While Vaughan Williams's earlier volume had included carols from no less than six counties, with just one from Herefordshire, now all of them were to be from the county. Furthermore, those who wished to see the original texts were directed to the relevant sources, and the informants were invariably cited. Only in one instance is there a noticeable and regrettable failure of nerve, when the terrifying sickness-unto-death text of "There Is a Fountain' is simply dismissed as being 'full of the rather unpleasant imagery which is characteristic of much of the Eighteenth Century Evangelistic verse', and replaced in toto by that of 'Joseph and Mary' from William Sandys's Christmas Carols, Ancient and Modern (1833). (137)
Twelve Traditional Carols was to be Leather's last major publication, although this was certainly not by design. In 1925, the same year in which her informative but essentially anecdotal 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in Herefordshire' was published, she helped to found the Herefordshire branch of the English Folk Dance Society and served on its executive committee. (138) Whether or not it was because she felt slighted when its meetings were transferred to Hereford, (139) her interest subsequently turned to other areas of local history. Her final paper, "The Timber Houses of Weobley', published in 1926, led her to her last work, a History of Weobley, which unfortunately she did not live to finish, the manuscript being lost when the family papers were dispersed after her surviving son's death in 1943. (140) But Twelve Traditional Carols was not quite her last major involvement with folk song, because among the loose sheets at the beginning of the Notebook are found six pages consisting of a letter to Vaughan Williams, dated 15 September 1922, discussing her visit the previous week to see Alfred Price Jones, the text of his (newly collected version of) 'Cold Blows the Wind', and a printed version of As I Passed by a Willow Tree', which, she thought, 'seems to be a cutting from the Gypsy Lore Society's journal'. (141) It is worth mentioning these later additions to the Notebook because Alfred Price Jones was the same man who had sung so memorably for Leather and Vaughan Williams ten years previously. (142) In this light, this last collecting work can be seen, along with Twelve Traditional Carols, as her way of consciously re-establishing links with that world before the war that she had done so much to preserve.
Ella Mary Leathers work in documenting the folk song of her county was wider-ranging, as regards the types of songs she collected, and more plentiful than has been formerly realized. That she was only recognized in her lifetime for one specific area of her collection--that is to say, the carols--was more by accident than design. Many of the Herefordshire carols were very ancient, some were unique, and, understandably the Folk-Song Society wanted to concentrate on those rather than on local variants of common songs. Consequently, her collection came to be seen as more specialized than it actually was. That her collection was also a collaborative venture, initially with a team of local friends and associates, and later on with Ralph Vaughan Williams, should not blind us to the organizational flair that she showed in managing and directing this work. Again, more by accident than design, the house rules of the Journal of the Folk-Song Society were to credit the collector who noted the tune, and consequently many songs that Ella Leather was instrumental in discovering were credited only to her associates. That the vast majority of her surviving papers have now been identified and nearly all reside in the VWML makes a proper evaluation of the legacy of this 'County Collector' an achievable and worthwhile goal.
With the obvious exception of Percy Grainger, Ella Leather made more phonograph recordings than any of the other collectors associated with the Folk-Song Society--more than Lucy Broadwood; (143) substantially more than Cecil Sharp--but only three of Leather's phonograph recordings seem to have survived--a rate of attrition substantially in excess of the other collections, but the reasons for this I will leave to another paper.
I am especially indebted to the Weobley and District Local History Society, and especially to Sue Hubbard, for information, advice, and hospitality during my all too brief visit to Weobley; also to Brian Holley and Richard Birt for correspondence, and to Robert Coleman for providing the transport.
A very special thank you to Mary Humphreys for all of her hard work deciphering and comparing tunes in the various manuscripts, especially the Francis Jekyll manuscripts. In many cases variant texts had survived separated from their companion tunes and without her advice and knowledge I would not have known which belonged with which.
Thank you to Keith Chandler, Roy Palmer, Dr David Atkinson, Steve Roud, Dr John Bentley, Professor E. David Gregory, Dr Elaine Bradtke, and the late Malcolm Douglas for so freely giving information from their own researches; to Dr Chris Bearman for permitting me to utilize his catalogue of the Lucy Broadwood Collection in my final collection list; to Professor Alun Howkins and Dr Nicola Verdon of the University of Sussex for advice on early drafts of this paper; to Aida Faramin Rodriguez for making the photographic copy of the photograph of Ella Leather, and to my parents for help with the mathematical calculations regarding the number of cylinders; and finally to Malcolm Taylor, OBE, and the staff of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library for giving me free access to the manuscripts necessary for the writing of this paper.
Ella Leather Notebook (VWML accession no. 5857)
Inscribed on the front flyleaf: E. M. Leather/1907- Described on the accession card: Large Notebook of Songs and Dance Tunes. Bought from Mrs. E. C. Collins through Mrs. J. Wright, of 51, Brookside Drive, Oadby, Leics., 1966. Listed in the Accessions book as having cost [pounds sterling]5.
* Loose sheets at beginning: Sixteen sheets tucked between the cover and front flyleaf (EML/1/0/a-EML/1/0/e).
* Main manuscript: fifty-eight pages, twelve of which are blank, leaving forty-six pages of songs; plus an additional thirty-seven loose sheets, of which ten are attached to the Notebook by either pin or brass fastener (EML/l/l-EML/1/49/b).
* Loose at end: eight pages of sheet music in Cecil Sharp's hand (EML/1/Ap/1-EML/1/Ap/16).
In cataloguing the Notebook I have denoted associated songs that are adjacent in the manuscript by giving them the same numbers but with alphabetical suffixes for differentiation; for example, the three versions of the 'Milkmaid's Song' given at EML/1/13/a-c. I have done this only where the different texts are of the same version of a song and only when they were specifically pasted on to the same page or inserted next to it. Altogether there are 109 separate entries for the Notebook. See the main article for the contributors.
Ella Leather loose papers
Originally from the VWML's A-Z box files of miscellaneous manuscripts.
* Forty-four sheets, some loose, but others fastened into bundles by round or oblong brass studs. All in Leather's hand except for: EML/2/1/a-c (Annie Webb); EML/2/3/a (Eleanor Andrews or the informant, Mr G. T. Brimfield); EML/2/10/1 (Mr Hirons); EML/2/l4/a-f (Ralph Vaughan Williams).
I have followed the same numbering principles as in the Notebook, but have also given alphabetical suffixes to title-only entries; for example, the nine songs listed at EML/2/4/a-i. Altogether sixty-one entries (EML/2/1/a-EML/2/14/f).
Miscellaneous Herefordshire papers (possibly from RVW archive)
Originally from the same VWML A-Z box files of miscellaneous manuscripts as EML/2/, but never previously identified as being Ella Leather material; possibly papers sent to Ralph Vaughan Williams.
* Sixty-one sheets, all loose except for EML/3/12 ("The Sally Twig'), where the two pages are connected by a round brass stud; thirty-four sheets being of songs and/or tunes collected in the field, with EML/3/1-3, EML/3/6/a, EML/3/11, EML/3/14-15 in Leather's hand, and EML/3/4-5 in Vaughan Williams's hand.
The remainder are from: Revd F. Wilmot (EML/3/13), R. Hughes-Rowlands (EML/3/16/a, EML/3/19), Annie M. Webb (EML/3/17-18), Langton Brown (EML/3/20-20/b), R. C. Davis (EML/3/22); unidentified (EML/3/16/b); and EML/3/6/b-EML/3/10/b in the informants' hands. The remaining twenty-seven sheets are manuscript copies of printed songs. Altogether twenty-nine entries (EML/3/1-EML/3/22).
Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts and Letters, 2 vols
The Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts and Letters was originally in one oversize volume also containing broadsheets; these were removed when the volume underwent conservation in 2007 and the song manuscripts and correspondence were then rebound in two separate volumes. Unfortunately, as a result of this the manuscripts no longer reflect the numbering as given in Vaughan Witliams's own indexes (RVW/Scrapbook/2/1 55 [originally p. 97]), and in many cases, where the original page numbers were not written on the manuscripts themselves but on the pages to which they were pasted, they have not been retained, making cross-referencing to the original index problematic. Fortunately, the conservator made a maquette of the original scrapbook, from which it is possible to ascertain a document's original position. In citing documents from the scrapbook I have therefore indicated a document's original position, within square brackets and following the current page number. Due to the rebinding, not all pages are adjacent to others that relate directly to them.
Altogether, twenty-three documents in the Scrapbook can be attributed to Herefordshire, of which thirteen are in Leather's hand, five in Vaughan Williams's, and five in other hands.
Lucy Broadwood Manuscript Collection, Box 5
* LEB/5/222-225 consists of a second set of Francis Jekyll's Herefordshire transcriptions from William Colcombe, giving the same songs as in the Notebook, but in subtly different versions.
* LEB/5/239-292 consists of a substantial body of material from Ella Leather and her collaborators: F. Gwilliam, R. Hughes Rowlands, A. M. Webb, Langton Brown, and Ralph Vaughan Williams.
In citing material from this collection I have followed C. J. Bearman's catalogue for the VWML.
Frank Sidgwick, 'Bitter Withy folder, 2 vols (VWML, MPR 50; accession no. 10347 [vol. 1 only])
Two A5 'cloth Binders' Dummy' folders, to quote Frank Sidgwick's daughter, Ann Baer, in her description of the manuscripts which she appended to the second volume.
* Vol. 1 (orange binding) was deposited in the VWML in 1976 and consists of fifty-five different documents, including letters, texts, photographs, and newspaper cuttings. Of these, five are from Ella Leather (FSBW/1/24-25, FSBW/1/51-53), but a number of others duplicate material elsewhere in Leather's collection and have been cited accordingly.
* Vol. 2 (red binding), deposited in the VWML in 1987, contains only thirteen items from Sidgwick's collection (as well as a considerable amount of posthumous material dealing with the final depositing of the collection), but of these six are transcriptions, at least five of which derive from Leather's collection. The exception is James Layton' s "The Bitter Withies', where the process is reversed in that the version at FSBW/2/12 is the original for Leather's incomplete copy at EML/3/12.
In cataloguing these papers I have followed Ann Baer's two lists, deviating from them only when this was necessary in order to place items in the order that Sidgwick originally intended for them; for example, reinstating Pattie Leaper's version of the song to its position between related versions at FSBW/1/31, rather than adjacent to her correspondence at FSBW/1/18. Since the posthumous material is from the latter half of the twentieth century, I did not include it in the catalogue.
G. LIB/COLL/MPS 50(31)/12/
VWML, Library Collection MPS 50(31), folder 12, pp. 94, 95-110, 112-13 (original shelfmark LIB/COLL/MPS 50(31) II)
* Page 94 consists of an unattributed text of 'Song-The 14th of February' written in pencil, possibly in Leather's hand.
* Pages 95-110 consists of three songs, 'The Blacksmith', 'The Irish Stranger', and 'The Low Low-lands of Holland', in Leather's hand, collected from Alfred Price Jones in 1922. These had been previously overlooked because the singer was given as the correspondent/collector in the folder index. The importance of these manuscripts lies in that each song is given not only in a neat version written in ink but also in Leather's original pencil notes.
* Pages 112-13 consist of a typed 'List of Songs in Mrs. Leather's Notebook', probably prepared by Ruth Noyes, then librarian at the VWML, at the time of the Notebook's acquisition in 1966. During the time of the Notebook's disappearance this was the only record of its contents. (144)
H. Photocopied manuscripts of songs (VWML, MPS 60(31); accession no. 8799)
Accession card states 'Copied by donation from Mr D. Jones'. Envelope states 'Copied 1977 by courtesy of Dave Jones'.
* Forty-one photocopied pages, numbered 1-40 and 21a. This collection is actually a red herring, since all the material is taken from the Lucy Broadwood Collection (see Sources E above). Its only importance now is in that it gives an insight into what was recognized in 1977 as being from Ella Leather's collection.
George Butterworth Collection, vol. 6a
Butterworth collected eight songs with Francis Jekyll in Herefordshire, and five of these duplicate material credited to Jekyll in EML/1/. These are: GB/6a/17, GB/6a/42, GB/6a/119, GB/6a/160, GB/6a/177.
EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection
Of the 106 wax cylinders of the EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection that were deposited on permanent loan at the British Library Sound Archive, four contain material from Herefordshire: C37/1585, C37/1586, C37/1587, and C37/1590.
The collection was originally dubbed to reel tapes in 1982; a second set of dubbings was made to DAT tape in 2001, which was then transferred to CD-R in 2003. Two sets were made at this time: the 2CDR (archive) copies, which are straight copies of the DAT tapes without any restoration processes applied; and the 1CDR (playback) copies, which employed audio restoration processing.
Two of the Herefordshire cylinders, C37/1587 and C37/1590, are currently available online on the British Library Sound Archive's Archival Sound Recordings site <http://sounds.bl.uk/>.
K. Ella Mary Leather printed sources
'The Folk-Lore of the Shire', in Memorials of Old Herefordshire, ed. by Rev. Compton Reade (London: Bemrose and Sons, 1904), pp. 148-66.
'Herefordshire FolkTales', The Herefordshire Magazine, 1.1 (1907), 26-30.
'Carols from Herefordshire, Collected by Ella M. Leather', Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 4.1 (no. 14) (1910), 3-51.
The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, Collected from Oral and Printed Sources, Introduction by Edwin Sidney Hartland (Hereford: Jakeman & Carver; London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1912; repr. East Ardsley: SR Publishers, 1970).
Twelve Traditional Carols from Herefordshire, ed. by E. M. Leather and R. V. Williams (London: Stainer & Bell, 1920).
'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in Herefordshire', Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 3rd ser., 4 (1925), 59-64.
'The Timber Houses of Weobley', Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club (1926), 174-78.
'Collectanea notes in Folk-Lore: 23 (1912), 351-52, 357; 24 (1913), 110, 238-39, 240-41; 25 (1914), 372; 27 (1916), 413-17; 37 (1926), 195, 295-98.
Individual songs in Journal of the Folk-Song Society: 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 91-93, 97-98, 102-03, 105-09, 115-22, 125-26, 131-34, 136; 2.4 (no. 9) (1906), 300-04; 4.2 (no. 15) (1910), 110-23, 127-29; 4.4 (no. 17) (1913), 279-90, 303-10, 338-40; 5-1 (no. 18) (1914), 7-16.
JEFDSS: Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society
JFSS: Journal of the Folk-Song Society
Leather's main publications cited as 'Carols from Herefordshire'; 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies'; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire; Twelve Traditional Carols (see Sources K above)
(1) Charlotte S. Burne, review of The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, by Ella Mary Leather, Folk-Lore, 23 (1912), 383-86 (p. 383).
(2) Gordon Ashman, 'Charlotte Sophia Burne', Talking Folklore, 1 (1986): 6-21; Gordon Ashman and Gillian Bennett, 'Charlotte Sophia Burne: Shropshire Folklorist, First Woman President of the Folklore Society, and First Woman Editor of Folklore. Part 1; A Life and Appreciation', Folklore, 111 (2000), 1-21.
(3) Lavender Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds': The Life and Work of Ella Mary Leather of Weobley, Author of Folklore of Herefordshire ([n.p.]: West Midlands Folk Federation, 1978), pp. 29, 54. General biographical details have been taken from this work, as well as David Whitehead, 'Leather, Ella Mary (1874-1928)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography ([Oxford]: Oxford University Press, 2004) <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/56851>[accessed 9 June 2009], and two short unpublished sources in Weobley and District Local History Society, 1972/383, Ella Mary Leather file: Rosemary Randerson, 'Frank and Ella Leather of Weobley (c.1982), 3 pp. (unpaginated); Richard Birt, '"Wise and fair and good as she": The Forgotten Gatherer of Folk Lore' (1996), 2 pp. (unpaginated).
(4) Richard M. Dorson, The British Folklorists (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968), pp. 316-31.
(5) Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud, A Dictionary of English Folklore (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 210.
(6) Her father was described as a 'gentleman' farmer (Jones, A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 23).
(7) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 59. She dates her 'first experiences in collecting folk-songs from Gypsies' to September 1908, and goes on to speak of joining in the hop-picking at the Homme Farm, near Dilwyn, Herefordshire. This is backed up by EML/2/4/a-i, a manuscript list of titles of songs that 'The gipsies sang at the Homme & Chadnor farms near Weobley', collected in September 1908.
(8) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 63. In a letter to Lavender Jones in 1926, regarding another member of the Lock family, she wrote, 'Polin Lock still comes and plays under our windows', quoted in Lavender Jones, 'The Gentlemen Locks', English Dance &Song, 26.4 (1964), 84-85. Jones mentions that a Lock was found dead in the snow on the Montgomeryshire hills with his fiddle by his side and wonders if this was 'Polin', and also whether 'Polin' was the unnamed brother who played with John Lock when Leather met him in 1908. The Shrewsbury Chronicle, 30 December 1927, p. 3, gives inquest details which confirm Jones's conjectures, naming the deceased as Isaiah Lock (aged sixty-five). Isaiah was known within the family as James 'Pollen Lock (Keith Chandler, telephone interview with David N. Roberts, Kinmel Bay, Clwyd, 28 October 2006; email from John Kirkpatrick to Derek Schofield, 29 October 2006, describing Kirkpatrick's visit to Albert Lock in the mid-1970s). Furthermore, it was John Lock who acted as witness at Isaiah's wedding on 23 January 1893.I am indebted to Keith Chandler for sending me this information on 'Pollen' Lock. It should be noted that Jones mistakenly conflates Leather's meeting with the two Locks at Pembridge Fair in May 1908 with their meeting with Sharp the following year, in that she assumes 'Pollen' was present at the latter meeting as well. 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 63, and transcriptions at EML/l/Ap and in Cambridge, Archive of Clare College, Cecil J. Sharp MSS, ACC1987/25, Folk Tunes, make it clear that only John Lock was present on that occasion.
