Printer Friendly

Resources in the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library: the Ella Mary Leather manuscript collection.

The character of the folklorist Ella Mary Leather (1874-1928) has remained something of an enigma, a curious fact, considering the importance of her seminal study The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire (1912), her work with Cecil Sharp and Ralph Vaughan Williams, and the role she played in the use of the phonograph for documenting traditional song. The purpose of this article is to look at the possible reasons why this situation came about, and, by providing a provisional list of the songs that she collected, to go some way towards redressing the balance.

**********

Upon its publication in 1912, Ella Mary Leather's The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire was immediately recognized as a model of scientific scholarship. The former president of the Folk-Lore Society, Charlotte S. Burne, described it as 'the most complete account of the folklore of any English county that has yet appeared', noting with approval that in the thirty years since the publication of her own Shropshire Folklore (1883-86), 'the advance of folklore study has turned what were then thought interesting parallels and explanations into mere truisms and padding. Mrs Leather has therefore been well advised to omit all but the very slightest tincture of commentary from her collections. '(1) Burne added that Leather had 'been peculiarly successful in recovering traditional songs and music, aided by Dr. Vaughan Williams, who reduced her phonographic records to writing [...] her survey of the field has throughout been singularly thorough.' Reading this glowing review, it is sobering to dwell upon the fact that much of the work and most of the papers of both reviewer and subject were to suffer similar fates. It seems probable that Charlotte Burne's work was destroyed by an uncharitable sibling. (2) Ella Leather's papers were dispersed owing to a combination of factors: her unexpected death from a heart attack in 1928 at the age of fifty-four; followed by her husband's death seventeen months later; and then the total break-up of their estate upon the death of their surviving son, Godfrey, in 1943. (3)

Consequently, as with Burne, until recently it was necessary to reconstruct Leather's work from her publications, a meagre selection of correspondence, and a handful of posthumous biographical sketches. This task is more problematic than in the case of the older folklorist, not least because, unlike Burne, Leather did not keep a diary, and her narrower interests--essentially the folkways of a single county--meant not just that she left a substantially smaller body of work but that she inhabited a much narrower social circle, leaving us with fewer reminiscences from contemporaries. In describing Leather as inhabiting a restricted social circle, I do not mean specifically in terms of class, but simply that she was a collector who was conditioned by the concentration of her work on one area, and that she rarely travelled beyond her native county. She was what Richard Dorson termed a 'County Collector'; (4) later described by Simpson and Roud as one who conducted fieldwork. 'in their native area which they knew well, and whose collections have added greatly to our store of folklore knowledge, but who did not otherwise play a large part in the greater world of folklore studies'. (5)

Be that as it may, with regard to social distinctions, most of the anecdotal evidence suggests a personage who, though a pillar of the local community, (6) was not totally conditioned by the more stifling class conventions then prevalent. Examples include the occasion in 1908 when she joined in with the hop-picking at the Homme Farm in order better to make the acquaintance of Gypsy singers, many of whom she subsequently went on to describe as her 'friends';(7) the visits from John Lock (sometimes noted, especially in Sharp's manuscripts, as Locke), the fiddler whom she introduced to Sharp in 1909, and who would announce himself 'by playing away under our windows until we came to listen'; (8) and her numerous sessions at Weobley workhouse, taking down songs from William (listed initially as Thomas) Colcombe. These activities, plus her directing during the war years of the Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) at Sarnesfield Court hospital, where she was affectionately known as the 'Commandant',(9) argue a personage who did not stand on ceremony.

If, as anecdotal evidence also suggests, she became less easy to work with in her last decade, the same sources also indicate that this change in her character was very much caused by the loss of her eldest son, John Francis, who signed up on the first day of the First World War and served in both Gallipoli and France, only to succumb to the influenza pandemic three weeks before the Armistice. (10) Nevertheless, the abiding memories of her in Weobley are invariably positive: 'She was a lovely person, she loved children, she was a friend to everybody. She didn't think herself any better than anybody else. She liked to think she was on an equal with everybody'; (11) 'If anyone poor in the village was ill, she would send them some soup, or fish or something like that [...] She was always thinking of others--not of herself [...] People would come to her with troubles and she would sit and listen to them. But she was always quiet and would never brag about it.' (12) If one adds to these humanitarian qualities her understanding of her county, its people, and their ways, one can see why she was such an able folklorist. As she herself explains in the Preface to The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire: 'It is useless for the collector of folk-lore to ask bald leading questions; like travellers of another sort, it is well to carry samples, for your old countryman loves to hear a story: having heard, he longs to tell you one as good, or better. Of course it may not be of the kind that is wanted, but it is well to listen patiently.' (13)

Thankfully, recent discoveries within the manuscript archives of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library (VWML) now give us a much better idea of Ella Leather's legacy. Her recently reacquired Notebook covers not only her earliest collecting work, when she relied upon a network of friends and associates to transcribe tunes for her, but also the beginnings of her use of one of the Folk-Song Society's Edison phonograph recorders, and her subsequent work with Ralph Vaughan Williams. As well as its importance as a central repository of Leather's work at this crucial juncture, the Notebook is also important in providing us with a ready-made guide to her handwriting and that of her collaborators. In consequence, it is now possible to go through other collections in the VWML and publications of the Folk-Song Society identifying songs from Leather's collection that have previously been attributed to other collectors, or that have simply languished as being of unknown provenance. It is hoped that in compiling this list of her collection, and indicating where the songs can be found, a better appreciation of this engaging figure from the Edwardian revival will be possible.

Beginnings

Ella Mary Leather was born Ella Mary Smith, in Bidney, in the parish of Dilwyn, Herefordshire, in 1874. Upon her marriage to the solicitor Francis Leather in 1893, she moved to the small market town of Weobley, and it was there that she was to live for the rest of her life. (14)

The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography notes that in 1905 her friend the Revd Compton Reade persuaded her to contribute a chapter on 'The Folk-Lore of the Shire' to his Memorials of Old Herefordshire and that this, plus the inclusion of some folktales in the first issue of the Herefordshire Magazine, in 1907, stimulated her interest in the subject. But it is evident that this places the beginnings of her interest too late, not least because Memorials was published in 1904. The Preface to The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire states that 'The greater part of the present collection of Herefordshire folk-lore has been gathered since 1905', (15) that being the year in which she joined not only the Folk-Lore Society, (16) but also, on 6 April, the Folk-Song Society. (17) However, she had already sent Lucy Broadwood a first batch of Herefordshire songs in January 1905; (18) and the Folk-Song Society's minutes from two weeks before she joined indicate that she had already offered 'a large number of songs, words & music, collected by herself in Herefordshire, & that she would allow the Society to use them for a forthcoming Journal'. (19) Furthermore, the earliest entries in her Notebook go back to the previous year and represent the fruits of a network of enquiries and contacts that she must have built up over some time. Consequently, we must assume that she had already been looking into the question of folk song in Herefordshire for some time before her article in the Memorials.