(9) This was her actual position. She had joined the local branch of the Women's VAD upon its foundation in 1910 (her husband being the area Honorary Secretary) and became its second Commandant in 1912 (Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 25; Randerson, p. ; and Weobley and District Local History Society, 2005/02/02, Sarnesfield Court [1916-18] photograph folder. Incidentally, although the majority of the contents of the British Red Cross Society: Voluntary Aid Detachment (Women) Record for Herefordshire concerns the Second World War, the cover inscription, '[County] Herefordshire. [Number] 6. [Address] Drill Hall, Weobley', is unmistakably in Ella Leather's hand (Weobley and District Local History Society, 1996/10/03).
(10) Randerson, p.; Birt, p.; London, British Library Sound Archive, Traditional Music in England Project, Roy Palmer Collection, C1023/111 [1CDR0010594 BD1-7 NSA], interview with Lavender Jones, 25 October 1988. Discussing the fact that Leather had nothing to do with the Herefordshire branch of the Folk Dance Society after its classes were moved from Weobley to Hereford, Jones states, '[I] think you know she wasn't quite normal really after all that trouble she had.' [Palmer:] 'What trouble was that?' [Jones:] 'Well, her son dying, had been killed in the war.'
(11) Mrs James, aged ninety-three in 1996; see Birt, p. .
(12) Miss Minnie Davies, the Leathers' cook 1922-28 (Randerson, p. ), reminiscing circa September 1972, in an unattributed newspaper article in Weobley and District Local History Society, 1972/383, Ella Mary Leather file, 'Kindly Mrs Leather swopped stories with gipsy visitors'.
(13) Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. xvi (italics in original).
(14) Whitehead, 'Leather, Ella Mary (1874-1928)'.
(15) Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. [xi].
(16) London, Folk-Lore Society, members lists, 1905 onwards.
(17) VWML, Folk-Song Society Minutes, p. 59 (Thursday, 6 April 1905).
(18) Woking, Surrey History Centre, Lucy Broadwood Diaries, 25 January 1905. I am indebted to Professor E. David Gregory for this information.
(19) Folk-Song Society Minutes, p. 54 (Thursday, 23 March 1905).
(20) Lucy Broadwood is listed as a member in Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, n.s. 1 (1907), , and contributed twice to the journal's Notes & Queries: English Gypsy Musicians', n.s. 1 (1908), 287; 'Gypsy Legends from Legendes Religieuses Bulgares', n.s. 4 (1910), 71-72. Her English Traditional Songs and Carols received a short review in n.s. 2 (1909), 270, on account of its inclusion of two songs from the Goby family. Another contributor to the journal's Notes & Queries was the Revd Charles Marson, with 'Gypsy Prayers', n.s. 3 (1909), 77, in which he is eulogized as follows: 'The Gypsies have found many a friend among the clergy, but none more devoted than the Rev. Charles L. Marson of Hambridge Parsonage, near Taunton, author of The English Jerusalem, an historical guide to Glastonbury, and an enthusiastic collector of folk-songs.'
(21) His series of 'Welsh Gypsy Folk-Tales' extended to forty articles between 1907 and 1930 (the numbering goes up to 41, but there was no number 13!). For a short biographical sketch, see University of Liverpool, Special Collections and Archives, John Sampson (1862-1931) <http://sca.lib.liv.ac.uk/collections/gypsy/Sampson.htm> [accessed 19 August 2009].
(22) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies' (see n. 7).
(23) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 62. T. W. Thompson was Honorary Secretary of the Gypsy Lore Society from 1922 to 1932; see University of Liverpool, Special Collections and Archives, Gypsy Lore Society Officers <http://sca.lib.liv.ac.uk/collections /gypsy/jglsobits.htm> [accessed 19 August 2009].
(24) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 64.
(25) Frank Howes, 'Gypsy Music', JEFDSS, 1.2 (1933), 113. He does add, "They have, however, an extremely sturdy and distinctive tradition of performance.'
(26) For John's 'Gypsophilia', see Roger Savage, 'Vaughan Williams, the Romany Ryes, and the Cambridge Ritualists', Music & Letters, 83(2002), 383-418 (p. 384).
(27) VWML, Accessions Register, vol. 2, pp. [21r and v].
(28) VWML, accession no. 5857. See Sources A.
(29) Malcolm Taylor, Library Director, VWML, personal communication, 15 September 2009; Tony Foxworthy, telephone conversation, 16 September 2009.
(30) 'The Moon Shines Bright' (EML/l/0/a), 'The Man That Lives' (EML/l/0/c), 'Dives 'and Lazarus' (EML/l/0/d), 'The Dark-Eyed Sailor' (EML/l/0/e).
(31) EML/l/0/b/1, Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 15 September 1922; EML/l/0/b/2, 'As I Passed by a Willow Tree' (printed); EML/l/0/h/3, 'Cold Blows the Wind'.
(32) EML/l/Ap/1-16; 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies'. The dances are: 'Trip to the Cottage' (Lock); 'Morris Dance' (Lock); 'Trip to the Cottage' 'as printed'; 'Flowers of Edinburgh' (Preece); 'Jack off the Green (Preece); 'Speed the Plough' (Lock); 'Staffordshire Hornpipe' (Lock); 'Speed the Plough' 'circa 1800 printed copy'; 'Blue-Eyed Stranger' (Lock); 'Boyne Water' (Lock); 'Mad Moll of the Cheshire Hunts' (Lock); 'Hunting the Squirrel' (Lock); 'Green Sleeves' (Lock); 'Sheepskins' (Lock); 'Hunting the Squirrel' (Preece); 'Flowers of Edinburgh' 'as printed circa 1750'.
(33) The total is uncertain, since I have been unable to ascertain whether or not the Revd Edwin King (EML/l/26/a) is the same collector as Dr King (EML/l/13/c, EML/1/38).
(34) Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds, p. 35. Annie M. Webb is variously credited in JFSS as Annie M. Webb and Annie Webb (2.2 (no. 7) (1905)), and A. M. Webb (2.2 (no. 7) (1905); 4.1 (no. 14) (1910)).
(35) For a short biographical sketch of Jekyll, see Lewis Jones [with information from C. J. Bearman and George E. Frampton], 'Francis Jekyll (1882-1965): Forgotten Hero of the First Folk Song Revival' <http://www.geocities.com/ferretpublications/art07jek.html> [accessed 12 June 2009].
(36) An eleventh song is given in the manuscript with Jekyll's name, but I consider this an associative attribution, see n. 39.
(37) One song, 'North Country Damsel', is dated 1905. However, since the eleven songs collected from William Colcombe replicate those found in the Lucy Broadwood Collection (where they are credited to Thomas Colcombe; see n. 38), which are from 1906 ('A Brisk Young Sailor Courted Me' being more precisely dated to September 1906), this is probably a scribal error (LEB/5/222-225).
(38) Confusingly, he is initially called Thomas Colcombe in the Notebook and in the early volumes of JFSS. He is correctly noted as W. or William at two points in the Notebook (EML/l/17/a, EML/l/34/a) and his name is corrected in JFSS from no. 14 (1910) onwards. The confusion is apparently explained by a photograph of him included in the Sidgwick 'Bitter Withy' folder, where his name is given on the reverse as W T. Colcombe and on the front as 'Stumpy Bill' (his nickname) (FSBW/1/52). It seems probable that he was known as Bill or William to his friends, but by his second name, Thomas, to others. He is recorded in the Weobley Union Workhouse censuses for 1851, 1861, 1871, and 1881, and in the Stoke Prior census for 1891, and in each case his name is given as William. I am indebted to Keith Chandler for this information.
(39) 'There Is an Alehouse (EML/l/40/c), a transcript of a phonograph of [Mr?] Hirons, of Haven, Herefordshire, 1909, is seemingly ascribed to 'Mr Jekyll'Jekyll', but with the additional information, 'Noted/by/R. V. Williams / Mus: Doct: / Phono / E. M. L'. The reference to Francis Jekyll is therefore probably intended simply to indicate that the song is the same as one already collected by Jekyll: 'There Is an Alehouse' / 'A Brisk Young Sailor Courted Me (EML/l/40/a); 'A Brisk Young Sailor' (EML/l/40/b).
(40) The exception is 'Poor Mary of the Silvery Tide', collected by both Webb and Jekyll in 1906 (EML/l/33/a (Jekyll), EML/l/33/b (Webb)). One other case in which one cannot decide on precedence relates to the song that Jekyll collected from Colcombe as 'Billy Taylor' and that Webb collected under the title of' William Taylor & Sarah Gray'. Both are undated, but, based on the Broadwood Collection (LEB/5/222-225), one can assume Jekyll's version to be from September 1906, and so in all probability Webb's version was again earlier.
(41) I have included these in the main catalogue. The three other songs that Jekyll and Butterworth collected together in Herefordshire, but which do not appear in the Notebook, are from a Mr Smith of Stoke Lacy: 'Erin's Lovely Home' (GB/7a/53); 'It's of a Farmer All in This Town (GB/7b/19, GB/6b/16); 'Little Brown Jug' (GB/6b/18, GB/7b/26). For these, plus the five from Colcombe, see London, EFDSS Archives, George Butterworth Collection <http://library.efdss.org/archives/index.html>[accessed 12 October 2009]. Jekyll and Butterworth were to later collect together in Sussex (1908) and Norfolk (1910); see Michael Dawney, 'George Butterworth's Folk Music Manuscripts', Folk Music Journal, 3.2 (1976), 99-113 (p. 100).
(42) RVW/Scrapbook/2/119 [originally p. 84a (a loose page between pp. 84-85)], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 3 November 1908. See Sources D for an explanation of the need for retaining the original numbering.
(43) Jones, A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 35; sometimes credited as 'John Griffiths junior' (EML/1/0/c, EML/l/20/b).
(44) 'Dives and Lazarus' (EML/l/0/d). Their description as Leather's 'friends' is in JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 125.
(45) The Library World, 16.4 (1913), 96-128, noted this bequest from the late Walter Pilley, JP I am indebted to Roy Palmer for informing me of Pilley's donation.
(46) EML/l/43/a, EML/l/43/b.
(47) LEB/5/283, Ella Mary Leather to Lucy Broadwood, 11 May 1905.
(48) Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 34.
(50) FSBW/1/18, Pattie Leaper to Frank Sidgwick, 22 December 1907.
(51) Popular Ballads of the Olden Time, ed. by Frank Sidgwick, 4 series (London: A. H. Bullen; Sidgwick & Jackson, 1903-12); Frank Sidgwick, The Ballad (London: Martin Seeker, ).
(52) Oxford, Bodleian Library, Papers of Sidgwick and Jackson, Publishers <http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/sidgwick/sidgwick.html> [accessed 21/08/09].
(53) 'Carols from Herefordshire', p. 34. Two stanzas had first appeared in Notes and Queries, 4th ser., 1 (1868), 53, contributed by 'C.F.S.'. Sidgwick then published a complete version of nine stanzas from a letter dated 31 December 1888 from Mr Henry Ellershaw, Jun., of Rotherham, to Mr A. H. Bullen, in Notes and Queries, 10th set., 4 (1905), 84-85. The song was 'taken down verbatim as sung by an old Herefordshire man of about seventy (in 1888), who learnt it from his grandmother'.
(54) FSBW/1/25, Ella Mary Leather to Frank Sidgwick, 23 February 1908.
(55) The three photographs are titled 'The Bitter Withy', 'An Ancient Woman', 'Stumpy Bill' (FSBW/1/51-53).
(56) EML/l/34/a (Jekyll, 1906), EML/l/34/b (Webb, 1905).
(57) Williams noted it from William Jefferies of Longcot, adding 'I have not heard of it elsewhere, except at Shrivenham, hard by', but does not list his other source <http://www.wiltshire.gov.uk/community/getfolk.php?id=7> [accessed 24/08/09].
(58) EML/1/19; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 266; collected by Miss Nellie Smith from an unnamed descendant of the song's author, Richard Matthews, who composed it 'in the reign of George III'.
(59) EML/1/21; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 264-65; from Mr Noah Richards. The Notebook has only four stanzas, whereas 'The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire gives twenty-one.
(60) EML/l/35/a, 'The Honest Weaver', incomplete, noted in fifteen stanzas of roughly four lines apiece, totalling sixty lines, and EML/l/35/b, 'The Weaver', incomplete, in eight uneven stanzas totalling forty-eight lines.
(61) John Godfrey Saxe, Clever Stories of Many Nations Rendered in Rhyme (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1865), pp. 85-93. I am indebted to the late Malcolm Douglas for emailing this information to the <Tradsong@yahoogroups.com> discussion board (30 January 2009) and to Steve Roud for posting the initial enquiry. Saxes verse narrative can be found online at <http://www.archive.org/stream/cleverstories00saxerich#page/n89/mode/2up> [accessed 2 October 2009].
(62) Folk-Song Society Minutes, p. 54 (Thursday, 23 March 1905).
(63) The sources are as follows: Griffiths is noted as the collector of 'Young Banker' from Mr J[ohn] Probert, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 91-93 (EML/l/24/a, EML/1/24/b); Gwilliam as the collector of 'The Two Affectionate Lovers' from Mr. Bebb, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 97-98 (EML/l/25/a, EML/l/25/b); and Webb as the collector of 'Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor' from Mr F. Wheeler, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 105-09 (EML/1/14), 'Young Lambkin', 'The Moon Shines Bright', and 'The Fountain of Christ's Blood' from Mr Thomas [sic] Colcombe, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 111-13 (EML/l/39/c), 131-32 (EML/1/0/a), 133 (EML/2/l/b), and 'Come All Ye Faithful Christians' from Mrs Wheeler, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 115-22 (EML/2/l/c).
(64) The Basket of Eggs' from Mr Thomas [sic] Colcombe, collected by Annie M. Webb, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 102-03 (EML/1/18), and his version of 'Christmas Now Is Drawing Near at Hand', JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 134 (not extant in the Notebook).
(65) JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 136.
(66) JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905): (no. 12) 'Young Banker'; (no. 16) 'The Two Affectionate Lovers'; (no. 18) 'The Basket of Eggs'; (no. 20) 'Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor'; (no. 23) 'Young Lambkin'; (no. 25) 'Come All Ye Faithful Christians'; (no. 27) 'Dives and Lazarus'; (no. 31) 'The Moon Shines Bright'; (no. 33) 'The Fountain of Christ's Blood'; (no. 34) 'Christmas Now Is Drawing Near at Hand'; (no. 36) 'Oh, Have You Heard and Seen Our Saviour's Love .
(67) JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905): (no. 18) 'The Basket of Eggs'; (no. 27) 'Dives and Lazarus'; (no. 34) 'Christmas Now Is Drawing Near at Hand'; (no. 36) 'Oh, Have You Heard and Seen Our Saviour's Love'. In the case of 'Dives and Lazarus', from Mrs Harris, the clue is that the collectors, E[leanor] Andrews and Dr Quinten Darling, were friends of Mrs Leather's; see EML/1/0/d; JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 125-26.
(68) Her next contribution, the last three stanzas of 'The Sally Twigs' or 'The Bitter Withy', in 'Note on "Our Saviour Tarried Out" or 'The Bitter Withy"', JFSS, 2.4 (no. 9), 300-04, does credit her as collector, but does not list the singer. It can be assumed that it must be from William Colcombe, because she was later to write 'one singer at Weobley, Mr. W. Colcombe, always called it "The Sally Twiggs"' ('Carols from Herefordshire', p. 34).
(69) LEB/5/283, Ella Mary Leather to Lucy Broadwood, 11 May 1905. She is referring to LEB/5/279.
(70) LEB/5/258, Ella Mary Leather to Lucy Broadwood, 12 October 1905 (the letter's accompanying envelope, to which Broadwood has added the titles of the songs contained, is at LEB/5/249).
(71) LEB/5/290, Ella Mary Leather to Lucy Broadwood, [n.d. (the list of songs suggests 1905 as the probable year)].
(72) RVW/Scrapbook/1/46 [originally p. 61 upper], Fragments of Songs & Carols, from Mr. J. Probert, Weobley, Dec 1. 1906; and, for a song recorded in January 1907, 'Carols from Herefordshire, pp. 47-49 ('Dives and Lazarus').
(73) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 59. In this article Leather is talking about her first collecting work with Gypsies in October 1908; but, besides the trial cylinder with J. Probert (n. 72 above), 'Milkmaid's Song'/ 'The Milk Maid's Fair', from Mrs Powell (EML/l/13/a, EML/l/13/b, EML/2/10/n), 'Dives and Lazarus' from Mr J[ohn] Evans ('Carols from Herefordshire, pp. 47-49), and 'The Moon Shines Bright' from Mr G. Vaughan ('Carols from Herefordshire, pp. 10-11) were all recorded in 1907 (the second in January and the last in May).