Interestingly, although Leather joined both the Folk-Lore and Folk-Song Societies in 1905, she did not join the Gypsy Lore Society when it was newly reformed in 1907 (having been in abeyance since 1893). This is surprising, considering the number of Gypsy singers represented in her collection and the involvement in the Gypsy Lore Society of other Folk-Song Society members, such as Lucy Broadwood. (20) There could be a number of reasons. First and most prosaically, it could be that she simply was not aware of the Gypsy Lore Society. Another reason might be that in the personage of John Sampson (1862-1931), Librarian of the University of Liverpool, the Society already had an established and (as a noted philologist) textually more rigorous collector, whose work covered similar territory to hers. (21) Finally, it could have been due to a divergence of ideology. Leather's one publication for the Society was her 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in Herefordshire', which, although published in 1925, deals with her fieldwork of 1908-12. (22) It is a delightful, anecdotal paper, discussing pre-Reformation carols, John Lock's meeting with Sharp at Leominster, and Harriet Jones's muttered incantations, which Leather noted only to be told by the then Honorary Secretary of the Society, T. W. Thompson, that 'they were too horrible to translate'. (23) However, it ends abruptly with the following conclusion: 'the Gypsies sing English folk-songs and carols, and play traditional dance tunes, in no way distinguishable from those collected from English folk, or house-dwellers as the Gypsy would say. They borrow their music, as they do their religion, from the country of their adoption.' (24) Leather was certainly not alone in this evaluation of Gypsy culture. Eight years later, Frank Howes was to write, 'it now seems to be established that the Gypsies are not a creative people and have no folk-music of their own composition'. (25) One can imagine such assertions being accepted, possibly with caveats, in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society or Folk-Lore, but they seem highly unlikely to have found favour with members of the Gypsy Lore Society, whether academic philologists such as Sampson or idealizing romantics like the artist Augustus John, with his sky-blue and canary-yellow caravans. (26)

The manuscript Notebook

Until recently, our main sources for Ella Leather's collecting work were published ones: her 1910 article 'Carols from Herefordshire, Collected by Ella M. Leather', the culmination of her initial publication enquiries from 1905; The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire (1912); her collaboration with Ralph Vaughan Williams, Twelve Traditional Carols from Herefordshire (1920); and the 1925 article 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in Herefordshire'. In addition, there are Lavender Jones's short biography, 'A Nest of Singing Birds' (1978), which contains as an appendix seven pages of photocopies of her manuscripts, prepared by Dave Jones, containing a total of eighteen songs. Twelve years before this last publication, however, the VWML acquired, for the sum of [pounds sterling]5, (27) a 'Large Notebook of Songs and Dance Tunes' (EML/1/, henceforth 'the Notebook'). (28) Unfortunately, this manuscript went missing, probably at some point in the 1970s, and was only returned to the library a couple of years ago when Tony Foxworthy discovered it in a bookshop in Greenwich. (29)

The Notebook bears upon its front flyleaf the inscription 'E. M. Leather / 1907'-It is immediately apparent, however, that the manuscript covers a much wider period and is not chronological (although it contains a larger selection of songs contributed by other collectors in its first half), with entries running from 1904 to 1913. Sixteen loose sheets are tucked between the cover and front flyleaf, and there are a further eight pages of sheet music comprising an appendix at the end of the Notebook. The loose sheets, as well as containing four early songs, (30) also contain six sheets that mark her return to collecting in 1922, including a version of 'Cold Blows the Wind' with a covering letter to Ralph Vaughan Williams. (31) The pages of music in the appendix consist of Cecil Sharp's transcriptions of the dance tunes he collected from the fiddlers John Lock and William Preece in December 1909 at the meetings that Leather arranged on his behalf. (32)

The main manuscript is not really a Notebook, as its accession card describes it, but rather a scrapbook, in which Leather has pasted the words and tunes of songs collected either by herself, or by others on her behalf. The manuscript represents a scrapbook of the songs she had collected up until 1907, after which she added material as it was collected, including further variants of songs she had already collected. Where there was no more space on the relevant page, she would employ pins or brass fasteners. The Notebook gives a very good idea of the network of associates she had built up in Herefordshire who would send her songs, and it provides an invaluable, albeit selective, cross-section of her collection. Of the dozen or so contributors to the notebook, (33) the two with the most entries are her children's governess, Miss Annie M. Webb (later Mrs Brockman), (34) and the young Francis Jekyll, a protege of Lucy Broad wood's. (35) Fifteen songs collected by Webb appear in the Notebook (plus three duplicates), and ten from Jekyll (again with three duplicates). (36) A few of the songs are undated, but Webb seems to have been collecting in Herefordshire from 1904 to 1906, and Jekyll in 1906. (37) Although no correspondence has survived, it is probable that Jekyll was encouraged in his work by Leather, or possibly Webb. All of Jekyll's Herefordshire songs were collected from the same singer, William Colcombe, (38) at the Weobley workhouse; (39) and in all but one of the instances in which Jekyll collected from Colcombe a song that Webb had already collected, Jekyll was at least a year behind the other collector. For example, Webb collected 'North Country Damsel' in 1904, and Jekyll in 1906; Webb collected 'The Mountains High' in 1905, and Jekyll in 1906. (40) The importance of this work to Jekyll's brief career is that it pre-dates not only his joining the Folk-Song Society in 1907, but also marks the beginning of his collecting work with George Butterworth, in that half of the songs collected from Colcombe were noted in collaboration with the composer. (41)

Briefly, the other pre-phonograph contributors to the Notebook are as follows:

* R. Hughes Rowlands, the local schoolmaster, whom Leather described as 'a little Welshman who has noted some tunes for me, very well'. (42) Seven songs (two duplicated), though it should be noted that this only makes up half of his overall contribution to Leather's collection, the other seven songs being dispersed around the other manuscripts.

* Mr F. Gwilliam. Six songs (two duplicated). The name is written as 'Gwilliam' in the first two Notebook entries, the only times when the collector's name is not in Leather's hand. Confusingly, it appears as 'Gwillim' for the remaining entries and in the Broadwood collection, in one case (LEB/5/244) being rewritten after Leather had initially written his name illegibly. 'Gwillim', furthermore, is the spelling used for his one appearance in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society. But against this evidence must be weighed that of the 1901 census, where Frank Gwilliam, a lodger at 56, the High Street, Weobley, is listed as a 29-year-old 'Surveyor of Highways Worker' from Clodock, Cwm Dulas. As he was the only 'F. Gwilliam' or 'F. Gwillim' in the village at that time, I have followed this spelling.

* Mr J. Griffiths, the local miller's son. (43) Three songs (two duplicated) plus a fourth song in the Lucy Broadwood collection.

* Dr King. Two songs (one a single-line fragment).

* The Revd Edwin King. One song (plus a further, duplicated, song in the other manuscripts).

* Eleanor Andrews and Dr Qui n ten Darling, 'friends' of Leather's from Eardisley. (44) One song.

* Miss Nellie Smith. One song.

* A harmonized setting by W. D. V. Duncombe, sent to Leather by the Revd Custos Duncombe (with a further song in the other manuscripts).

* Mr Walter Pilley, a local worthy who left a considerable collection to Hereford City Library. (45) One song (though this might have been copied from his broadside collection).

* Miss Nona Swire, a ward of Colonel Leather's, who contributed one duplicated song in the Notebook, 'The King and the Keeper', from Mrs Brace, Weobley. (46)

Writing to Lucy Broadwood in May 1905 about possible publications in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society, Leather admitted: 'I am rather greedy. I should like to keep the "K. & Keeper" tune! i.e. if it is good. It seems to me pretty. But you shall have it if worthy of a place in the journal, as I want to encourage my little niece. She is still at school, & I hope she may join the society when she leaves next year.' (47) That she must have been at least partially successful in encouraging Nona's interest in folk song is apparent from Nona's reminiscences: 'Ella used to take me round in the dog-cart, to visit old folk where she had heard folk songs could be sung. My part was to note them down with the aid of a tuning-fork and my own ear! Later a phonograph was produced and we sallied forth with that. Pembridge was about the greatest distance we covered.' (48)

Finally, there is one song in the Notebook copied from H. E. D. Hammond's collection, 'Rose in June', unattributed but textually identical to George Dowden's version. A slip in Lucy Broadwood's handwriting has been pasted to it, stating boldly, 'Copied from M. S. sent by H. E. D. Hammond E[squire]. Clevedon, Somerset. To whom you apply if you wish to use them in public or in print', (49) thus showing the store that the early collectors set on ownership and accountability. The remainder of the pieces in the Notebook--twelve songs in all (plus one duplicate)--consists of phonograph work. Using the phonograph, and thus freed from having to arrange for music transcriptions by local amanuenses, Leather could concentrate on noting the texts, knowing that the transcription would be left to the capable hands of Ralph Vaughan Williams. I will consider these entries in the next section.

For those acquainted only with Leather's collection from published sources, a number of things become apparent from a consideration of the Notebook: (i) the extended network of friends and assistants that she established; (ii) the wide range of songs that she collected, much greater than just those that saw publication; and (iii) the number of songs from her collection that were published but that were not credited to her.

With regard to the first of these points, certainly it can be put down in part to her position and influence in the village of Weobley, but it must also have been a consequence of her growing reputation as an authority on the subject of local folkways, either via word of mouth or through her occasional publications. Her reputation was such that by late 1907 we find informants passing her name on to other collectors. Pattie Leaper wrote to Frank Sidgwick in December of that year:
There is a lady, Mrs. Leather, whose address is,
  Weobley
  Herefordshire,
  Who has written a great deal about folk lore, & last Xmas she had
  written something about this carol which we call "The Bitter withy'
  in The Hereford Times. I think she could give you much information.
  (50)


As well as being a noted editor of old ballads, (51) and from 1909 until his death in 1939 managing director of the publishing firm Sidgwick & Jackson, (52) Frank Sidgwick is also credited with 'discovering' "The Bitter Withy'. (53) He would therefore have been eager to pool resources with another collector of early ballads and carols who had independently noted other variants of it. Sidgwick's first letter to Leather does not survive, but evidently he acted upon his informant's information, since a correspondence had begun by, at the latest, the following February. This is apparent from items preserved in the two volumes of Frank Sidgwick's 'Bitter Withy' folder, which was presented to the VWML in 1976 and 1987 and comprises a selection of letters, cuttings, and notes that Sidgwick made over many years on the subject of this curious ballad. Again, Leather's first letter to Sidgwick has not survived, but a subsequent letter is extant, which not only reiterates Nona Swire's point about the logistical problems of distance when collecting, but alludes to other pertinent issues such as the place of folk song collecting among Leather's other domestic responsibilities. (54) The whole is leavened with gentle humour and is worth quoting in full:

Castle House.

Weobley.

Feb: 23: 1908.

Dear Sir,

I send you another tune for the Bitter Withy.

Mr. Brimfield is much disappointed that he has not had a letter from you! An acknowledgment in the paper is not enough for him. I am writing to thank him for the tune. Miss Andrews tells me he knows of other folk singers, but alas! he is ten long miles away from me, & I am a mother to a small Person of six years, & Haus frau, & other things before folk-song collector.

It is very nice of you to flatter me so much in the Hereford Times. Have we any mutual friends? I cannot remember revealing any antiquarian leanings in my correspondence.

The tune of the 'Juniper Tree' which is promised me from the Monmouthshire border, has not arrived yet, nor have I been able to go to Pembridge to look for the singer of 'Bells in Paradise', the weather is so rough when I have time,

Yours Truly

E M Leather

Accompanying the letter is an insert with the tune to Mr Brimfield's version of "The Bitter Withy', as noted by Edith Andrews. Unfortunately, no more of their correspondence survives, but it must have continued throughout 1908, since Sidgwick's folder contains other versions of "The Bitter Withy' from Leather's collection, as well as three of Leather's photographs: one, a landscape photo of willows, on which Leather has written, quoting the ballad, 'It shall be, the very first tree / To perish at the heart' (Figure 1); and two photos of singers, one of Mrs Wheeler and one of William Colcombe (Figure 2). (55)

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

The two issues of what the Notebook can tell us about the wide range of songs she collected, and the number of songs from her collection that were published but that were not credited to her, can be considered together. Those acquainted only with the published material could be forgiven for imagining the vernacular song culture of Herefordshire to have been predominantly pre-Reformation, sacred, and of specifically Gypsy provenance. But while it is to be expected that any collector would wish to concentrate on the most ancient, unique, or unusual of their finds, the Notebook does give a much more rounded overview of the song repertoire in Herefordshire at that time. For every 'The Moon Shines Bright', there is a 'Pretty Ploughboy' or 'Basket of Eggs'; for every carol, a broadside. Nevertheless, there are unusual variants of common ballads, and even the occasional secular song of great rarity. To mention but a few, 'The Mountains High', collected from William Colcombe, (56) is a version of the rare 'Captain Barniwell' (Roud 955), otherwise noted only by Alfred Williams in Berkshire (twice), (57) H. E. D. Hammond in Dorset, Sharp in Somerset, Christie in Banffshire, and Greig in Aberdeenshire, along with a couple of American versions. Two unique hunting songs are 'The Fox-Hunting Chase' ('Come all you bold sportsmen') (Roud 22252), (58) and "The Fox-Hunt' ('All you that love hunting attend to my song') (Roud 22251), (59) both of which were printed in The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire (the latter under the title 'The Herefordshire Fox-Chase') but without the tunes included in the Notebook. Another curiosity is 'The Honest Weaver' (Roud 22255), which Annie Webb took down from the singing of a Mr C. Burton. (60) The song is an extended, albeit incomplete, text of seemingly great age--but it is actually a near-verbatim recitation of a verse narrative entitled "The Three Gifts: A Tale of North Germany' by the American poet John Godfrey Saxe (1816-87), from his Clever Stories of Many Nations Rendered in Rhyme (1865). (61) It would be interesting to know by what paths this art setting came to be in the mouth of a middle-aged wheelwright of Dilwyn.

As well as the unusual songs that were not published, the Notebook also reveals the number of songs from Leather's collection that were published but that are not generally known as being from her collection. 'Carols from Herefordshire' is rightly considered her main contribution to the Journal of the Folk-Song Society, and in light of the contents of the Notebook it is apparent how quickly the Society took up her suggestion that it publish from her 'large number of songs, words & music'. (62) However, in following the journal's house rules of noting only the name of the music transcriber, she was rarely credited as the collector. J. Griffiths, F. Gwilliam, and Annie Webb are all noted as collectors of some songs, but not Ella Leather. (63) Occasionally a credit is given in the succeeding notes, such as 'noted and communicated by Mrs. Leather'. (64) Sometimes, too, a piece of further information testifies to Leather's role as collector, such as the additional note accompanying aversion of 'Oh, Have You Heard and Seen Our Saviour's Love' from Mrs Caroline Bridges: 'Mrs. Leather, who communicates this tune, describes the fine effect produced by Mrs. Bridges' beautiful deep voice.' (65) In consequence, a careful reading of the entries from Herefordshire in the pages of the Journal of the Folk-Song Society for 1905 alongside the Notebook and other loose papers (EML/2/) reveals that eleven songs from her collection were published, (66) rather than just the four that mention her in the song notes. (67)

While it is evident that there was no intention on the part of the editorial board to marginalize Leather's contributions, (68) the house rules did mean that she received less credit than was her due--a matter that was of little consequence when those involved were still alive to correct any misconceptions (or to explain the journal's rules of attribution), but is of greater consequence for subsequent historical accuracy. This matter of attribution in the pages of the journal was, albeit to a lesser extent, also to be an issue with regard to Leather's later work, with the phonograph.