(74) Percy Grainger, 'Collecting with the Phonograph', JFSS, 3.3 (12) (1908), 147-242.
(75) C. J. Bearman, 'Percy Grainger, the Phonograph and the Folk Song Society', Music & Letters, 84 (2003), 434-55.
(76) Bearman, pp. 440-41.
(77) Grainger, 'Collecting with the Phonograph', p.159. This note was probably by Lucy Broadwood, as the Honorary Secretary of the Society, but it is credited to 'The Editing Committee', which at that time consisted of Lucy Broadwood, Anne Gilchrist, Frank Kidson, J. A. Fuller Maitland, Cecil Sharp, and Ralph Vaughan Williams (JFSS, 3.1 (no. 10) (1907), p. ).
(78) The Folk-Song Society's flurry of activity in this direction makes heartening reading when compared with the experiences of other European folk song societies; for example, the trials and tribulations of the Committee for the Collection of Slovenian Folk Songs (Odbora za nabiranje slovenskih narodnih pesmi (OSNP)), which, each year from 1905, applied unsuccessfully to its parent committee in Vienna for funding to buy a phonograph, only for it to be finally granted in February 1914, by which time world events were soon to make the collecting of folk song in the Austro-Hungarian empire a tragically redundant activity. See Drago Kunej, "'We have plenty of words written down; we need melodies!": The Purchase of the First Recording Device for Ethnomusicological Research in Slovenia, Traditiones, 34.1 (2005), 125-40. I am indebted to Dr David Atkinson for acquainting me with this paper.
(79) Bearman, p. 439.
(80) Bearman, p. 439.
(81) Addendum slip pasted to the inner title page of JFSS, 2.4 (no. 9) (1906).
(82) Bearman, pp. 439, 455.
(83) Bearman, pp. 439-40. The London-based Gaelic recordings are to be found at London, British Library Sound Archive, EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1535-1553, C37/1569
(84) 'Folk Music Collected in the British Isles: Some English Manuscript and Recorded Collections Accessible to the Public' JEDSSJEFDSS, 8.3(1958), 160-64 (p. 162).
(85) Cecil J. Sharp, English Folk-Song: Some Conclusions (London: Simpkin; Novello; Taunton: Barnicott & Pearce, 1907), p. 72.
(86) Sharp's recordings are to be found at EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1556, C37/1558, C37/1581, C37/1588-1590, C37/1628, C37/1637.
(87) E. C. Cawte, "The Morris Dance in Herefordshire, Shropshire and Worcestershire', JEFDSS, 9.4 (1963); Roy Dommett, 'The Brimfield Morris Dance', English Dance & Song, 31.3 (1969), 98; Jones, 'The Gentlemen Locks'; Lavender Jones, 'The Shropshire Morris Dance', English Dance & Song, 18.5 (1954), 16-169; Derek Schofield, 'The Fiddle Tunes of John Lock', English Dance & Song, 68.4 (2006), 10-11; Pat Shaw, 'More Figure Eights from Herefordshire', English Dance & Song, 29.3 (1967), 83.
(89) VWML, Cecil J. Sharp MSS, Correspondence, Box 2, Ella Mary Leather to Constance Sharp, 24 June 1924.
(90) Sharp MSS, Correspondence, Box 2, Cecil J. Sharp to Ella Mary Leather, 8 December 1909.
(91) Folk-Lore of Herefordshire p. [xvi].
(92) EML/1/Ap/1-2, 6-7, 9-14 (Lock); EML/l/Ap/4-5, 15 (Preece); Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, pp. 2413-2422, 2426 (Lock); Folk Tunes, pp. 2423-2425 (Preece); Folk Words, pp. 2191-2192 (Brimfield); Folk Words, pp. 2194-2196 (Madley); Folk Words, pp. 2193, 2197-2201 (Weobley).
(93) EML/l/Ap/14; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2416.
(94) Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 131.
(95) EML/l/Ap/2; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2426. In the Sharp MSS this tune is titled 'Sheepskins (?)'.
(96) EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1590.
(97) EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1585, Esther Smith, 'There Is a Fountain of Christ's Blood' (the label also lists 'Hancocks', but there is only one track audible on the cylinder); C37/1586, Mrs Ellen Powell, 1. 'Pretty Caroline', 2. ['Thresherman'].
(98) EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1580, C37/1582, C37/1583, C37/1584.
(99) EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1587, unknown singer, 1. ['Americkay'] 2. 'The Bitter Withy'.
(100) Details of the running speeds are taken from the spoken introductions to the most recent dubbings of the EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection made by the British Library Sound Archive [formerly the National Sound Archive of the British Library], 2001-03. See EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1535-1640 (1CDR0015624-1CDR0015631, 2CDR0013124-2CDR0013131), and their (unpublished) accompanying notes, British Library Sound Archive, Will Prentice, C37 dubbing notes, 2001. Earlier (also unpublished) collection lists are British Library Sound Archive, C37 National Sound Archive dubbing notes, 1982; Elaine Bradtke, 'Cardboard Box' Collection Index, 1994 (copy in VWML); British Library Sound Archive, Michael Clayton, C37edit, 1995 (held as a Word document at <G:\World & Trad Music\Collects\Cylinder\C37edit> [last accessed by the author in 2005J). The author is also engaged in compiling his own list of the recordings.
(101) 'The Indian Lass': Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 1548; EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1588, C37/1589, C/1628 (the last is the original, the other two being pantographic copies). 'The Basket of Eggs': Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 1549; EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1581.
(102) EML/l/Ap/5; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2423.
(103) EML/l/Ap/10. My thanks to Dr Elaine Bradtke for deciphering this sentence.
(104) EML/l/Ap/10; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, pp. 2419-20. The tune on p. 2419 continues on to the following page with two staves of variant refrains written under the earlier version.
(105) His subsequent visits were in July-August 1909, October 1910, September 1912, September 1913, and September 1922. See JFSS, 4.4 (no. 17) (1913), 279-86; Ursula Vaughan Williams, R. V. W: A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. 83; Michael Kennedy, The Works of Ralph Vaughan Williams (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), pp. 672-73, 676, 678-80.
(106) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 69.
(107) RVW/Scrapbook/2/119 [originally p. 84a], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 3 November 1908. The companion list of songs, possibly an insert that went with the cylinders, is to be found at RVW/Scrapbook/2/116 [originally p. 84 upper]; the fact that these two documents were linked would have been evident from their proximity to each other in the original Scrapbook, but is now far less apparent.
(108) RVW/Scrapbook/2/115 [originally p. 84 upper], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 9 November 1908.
(109) John Lloyd, 'Tailor and the Crow' (EML/1/4, EML/2/10/o); Mr He[nry] Beddoe, 'Seasons of the Year' (EML/1/8/ b); Mrs Ellen Powell, 'Milkmaid's Song' (EML/l/13/a, EML/l/13/a, EML/2/10/n; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 205); Charlotte Stephens, 'The Bitter Withy (EML/1/23); Ms Gekley[?], 'The Mantle of Green (EML/1/26/ b); Mr Hirons, 'There is an Alehouse' (EML/l/40/c); Mrs [Caroline] Bridges, 'Sailor Boy (EML/1/47); and Mr Hirons, 'The Trees They Do Grow High' (EML/l/49/a).
(110) Mrs [E.] Goodwin, 'Dilly Dove' (EML 1/12, EML/2/10/a; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 204); Mr W. Hirons, 'Cold Blows the Wind' (EML/l/49/b; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 202-03 (composite text)).
(111) Americkay' (C37/1587, EML/l/6/a, EML/3/a); 'The Bitter Withy (C37/1587, EML/l/6/c, EML/3/c).
(112) 'Morris Dance (EML/1/Ap/2; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2426, where it is titled 'Sheepskins (?)'); 'Sheepskins' (EML/1/Ap/14; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2416); 'Boyne Water' (EML/l/Ap/5; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2423).
(113) Mark Jones, 'Bold Robin Hood' (EML/2/7).
(114) Angelina Whatton, 'Christ Made a Trance' (EML/2/14/a; 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 12-15; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 192); Mrs Goodwin, 'The Holy Well' (EML/2/10/b, 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 26-28; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 186-87).
(115) Angelina Whatton, 'Under the Leaves of Life' (EML/2/4/a; 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 49-51; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 187-88); Mrs Loveridge, 'There Was a Lady in Merry Scotland' (EML/2/4/b; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 198-99).
(116) Mrs Powell, 'Claudy Banks' (LEB/5/259), Mrs Tristram, 'The Jeweller's Wedding' (LEB/5/269); 'God Our Father' (LEB/5/287). The last is probably from Mrs Johnson and Mrs Smith, recorded in September 1912 as noted at EML/2/13/a and in Twelve Traditional Carols, pp. 14-15, but could possibly be from Mr Colcombe, July 1909 (JFSS, 4.4 (no. 17) (1913), 338-40).
(117) John Hancocks, 'The Holy Well' (LEB/5/259); Mrs Tristram, 'Bitter Withy' (LEB/5/269).
(118) FSBW/2/13. The published versions are 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 29-35, (fourth tune); Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 181-86 (fourth tune).
(119) Mr G. Vaughan 'The Moon Shines Bright' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 10-11; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 193); Mr. W. Hancocks, "There Is a Fountain' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 21-22; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire,' pp. 21-22; Folk-Smith, 'There Is a Fountain' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 21-22; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 197); Mr J[ohn] Evans, 'Dives and Lazarus' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 47-49; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 190). The published songs that mention phonographs and are duplicated in the manuscripts are: Angelina Whatton, 'Christ Made a Trance' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 12-15; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 192; EML/2/14/a); Mr J. Hancocks, 'The Holy Well' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 26-28; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 186; LEB/5/259); Mrs E. Goodwin, 'The Holy Well' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 26-28; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 186; EML/2/10/b); Mrs Tristram, "The Bitter Withy' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 29-35; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 182; LEB/5/269); Mr W. Holder, "The Bitter Withy' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 29-35; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 183; EML/2/11; FSBW/2/13); Angelina Whatton, 'Under the Leaves' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 49-51; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 187-88; EML/2/4/a); Mrs Loveridge, 'There Was a Lady in Merry Scotland' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 198; EML/2/4/a); W Hirons, 'Cold Blows the Wind' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 202; EML/l/49/b); Mrs E. Godwin, 'Dilly Dove' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 204; EML/1/12, EML/2/10/a); Mrs Ellen Powell, 'The Milkmaid's Song' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 205; EML/l/13/a, EML/l/13/b, EML/2/10/n); John Lock, 'Morris Dance' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 13; EML/l/Ap/2; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes p. 2426).
(120) The recording of 'Boyne Water' made for Sharp on 26 January 1912 (Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2419); Charlotte Stephens, "The Bitter Withy, August 1913 (EML/1/23); and possibly the recording of 'God Our Father' (LEB/5/287), if it is indeed from Mrs Johnson and Mrs Smith, September 1912.
(121) I come to this conclusion based on the phonograph lists in the Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts and Letters. There, sixty-one songs are ascribed to thirty-one cylinders, which means that each song would on average comprise just over half of one cylinder, and thirty songs would occupy 16.2 cylinders; but this is, of course, only a rough estimate based on the extant evidence.
(122) The five lists are: (i) RVW/Scrapbook/1/46 [originally p. 61 upper], dated 1 December 1906; (ii) RVW/Scrapbook/2/119 [originally p. 84a], dated 3 November 1908, with companion list of songs at RVW/Scrapbook/2/116 [originally p. 84 upper]; (iii) RVW/Scrapbook/2/115 [originally p. 84 upper], dated 9 November 1908; (iv) RVW/Scrapbook/2/124 [originally p. 87], dated 11 February 1909; (v) RVW/Scrapbook/2/152 [originally p. 95 upper] and RVW/ Scrapbook/2/153 [originally p. 95 lower], March 1909 or later.
(123) RVW/Scrapbook/2/155 [originally p. 97 reverse]. Vaughan Williams gives only three page numbers for these lists in the index (pp. 84, 87, 95), but this is because the lists for 3 and 9 November were both pasted to the same page (p. 84), and the list on p. 61 gives the contents of just one recording and therefore was not, strictly speaking, a list of multiple cylinders.
(124) RVW/Scrapbook/1/46 [originally p. 61 upper].
(125) RVW/Scrapbook/2/119 [originally p. 84a], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 3 November 1908, with companion list of songs at RVW/Scrapbook/2/116 [originally p. 84 upper].
(126) RVW/Scrapbook/2/115 [originally p. 84 upper], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 9 November 1908.
(127) RVW/Scrapbook/2/124 [originally p. 87], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 11 February 1909.
(128) RVW/Scrapbook/2/152 [originally p. 95 upper], RVW/Scrapbook/2/153 [originally p. 95 lower].
(129) Noah Richards is previously mentioned at RVW/Scrapbook/2/115 [originally p. 84 upper], and G. Vaughan at RVW/Scrapbook/2/116 [originally p. 84 upper], assuming that this is the same informant ('Vaughan' in the earlier list).
(130) John Lloyd, 'Tailor and the Crow' (EML/1/4, EML/2/l0/o); Mrs [E.] Goodwin, 'Dilly Dove' (EML/1/12, EML/2/10/a; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 204); Mrs Goodwin, 'The Holy Well' (EML/2/10/b, 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 26-28; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 186-87).
(131) Two from the 3 November 1908 list; all four from that of 11 November 1908; two from the list of March 1909 or later.
(132) Jones, A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 25; Randerson, p. .
(133) EML/2/13/e; 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', pp. 62-63.
(134) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 63. Vaughan Williams also spoke about this experience on Lavender Burne's [Jones's] radio programme about Ella Leather in 1954. Unfortunately, his section was prerecorded to disc (BBC DBM 10364) and was not included in the transmission script; see Lavender Burne, 'Ella Leather of Weobley', BBC Midland Home Service, 29 August 1954 [transcript]; copy held in Weobley and District Local History Society, 1972/383, Ella Mary Leather file. I have been unsuccessful in locating a copy of the programme; its transmission tape number is BBC DBM.10371.
(135) For the group photographs, see Weobley and District Local History Society, 2005/02/02, Sarnesfield Court 1916-18] photograph folder; the portrait photograph of Ella Leather is mounted separately in the corridor at Weobley and District Local History Society. Intriguingly, Randerson, p. , states, 'A photograph exists taken in Manningham, Bradford of young Frank Leather and Ella. Smith presumably as an engaged couple visiting his family', but I have not managed to locate this.
(136) Twelve Traditional Carols, p. .
(137) Twelve Traditional Carols, pp. 10-11.
(138) Whitehead, 'Leather, Ella Mary (1874-1928)'; 'The Late Mrs. F. H. Leather', Journal of the English Folk Dance Society, no. 2 (1928), 29-30.
(139) Roy Palmer Collection, C1023/111, interview with Lavender Jones, 25 October 1988.
(140) Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 54.
(141) EML/l/0/b/l, Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 15 September 1922; EML/l/0/b/2, 'As I Passed by a Willow Tree' (printed); EML/1/0/b/3, 'Cold Blows the Wind'.
(142) See EML/2/13/e for 'Cold Blows the Wind' (1912); and EML/2/13/b for the same singer's version of 'The Claudy Banks'.
(143) Of the forty Scottish Gaelic recordings in the EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, half were made by Lucy Broadwood, and half by Farquhar MacRae. A few of Broadwood's late recordings have not survived, but the vast majority (say, 90 per cent) have; none of her earliest Gaelic recordings have come down to us, but these numbered substantially fewer than the fifteen or so that would have been needed to permit her phonograph collection to exceed that of Leather.
(144) Noyes was librarian 1961-69. See EFDSS Annual Reports 1955-65 (accession no. 5829) and 1965-75 (no accession no.), and Malcolm Taylor, list of 'VWML Librarians since WW2'.
The Ella Mary Leather Collection--Provisional Catalogue
In compiling this catalogue I have worked with the premise of attempting to give as transparent an overview of Ella Mary Leather's collecting work as is currently possible. Due to the dispersed nature of her collection, with the same song appearing in anything up to seven different sources, it seemed neither practicable nor desirable to give an entry by entry description of each manuscript. Consequently, I decided upon a single chronological table that would incorporate entries from all of the collections, because it offers the possibility of presenting related citations contiguously and thus does away with the necessity of cross-referencing separate tables.
This method has provided two further benefits. First, by compiling the information from so many separate sources into single entries, it has been possible to combine pieces of information that, while individually adding little, collectively give a much more complete picture. For example, one entry for a song might provide its title but not its singer, while a companion transcription in a separate manuscript might give the reverse, while a third source might reproduce the first stanza, and a fourth give information about the collector. Slowly it has become possible to put tunes to words, to identify collectors with locations and dates, to assign handwriting to collectors and informants, and to ascribe singers to songs.
The second benefit of this method of cataloguing is that it gave a much more concrete representation of the collection's development, something that the paucity of surviving correspondence could not do. Thus Leather's day-by-day collecting work with Vaughan Williams in July 1909 becomes much more apparent when ones sees the songs in order. Likewise, by adopting the simple expedient of noting phonograph recordings in bold, the series of cylinders that Leather concerned herself with in the latter half of 1908 and early 1909 becomes clearly visible as the adventurous and great work that it was.