Sharp, Vaughan Williams, and collecting with the phonograph

Leather's difficulties in arranging for transcriptions of tunes have already been touched upon, and her surviving correspondence with Lucy Broadwood emphasizes the problems she and her transcribers faced: 'Miss Webb said the "Pride of Glencoe" was very hard to write down, although she had it "in her head" quite clearly & is sure it is right. She has left us, & sent it to me, & I can't fit it with the words, but probably you can. I send you the 8th verse, as that is the one that went best.' (69) This must have been just a temporary absence from Weobley, since Annie Webb was transcribing from William Colcombe and Mrs Powell the following year, but it seems that at least one carol defeated her, finally being transcribed by J. Griffiths: 'Miss Webb tried to get the "Man that lives", but found it difficult. Am I right in thinking it an old modal tune? That E flat is ugly, but Mr. Griffiths has a fine ear, & it is right, [postscript] I can't get any more sensible conclusion to the carol. There must be some more.' (70) At times it was not possible to get a transcription at all, as described in a note to an undated list of songs that Leather sent to Lucy Broadwood for possible inclusion in the journal; 'I have not had time to see Mr. Gwilliam about tune yet, but will write again. Most of the words I have taken myself, it is all I can do!' (71) Thankfully, this cry for help was to be answered and, by December 1906, (72) "Miss Lucy Broadwood, then Honorary Secretary of the Folk-Song Society, decided that the matter was deserving of expert attention, and secured for me the invaluable assistance of Dr. Vaughan Williams, who lent an Edison phonograph, with recorder and reproducer from which the music could be noted.' (73)

The old assumption that the great and the good of the Folk-Song Society viewed the phonograph with suspicion, and failed to act upon Percy Grainger's clarion call to utilize the new recording medium when his 'Collecting with the Phonograph' was published in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society in 1908, (74) has been shown to be an oversimplification. (75) It is true that objections were raised, but these were mainly practical ones, based on the limitations of the new technology, although criticism did occasionally concentrate on the new medium's challenge to the established methodologies of collecting and publishing songs. (76) In general, though, the Society had a measured position towards the new technology, as represented by the editorial note added to Grainger's article: 'About the phonograph as an aid to collecting there can be no doubt; whether it is sufficiently perfect as yet to be preferred as a substitute for the human ear is still a disputable point. Similar careful records and analysis of the performances of trained singers and instrumentalists would therefore be of great value in helping to determine this. '(77)

Compared with other ethnomusicological groups the Society had in fact acted promptly and efficiently to acquire one of the new machines. (78) The idea of acquiring a phonograph was mooted at a committee meeting as early as 1904; (79) James Campbell Maclnnes made recordings on the Isle of Skye in 1905 with, one assumes, either his own or borrowed equipment (to the best of my knowledge, none of these recordings has survived); (80) and an Addendum slip pasted to the inner title page of the journal in 1906 specifically proposes the purchase of a machine:

Notice

December 10th, 1906.

The Hon. Secretary has recently received a donation of [pounds sterling]5, to be applied at her discretion for the benefit of the Folk-Song Society.

She therefore proposes with this sum to open a fund for the purchase of the most satisfactory kind of Phonograph, or other recording machine, and invites further donations. (81)

Furthermore, Percy Grainger was given financial assistance by the Society for the making of his Lincolnshire recordings; (82) and by 1908 Lucy Broadwood had purchased the machine with which she was to embark on her highly successful series of London-based Gaelic recordings. (83) The 106 surviving phonograph recordings that can be attributed to these early efforts of the Folk-Song Society (Grainger's work excepted) are now to be found in London, British Library Sound Archive, EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection; and among them are four cylinders of Herefordshire songs and tunes which are discussed further below.

Cecil Sharp, later to be recognized as the most successful and influential of the collectors, only made, posthumous documentation suggests, half a dozen or so cylinder recordings. (84) It should be remembered, however, that while he did recommend the use of the new technology, (85) he was personally constrained by the logistics of transporting equipment by bicycle down the country lanes of Somerset. (86) Furthermore, as his avowed intention as a collector was firmly pedagogic, he required a publishing process that had a printed score as its final aim, not a documentary field recording. It was not going to be practicable to provide every school in the land with a phonograph, but it was eminently possible to provide them with songbooks.

Leather's work with Sharp, arranging for him to see Mr Trill's Brimfield morris men on Boxing Day 1909, and to meet with John Lock the following day and with William Preece on 29 December, has been considered elsewhere. (87) However, since one of Sharp's surviving cylinder recordings and three of the phonograph transcripts in his notebooks are certainly the product of this work, they should be considered briefly. Unfortunately, we possess only three items relating directly to their work together, of which one comprises the eight pages of sheet music of Herefordshire dance tunes that Sharp sent to Leather, (88) and another is Leather's letter of condolence to Sharp's widow. (89) Nonetheless, the one surviving letter is very informative, especially since it pre-dates their collecting work and once again shows very clearly how wary the early collectors were of infringing on one another's territory. (90) It is worth quoting in full:

189 Ad[elaide], R[oad]:

8'. Dec/09

Dear Mrs. Leather.

I agree with everything in your letter of the 6'. I will gladly look through the dance & same portion of your forthcoming book and do all I can to help you. You in return will help me to see dances in your neighbourhood wh[ich] is most kind of you.

I will never publish anything wh[ich] I note directly through y[ou] r assistance, without your permission.

I don't think we shall disagree!

etc etc etc

Y[ours]

Cecil Sharp

Both were as good as their word. Leather would acknowledge Sharp in her Preface to The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire as having 'given me the benefit of his great experience in noting morris and country dances, and has noted the dance tunes'. (91) Sharp was introduced by Leather not only to the fiddlers John Lock and William Preece, but also to the Brimfield morris and to further examples of morris at Madley and Weobley. The fruits of this collecting tour can be found in the appendix to the Notebook and in Sharp's Folk Tunes and Folk Words manuscripts, (92) but what specifically concern us here are the four references to, and three transcriptions from, phonograph recordings.

Two of the dances in the Notebook appendix are known to have been recorded at the time: 'Sheepskins', which Sharp noted as 'Tested by phonographic record taken by Mrs. Leather'; (93) and 'The Morris Dance', subsequently published in The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, (94) which was initially titled 'Sheepskins' in the Notebook appendix but subsequently re-titled, as Sharp explains, 'This was noted from phonographic record taken by Mrs. Leather. Locke told her this was "Sheepskins" but he gave me the other tune (2416) by that name.' (95) Unfortunately, one of the four surviving Herefordshire cylinders, labelled on the box, 'There is an Ale house / Dance Tunes / played by Locke', merely replicates this confusion, in that on the bottom of the box is written 'There is / an ale house / Gipsy / Locke / [begin strikethrough]Sh[ee]pskins[end strikethrough] / Hornpipes'. (96) While the fiddle tune is very probably from Lock (the singer of 'There Is an Ale House' has not been unidentified), the tune bears no resemblance at all to any of the John Lock tunes in any of the manuscripts, least of all to those that Sharp finally decided to call either 'Sheepskins' or 'The Morris Dance'. That subsequent articles have christened it 'John Lock's Polka' is convenient, but brings us no closer to knowing its true title.

Nevertheless, assuming that this recording is of Lock, some other provisional conclusions can be derived from this cylinder: first, that it is distinct from the other surviving Herefordshire recordings; and secondly, that it is Sharp's work rather than Leather's. The first conclusion is supported by a number of factors. Two of the other Herefordshire cylinders are housed in plain cardboard boxes with blue card tops and bottoms, (97) the same packaging as is found with Vaughan Williams's own recordings. (98) The remaining one, admittedly, is in a blue Edison Bell 'Gold Moulded' box, and therefore must belong to a different series from the others.(99) However, all three have identical, generic, 'With Care' stickers pasted on to them, with the titles written in Vaughan Williams's worst handwriting. The final piece of evidence that these three cylinders are from the same collection is that not only are they all made from the same brown wax, but each was recorded at 140 rpm. The Lock cylinder is a very different beast, for not only is it in a different, hand-made, plain blue box, but the generic label gives the details in a very different, unidentified hand. Furthermore, this recording was made at 160 rpm, and it was cut on to a hard black wax, more like Bakelite than the softer brown wax of the other recordings. (100) Consequently, whether or not this recording was made at the same time as Leather's no longer extant cylinders of Lock, the substantial differences from the other surviving cylinders, in terms of packaging, type of wax, speed, and inscriptions, argue that this item is from Sharp's collection, rather than Leather's. If it seems curious that the hornpipe is not to be found in the Sharp manuscripts, it is worth remembering that in a few of the other instances where we know that Sharp made recordings, he did not bother to write them up in his fair-copy manuscripts but simply gave the title on a blank page. Examples include his recordings of Priscilla Cooper's 'The Indian Lass' and 'The Basket of Eggs'. (101) His reasoning was probably that, as he had a phonograph recording, he could rely on that for later reference. It appears that with the Lock hornpipe he took this process a step further.

The last of the references that concern us here are the two in which Sharp asks Leather to make him phonograph recordings of tunes of which he is uncertain. The first of these is William Preece's 'Jack off the Green', where Sharp notes, 'It would be well to get a phonographic record of this if you can, in order to rectify it. I am not too sure about it.' (102) As far as is known, no recording was made of this tune; certainly there is nothing to suggest this in Sharp's manuscripts. The second is Lock's version of 'Boyne Water', of which Sharp writes in the Notebook appendix, 'I should like a phonographic record of this. He may have forgotten (partially) second strain.' (103) In this case, Sharp's fair-copy manuscripts indicate that this recording was indeed made, for while p. 2420 of Folk Tunes gives the tune as noted on 27 December 1909, p. 2419 gives it as 'noted from phonograph. Jan 26. 1912'. (104) So we know not only that Sharp and Leather were in continuing correspondence after their initial joint collecting work, but that Leather made more than one series of recordings of John Lock.

As already noted, while the new technology was impractical for Sharp to use consistently in the field, and of little use to his evangelistic work in education, these issues were not of relevance to Leather. Her main dilemma was always over the transcription of tunes, and while she had invited Ralph Vaughan Williams to Herefordshire specifically for this purpose, his first visit being in late July-early August 1908, (105) this was still not a long-term solution to the problem. The phonograph, therefore, was an eminently suitable solution, an ever-present and scientific amanuensis. She found the new technology less off-putting for her singers than the Cassandras in the Folk-Song Society had anticipated: 'The surprise of the singers when they heard their songs immediately reproduced was great, and acted as an inducement to those reluctant at first to sing.' (106) Not that the technology was without its problems. Her earliest surviving letter to Vaughan Williams, on 3 November 1908, notes the usual set of problems that a collector--with or without a phonograph--could expect to face when collecting in the field:

vii. Mrs. Whatton, voice feeble, words scrappy, but will send them if tunes arc any good. [vii.] b. is I fear almost same as Mrs. Bridges'.

ix. Prosser had a cold, first verse is repeated at end his very loudest.

xii. Is two verses of same from Mrs. Herbert. She has sung in choirs a good-deal, & has had some training.

Colcombe learnt Tiresome wife from an old man of 90, day before he died, & insisted on my noting it! I feel doubtful about it, & the words are horrid."(107)

The follow-up letter, of 9 November, however, concentrates more on the problems of working with the phonograph:
  I send 6 more records. Some are very bad, but it is really not my
  fault. Mrs. Harris has no more voice, & Mrs. Powell was very shaky &
  I think in Pretty Caroline she shook the table. It was in No III.
  that Hancocks leaned on the horn. I afterwards broke the record, but
  have taken another: it was the Holy Well.

  I hope this is new: to my untrained ear its beautiful.

  Mrs. Powell has sung me a Thresherman, yet to come, & I think a
  little different.

  I almost despair of getting the other Claudy Banks, & doubt if one
  can get a good record, as poor old John Morgan is always in bed now.
  (108)


As mentioned above, the Notebook lists only twelve songs (plus one duplicate) that are from phonographs. Eight bear the description 'Phonographed E. M. L. / noted R. V. W.', or a variant thereof. These are 'Tailor and the Crow', 'Seasons of the Year', 'Milkmaids Song' (duplicated), 'The Bitter Withy', 'The Mantle of Green', 'There is an Alehouse', 'Sailor Boy', and 'The Trees They Do Grow High'. (109) The other four can be identified as having been recorded, either from entries in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society and The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, as in the case of 'Dilly Dove' and 'Cold Blows the Wind', (110) or because they are recognizable from a surviving recording, as in the case of 'Americkay' and 'The Bitter Withy'. (111) Furthermore, three of the dances in the Notebook appendix, 'Morris Dance', 'Sheepskins', and 'Boyne Water', are known to have been recorded, either from references in the Notebook or from Sharp's manuscripts. (112) The loose papers (EML/2/) give six songs known to have been recorded, but three of these duplicate material in the Notebook, and of the other three only 'Bold Robin Hood' is marked unequivocally 'Phono / E.M.L' and provides totally new material. (113) The remaining two songs, 'Christ Made a Trance' and 'The Holy Well', both of them fragmentary, are only given in a complete form in the published versions. (114) Two more songs, 'Under the Leaves of Life' and 'There Was a Lady in Merry Scotland', which we know were recorded, are mentioned in the loose papers, but only as titles in a list of songs collected in September 1908 which 'The gipsies sang at the Homme & Chadnor, farms near Weobley', although both exist in published forms. (115)

To these can be added three phonographed songs from Box 5 of the Lucy Broadwood Collection which are not found elsewhere. These are 'The Jeweller's Wedding', 'Claudy Banks', and an incomplete transcription of 'Got Rest You Merry Gentlemen' which is rather confusing titled 'God Our Father', the title coming from what must have been the singer's second stanza (the third stanza in most published versions), since Vaughan Williams, after giving one tune variant at the end, has written, 'Otherwise Verse 1 too bad record to note from'. (116) Also present here are versions of 'The Holy Well' and 'The Bitter Withy' that were later published. (117) Finally, one phonograph transcription is found in the second volume of Frank Sidgwick's 'Bitter Withy' folder. This is the manuscript source of Mr Holder's version, very much as found in the published versions, but of great interest for the way in which Leather has credited each of the collectors with their respective roles, namely, 'Discovered [:] FS / Phono: EML / Noted: R. V. W.' (Figure 3). (118)

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Consequently, we have twenty-six songs, either complete, incomplete, or by title only, in the Notebook (EML/1), loose papers (EML/2), the Broadwood Collection (LEB/5/), Frank Sidgwick's 'Bitter Withy' folder (FSBW/), or in Sharp's manuscripts, that can be identified as having been recorded to cylinder. To these can be added a further four of the fifteen recordings identified among Leather's published songs or tunes which do not duplicate items in the manuscripts. (119) This gives a grand total of thirty recordings made between 1907 and 1909, with a brief return to the medium in 1912-13. (120)

While thirty songs, probably recorded over some sixteen or so cylinders, (121) is certainly more than Ella Leather was previously thought to have made, based on published references and surviving recordings, this is actually only half the story. This becomes evident when looking for Leather's papers in the two volumes of the Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts and Letters held in the VWML, for here one finds not only the correspondence (quoted from above), but five lists of phonographs. (122) Three of these are described in Vaughan Williams's own 'Index of Letters, Notes, Lists and Addresses' as 'Phonograph records / Leather'. (123) Considered along with the relevant correspondence, this means that the recordings discussed above amount to less than half of those that were actually made.