Regarding attribution, I have only marked a song as being collected by Leather if we possess either a manuscript in her hand, or in another hand to which she has provided a gloss, or where a source has cited her as providing the material. For example, in the case of envelopes in the Lucy Broadwood collection (such as LEB/5/239), where none of the above criteria pertain, I am still inclined to assume Leather's involvement in some form or other in the collection of the songs, especially if they were among those that she pasted into her Notebook, but I have not taken the liberty of marking them as having been 'collected' by Leather--although, as we have seen, the term 'collected by' is much more flexible in relation to this collection than many others.
In a few instances material that is included in the Leather manuscripts also exists independently of Leather's collection, as is the case with Francis Jekyll's material. Here one would assume that Leather's role was purely an overseeing one (if that), except that the rougher state of the transcriptions in the Notebook, compared with the neat copies in the Broadwood collection, suggests that the former are the primary versions and thus argues Leather's initial involvement, at some level, in their collection. Consequently, I have retained these in the catalogue, but have not credited them to Leather. Another problematic inclusion is that of the four songs that Ralph Vaughan Williams collected in Herefordshire in September 1913, which were published in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 5.1 (no. 18) (1914). I had initially assumed that the dating of Esther Smith's 'Christmas Day', published in Folk-Lore, 37 (1926), to September 1913 was an error for 1912; but the realization that Vaughan Williams's main collecting work for 1913 was indeed carried out in September in Herefordshire now suggests otherwise. More work on the Vaughan Williams manuscript collection will be necessary before conclusions can be drawn on whether these songs were actually the product of a joint collecting tour. For the time being, I have included them in the catalogue but identified as the work of Vaughan Williams alone.
I have not included in the catalogue manuscript copies of previously printed material from other collections, such as the copies of carols from the publications of Sandys, Sylvester, and Bramley and Stainer that make up the entries at EML/3/23-31. I have, however, made an exception where there is either uncertainty as to the published origin of a text, such as Walter Pilley's version of 'Dives and Lazarus' (EML/1/21), or where the printed source is of such obscurity that Leather's copy is one of the few known sources for the text, such as the 'Cyder Tax' ballad found in Memorials of Old Herefordshire.
Of course, a chronological catalogue has its own problems, not least the fact that for the earlier years very few of the songs are dated. For these entries I have had to rely to a large extent on the internal evidence of the manuscripts to provide approximate dates: where a song is placed in relation to related, dated songs; when a collector was known to have been working with Leather; whether the paper is from the same batch as that used for another song; and so on. Inevitably, I have been unable to ascertain specific dates for many entries, and in these cases I have resorted to the expedient of listing the singers alphabetically. With regard to other lacunae--where I have been unable to prove something directly from the texts themselves and have instead had to rely on other manuscripts in the collection to fill in the gaps--I have utilized square brackets to denote editorial interpolations. Nonetheless, gaps do remain, and for this very reason I term this a provisional catalogue. I do not, however, see this as a negative description, but as a very positive one: the last year's research on Ella Leather at the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library has produced more than I would ever have thought possible; there is bound to be more material awaiting us.
Collectors EML Ella Mary Leather AMW Annie M. Webb CJS Cecil J. Sharp FG F. Gwilliam FJ Francis Jekyll GB George Butterworth JG J. Griffiths RHR R. Hughes Rowlands RVW Ralph Vaughan Williams Sources C37/ EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection CFMGH 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in Herefordshire' EML/1/ Ella Leather Notebook EML/2/ Ella Leather loose papers EML/3/ Miscellaneous Herefordshire papers FLH The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire FSBW/ Frank Sidgwick, 'Bitter Withy' folder GB/ George Butterworth Collection JFSS Journal of the Folk-Song Society (cited by date and page numbers alone) LEB/ Lucy Broadwood Manuscript Collection LIB/COLL/MPS 50(31)/ VWML, Library Collection MPS 50(31) MOH Memorials of Old Herefordshire RVW/Scrapbook/ Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts and Letters TTCH Twelve Traditional Carols from Herefordshire Abbreviations cm composite music ct composite text m music t title only w words wl words, first stanza only The Ella Mary Leather Collection--Provisional Catalogue Date Title Performer Place 1904 There Is a Colcombe, Weobley Fountain of William Christ's Blood F.ML/2/l/b:w 1904 The North Colcombe, Weobley Country William Damsel 1904 Eggs in her Colcombe, Weobley Basket / William Basket of Eggs 1904 Christmas Now Colcombe, Weobley Is Drawing William Near at Hand/ Carol--Xmas Now Is Drawing  The Sally [Colcombe, Weobley Twigs or The William] Bitter Withy 1904 Lord Thomas Galleiss [?], near Weobley Mrs 1904 Come All Ye Wheeler, Mrs P. Weobley Faithful Christians 1904 Lord Thomas Wheeler, F. near Weobley and Fair Eleanor Dec 1904 Young Edwin in Bebb, W Weobley, The the Lowlands Marsh Low 1905 n.d. Carol -- -- [Shepherds on their Flocks Attending] n.d. The Highway -- -- Robber n.d. Bold Dragoon n.d. Come All You -- Jolly Ploughmen n.d. The Widow [?] -- -- [c.1905] Tick children Herefordshire [c.1905] Tick children Herefordshire n.d. The Fox [unnamed [Herefordshire, Hunting Chase descendant of Upper Hill] Richard Matthews] n.d. The Fox-Hum / Richards, Mr Moorhampton The Noah Herefordshire Fox-Chase n.d. Dick Turpin Richards, Noah Moorhampton  Pride of Richards, Noah Moorhampton Glcncoe n.d. [Dives and [broadside;] Barton, Hereford Lazarus] -- A Song, [broadside] -- Written on the Repeal of the Cyder Tax IVelters Cornewall] 1905 Two Bebb, Mr W. near Weobley Affectionate Lovers 1905 The King and Brace, Mrs Weobley the Keeper 1905 Oh, Have You Bridges, Mrs Pembridge Heard and Seen Caroline Our Saviour's Love? Young Lambkin 1905 Colcombe, Weobley William 1905 The Moon Colcombe, Weobley Shines Bright William 1905 William Railey Colcombe, Weobley /Young Wm. William Reilly 1905 The Mountains Colcombe, Weobley High William 1905 Lord Bateman Colcombe, Weobley William 1905 The Banks of Hughes, Nellie Hardwick Sweet Dundee  The Faithful Hughes, Nellie Hardwick Sailor Boy 1905 Young Banker Probert, Mr John Weobley 1905 Peggy Ban Probert, John Weobley  Sailors Grave Probert, John Weobley n.d. Cedar of Thomas, Harry Dilwyn Lebanon n.d. [King William -- -- and the Keeper] n.d. I'm Too Proud Turner, Mrs Weobley, to Beg Ledgemoor Common n.d. My School Turner, Mrs Weobley, Master's Sow Ledgemoor Common after 14 June Dives and Harris, Mrs Eardisley 1905 Lazarus/ Divcrus and Lazarus [Sept 1905] Rose in June [Dowden, George] [Dorset, Lackington] Sept 1905 The New Garden Morgan, John Dilwyn Field 3 Oct 1905 Brangywell/ Mellor, Mrs Dilwyn, The Brang-y-well Vicarage Oct 1905 The Pretty Morgan, John Dilwyn, The Ploughboy/ The Pitch Ploughboy before 12 Oct The Man That Wheeler, Mrs Weobley, Mile 1905 Lives Street 1905 The Three children Broxwood School Dukes 1905 Sweet William Hughes-Rowlands, [Dilwyn, The Mrs Schools] 1905 I'll Tell You Hughes-Rowlands, (Dilwyn, The of a Fellow Mrs Schools] 18 Oct 1905 The Farmer's [?] [Dilwyn, The Boy Schools] 17 Nov 1905 The Seasons of Morgan, John Dilwyn, The the Year/Four Pitch Seasons of the Year Nov 1905 Spencer the Morgan, John Dilwyn Rover 11 Dec 1905 Carol, Carol, -- -- Gaily n.d. Pollie Oliver -- -- 1906 n.d. The Dark Eyed -- -- Sailor n.d. The Marden The Bell-Ringers Marden Forfeit Song at Marden n.d. Come All Ye -- Marden Faithful Christians n.d. Spencer the Griffiths, Mrs Dilwyn Rover 1906 The Frog and 'a native of Weobley Mouse Weobley' n.d. The Frog and 'an old Irish Herefordshire the Duck nurse' 1906 William and Bebb, W. Weobley Harriet n.d. The Black Woodhall, Mrs [Herefordshire] Decree March 1906 Xmas Carol children Bristol [While Shepherds Watched their Flocks by Night] March 1906 Erin's Lovely Colcombe, Weobley Home William May 1906 A Fair Damsel Preece, Mr Sollars Dilwyn in London Did Joseph Dwell May 1906 Jolly Fellows Preece, Mr Sollars Dilwyn that Follow Joseph the Plough July 1906 Rose in June Priday, Mr Weobley Joseph July 1906 The Seeds of Priday, Mr Weobley Love Joseph Aug 1906 A Fair Damsel Preece, Mr Dilwyn Common in London Did Joseph Dwell Aug 1906 The Price, Mr George Norton Canon Herefordshire Farmer Aug 1906 Here's Joe Price, Mr George Norton Canon Coon Aug 1906 The Life of Taylor, W. Kings Pyon Man 9 Aug 06 Miss Betty Powell, Mrs [Kings Pyon] Wilster/Miss Betsy Wilster Sept 1906 William Taylor Colcombe, Weobley and Sarah William Gray 1906 As I Walked Colcombe, Weobley Out William 1906 The Sinner's Colcombe, Weobley Dream William 1906 Poor Mary of Colcombe, Weobley the Silvery William Tide / The Silvery Tide Aug 1906 A Young Colcombe, Weobley Sailor William  The Sally Colcombe, Weobley Twigs William Workhouse 1906 The Mountains Colcombe, Weobley High William 1906 (Poor Mary of) Colcombe, Weobley the Silvery William Tide Sept 1906 Eggs in her Colcombe, Weobley Basket William Sept 1906 Billy Taylor Colcombe, William Weobley Sept 1906 Lord Bateman Colcombe, Weobley William Sept 1906 In Chapel Colcombe, Weobley Park William 1906 Erin's Lovely Colcombe, Weobley Home William [Sept] 1906 William Colcombe, Weobley Reilly William Sept 1906 Banks of Sweet Colcombe, Weobley Primroses William Sept 1906 (There Is an Colcombe, Weobley Alehouse) A William Brisk Young Sailor Courted Me 1906 North Country Colcombe, Weobley Damsel William 1 Dec 1906 In a Manger Probert, Mr John Weobley Laid So Lowly 1 Dec 1906 Riches Are But Probert, Mr John Weobley Vanity 1 Dec 1906 Abroad as I Probert, Mr John Weobley Was Walking 1 Dec 1906 Down by the Probert, Mr John Weobley Shining Water, There Runs a Clear Stream n.d. The Honest Burton, Mr C. [Dilwyn] Weaver 5 Dec 1906 The Angel Burton, George Dilwyn Gabriel--A Carol 1907 Jan 1907 Dives and Evans, Mr John Dilwyn Lazarus n.d. Dives and -- Hereford Lazarus March 1907 The Moon Vaughan, Mr G. Dilwyn Shines Bright, and the Stars Give their Light  Cold Blows the Powell, Mrs Westhope, Canon Wind; or. The Pyon Unquiet Grave 1907 Milkmaid's Powell, Mrs Westhope, Canon Song Ellen Pyon Dec 1907 The Bitter Holder, W. Withington, Duke Withy Street 1908 n.d. The 14th of -- [Herefordshire] February n.d. Hobbs Bobbs Baynham, Mrs Hereford, 9 Park Virginia Street n.d. The Milkmaid [Richards?], Herefordshire Noah n.d. [The Metry -- -- King] 1908 The Sally Colcombe, Weobley Twigs William 1908 Three Jolly Preece, William Herefordshire Black Sheep-Skins Jan 1908 The Bitter Jones, Mrs Mary Ledgemoor [near Withy Weobley]/Kings Pyon 8 Jan 1908 The Sally Twig Layton, James Kings Pyon, / The Bitter Weobley Withies n.d. Mayers' Song -- Hertfordshire 19 Feb 1908 The Bitter Brimfield, Mr G. Winforton, The Withy T. Wydenhams Sept 1908 There Is an Jones, Mrs [Ledgemoor, near Alehouse Weobley] Sept 1908 In Carlock Smith, Mrs Mary Chadnor, near Town Ann Weobley Seprl908 Christ Made a Smith, Mrs Mary Chadnor, near Trance Ann Weobley Sept 1908 Young Leonard Smith, Mrs Mary Chadnor, near Ann Weobley Sept 1908 Mollie Vaughan Smith, Mrs Mary Chadnor, near / Molly Ann Weobley Vaughan Sept 1908 As I Was Whatton, Miss Dilwyn, The a-Walkin' Homme Sept 1908 Christ Made a Whatton, Dilwyn, The Trance One Angelina, and Mrs Homme Sunday at Whatton Noon n.d. [Christian [Whatton, [Weobley, or The People] Angelina or Mrs] Homme, near [?] Weobley ] Sept 1908 There Lived a Loveridge, Mrs Dilwyn, at the Lady in Merry Homme farm Scotland Sept 1908 Cherry Tree Herbert, Mrs Thinghill, near Carol Withington Oct 1908 There Is a Hancocks, Mr W Monnington Fountain of Christ's Blood Oct 1908 There Is a Smith, Mrs Weobley Fountain of [Esther] Christ's Blood Oct 1908 The Seven Whatton, The Homme farm, Virgins; or, Angelina, and Mrs near Weobley Under the Whatton Leaves Oct 1908 Rich Hancocks, John Monnington Merchant's Daughter Oct 1908 Holy Well Hancocks, Mr Monnington-on-Wye John before 3 Nov Billy Taylor Mrs Mary Whatton Herefordshire 1908 before 3 Nov As I Walked Mrs Mary Whatton Herefordshire 1908 Out before 3 Nov Basket of Colcombe, Weobley 1908 Eggs [William] workhouse Before 3 Nov As I Walked Prosser Herefordshire 1908 Out before 3 Nov Rosemary Lane Vaughan [Mr G.] Dilwyn 1908 before 3 Nov One Easter Vaughan [Mr G.] Dilwyn 1908 before 3 Nov As I Walked Herbert, Mrs Thinghill, near 1908 Out Withington before 3 Nov Tiresome Wife Colcombe, Weobley 1908 [William] before 9 Nov Claudy Banks Powell, Mrs Westhope 1908 before 9 Nov Pretty Powell, Mrs Westhope 1908 Caroline before 9 Nov Thresherman Powell, Mrs Westhope 1908 before 9 Nov Diverus and Harris, Mrs Eardisley 1908 Lazarus before 9 Nov True Lovers [Richards, Noah] [Herefordshire] 1908 Downfall