As already noted, the earliest extant piece of correspondence from Ella Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams is her letter of 3 November 1908, in which she talks about Mrs Whatton's voice being feeble and laments having to record William Colcombe's 'Tiresome Wife'. A number of her papers in the Scrapbook substantially pre-date this letter, but whether they were sent to Vaughan Williams at the time, forwarded to him via Lucy Broadwood, or collated at a later date, remains impossible to determine from the surviving documentation.

The earliest, and most important, of these items is a single sheet entitled 'Fragments of Songs & Carols, from Mr. J. Probert, Weobley, Dec 1. 1906', beneath which is written 'Edison "Home" Phonograph record', followed by texts of four fragmentary recordings, 'Carol--In a Manger', 'Carol--Riches Are But Vanity', 'Abroad as I Was Walking', and 'Down by the Shining Water'. (124) The brevity of these pieces, and the singular noun 'record', indicate that this is a list relating to just one cylinder. That this was a recording made in Weobley (rather than one of the adjacent villages), and the fact that only short sections from four very different pieces were recorded, argues that it was probably a trial recording, in which the collector was acquainting herself with the equipment, discovering how much material could be sensibly included on one cylinder blank, and ascertaining the optimum speeds to use. The fact that we have documentation for only four songs recorded over the following year does not necessarily mean that there were teething problems with the new technology; it might have been that other collectors had a call on the machine, or simply that Leather had in hand too many of the 'other things' about which she wrote to Sidgwick. Without any extant correspondence, it is difficult to come to conclusions about 1907. Consequently, the beginning of her documented correspondence with Vaughan Williams in the following year provides valuable clues to her work.

As well as the trials and tribulations of collecting noted above, the first things apparent from reading the letter of 3 November 1908, and its companion list of recordings, are not only that this is unlikely to have been the first letter in their correspondence--it is written in an abrupt, truncated style, hardly that of a new correspondent, but designed to provide the maximum of information in the minimum number of words--but also that this could not have been the first set of cylinders to be sent to Vaughan Williams, because the numbering runs from VII to XII. (125) Furthermore, it is apparent that the loan of the phonograph was originally envisaged as a short-term one, for she begins the letter as follows: 'Herewith 6 records. There are 4 more taken, including repetitions of True Lover's downfall, & Divus & Lazarus (Eardisley) I have 6 blanks left, & am afraid that's all I shall be able to get at present, so will get them filled & return phonograph as soon as may be.' These '4 more taken' were promptly sent the next week, since both 'True Lover's Downfall', from Noah Richards, and 'Diverus & Lazarus', from Mrs Harris (of Eardisley), the latter spread over two cylinders, are included in the list of 9 November 1908. (126) To these were added a further three recordings (over two cylinders) from Mrs Powell, making a total of six cylinders in the batch. Confusingly, rather than continuing the numbering of the previous letters, these are numbered I-VI. With the additional two cylinders from Mrs Powell, this left four cylinder blanks remaining, and although no letter survives, the next list, from February of the next year, does indeed contain just four cylinders rather than the usual six. (127)

And there, if we were to believe the plans of 3 November, is where the recordings should have ended, with the blanks all used up and the phonograph returned to the Folk-Song Society. Surprisingly, however, this was not to be. As the last of the 'Phonograph records' lists in Leather's hand, dating from March 1909 or later, indicates, either Vaughan Williams had sent more blanks to Weobley or else a convenient source had been located in Herefordshire. Over two pages are set out her most extensive and consistently documented series of phonographs, amounting to no less than forty-three separate recordings, of thirty-six songs, recorded on sixteen cylinders, from ten different singers. (128) Again, rather than continuing from the previous lists, the numbering starts again at I; but it is evident that this is a separate series from the others, because only two of the singers, Noah Richards, a blacksmith from Moorhampton, and G. Vaughan of Dilwyn, are familiar from previous lists. (129) Furthermore, very few of the recordings in this last list duplicate any of the extant manuscripts. Of the five songs noted in the list of 11 February 1909, only two, Mrs Tristram's 'Down in the Fields of Bilberry' and 'Joys of Mary', are otherwise unknown in Leather's collection, and each cylinder includes at least one song already noted elsewhere in the manuscripts, either as a title or a transcription. In this later list, however, only three of the thirty-six songs exist elsewhere in the surviving manuscripts or publications: John Lloyd's 'The Taylor & the Crow' and Mrs Goodwin's 'Dilly Dove' and 'The Holy Well'. (130) These are all from 1909, but the date of 'The Holy Well' is given as March of that year, thus providing a better idea of the time from which the list dates.

Consequently, if we add the total number of cylinders from these lists--one (1 December 1906), six (3 November 1908), six (9 November 1908), four (11 February 1909), and sixteen (March 1909 or later)--to the sixteen or so inferred from the other manuscripts, and deduct the eight that contain material cited elsewhere, (131) we are left with a total of forty-one cylinders. This is, of course, a highly provisional total. For example, we do not yet have any way of knowing whether the six cylinders that predated the list of 3 November 1908 are among those noted in the other manuscripts; but the fact that we know of at least five songs recorded on cylinders in September and October 1908 suggests that these probably made up the first batch after the previous year's trial attempts. Nevertheless, this provisional estimate does give us a much better idea of the breadth and depth of Leather's collecting work with the phonograph.

Later work

That Leather made relatively few recordings after 1909 can be attributed not only to the time needed for seeing The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire through the press, but also to the increasing social responsibilities that went with her husbands various positions in the village over the next decade: Honorary Secretary of the local Red Cross; manager of the local branch of Lloyds Bank; Registrar of Births, Marriages, and Deaths for the village; member of the Board of Guardians of Weobley workhouse. (132) Nonetheless, 1912 did bring the most famous of her collecting experiences, when she and the Vaughan Williamses located Alfred Price Jones, who, in the twilight of a Gypsy camp, sang them 'Cold Blows the Wind', 'and while Dr. Vaughan Williams noted the tune his wife and I took down alternate lines of the words'. (133) Leather continued: 'It is difficult to convey to those who have never known it the joy of hearing folk-songs sung as we heard that pathetic ballad: the difference between hearing it there and in a drawing room or concert hall is just that between discovering a wild flower growing in its native habitat and admiring it when transplanted to a botanic garden.' Vaughan Williams was subsequently to describe this as his 'most memorable musical impression for the year 1912'. (134)

A handful of songs were noted in 1913, but with the beginning of the Great War her work as Commandant of the Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachment at Sarnesfield Court Hospital took precedence over her other activities, and folklore and folk song were put aside for the duration. Interestingly, it is from this time that most of the surviving photographs of Leather date, one an evocative portrait probably from near the end of the war (Figure 4), and three group portraits of the patients and staff at the hospital, with the Commandant seated in the middle. (135)

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Though grief-stricken by her eldest son's death in 1918, Ella Leather's last decade was certainly not one of decline, and in 1920 she and Vaughan Williams published their Twelve Traditional Carols from Herefordshire, in which, following the example of Vaughan Williams's Eight Traditional English Carols of the previous year, they allowed themselves the luxury of composite texts and musical arrangements:
  The object of this volume is not scientific but artistic; it is
  simply to preserve these carols in a form in which they can be sung
  by those who value our traditional songs and melodies. The Editors
  have therefore not hesitated (while keeping as much of the original
  text as possible) to emend corruptions in the words, to correct
  grammatical errors and to supply missing lines and verses from other
  sources [...]

  With the melodies the case is different--here the question of verbal
  logic and grammar does not come in--the sole question is that of
  artistic value.

  The melodies in this volume, therefore, remain exactly as they were
  sung to the Editors who hope that only those of distinct musical
  merit have been included. (136)


Although both names are found beneath this Preface, the editorial hand of the composer is stronger than that of the folldorist. If the sentiment seems a far cry from Leather's earlier championing of the 'wild flower growing in its native habitat', it should be remembered that she was being presented here with a golden opportunity to popularize the carols of her county. While Vaughan Williams's earlier volume had included carols from no less than six counties, with just one from Herefordshire, now all of them were to be from the county. Furthermore, those who wished to see the original texts were directed to the relevant sources, and the informants were invariably cited. Only in one instance is there a noticeable and regrettable failure of nerve, when the terrifying sickness-unto-death text of "There Is a Fountain' is simply dismissed as being 'full of the rather unpleasant imagery which is characteristic of much of the Eighteenth Century Evangelistic verse', and replaced in toto by that of 'Joseph and Mary' from William Sandys's Christmas Carols, Ancient and Modern (1833). (137)

Twelve Traditional Carols was to be Leather's last major publication, although this was certainly not by design. In 1925, the same year in which her informative but essentially anecdotal 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in Herefordshire' was published, she helped to found the Herefordshire branch of the English Folk Dance Society and served on its executive committee. (138) Whether or not it was because she felt slighted when its meetings were transferred to Hereford, (139) her interest subsequently turned to other areas of local history. Her final paper, "The Timber Houses of Weobley', published in 1926, led her to her last work, a History of Weobley, which unfortunately she did not live to finish, the manuscript being lost when the family papers were dispersed after her surviving son's death in 1943. (140) But Twelve Traditional Carols was not quite her last major involvement with folk song, because among the loose sheets at the beginning of the Notebook are found six pages consisting of a letter to Vaughan Williams, dated 15 September 1922, discussing her visit the previous week to see Alfred Price Jones, the text of his (newly collected version of) 'Cold Blows the Wind', and a printed version of As I Passed by a Willow Tree', which, she thought, 'seems to be a cutting from the Gypsy Lore Society's journal'. (141) It is worth mentioning these later additions to the Notebook because Alfred Price Jones was the same man who had sung so memorably for Leather and Vaughan Williams ten years previously. (142) In this light, this last collecting work can be seen, along with Twelve Traditional Carols, as her way of consciously re-establishing links with that world before the war that she had done so much to preserve.

Conclusion

Ella Mary Leathers work in documenting the folk song of her county was wider-ranging, as regards the types of songs she collected, and more plentiful than has been formerly realized. That she was only recognized in her lifetime for one specific area of her collection--that is to say, the carols--was more by accident than design. Many of the Herefordshire carols were very ancient, some were unique, and, understandably the Folk-Song Society wanted to concentrate on those rather than on local variants of common songs. Consequently, her collection came to be seen as more specialized than it actually was. That her collection was also a collaborative venture, initially with a team of local friends and associates, and later on with Ralph Vaughan Williams, should not blind us to the organizational flair that she showed in managing and directing this work. Again, more by accident than design, the house rules of the Journal of the Folk-Song Society were to credit the collector who noted the tune, and consequently many songs that Ella Leather was instrumental in discovering were credited only to her associates. That the vast majority of her surviving papers have now been identified and nearly all reside in the VWML makes a proper evaluation of the legacy of this 'County Collector' an achievable and worthwhile goal.

With the obvious exception of Percy Grainger, Ella Leather made more phonograph recordings than any of the other collectors associated with the Folk-Song Society--more than Lucy Broadwood; (143) substantially more than Cecil Sharp--but only three of Leather's phonograph recordings seem to have survived--a rate of attrition substantially in excess of the other collections, but the reasons for this I will leave to another paper.

Acknowledgements

I am especially indebted to the Weobley and District Local History Society, and especially to Sue Hubbard, for information, advice, and hospitality during my all too brief visit to Weobley; also to Brian Holley and Richard Birt for correspondence, and to Robert Coleman for providing the transport.

A very special thank you to Mary Humphreys for all of her hard work deciphering and comparing tunes in the various manuscripts, especially the Francis Jekyll manuscripts. In many cases variant texts had survived separated from their companion tunes and without her advice and knowledge I would not have known which belonged with which.

Thank you to Keith Chandler, Roy Palmer, Dr David Atkinson, Steve Roud, Dr John Bentley, Professor E. David Gregory, Dr Elaine Bradtke, and the late Malcolm Douglas for so freely giving information from their own researches; to Dr Chris Bearman for permitting me to utilize his catalogue of the Lucy Broadwood Collection in my final collection list; to Professor Alun Howkins and Dr Nicola Verdon of the University of Sussex for advice on early drafts of this paper; to Aida Faramin Rodriguez for making the photographic copy of the photograph of Ella Leather, and to my parents for help with the mathematical calculations regarding the number of cylinders; and finally to Malcolm Taylor, OBE, and the staff of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library for giving me free access to the manuscripts necessary for the writing of this paper.

Sources

A. EML/1/

Ella Leather Notebook (VWML accession no. 5857)

Inscribed on the front flyleaf: E. M. Leather/1907- Described on the accession card: Large Notebook of Songs and Dance Tunes. Bought from Mrs. E. C. Collins through Mrs. J. Wright, of 51, Brookside Drive, Oadby, Leics., 1966. Listed in the Accessions book as having cost [pounds sterling]5.

* Loose sheets at beginning: Sixteen sheets tucked between the cover and front flyleaf (EML/1/0/a-EML/1/0/e).

* Main manuscript: fifty-eight pages, twelve of which are blank, leaving forty-six pages of songs; plus an additional thirty-seven loose sheets, of which ten are attached to the Notebook by either pin or brass fastener (EML/l/l-EML/1/49/b).

* Loose at end: eight pages of sheet music in Cecil Sharp's hand (EML/1/Ap/1-EML/1/Ap/16).

In cataloguing the Notebook I have denoted associated songs that are adjacent in the manuscript by giving them the same numbers but with alphabetical suffixes for differentiation; for example, the three versions of the 'Milkmaid's Song' given at EML/1/13/a-c. I have done this only where the different texts are of the same version of a song and only when they were specifically pasted on to the same page or inserted next to it. Altogether there are 109 separate entries for the Notebook. See the main article for the contributors.

B. EML/2/

Ella Leather loose papers

Originally from the VWML's A-Z box files of miscellaneous manuscripts.