Nov 1908 The Mummers Powell, William Ross, Brampton Play Street 1909 Jan 1909 Bitter Withy Holder, W. Withington, [Duke Street] before Feb 11 Bitter Withy Tristram, Mrs Withington 1909 before Feb 11 Jeweller's Tristram, Mrs Withington 1909 Wedding before Feb 11 Joys of Mary Tristram, Mrs Withington 1909 Withington before Feb 11 Down in the Tristram, Mrs 1909 Fields of Bilberry 1909 The Gypsy Vaughan [Mr] G. Dilwyn Bride 1909 Apprentice in Vaughan [Mr] G. Dilwyn Rosemary Lane 1909 The Outlandish Preece, J Dilwyn Knight 1909 Hunting Song Preece, J Dilwyn 1909 Polly Oliver Vaughan [Mr] G. Dilwyn 1909 Pretty Betsy Bridges, Mrs Pembridge Caroline 1909 In Sheffield Bridges, Mrs Pembridge Park Caroline 1909 In a Hospital Bridges, Mrs Pembridge Garden Caroline 1909 The Sailor Bridges, Mrs Pembridge Boy Caroline 1909 The Deserter Bridges, Mrs Pembridge Caroline n.d. Claudy Banks [Bridges, Mrs [Pembridge] Down by the Caroline] [?] Green Bushes 1909 Goodwin, Mrs Ledgemoor 1909 As I Walked Bridges, Mrs Pembridge Out Caroline 1909 The Prickly Goodwin, Mrs Ledgemoor Bush 1909 Dilly Dove Goodwin, Mrs Ledgemoor March 1909 The Holy Well Goodwin, Mrs E. Ledgemoor / Kings Pyon 1909 There Was a Goodwin, Mrs Ledgemoor Lord in Lancashire 1909 Leanthony [?] Morgan, Mr Thos. near Broxwood 1909 Skipper and Morgan, Mr Thos. near Broxwood his Boy 1909 Erin's Lovely Morgan, Mr Thos. near Broxwood Home 1909 The Irish Morgan, Mr Thos. near Broxwood Girl 1909 It's of a Morgan, Mr Thos. near Broxwood Pretty Ploughboy 1909 The Tailor and Lloyd, Mr John Broxwood the Crow 1909 Bunch of Morgan, Mr T. Broxwood Watercress 1909 The Besom Morgan, Mr T. Broxwood Maker 1909 Napoleon Taylor, Mr Thos. Broxwood 1909 Waterloo Taylor, Mr Thos. Broxwood 1909 Undaunted Morgan, Mr T. Broxwood Female 1909 Hunting Song Lloyd, Mi John Broxwood 1909 The Almeley Lloyd, Mr John Broxwood Census 1909 Little Grey Lloyd, Mr John Broxwood Horse 1909 The Banks of Richards, Mr Moorhampton Boyne Noah 1909 Pride of Richards, Mr Moorhampton Dundee Noah 1909 True Lovers' Richards, Mr Moorhampton Downfall Noah 1909 Tom Sayers Richards, Mr Moorhampton Noah 1909 Seasons of the Beddoe, Mr H. C. Hereford Year 1909 Binnorie Beddoe, Mr H. C. Hereford 1909 The Trees They Hirons, Mr W. Haven Do Grow High 1909 Cold Blows the Hirons, Mr W. Dilwyn, Haven Wind 1909 There Is an Hirons, Mr W. Haven Alehouse 1909 The Mantle of Geldey, Ms [?] Dilwyn, The Green Pitch n.d. The Bunch of Hirons, J. [Haven] Roses May 1909 Bold Robin I Jones, Mark Llanvepw[?] Hood June 1909 The Mantle of Powell, Mrs Kings Pyon Green July 1909 Awake, Awake, Bridges, Mrs [Herefordshire], Sweet England Caroline Pembridge July 1909 God Rest You Colcombe, Mr Weobley Merry [William] July 1909 The Bold Gough [Herefordshire] Cripple July 1909 The Man That Jenkins, Mr W. Kings Pyon, Lives Ledgemoor July 1909 The Truth Sent Jenkins, Mr W. Kings Pyon, From Above Ledgemoor July 1909 The Man that Wheeler, Mrs Weobley Lives 27 July 1909 Highway Colcombe, Weobley Union Robber William 27 July 1909 Sinner's Colcombe, Weobley Union Dream William 27 July 1909 Carnal and the Hirons, [Mr W] Dilwyn, Haven Crane 1909 The Saviour's Hirons, Mr Dilwyn, Haven Love  Angel Gabriel Hirons, Mr Dilwyn, Haven n.d. The Angel [Gallet, Mr] [?] [Worcestershire, Gabriel Leigh Sinton] [July] 1909 Captain Evans Powell, Mrs Westhope [Ellen] [July] 1909 Early Early Powell, Mrs Westhope [Ellen] [July] 1909 Merry Green Powell, Mrs Westhope Broom fields [Ellen] [July] 1909 Cold Blows the Powell, Mrs Westhope Wind [Ellen) July 1909 Dabbling in Powell, Mrs Herefordshire, the Dew [Ellen] near Weobley, 28 July 1909 The Myrtle Powell, Mrs Westhope Tree [Ellen] 28 July 1909 The Powell, Mrs Westhope Blacksmith [Ellen] 28 July 1909 Blacksmith Powell, Mrs Westhope [Version II'] [Ellen] 28 July 1909 Stockings and Powell, Mrs [Westhope] Gown [Ellen] 1909 The Powell, Mr Herefordshire Blacksmith 28 July 1909 A Brisk Young Colcombe, Weobley Union Sailor Courted William Me 29 July 1909 Green Bushes Powell, Mrs Westhope [Ellen] 29 July 1909 Billy Taylor Powell, Mrs Westhope [Ellen] 29 July 1909 Gloucester -- Swan Inn, Wassail Song Pembridge, Leominster 31 July 1909 Apprentice Smith, Mrs Swan Inn, Boy Pembridge [July 1909] The Turtle Lewis, Mr Hardwick Dove 31 July 1909 "The Moon Lewis, Mr G. Hardwick Shines Bright 31 July 1909 Fountain of Lewis, Mr G. [Herefordshire] Christ's Hardwick Blood 31 July 1909 The Jones, Mrs Weobley Blacksmith Harriet 31 July 1909 Sheffield Jones, Mrs Weobley Apprentice Harriet 31 July 1909 Christ Made a Jones, Mrs Weobley Trance Harriet n.d. The Seven Jones, Mrs Weobley Virgins Harriet Floyd, Mr Aug 1909 'The Young and Floyd, Mr Herefordshire, Single Sailor near Weobley, Sept 1909 The Bitter Fletcher, Monkland Withy Richard n.d. The Angel -- [Herefordshire?] Gabriel n.d. Our Saviour's -- [Herefordshire?] Love n.d. Bacon and -- [Herefordshire] Green n.d. St Patrick's -- [Herefordshire] Day in the Morning n.d. [The Dark Eyed -- [Herefordshire] Sailor]  There Is an -- [Herefordshire] Ale house  Hornpipes Locke, John [Herefordshire] 27 Dec 1909 Trip to the Locke, John Leominster Cottage 27 Dec 1909 Morris Dance Locke, John Leominster -- Trip to the printed -- Cottage 29 Dec 1909 Flowers of Preece, William Dilwyn Edinburgh 29 Dec 1909 Jack off the Prcece, William Dilwyn Green 27 Dec 1909 Speed the Locke, John Leominster Plough n.d. The Seven Jones, Mrs Weobley Virgins Harriet Floyd, Mr Aug 1909 'The Young and Floyd, Mr Herefordshire, Single Sailor near Weobley, Sept 1909 The Bitter Fletcher, Monkland Withy Richard n.d. The Angel -- [Herefordshire?] Gabriel n.d. Our Saviour's -- [Herefordshire?] Love n.d. Bacon and -- [Herefordshire] Green n.d. St Patrick's -- [Herefordshire] Day in the Morning n.d. [The Dark Eyed -- [Herefordshire] Sailor]  There Is an -- [Herefordshire] Ale house  Hornpipes Locke, John [Herefordshire] 27 Dec 1909 Trip to the Locke, John Leominster Cottage 27 Dec 1909 Morris Dance Locke, John Leominster -- Trip to the printed -- Cottage 29 Dec 1909 Flowers of Preece, William Dilwyn Edinburgh 29 Dec 1909 Jack off the Prcece, William Dilwyn Green 27 Dec 1909 Speed the Locke, John Leominster Plough 1910 Aug 1910 A Wager, A Powell, Mrs near Weobley Wager Aug 1910 'a new Xmas under-gardener at Herefordshire, Carol' ['Twas Stoke Edith Park Stoke Edith Park Mary in the morning to the sepulchre she came] 1911  Americkay -- --  Joseph and -- -- Mary  Bitter Withy -- -- n.d. The Angel -- [Hereford, Gabriel Ledbury Road, Fenton Lodge] 25 Nov 1911 The Angel -- Hereford, Ledbury Gabriel Road, Fenton Lodge  [Awake, Awake, -- either. Sweet Winterhourne, England] near Salisbury, Wiltshire, or Dormington, near Hereford 1912 n.d. The Holy Well Gypsies Sutton St Nicholas -- King Pharim -- -- 26 Jan 1912 Boyne Water Locke, John [Herefordshire] Sept 1912 Cold Blows the Smith (Whatton), Kings Pyon, The Wind Mrs Esther Browns Sept 1912 I'll Have my Smith, Mrs Herefordshire Petticoat Esther Sept 1912 My Mother Sent Smith, Mrs Herefordshire Me Esther Sept 1912 Sheffield Smith, Mrs Herefordshire Park Esther Sept 1912 Molly Bawn Smith, Mrs Herefordshire Esther 13 Sept 1912 Shrewsbury a gypsy hop Kings Pyon, Gaol picker' Chadnor Hill, The Browns Sept 1912 Riding Down to Smith, Mrs Herefordshire Pochemar Esther Sept 1912 On Christmas Smith, Mrs Dilwyn, The Day Esther Homme [Sept 1912?] The Barley Smith, Esther [Herefordshire] Raking n.d. [The Bitter [Smith, Esther] [Herefordshire] Withy] [?] [Sept 1912] Christian [Smith, Mrs [Weobley, or The People/Oh Esther] Homme, near Christmas Now Weobley ] Is Drawing Near at Hand [?] [Xmas Day Is [possibly either [Herefordshire] a-Drawing Nigh Smith, Esther, or at Hand] Johnson, Mrs] Sept 1912 God Rest You Smith, Mary Ann, Dilwyn, The Merry, and Johnson, Mrs Homme Gentlemen n.d. God Our -- [Herefordshire] Father n.d. Gypsy Song -- Herefordshire n.d. The Outlandish -- -- Knight n.d. Ballad [The -- [Herefordshire] Cruel Mother] 11 Sept 1912 The Claudy Jones, Alfred Monkland Banks Price Sept  Cold Blows the Jones, Alfred Monkland Wind Price 1913 Aug 1913 The Bitter Stephens, [Herefordshire] Withy Charlotte Sept 1913 On Christmas Smith, Mrs Weobley Day Esther Sept 1913 Christmas Now Wildes, Mr [Poolend, near Is Drawing Pixley] Near at Hand Sept 1913 Christmas Now a waggoner [Poolend, near Is Drawing Pixley] Near at Hand Sept 1913 The Cherry Davies, Mr Aylton [near Tree Carol Ledbury] Sept 1913 New Year's Davies, Mr Aylton [near Carol Ledbury] Sept 1912 God Rest You Smith, Mary Ann, Dilwyn, The Merry, and Johnson, Mrs Homme Gentlemen n.d. God Our -- [Herefordshire] Father n.d. Gypsy Song -- Herefordshire n.d. The Outlandish -- -- Knight n.d. Ballad [The -- [Herefordshire] Cruel Mother] 11 Sept 1912 The Claudy Jones, Alfred Monkland Banks Price Sept  Cold Blows the Jones, Alfred Monkland Wind Price Aug 1913 The Bitter Stephens, [Herefordshire] Withy Charlotte Sept 1913 On Christmas Smith, Mrs Weobley Day Esther Sept 1913 Christmas Now Wildes, Mr [Poolend, near Is Drawing Pixley] Near at Hand Sept 1913 Christmas Now a waggoner [Poolend, near Is Drawing Pixley] Near at Hand Sept 1913 The Cherry Davies, Mr Aylton [near Tree Carol Ledbury] Sept 1913 New Year's Davies, Mr Aylton [near Carol Ledbury] 1922 8 Sept 1922 Cold Blows the Jones, Alfred Monkland Wind Price 8 Sept 1922 The Blacksmith Jones, Alfred Monkland Price 8 Sept 1922 The Irish Jones, Alfred Monkland Stranger Price 8 Sept 1922 The Low Low- Jones, Alfred Monkland lands of Price Holland Date Title Collector Roud no. 1904 1904 There Is a AMW 663 Fountain of Christ's Blood F.ML/2/l/b:w 1904 The North Country AMW 2638 Damsel 1904 Eggs in her AMW EML 377 Basket / Basket of Eggs 1904 Christmas Now Is AMW EML 808 Drawing Near at Hand / Carol-- Xmas Now Is Drawing  The Sally Twigs EML 452 or The Birrer Withy 1904 Lord Thomas AMW EML 4 1904 Come All Ye AMW 815 Faithful Christians 1904 Lord Thomas and AMW EML 4 Fair Eleanor Dec 1904 Young Edwin in FG EML 182 the Lowlands Low 1905 n.d. Carol [Shepherds AMW 9680 on their Flocks Attending] n.d. The Highway AMW 289 Robber n.d. Bold Dragoon AMW 321 [?] n.d. Come All You AMW 202 Jolly Ploughmen n.d. The Widow [?] AMW [?] [c.1905] Tick EML 19355 [c.1905] Tick EML 13610 n.d. The Fox Hunting [Miss Nellie 22252 Chase Smith] n.d. The Fox-Hum / The AMW EML 22251 Herefordshire Fox-Chase n.d. Dick Turpin AMW 621  Pride of Glcncoe AMW 515 n.d. [Dives and Walter Pilley 477 Lazarus] -- A Song, Written EML on the Repeal of the Cyder Tax IVelters Cornewall] 1905 Two Affectionate FG EML 539 Lovers 1905 The King and the Nona Swire EML 853 Keeper 1905 Oh, Have You William T. B. 2116 Heard and Seen Burnett EML Our Saviour's Love? Young Lambkin 1905 AMW EMI. 6 1905 The Moon Shines AMW EML 702 Bright 1905 William Railey / AMW 538 Young Wm. Reilly 1905 The Mountains AMW EML 955 High 1905 Lord Bateman AMW 40 1905 The Banks of AMW 148 Sweet Dundee  The Faithful AMW 376 Sailor Boy 1905 Young Banker JG EML 3321 1905 Peggy Ban JG 661  Sailors Grave JG 2676 n.d. Cedar of Lebanon RHR EML 22553 n.d. [King William and RHR 853 the Keeper] n.d. I'm Too Proud to AMW 22504 Beg n.d. My School AMW 22547 Master's Sow after 14 June 1905 Dives and Miss Eleanor 477 Lazarus/ Divcrus Andrews and Dr and Lazarus Quinten Darling EML [Sept 1905] Rose in June Hammond 1202 Sept 1905 The New Garden RHR EML 1054 Field 3 Oct 1905 Brangywell/ RHR 29 Brang-y-well Oct 1905 The Pretty RHR EML 186 Ploughboy/ The Ploughboy before 12 Oct 1905 The Man That JG 2110 Lives 1905 The Three Dukes RHR 703 1905 Sweet William RHR 273 1905 I'll Tell You of RHR 442 a Fellow 18 Oct 1905 The Farmer's Boy RHR 408 17 Nov 1905 The Seasons of RHR 1180 the Year/Four Seasons of the Year Nov 1905 Spencer the RHR 1115 Rover 11 Dec 1905 Carol, Carol, -- 5365 Gaily n.d. Pollie Oliver -- 367 1906 n.d. The Dark Eyed [?] EML 265 Sailor n.d. The Marden Revd Custos 2121 Forfeit Song Duncombe n.d. Come All Ye [Rev. Cusros 815 Faithful Duncombe] Christians n.d. Spencer the AMW 1115 Rover 1906 The Frog and EML 16 Mouse n.d. The Frog and the EML 23 Duck 1906 William and FG 536 Harriet n.d. The Black Decree AMW 2429 March 1906 Xmas Carol [While R. C. Davis EML 936 Shepherds Watched their Flocks by Night] March 1906 Erin's Lovely FG EML 1427 Home May 1906 A Fair Damsel in RHR 289 London Did Dwell May 1906 Jolly Fellows RHR 346 that Follow the Plough July 1906 Rose in June FG EML 1202 July 1906 The Seeds of FG EML 3 Love Aug 1906 A Fair Damsel in RHR 289 London Did Dwell Aug 1906 The Herefordshire E. Radmore AMW 2637 Farmer EML Aug 1906 Here's Joe Coon AMW 22546 Aug 1906 The Life of Man AMW EML 848 9 Aug 06 Miss Betty AMW EML 263 Wilster/Miss Betsy Wilster Sept 1906 William Taylor AMW EML 158 and Sarah Gray 1906 As I Walked Out AMW 586 1906 The Sinner's AMW EML 8356 Dream 1906 Poor Mary of the AMW 561 Silvery Tide / The Silvery Tide Aug 1906 A Young Sailor AMW 60  The Sally Twigs AMW EML 452 1906 The Mountains FJ 955 High 1906 (Poor Mary of) FJ 561 the Silvery Tide Sept 1906 Eggs in her FJ GB 377 Basket Sept 1906 Billy Taylor FJ GB 158 Sept 1906 Lord Bateman FJ GB 40 Sept 1906 In Chapel Park FJ 18833 1906 Erin's Lovely FJ 1427 Home [Sept] 1906 William Reilly FJ 538 Sept 1906 Banks of Sweet FJ GB 586 Primroses Sept 1906 (There Is an FJ GB 60 Alehouse) A Brisk Young Sailor Courted Me 1906 North Country FJ 2638 Damsel 1 Dec 1906 In a Manger Laid EML 22548 So Lowly 1 Dec 1906 Riches Are But EML 22550 Vanity 1 Dec 1906 Abroad as I Was EML 564 Walking 1 Dec 1906 Down by the EML 22549 Shining Water, There Runs a Clear Stream n.d. The Honest AMW EML 22255 Weaver 5 Dec 1906 The Angel Cabriel RHR 815 --A Carol 1907 Jan 1907 Dives and EML RVW 477 Lazarus n.d. Dives and Dr John Beddoe 477 Lazarus March 1907 The Moon Shines EML RVW 702 Bright, and the Stars Give their Light  Cold Blows the EML RVW 51 Wind; or. The Unquiet Grave 1907 Milkmaid's Song EML RVW 298 Dec 1907 The Bitter Withy FS 452 1908 n.d. The 14th of EML 528 February n.d. Hobbs Bobbs RVW[?] EML 114 n.d. The Milkmaid Dr King EMI. 290 n.d. [The Metry King] Dr King [?] 587 1908 The Sally Twigs AMW RVW EML 452 1908 Three Jolly Black Alice J. Ovens -- Sheep-Skins EML Jan 1908 The Bitter Withy King, Revd 452 Edwin 8 Jan 1908 The Sally Twig / FS 452 The Bitter Withies n.d. Mayers' Song [?] [EML; 305 19 Feb 1908 The Bitter Withy Eleanor Andrews 452 EML Sept 1908 There Is an EML 60 Alehouse Sept 1908 In Carlock Town EML 22280 2112 Seprl908 Christ Made a EML 2112 Trance Sept 1908 Young Leonard EML 189 Sept 1908 Mollie Vaughan / EML 166 Molly Vaughan Sept 1908 As I Was EML 264 a-Walkin' Sept 1908 Christ Made a EML RVW 2112 Trance One Sunday at Noon n.d. [Christian EML 808 People] Sept 1908 There Lived a EML RVW 196 Lady in Merry Scotland Sept 1908 Cherry Tree EML 453 Carol Oct 1908 There Is a EML RVW 663 Fountain of Christ's Blood Oct 1908 There Is a EML RVW 663 Fountain of Christ's Blood Oct 1908 The Seven EML RVW 127 Virgins; or, Under the Leaves Oct 1908 Rich Merchant's Revd F.Wilmot 552 Daughter EML Oct 1908 Holy Well Revd F Wilmot 1697 EML before 3 Nov 1908 Billy Taylor EML 158 before 3 Nov 1908 As I Walked Out EML 1003 before 3 Nov 1908 Basket of Eggs EML 377 Before 3 Nov 1908 As I Walked Out EML 1003 before 3 Nov 1908 Rosemary Lane EML 269 before 3 Nov 1908 One Easter EML 484 before 3 Nov 1908 As I Walked Out EML 1003 before 3 Nov 1908 Tiresome Wife EML 433 before 9 Nov 1908 Claudy Banks EML 266 before 9 Nov 1908 Pretty Caroline EMI 1448 before 9 Nov 1908 Thresherman EML 19 before 9 Nov 1908 Diverus and EML 477 Lazarus before 9 Nov 1908 True Lovers EML [possibly Downfall 1700 or 182] Nov 1908 The Mummers Play EML -- 1909 Jan 1909 Bitter Withy EML RVW Frank 452 Sidgwick before Feb 11 1909 Bitter Withy EML RVW 452 before Feb 11 1909 Jeweller's EML 567 Wedding before Feb 11 1909 Joys of Mary EML 278 before Feb 11 1909 Down in the EML 452 Fields of Bilberry 1909 The Gypsy Bride EML 229 1909 Apprentice in EML 269 Rosemary Lane 1909 The Outlandish EML 21 Knight 1909 Hunting Song EML M 1909 Polly Oliver EML 367 1909 Pretty Betsy EML 156 1909 In Sheffield EML 860 Park 1909 In a Hospital EML 22554 Garden 1909 The Sailor Boy EML 264 1909 The Deserter EML 493 n.d. Claudy Banks Down -- 266 by the Green Bushes 1909 EML 1040 1909 As I Walked Out EML 1003 1909 The Prickly Bush EML 144 1909 Dilly Dove EML 29 March 1909 The Holy Well EML 1697 1909 There Was a Lord EML 93[?] in Lancashire 1909 Leanthony [?] EML 193 [?] 1909 Skipper and his EML 2680 Boy 1909 Erin's Lovely EML 1427 Home 1909 The Irish Girl EML 308 1909 It's of a Pretty EML 186 Ploughboy 1909 The Tailor and EMI. 891 the Crow 1909 Bunch of EML 1653 Watercress 1909 The Besom Maker EML 910 1909 Napoleon EML 1626 1909 Waterloo EML [?] 1909 Undaunted Female EML 289 1909 Hunting Song EML [?] 1909 The Almeley EML 22544 Census 1909 Little Grey EML 393 Horse 1909 The Banks of EML 2891 Boyne 1909 Pride of Dundee EML 22552 1909 True Lovers' EML [possibly Downfall 1700 or 182] 1909 Tom Sayers EML 22545 1909 Seasons of the EML RVW 1180 Year 1909 Binnorie EML 8 1909 The Trees They Do EML RVW 31 Grow High 1909 Cold Blows the EML RVW 51 Wind 1909 There Is an EML RVW 60 Alehouse 1909 The Mantle of EML 714 Green n.d. The Bunch of EML 664 Roses May 1909 Bold Robin I EML 71 Hood June 1909 The Mantle of Revd D. King 714 Green July 1909 Awake, Awake, EML RVW 2111 Sweet England July 1909 God Rest You EML RVW 394 Merry July 1909 The Bold Cripple EML 12763 July 1909 The Man That RVW EML 2110 Lives July 1909 The Truth Sent RVW EML 2109 From Above July 1909 The Man that RVW EML 2110 Lives 27 July 1909 Highway Robber RVW EML 21 27 July 1909 Sinner's Dream RVW EML 8356 27 July 1909 Carnal and the RVW EML 306 Crane 1909 The Saviour's RVW EML 2116 Love  Angel Gabriel RVW EML 815 n.d. The Angel -- 815 Gabriel [July] 1909 Captain Evans RVW EML 533 [July] 1909 Early Early RVW EML 152 [July] 1909 Merry Green Broom RVW EML 34 fields [July] 1909 Cold Blows the RVW EML 51 Wind July 1909 Dabbling in the EML RVW 298 Dew 28 July 1909 The Myrtle Tree EML RVW 954 28 July 1909 The Blacksmith RVW EML 816 28 July 1909 Blacksmith RVW EML 816 [Version II'] 28 July 1909 Stockings and RVW EML 22555 Gown 1909 The Blacksmith RVW [EML ?] 816 28 July 1909 A Brisk Young RVW EML 60 Sailor Courted Me 29 July 1909 Green Bushes RVW EML 1040 29 July 1909 Billy Taylor RVW EML 158 29 July 1909 Gloucester RVW EML 209 Wassail Song 31 July 1909 Apprentice Boy RVW EML [?] [July 1909] The Turtle Dove EML RVW 422 31 July 1909 "The Moon Shines RVW EML 702 Bright 31 July 1909 Fountain of RVW EML 663 Christ's Blood 31 July 1909 The Blacksmith RVW EML 816 31 July 1909 Sheffield RVW EML 399 Apprentice 31 July 1909 Christ Made a RVW EML 2112 Trance n.d. The Seven EML 127 Virgins Aug 1909 'The Young and EML RVW 264 Single Sailor Sept 1909 The Bitter Withy EML 452 n.d. The Angel -- 815 Gabriel n.d. Our Saviour's -- 2116 Love n.d. Bacon and Green -- -- n.d. St Patrick's Day -- -- in the Morning n.d. [The Dark Eyed -- 265 Sailor]  There Is an Ale CJS 377 house  Hornpipes CJS -- 27 Dec 1909 Trip to the CJS -- Cottage 27 Dec 1909 Morris Dance CJS EML -- -- Trip to the CJS -- Cottage 29 Dec 1909 Flowers of CJS -- Edinburgh 29 Dec 1909 Jack off the CJS 13216 Green 27 Dec 1909 Speed the Plough CJS -- n.d. The Seven EML 127 Virgins Aug 1909 'The Young and EML RVW 264 Single Sailor Sept 1909 The Bitter Withy EML 452 n.d. The Angel -- 815 Gabriel n.d. Our Saviour's -- 2116 Love n.d. Bacon and Green -- -- n.d. St Patrick's Day -- -- in the Morning n.d. [The Dark Eyed - 265 Sailor]  There Is an Ale CJS 377 house  Hornpipes CJS -- 27 Dec 1909 Trip to the CJS -- Cottage 27 Dec 1909 Morris Dance CJS EML -- -- Trip to the CJS -- Cottage 29 Dec 1909 Flowers of CJS -- Edinburgh 29 Dec 1909 Jack off the CJS 13216 Green 27 Dec 1909 Speed the Plough CJS -- 1910 Aug 1910 A Wager, A Wager RVW EML -- Aug 1910 'a new Xmas Langton Brown 22551 Carol' ['Twas Mary in the morning to the sepulchre she came] 1911  Americkay EML RVW 270  Joseph and Mary EML RVW 453  Bitter Withy EML RVW 452 n.d. The Angel Langton Brown 815 Gabriel 25 Nov 1911 The Angel Langton Brown 815 Gabriel  [Awake, Awake, Langton Brown 2111 Sweet England] 1912 n.d. The Holy Well EML RVW -- King Pharim RVW 306 26 Jan 1912 Boyne Water EML -- Sept 1912 Cold Blows the EML 51 Wind Sept 1912 I'll Have my EML 911 Petticoat Sept 1912 My Mother Sent EML 506 Me Sept 1912 Sheffield Park EML 18833 and 860 Sept 1912 Molly Bawn [EML] 166 13 Sept 1912 Shrewsbury Gaol EML 22281 Sept 1912 Riding Down to EML 1534 Pochemar Sept 1912 On Christmas Day EML 1078 [Sept 1912?] The Barley EML 1024 Raking n.d. [The Bitter -- 2116 Withy] [Sept 1912] Christian EML RVW 808 People/Oh Christmas Now Is Drawing Near at Hand [?] [Xmas Day Is RVW 808 a-Drawing Nigh at Hand] Sept 1912 God Rest You EML RVW 394 Merry, Gentlemen n.d. God Our Father [RVW EML] 394 n.d. Gypsy Song EML 1 n.d. The Outlandish RVW 21 Knight n.d. Ballad [The Cruel EML 9 Mother] 11 Sept 1912 The Claudy Banks EML 266 Sept  Cold Blows the EML RVW 51 Wind 1913 Aug 1913 The Bitter Withy EML 452 Sept 1913 On Christmas Day EML 1078 Sept 1913 Christmas Now Is RVW 808 Drawing Near at Hand Sept 1913 Christmas Now Is RVW 808 Drawing Near at Hand Sept 1913 The Cherry Tree RVW 453 Carol Sept 1913 New Year's Carol RVW 701 1922 8 Sept 1922 Cold Blows the EML 51 Wind 8 Sept 1922 The Blacksmith EML 816 8 Sept 1922 The Irish EML 1629 Stranger 8 Sept 1922 The Low Low- lands of Holland EML 484 Date Title Citation Notes 1904 There Is a JFSS (1905), 133: Fountain of wm FLH, p. Christ's 197-98: wl Blood EML/2/1/b:w F.ML/2/l/b:w 1904 The North EML/l/10/b: w m Country LEB/5/290: t Damsel 1904 Eggs in her JFSS (1905), Aged 77'. Basket/ 102-03: wm Basket of EML/l/16/a: m Eggs EML/l/l6/b:wm LEB/5/277: t LEB/5/290: t 1904 Christmas Now JFSS (1905), 134: TTCH: words Smith/ Is Drawing wm LEB/5/290: t Johnson/Colcombe; Near at Hand / ITCH, 8-9: ct cm music Smith/Johnson. Carol--Xmas Now Is Drawing  The Sally JFSS (1906), Twigs or The 300-04: w Birrer Withy LEB/5/290: t 1904 Lord Thomas EML/1/14:ct m words Galleiss [?] /Wheeler; music Wheeler. 1904 Come All Ye JFSS(1905), '(aged about 70) Faithful 115-22: wm Charwoman'. Christians EML/2/l/c: m LEB/5/290 title: LEB/5/290: t Come All You Worth Xtians. 1904 Lord Thomas FLH, 200-02: ct m 'Groom'. FLH: words and Fair JFSS(1905), Wheeler/Rowsell Eleanor 10-09: w m [latter from LEB/5/290: t Hammond EML/l/l4:ctm collection]; music CFMGH, 62: t Wheeler. EML/1/14: words Galleiss [?] /Wheeler; music Wheeler. Dec 1904 Young Edwin in EML/l/18:w m the Lowlands LEB/5/245: w Low LEB/5/239: t 1905 n.d. Carol EML/3/17:wm [Shepherds on LEB/5/290: t their Flocks Attending] n.d. The Highway LEB/5/286: wl m Robber n.d. Bold Dragoon LEB/5/290: t n.d. Come All You LEB/5/290: t Jolly Ploughmen n.d. The Widow [?] LEB/5/290: t [c.1905] Tick MOH, 163-64: w [c.1905] Tick MOH, 163-64: w n.d. The Fox EML/l/19:wm FLH, 'composed ... by Hunting Chase 265-66: w Richard Matthews, of Upper Hill, in the reign of George III'. n.d. The Fox-Hum / EML/l/21:wm FLH, 'Blacksmith'. The 264-65: w 'Richards calls Herefordshire LEB/5/276: wl m this "The tune of Fox-Chase LEB/5/239: t 'Six bottles more"". n.d. Dick Turpin LEB/5/276: m LEB/5/239: t  Pride of LEB/5/279: w 'Blacksmith'. Glcncoe [stanza 8] LEB/5/283: song LEB/5/280: m mentioned in letter LEB/5/239: t from EML to LEB, 11 LEB/5/283: t May 1905. n.d. [Dives and EML/1/22: w 'from collection of Lazarus] Mr. W. Pilley. Barton Hereford'. Printed on reverse 'The Barton. Hereford'. -- A Song, MOH, 165-66: w 'Printed in London, Written on the 1766, reprinted Repeal of the March, 1818, by T. Cyder Tax Davies & Son, IVelters Hereford'. Cornewall] 1905 Two JFSS(1905), 'Roadman'. Affectionate 97-98: w m LEB/5/290 title: Lovers EML/l/25/a:wl m Young Servant Man. EML/l/25/b:w LEB/5/244: wl m LEB/5/239: t LEB/5/290: t 1905 The King and EML/l/43/a:m 'aged 68'. the Keeper EML/l/43/b:w m LEB/5/239: t 1905 Oh, Have You JFSS(1905), 136: TTCH words Bridges Heard and Seen w m TTCH, 24-25: /Phillips; music Our Saviour's ct m Hirons . Love? Young Lambkin 1905 JFSS (1905), 111-13: wl m FLH, 199-200: w m EML/l/39/c: wl m 1905 The Moon JFSS(1905), Shines Bright 131-32: w m FLH, 193-94: w m EML/l/0/a: w m LEB/5/270: wl m LEB/5/239: t LEB/5/290: t 1905 William Railey EML/l/17/a: wl m / Young Wm. LEB/5/290: t Reilly 1905 The Mountains EML/l/34/b:wm High LEB/5/290: t 1905 Lord Bateman EML/l/39/b: wl m LEB/5/274: wl m LEB/5/239: t 1905 The Banks of EML/l/36/a: wl m Sweet Dundee  The Faithful LEB/5/277: wl m '[aged] 15'. Sailor Boy LEB/5/239: t LEB/5/239: Broadwood has noted '(modern)'. 1905 Young Banker JFSS (1905), 91-93: w1 m EML/l/24/a: w m EML/l/24/b:w m LEB/5/239: t LEB/5/290: t 1905 Peggy Ban EML/l/20/a; w m 'age about 45 EML/l/20/b:w m miller'. LEB/5/239: t LEB/5/290: t  Sailors Grave LEB/5/243: w1 m LEB/5/239: Broadwood LEB/5/239: t has noted '(modern)'. n.d. Cedar of EML/3/l6/a:m 'age about 25'. Lebanon n.d. [King William EML/3/16/b: m and the Keeper] n.d. I'm Too Proud LEB/5/275: w1 m '[aged] 50'. Fred to Beg LEB/5/239: t Albert's music hall song 'Shabby Genteel'. LEB/5/239: Broadwood has noted '(modern)'. n.d. My School LEB/5/280: m LEB/5/239: Broadwood Master's Sow LEB/5/239: t has noted '(modern)'. after 14 June Dives and FLH, 190-91: w m '[aged] 80'. Second 1905 Lazarus JFSS (1905), title from singer. /Divcrus and 125-26: w m TTCH: words Lazarus EML/l/0/d: w m Harris/Evans; music LEB/5/241-242: w1 Evans. m TTCH, 20-21: ct m LEB/5/239: t LEB/5/290: t [Sept 1905] Rose in June EML/l/36/c: w copy. Sept 1905 The New Garden EML/l/28:w m 'farm labourer, age Field LEB/5/251: w m 80'. LEB/5/239; t LEB/5/249: t. 3 Oct 1905 Brangywell/ FLH, 203-04: w m wife of the vicar', Brang-y-well EML/1/11:wm 'learnt this from LEB/5/252: w1 m her mother, who LEB/5/253: w would if living be LEB/5/239: t now (1905) 85, & LEB/5/249: t she learnt it from her great aunt'. Oct 1905 The Pretty JFSS (1913), '[aged] 80 farm Ploughboy/The 303-10: wm FLH, labourer'. Ploughboy 208-09: w m EML/l/2:w m LEB/5/250: w m LEB/5/239: t LEB/5/249: t before 12 Oct The Man That EML/1/0/c: w m 'age about 75'. 1905 Lives LEB/5/239: t LEB/5/249: t 1905 The Three LEB/5/256: w1 'English County Dukes Songs pp 77' 1905 Sweet William LEB/5/256: w 'learnt this tune [last stanza] m 30 years ago from a man who was over 65 years old'. 1905 I'll Tell You LEB/5/256: t '[English] County of a Fellow Songs, p. 52'. 'Leicestershire' written after the title. 'Mrs. Hughes Rowlands sang this son in "Public Concerto" (in Glamorganshire) 28 years ago. Words M.S.S.--Tune learnt from an uncle of mine who was a very well known Welsh Musician'. 18 Oct 1905 The Farmer's LEB/5/256: w1 m '[English] County Boy Songs, p. 120'. 17 Nov 1905 The Seasons of FLH, 207-08: ct m FLH: words: the Year/Four EML/1/8/a:wl m Morgan/Beddoe; Seasons of the EML/l/8/c: w [2nd music Morgan [but Year and last stanza] dated Oct 1905]. m LEB/5/257: w1 EML/l/8/a: 'learnt m 50 years ago from a travelling thatcher from Weobley. Tom Gough'. Similar note appended to LEB/5/257 but crossed out and 'not this' written next to it. LEB/5/239: Broadwood has noted '[Model]'. Nov 1905 Spencer the EML/1/29: w m 'farm lab. Aged 80'. Rover LEB/5/239: t LEB/5/290: t 11 Dec 1905 Carol, Carol, EML/l/45/c/2: w Gaily n.d. Pollie Oliver EML/l/45/c/l1: w EML/l/45/a: m 1906 n.d. The Dark Eyed EML/l/0/e: w m Sailor n.d. The Marden EML/1/1: w m FLH, Harmonized by W. D. Forfeit Song 206-07: w m V. Duncombe. n.d. Come All Ye LEB/5/285:w m 'traditional', Faithful harmonized by W. D. Christians V. Duncombe. n.d. Spencer the EML/l/30/a: w1 m Rover EML/l/30/b: w m 1906 The Frog and FLH, 209-210: w 'tune was not worth Mouse RVW/ Scrapbook/ recording'. 1/47 : w n.d. The Frog and FLH, 209-10: w the Duck 1906 William and EML/l/15/b:w m 'roadman. Age about Harriet EML/l/15/a: ct m 50'. 'very common LEB/5/239: t here'. EML/l/15/a: LEB/5/290: t words Bebb / Priday; music Bebb. n.d. The Black LEB/5/282: w1 m '[aged] 50. Her Decree EML/3/18: w m father sang it - LEB/5/239: t Well known years LEB/5/290: t ago round here'. March 1906 Xmas Carol EML/3/22: w m [While Shepherds Watched their Flocks by Night] March 1906 Erin's Lovely EML/l/45/c/l: w Home EML/l/45/a: m May 1906 A Fair Damsel EML/1/27: w m in London Did LEB/5/240: t Dwell May 1906 Jolly Fellows EML/l/0/e:w m 'farm labourer'. that Follow EML/l/31/b: w m LEB/5/240 title: the Plough LEB/5/240: t The Jolly Ploughboys. July 1906 Rose in June EML/l/36/b: w1 m LEB/5/247: w1 m LEB/5/240: t July 1906 The Seeds of LEB/5/248: w1 m Love EML/l/37:w1 m LEB/5/240: t Aug 1906 A Fair Damsel LEB/5/254: w1 m subtitle: The Maid in London Did LEB/5/255: w and die Box. LEB Dwell LEB/5/240: t has noted 'c "Pride of Glencoe" in LEB's Irish M.S.S. 1906'. Aug 1906 The LEB/5/273:w1 m Learned 'from old Herefordshire LEB/5/240: t "Joe Coon", a Farmer LEB/5/290: t fiddler'. Aug 1906 Here's Joe LEB/5/273: w1 Learned 'from old Coon "Joe Coon", a fiddler. Aug 1906 The Life of LEB/5/281: w1 m Man LEB/5/240: t 9 Aug 06 Miss Betty EML/l/7:w1 m words not nice & Wilster/Miss LEB/5/278: w1 m not recorded'. Betsy Wilster LEB/5/240: t Sept 1906 William Taylor EML/l/42/b:wl m LEB/5/240 title: and Sarah LEB/5/273: wl m Billy Taylor (and Gray LEB/5/240: t Sarah Gray). 1906 As I Walked EML/l/32/a:wlm Out 1906 The Sinner's JFSS (1910), JFSS composite with Dream 18-20: w m RVW, 1909. EML/2/l/a: w LEB/5/290 title: LEB/5/290: t Carol. One Night in Slumber. 1906 Poor Mary of EML/l/33/b: w m LEB/5/290 tide: the Silvery LEB/5/271: wl m Poor Mary in the Tide / The LEB/5/239: t Tide. Silvery Tide LEB/5/290: t Aug 1906 A Young LEB/5/272: wl m subtitle: There Is Sailor LEB/5/240: t an Alehouse.  The Sally EML/2/2: w 'from an old Twigs FSBW/l/24:w workman. Who has FSBW/2/9: m lived all his life FSBW/2/10: m near Weobley. Age 77'. Text subtly different from later versions. Frank Sidgwick copy, dated 11 Jan 1907. 1906 The Mountains LEB/5/223: m '[aged] 77 in High EML/l/34/a: m Weobley Workhouse'. LEB/5/222: t 1906 (Poor Mary of) LEB/5/223: m the Silvery EML/l/33/a: m Tide LEB/5/222: t Sept 1906 Eggs in her LEB/5/223: m GB/6a/17 with Basket LEB/5/222: t Butterworth, title: GB/6a/17: m Basket of Eggs. Sept 1906 Billy Taylor LEB/5/223: m GB/6a/177 with EML/l/42/a: m Butterwonh, title: LEB/5/222: t William Taylor. GB/6a/177: m Sept 1906 Lord Bateman LEB/5/223: m GB/6a/119 with EML/l/39/a: m Butterworth. LEB/5/222: t GB/6a/119:m Sept 1906 In Chapel LEB/5/223: m '(Sheffield Park Park LEB/5/225: m properly)'. EML/l/9:wm LEB/5/222: t 1906 Erin's Lovely LEB/5/223: m Home LEB/5/222: t [Sept] 1906 William LEB/5/223: m Reilly EML/l/17/b: w m LEB/5/222: t Sept 1906 Banks of Sweet EML/l/32/b: m GB/6a/160 with Primroses LEB/5/223: m Butterworth. LEB/5/222: t GB/6a/l60: m Sept 1906 (There Is an LEB/5/223: m GBJ6a/42 with Alehouse) A LEB/5/224: w m Butterworth. Brisk Young EML/l/40/a: m Sailor Courted EML/l/40/b: m Me LEB/5/222: t GB/6a/42: m 1906 North Country LEB/5/223: m Damsel EML/l/10/a: t LEB/5/222: t 1 Dec 1906 In a Manger RVW/ Scrapbook/ 'Edison "Home" Laid So Lowly 1/46 [61 upper]: Phonograph record' wl 'I'. 1 Dec 1906 Riches Are But RVW/ Scrapbook/ 'Edison "Home" Vanity 1/46 : wl Phonograph record' '2'. 1 Dec 1906 Abroad as I RVW/ Scrapbook/ 'Edison "Home" Was Walking 1/46 : wl Phonograph record' '3'. 1 Dec 1906 Down by the RVW/ Scrapbook/ 'Edison "Home" Shining Water, 1/46 : w Phonograph record' There Runs a '4'. Clear Stream n.d. The Honest EML/l/35/a: w m 'Wheelwright. Weaver EML/l/35/b: w m Dilwyn. About 45'. LEB/5/239: t 5 Dec 1906 The Angel EML/3/19: wl m Postcard. Cabriel--A Carol 1907 Jan 1907 Dives and JFSS (1910), TTCH; words Lazarus 47-49: wm FLH, Sylvester/Harris 190-91: w m TTCH, /Evans; music Evans. 20-21: ct m n.d. Dives and JFSS (1910), sent by the Lazarus 47-49: w FLH, collector's 190-91: w brother, Mr H. C. Beddoe. March 1907 The Moon JF5S(1910), Shines Bright, 10-1l: wm FLH, and the Stars 193-94: w m Give their EML/2/10/k t Light  Cold Blows the FLH, 202-03: w m words Powell; music Wind; or. The Hirons  (from Unquiet Grave a phonograph). 1907 Milkmaid's FLH 205: w m '14 verses/but Song EML/l/13/a: w m not/nice'. EML/l/13/b: m EML/2/10/n title: EML/2/10/n: w The Milk Maid's Fair. Dec 1907 The Bitter RVW/ Scrapbook/ Both contain copies Withy 1/71-72, 72a of Holder's letter : w [copy] to Sidgwick EML/2/ll:w[copy] [received 24 December 1907]: 'Sir, Being 62 years of age, at the age of 10 years I learnt this Carol from my Mother. In the parish of Yarkhill, Herefordshire. W. Holder, Duke St. Withington, Nr. Hereford. The bitter withy. I can sing the carol in the old tune, but have never saw the music' 1908 n.d. The 14th of LIB/COLL/MPS February 50(31)/12/94: w n.d. Hobbs Bobbs EML/3/6/a: w EML/3/6/b: w [3rd stanza only] n.d. The Milkmaid EML/3/15: w Dr King notes: 'You EML/l/13/c: m will observe "pretty", instead of "heartrending" Noah explained it fitted this tune better--"& besides you alters your words to suit the company!".' n.d. [The Metry EML/l/38:wl [1 King] line] 1908 The Sally FLH, 181-86: wl m AMW 1908; RVW 1909. Twigs JFSS (1910), 29-35: m 1908 Three Jolly FLH, 131: m Black Sheep-Skins Jan 1908 The Bitter JFSS (1910), FSBW/1/25: referred Withy 29-35: w m FLH, to in letter of 23 180-86: w m Feb 1908. Collector EML/2/3/b: w vicar of Kings FSBW/2/lI:wIm Pyon. FSBW/1/25 8 Jan 1908 The Sally Twig FSBW/2/12:m / The Bitter EML/3/12:w m Withies n.d. Mayers' Song EML/3/ll: w m '(Hertfordshire) Sung on May 1st till a few years ago'. 19 Feb 1908 The Bitter JFSS(1910), 'Mason'. Withy 29-35: w m FLH, 180-86: w m EML/2/3/a: w FSBW/2/14:t Sept 1908 There Is an EML/2/4/c: t Alehouse Sept 1908 In Carlock EML/2/5/c: w 'Gipsy'. Town EML/2/4/d: t Seprl908 Christ Made a EML/2/4/e: t LEB/5/291 tide: God Trance LEB/5/291: w [2 and Trance on Sunday. stanzas] Sept 1908 Young Leonard EML/2/5/b: w EML/2/4/f: t Sept 1908 Mollie Vaughan EML/2/5/a: w 'Learnt from her / Molly EML/2/4/g: t mother'. Vaughan Sept 1908 As I Was EML/2/4/i: t 'Is this Mrs. a-Walkin' Bridge's Sailor Boy again?'. Sept 1908 Christ Made a JFSS (1910), RVW/Scrapbook Trance One 12-15: wm FLH, incorrectly titled: Sunday at 192: wm The Moon Shines Noon EML/2/14/a: w Bright. TTCH: title RVW/ Scrapbook/ New Year's Carol; 1/73 : w words Colcombe/ TTCH, 16-17: ct Sandys/Whattons; m music Whattons. n.d. [Christian EML/2/14/e: w People] Sept 1908 There Lived a FLH, 198-99: w m Lady in Merry RVW/ Scrapbook/ Scotland 1/74 [70a]: w EML/2/4/b: t Sept 1908 Cherry Tree EML/2/6: w RVW/ Cylinder X. 'learnt Carol Scrapbook/ 2/82, it from her 82a : w RVW/ grandmother'. Scrapbook/2/116, 119 : t Oct 1908 There Is a JFSS(1910), 'Labourer, aged 70'. Fountain of 21-22: wm FLH, Christ's 197-98: wm Blood Oct 1908 There Is a JFSS (1910), Incorrectly named Fountain of 21-22: w m FLH, Eliza. TTCH: title Christ's 197-98: w m TTCH, Joseph and Mary; Blood 10-11: ct m EFDSS words Sandys; music Wax Cylinder Smith. C37/1585: Collection, BLSA call no. C37/1585 1CDR0015627BD6NSA. Oct 1908 The Seven FLH, 187-88: wm TTCH. words Whatton Virgins; or, JFSS (1910), /Loveridge; music Under the 49-51: w m Whatton. RVW/ Leaves EML/2/14/c: w Scrapbook/1/73: EML/2/4/a: t words Whatton. / [Sept. 1908] Loveridge. TTCH, 26-27: ct m RVW/ Scrapbook/ 1/73 : ct Oct 1908 Rich RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder III. Merchant's 2/115 : t Daughter RVW/ Scrapbook/ 1/25 : w Oct 1908 Holy Well JFSS (1910), Cylinder V. 'age 26-28 FLH, 72'. 186-87: wm TTCH, 6-7: w m EML/3/13: w LEB/5/259: m RVW/ Scrapbook/ 2/115 : t before 3 Nov Billy Taylor RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder VII a. 1908 2/116, 119 : EML/2/4/h: dated t EML/2/4/h: t Sept 1908. before 3 Nov As I Walked RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder VII b. 'b. 1908 Out 2/116, 119 : is I fear almost t same as Mrs Bridges'. before 3 Nov Basket of RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder VIII. 1908 Eggs 2/116, 119 : t Before 3 Nov As I Walked RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder IX. 1908 Out 2/116,119 : t before 3 Nov Rosemary Lane RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XI a 1908 2/116, 119 : t EML/l/46/b:m EML/2/10/m: w before 3 Nov One Easter RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XI b. 1908 2/116, 119 : t before 3 Nov As I Walked RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XII a. 1908 Out 2/116, 119 : t before 3 Nov Tiresome Wife RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XII b. 1908 2/116,119 : t before 9 Nov Claudy Banks RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder I. 1908 2/115 : t LEB/5/259: m EML/l/48/b: m EML/2/10/e: t before 9 Nov Pretty RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder II. 1908 Caroline 2/115 : t C37/1586:BLSAcall no. RVW/ Scrapbook/ 1CDR0015627BD7NSA. 1/41 : w EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1586 before 9 Nov Thresherman RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder II. 1908 2/115 : t C37/1586:BLSAcall no. EFDSS Wax 1CDR0015627 BD7 NSA. Cylinder Collection, C37/1586 before 9 Nov Diverus and RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder IV. 1908 Lazarus 2/115 : t Cylinder VI. EML/2/10/j: t EML/2/10/j title: Dives. before 9 Nov True Lovers RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder IV. 1908 Downfall 2/115 : t EML/2/10/q:wl Nov 1908 The Mummers FLH, 141-46: w Sir Edmund Play Chambers, The English Folk-Play (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933), no. 49. 1909 Jan 1909 Bitter Withy JFSS (1910), Cylinder I. '[aged] 29-35: wm FLH, 62'. 'learnt it 181-86: wm RVW/ from his mother'. Scrapbook/ 2/124 : t FSBW/2/13: w [stanzas 1, 5] m before Feb 11 Bitter Withy JFSS (1910), Cylinder II [a]. 1909 29-35: w[l Cylinder III [b]. stanza] m FLH, 181-86: w [1 stanza] m LEB/5/269: w m RVW/ Scrapbook/ 2/124 : t LEB/5/269: w m RVW/ Scrapbook/ 2/124 : t before Feb 11 Jeweller's LEB/5/269 w1 m Cylinder II [b]. 1909 Wedding RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder IV [b 2/124 : t: before Feb 11 Joys of Mary RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder III [a] 1909 2/124 : t before Feb 11 Down in the RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder IV [a]. 1909 Fields of 2/124 : t Bilberry 1909 The Gypsy RVW/ Scrapbook/2 '[aged] 60'. Bride /152 : t Cylinder I. 1909 Apprentice in RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder II a. Rosemary Lane 2/152 : t 1909 The Outlandish RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder II b. Knight 2/152 : t '[aged] 70'. 1909 Hunting Song RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder III a. 2/152 : t 1909 Polly Oliver RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder III b. 2/152 : t EML/2/10/c:w EML/l/45/b:w 1909 Pretty Betsy RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder 2/152 : t IVa.'v.2[et]c. EML/l/44/a: t Cylinder Vb. 'v. EML/l/44/b: w 1.'. 1909 In Sheffield RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder IV b. Park 2/152 : t 1909 In a Hospital RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder V a. Garden 2/152 : t 1909 The Sailor RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder VI a. 'I Boy 2/152 : t am afraid same EML/l/47:wm tune'. 'age 80'. 1909 The Deserter RVW/ Scrapbook/ '[aged] 82'. 2/152 : t Cylinder VI b. Cylinder VTI b. 'last line of. '(See Journal No. 5 234)'. n.d. Claudy Banks EML/l/48/a:m Down by the Green Bushes 1909 RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder VII a. 2/152 : t 1909 As I Walked RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder VII c. Out 2/152 : t EML/2/10/p:w EML/l/46/a: m 1909 The Prickly RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder VIII a. Bush 2/152 : t '[aged] 58?'. 1909 Dilly Dove FLH, 204: w m Cylinder VIII b. RVW/ Scrapbook/ 'version of old 2/152 : t ballad in Child. EML/2/10/a:w "Sir Lionel"'. EML/l/12:wm March 1909 The Holy Well JFSS (1910), Cylinder VIII c. 26-28: m FLH, '(Carol, v. 1)'. 186-87: m Cylinder IX a. V. EML/2/10/b: w [3 2&3' verses] RVW/ Scrapbook/ 2/152 : t 1909 There Was a RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder DC b. 'v. Lord in 2/152 : t 2 & 3' Lancashire 1909 Leanthony [?] RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder X a. 2/152 : t 1909 Skipper and RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder X b. his Boy 2/152 : t 1909 Erin's Lovely RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder Xc. Home 2/152 : t 'tune'. Cylinder XII a. 'end of. '[aged] 56'. 1909 The Irish EML/l/3/a: m Cylinder XI a. Girl EML/2/10/fd: t RVW/ Scrapbook/ 2/152 : t 1909 It's of a EML/l/3/b: m Cylinder XI b. Pretty EML/2/10/d: t Ploughboy RVW/ Scrapbook/ 2/152 : t 1909 The Tailor and EML/2/10/o: w '[aged] 60'. the Crow KMI./l/4: wm RVW/ Cylinder XI c. Scrapbook/ 2/152 : t 1909 Bunch of RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XII b. Watercress 2/152 : t 1909 The Besom RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XII c. Maker 2/152 : t 1909 Napoleon RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XII d. v. 2/152 : t 1'. Cylinder XIII a. 'v. 2 etc.'. '[aged] 68'. 'SeeJournal!'. 'See JournalI'. 1909 Waterloo RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XIII b. 2/152 : t 1909 Undaunted RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XIII c. Female 2/152 : t verse of. 1909 Hunting Song RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XIV a. 2/153 : t '[aged] about 60'. 1909 The Almeley RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XTVb. Census 2/153 : t 1909 Little Grey RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XIV c. Horse 2/153 : t 1909 The Banks of RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XTV d. Boyne 2/153 : t '[aged] 65'. 'blacksmith'. 1909 Pride of RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XV b. Dundee 2/153 : t 1909 True Lovers' RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XV c. Downfall 2/153 : t 1909 Tom Sayers RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XV d. 2/153 : t 1909 Seasons of the EML/l/8/b: m RVW/ Cylinder XV c. Year Scrapbook/ 2/153 Cylinder XVI a. : t 'age 83 Solicitor. EML/2/10/h: t Hereford'. 1909 Binnorie RVW/ Scrapbook/ Cylinder XVI a. 2/153 : t 1909 The Trees They EML/l/49/a: m Do Grow High 1909 Cold Blows the EML/1/49/b: m FLH: words Powell; Wind FLH, 202-03: w m music Hirons (from Journal of the a phonograph). English Folk JEFDSS: in Ruth Dance and Song Harvey's article on Society, 4.2 "The Unquiet (1941), 49-66 (p. Grave'. 49): wl m 1909 There Is an EML/l/40/c:w m Alehouse EML/2/10/i: t 1909 The Mantle of EML/l/26/b.-wm 'since dead'. 'Same Green EML/2/10/g:t words as already sent with Mrs. Powell's tune'. n.d. The Bunch of EML/3/7: w Roses May 1909 Bold Robin I EML/2/7: w Hood June 1909 The Mantle of EML/l/26/a: m 'age 74'. Possibly Green Revd E. King. July 1909 Awake, Awake, JFSS (1910), 'Age 82'. Sweet England 7-10: w m FLH, 194-95: w m July 1909 God Rest You JFSS (1913), Merry 338-40: m July 1909 The Bold EML/2/9/a: w 'from Gough. (blind Cripple fiddler)'. July 1909 The Man That JFSS (1910), Lives 5-16: wl m FLH, 195-96: wl m LEB/5/267: wl m July 1909 The Truth Sent JFSS (1910), From Above 17-18: w m FLH, 196: w m RVW, Eight Traditional English Carols, 22-23: w m LEB/5/267: m July 1909 The Man that JFSS (1910), EML/2/8: 'Jenkins Lives 15-16: w m FLH, sang 1 & 4'. 195-96: w m EML/2/8: w EML/l/4l:t 27 July 1909 Highway JFSS (1906), subtitle: Robber 116-23: wl m Outlandish Knight. LEB/5/264: wl m 27 July 1909 Sinner's JFSS(1910), JFSS: composite Dream 18-20: w m with AMW. 1906. LEB/5/264: m EML/2/9/b: w 27 July 1909 Carnal and the JFSS(1910), 'Age 60'. TTCH. Crane 22-28: w m FLH, title The 188-89: wm TTCH, Miraculous Harvest; 22-23: ct m words Sandys, Husk, EML/2/10/l:w and Broadwood LEB/5/261: m collections. 1909 The Saviour's TTCH, 24-25: ct words Bridges, 1905 Love m /Phillips; music Hirons.  Angel Gabriel TTCH, 12-13:ctm words Gallet/ Hirons; music Hirons. n.d. The Angel EML/3/8: t Gabriel [July] 1909 Captain Evans RVW/Scrapbook/ 1/38 [59 lower], 1/57 [64 lower]: w [July] 1909 Early Early RVW/Scrapbook/ 1/57 [64 lower], 1/63 [65 upper]: w [July] 1909 Merry Green RVW/Scrapbook/ Broom fields 1/63 [65 upper], 1/64 [65 lower]: w [July] 1909 Cold Blows the RVW/Scrapbook/ Wind 1164 [65 lower]: w1 July 1909 Dabbling in JFSS (1913), the Dew 282-86: m 28 July 1909 The Myrtle LEB/5/260: m RVW/ subtitle: Weave: Tree Scrapbook/ 1/358 Came over the Sea. : w [2 stanzas] 28 July 1909 The JFSS (1913), '(doubtful)'. Blacksmith 279-82: m LEB/5/260: m 28 July 1909 Blacksmith LEB/5/265: m RVW/ [Version II'] Scrapbook/ 1/38 : w1 28 July 1909 Stockings and LEB/5/265: m Gown 1909 The JFSS (1930), Blacksmith 206-09: m 28 July 1909 A Brisk Young FLH, 205-06: w m Sailor Courted LEB/5/26l:m Me 29 July 1909 Green Bushes LEB/5/262: m 29 July 1909 Billy Taylor LEB/5/262: m 29 July 1909 Gloucester LEB/5/266: m Wassail Song 31 July 1909 Apprentice LEB/5/268: t Boy [July 1909] The Turtle JFSS (1913), Dove 286-90: m 31 July 1909 "The Moon JFSS(1910), 'Labourer'. Shines Bright 10-11: m FLH, 193-94: m LEB/5/263: m 31 July 1909 Fountain of JFSS (1910), Christ's 21-22: wl m Blood FLH,l97-98: wl m LEB/5/263: m 31 July 1909 The JFSS(1913), 'Gipsy'. Blacksmith 279-82: m LEB/5/267: m CFMGH.6I: t 31 July 1909 Sheffield LEB/5/268: m Apprentice CFMGH, 61: t 31 July 1909 Christ Made a LEB/5/268: m CFMGH title: New Trance CFMGH, 61-62: w Year Carol n.d. The Seven CFMGH, p.61: t Virgins Aug 1909 'The Young and JFSS (1910), Single Sailor 127-29: m Sept 1909 The Bitter EML/3/3: w 'Labourer. 80'. Withy n.d. The Angel EML/3/9/a: w Gabriel n.d. Our Saviour's EML/3/9/b: w Love n.d. Bacon and LEB/5/288: m Marked 'con Green spirito'. n.d. St Patrick's LEB/5/288: m Day in the Morning n.d. [The Dark Eyed LEB/5/289: m Sailor]  There Is an EFDSS Wax C37/1590: BLSA call Ale house Cylinder no. 1CDR0015627 B12 Collection, NSA. C37/1590  Hornpipes EFDSS Wax C37/1590: BLSA call Cylinder no. 1CDR0015627 B12 Collection, NSA. C37/1590 27 Dec 1909 Trip to the EML/1/Ap/1: m CJS Cottage MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2422: m 27 Dec 1909 Morris Dance FLH, 131: m EML/l/Ap/2: m CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2426: m -- Trip to the EML/l/Ap/3: m Cottage 29 Dec 1909 Flowers of EML/l/Ap/4: m Edinburgh 29 Dec 1909 Jack off the EML/l/Ap/5: wl m '[aged] 62'. Green CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2423: m 27 Dec 1909 Speed the EML/l/Ap/6: m CJS Plough MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2417: m 27 Dec 1909 Staffordshire EML/1/Ap/7: m Hornpipe CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2418: m -- Speed the EML/1/Ap/8: m Plough 27 Dec 1909 Blue Eyed EML/1/Ap/9: m Stranger CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2419: m 27 Dec 1909 Boyne Water EML/1/Ap/10: m CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2420: m 27 Dec 1909 Mad Moll of EML/1/Ap/11: m 'Gipsy fiddler (38)'. the Cheshire CJS MSS, Folk Hunts Tunes, p. 2413: m 27 Dec 1909 Hunting the EML/1/Ap/12: m Squirrel CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2414: m 27 Dec 1909 Green Sleeves EML/1/Ap/EML/1/13: FLH, 137: t CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2415 27 Dec 1909 Sheepskins EML/1/Ap/14:m CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2416: m 27 Dec 1909 Hunting the EML/1/Ap/15: m Squirrel CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2424: m -- Flowers of EML/1/Ap/16: m Edinburgh 1910 Aug 1910 A Wager, A JFSS(1910), Wager 110-16: w m Aug 1910 'a new Xmas LEB/5/284: w Reputedly composed Carol' ['Twas c.1885 by an Mary in the under-gardener at morning to the Stoke Edith Park. sepulchre she came] 1911  Americkay EML/1/6/a: w EML/l/6/a: written EML/3/2/a: w in pencil on EFDSS Wax reverse of Cylinder programme for the Collection, Weobley Pierrots, C37/1587 dated 11 April 1911. C37/1587: BLSA call no. 1CDR0015627 BD8 NSA.  Joseph and EML/1/6/b: w EML/1/6/b: written Mary EML/3/2/b: w in pencil on reverse of programme for the Weobley Pierrots, dated 11 April 1911.  Bitter Withy EML/l/6/c. w EML/l/6/c: written EML/3/2/c EFDSS in pencil on Wax Cylinder reverse of Collection, programme for the C37/1587 Weobley Pierrots, dated 11 April 1911. C37/1587: BLSA call no. 1CDR0015627 BD8 NSA. n.d. The Angel EML/3/20: m Two arrangements. Gabriel 25 Nov 1911 The Angel EML/3/21/a: m Langton Brown Gabriel writes: 'I give the tune from frequent hearing: not from having ever seen a written copy. The time is always enigmatic so is the tune (& time) of the third line, in which A is not A#. Carol & tune broke out in Hereford perhaps 12 or 13 years ago: I never heard it in the country.'  [Awake, Awake, EML/3/21/b Noted by Langton Sweet Brown's father in England] 1844. 1912 n.d. The Holy Well TTCH, 4-5: w m -- King Pharim RVW/Scrapbook/ Possibly not 2/100 : w Herefordshire. 26 Jan 1912 Boyne Water CJS MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2419: m Sept 1912 Cold Blows the EML/2/12/a: w Wind LEB/5/292: w1 Sept 1912 I'll Have my EML/2/12/b:w Petticoat Sept 1912 My Mother Sent EML/2/12/c: w Me Sept 1912 Sheffield EML/2/12/d:w Park Sept 1912 Molly Bawn EML/2/12/e: w 13 Sept 1912 Shrewsbury EML/2/12/f: w Gaol Sept 1912 Riding Down to EML/2/12/g: w Pochemar Sept 1912 On Christmas EML/2/12/h: w TTCH heavily Day EML/3/10/a: w amended. CFMGH, 60: w TTCH, 18-19: wm [Sept 1912?] The Barley EML/3/1: w "There is more: not Raking very nice'. n.d. [The Bitter EML/3/10/b: w Withy] [Sept 1912] Christian EML/2/12/i: w TTCH: words: People/Oh TTCH, 8-9: ct m Smith/Johnson/ Christmas Now Colcombe; music: Is Drawing Smith/Johnson. Near at Hand [?] [Xmas Day Is RVW/ Scrapbook/ a-Drawing Nigh 1/6 : w at Hand] Sept 1912 God Rest You EML/2/13/a: w Merry, EML/2/14/f:wl Gentlemen TTCH, 14-15: w m n.d. God Our LEB/5/287: m Father n.d. Gypsy Song EML/2/14/b:wl EML/2/13/d: w n.d. The Outlandish EML/3/4: w Knight n.d. Ballad [The EML/2/13/c: w Cruel Mother] EML/2/14/d: w1 11 Sept 1912 The Claudy EML/2/13/b: w 'Gypsy'. Banks Sept  Cold Blows the EML/2/13/e:w [and 'Gypsy'. JFSS Wind possibly] (1928): printed EML/3/5: wl JFSS with EML's obituary. (1928), 102: m 1913 Aug 1913 The Bitter EML/l/23: w Withy Sept 1913 On Christmas Folk-lore (1926), Day 297: w [and possibly] EML/3/14: w Sept 1913 Christmas Now JFSS (1914), Of Tipton, Is Drawing 7-11: m Staffordshire Near at Hand 'Hop-picking'. Location given as 'Pool-End, near Herefordshire'. Sept 1913 Christmas Now JFSS (1914), 'name unknown'. Is Drawing 7-11: m Location given as Near at Hand 'Pool-End, near Herefordshire'. Sept 1913 The Cherry JFSS(1914), Of Stourport, Tree Carol 11-14: wm Worcestershire, 'Hop-picking'. Location given as 'Aylton, near Herefordshire'. Sept 1913 New Year's JFSS(1914), Of Stourport, Carol 14-16: m Worcestershire, 'Hop-picking', location given as Aylton, near Herefordshire'. 1922 8 Sept 1922 Cold Blows the EML/1/0/b/3: w 8 Sept 1922 The Blacksmith MPS 50(31)/12/ 96-97: w MPS50(31)/12/ 98-100, 106: w 8 Sept 1922 The Irish MPS 50(31)/12/ Stranger 101-102 MPS 50(31)/12/ 103-107: w 8 Sept 1922 The Low Low- MPS 50(31)/12/ lands of 108-109: w Holland MPS 50(31)/12/ 110: w
Appendix: Surviving phonograph recordings from Herefordshire
Appendix: Surviving phonograph recordings from Herefordshire Collection Cylinder Cylinder Performer Titles number description speed C37/1585 Brown wax. Plain 140 rpm Smith, 1. There Is a [originally card box, with Esther Fountain of C37/51] other blue top and Christ's numbers: 22; [in bottom. Blood cylinder] 7 C37/1586 Brown wax. Plain 140 rpm Powell, 1. Pretty [originally card box, with Mrs Ellen Caroline 2. C37/52] other blue top and [Thresherman] numbers: 64; [in bottom. cylinder] 6 C37/1587 Brown wax. Blue 140 rpm --[male] 1. [Americkay] [originally Edison Bell 2. The Bitter C37/1587] other 'Cold Moulded' Withy numbers: 23; box. cylinder 25 C37/1590 Black wax. 160 rpm --[male] 1. There Is an [originally] Lock, Ale House 2. C37/56 orther John Hornpipes number: 8; [in cylinder] 27 Collection number Inscriptions on Date Place cylinder box C37/1585 [originally lid: Fountain / of Oct 1908 Weobley C37/51] other numbers: Christ's blood / 22; [in cylinder] 7 Smith / Hancocks / 22 box label: poor / Fountain of Christ's blood / Herefordshire box label vertical: Badly mildewed. C37/1586 [originally lid: Powell, e. / before 9 Weschope C37/52] other numbers: 64 box label: Nov 1908 64; [in cylinder] 6 Woman / Pretty Caroline 64 / & one other / Herefordshire / 2 C37/1587 [originally lid: 23 box label: 1911 Herefordshire C37/1587] other Good [space] 23 / numbers: 23; cylinder Bitter Withy / and 25 another / box label vertical: mildewed base: H--ny [?] / John Riley/The Bitter/ Withy base batch stamp: N C37/1590 [originally] lid: [black] box 1909 Herefordshire C37/56 orther number: lable; good for / 8; [in cylinder] 27 30 secs [space] 8 [c] / There Is an Ale house / Dance Tunes / played by Locke box label vertical: Cracked base: There is / an ale house / Gipsy / Locke / [begin strikethrough] Sh--pskins / [end strikethrough] Hornpipes Collection number Collector Dubbing / References / Notes C37/1585 [originally EML C37/1585:BLSA call no. C37/51] other numbers: ICDR0015627 BD6 NSA. JFSS (1910), 22; [in cylinder] 7 21-22: wm FLH, 197-98: wm TTCH, 10-11: ct m [titled: Joseph and Mary] Hancocks version not on cylinder C37/1586 [originally EML C37/1586:BLSA call no. C37/52] other numbers: 1CDR0015627 BD7 NSA RVW/ 64; [in cylinder] 6 Scrapbook/ 2/115 : t 'Cylinder II RVW/ Scrapbook/ 1/41 : w C37/1587 [originally EML C37/1587, BLSA call no: C37/1587] other numbers: 1CDR0015627 BD8 NSA EML/l/6/a: w 23; cylinder 25 EML/3/2/a: w C37/1590 [originally] CJS C37 / 1590: BLSA call no. C37/56 other number: 8; 1CDR0015627 B12 NSA [in cylinder] 27
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|Publication:||Folk Music Journal|
|Article Type:||Critical essay|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2010|
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