* Forty-four sheets, some loose, but others fastened into bundles by round or oblong brass studs. All in Leather's hand except for: EML/2/1/a-c (Annie Webb); EML/2/3/a (Eleanor Andrews or the informant, Mr G. T. Brimfield); EML/2/10/1 (Mr Hirons); EML/2/l4/a-f (Ralph Vaughan Williams).

I have followed the same numbering principles as in the Notebook, but have also given alphabetical suffixes to title-only entries; for example, the nine songs listed at EML/2/4/a-i. Altogether sixty-one entries (EML/2/1/a-EML/2/14/f).

C. EML/3/

Miscellaneous Herefordshire papers (possibly from RVW archive)

Originally from the same VWML A-Z box files of miscellaneous manuscripts as EML/2/, but never previously identified as being Ella Leather material; possibly papers sent to Ralph Vaughan Williams.

* Sixty-one sheets, all loose except for EML/3/12 ("The Sally Twig'), where the two pages are connected by a round brass stud; thirty-four sheets being of songs and/or tunes collected in the field, with EML/3/1-3, EML/3/6/a, EML/3/11, EML/3/14-15 in Leather's hand, and EML/3/4-5 in Vaughan Williams's hand.

The remainder are from: Revd F. Wilmot (EML/3/13), R. Hughes-Rowlands (EML/3/16/a, EML/3/19), Annie M. Webb (EML/3/17-18), Langton Brown (EML/3/20-20/b), R. C. Davis (EML/3/22); unidentified (EML/3/16/b); and EML/3/6/b-EML/3/10/b in the informants' hands. The remaining twenty-seven sheets are manuscript copies of printed songs. Altogether twenty-nine entries (EML/3/1-EML/3/22).

D. RVW/Scrapbook/

Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts and Letters, 2 vols

The Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts and Letters was originally in one oversize volume also containing broadsheets; these were removed when the volume underwent conservation in 2007 and the song manuscripts and correspondence were then rebound in two separate volumes. Unfortunately, as a result of this the manuscripts no longer reflect the numbering as given in Vaughan Witliams's own indexes (RVW/Scrapbook/2/1 55 [originally p. 97]), and in many cases, where the original page numbers were not written on the manuscripts themselves but on the pages to which they were pasted, they have not been retained, making cross-referencing to the original index problematic. Fortunately, the conservator made a maquette of the original scrapbook, from which it is possible to ascertain a document's original position. In citing documents from the scrapbook I have therefore indicated a document's original position, within square brackets and following the current page number. Due to the rebinding, not all pages are adjacent to others that relate directly to them.

Altogether, twenty-three documents in the Scrapbook can be attributed to Herefordshire, of which thirteen are in Leather's hand, five in Vaughan Williams's, and five in other hands.

E. LEB/5/

Lucy Broadwood Manuscript Collection, Box 5

* LEB/5/222-225 consists of a second set of Francis Jekyll's Herefordshire transcriptions from William Colcombe, giving the same songs as in the Notebook, but in subtly different versions.

* LEB/5/239-292 consists of a substantial body of material from Ella Leather and her collaborators: F. Gwilliam, R. Hughes Rowlands, A. M. Webb, Langton Brown, and Ralph Vaughan Williams.

In citing material from this collection I have followed C. J. Bearman's catalogue for the VWML.

F. FSBW/

Frank Sidgwick, 'Bitter Withy folder, 2 vols (VWML, MPR 50; accession no. 10347 [vol. 1 only])

Two A5 'cloth Binders' Dummy' folders, to quote Frank Sidgwick's daughter, Ann Baer, in her description of the manuscripts which she appended to the second volume.

* Vol. 1 (orange binding) was deposited in the VWML in 1976 and consists of fifty-five different documents, including letters, texts, photographs, and newspaper cuttings. Of these, five are from Ella Leather (FSBW/1/24-25, FSBW/1/51-53), but a number of others duplicate material elsewhere in Leather's collection and have been cited accordingly.

* Vol. 2 (red binding), deposited in the VWML in 1987, contains only thirteen items from Sidgwick's collection (as well as a considerable amount of posthumous material dealing with the final depositing of the collection), but of these six are transcriptions, at least five of which derive from Leather's collection. The exception is James Layton' s "The Bitter Withies', where the process is reversed in that the version at FSBW/2/12 is the original for Leather's incomplete copy at EML/3/12.

In cataloguing these papers I have followed Ann Baer's two lists, deviating from them only when this was necessary in order to place items in the order that Sidgwick originally intended for them; for example, reinstating Pattie Leaper's version of the song to its position between related versions at FSBW/1/31, rather than adjacent to her correspondence at FSBW/1/18. Since the posthumous material is from the latter half of the twentieth century, I did not include it in the catalogue.

G. LIB/COLL/MPS 50(31)/12/

VWML, Library Collection MPS 50(31), folder 12, pp. 94, 95-110, 112-13 (original shelfmark LIB/COLL/MPS 50(31) II)

* Page 94 consists of an unattributed text of 'Song-The 14th of February' written in pencil, possibly in Leather's hand.

* Pages 95-110 consists of three songs, 'The Blacksmith', 'The Irish Stranger', and 'The Low Low-lands of Holland', in Leather's hand, collected from Alfred Price Jones in 1922. These had been previously overlooked because the singer was given as the correspondent/collector in the folder index. The importance of these manuscripts lies in that each song is given not only in a neat version written in ink but also in Leather's original pencil notes.

* Pages 112-13 consist of a typed 'List of Songs in Mrs. Leather's Notebook', probably prepared by Ruth Noyes, then librarian at the VWML, at the time of the Notebook's acquisition in 1966. During the time of the Notebook's disappearance this was the only record of its contents. (144)

H. Photocopied manuscripts of songs (VWML, MPS 60(31); accession no. 8799)

Accession card states 'Copied by donation from Mr D. Jones'. Envelope states 'Copied 1977 by courtesy of Dave Jones'.

* Forty-one photocopied pages, numbered 1-40 and 21a. This collection is actually a red herring, since all the material is taken from the Lucy Broadwood Collection (see Sources E above). Its only importance now is in that it gives an insight into what was recognized in 1977 as being from Ella Leather's collection.

I. GB/6a/

George Butterworth Collection, vol. 6a

Butterworth collected eight songs with Francis Jekyll in Herefordshire, and five of these duplicate material credited to Jekyll in EML/1/. These are: GB/6a/17, GB/6a/42, GB/6a/119, GB/6a/160, GB/6a/177.

J. C37/1535-1640

EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection

Of the 106 wax cylinders of the EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection that were deposited on permanent loan at the British Library Sound Archive, four contain material from Herefordshire: C37/1585, C37/1586, C37/1587, and C37/1590.

The collection was originally dubbed to reel tapes in 1982; a second set of dubbings was made to DAT tape in 2001, which was then transferred to CD-R in 2003. Two sets were made at this time: the 2CDR (archive) copies, which are straight copies of the DAT tapes without any restoration processes applied; and the 1CDR (playback) copies, which employed audio restoration processing.

Two of the Herefordshire cylinders, C37/1587 and C37/1590, are currently available online on the British Library Sound Archive's Archival Sound Recordings site <http://sounds.bl.uk/>.

K. Ella Mary Leather printed sources

'The Folk-Lore of the Shire', in Memorials of Old Herefordshire, ed. by Rev. Compton Reade (London: Bemrose and Sons, 1904), pp. 148-66.

'Herefordshire FolkTales', The Herefordshire Magazine, 1.1 (1907), 26-30.

'Carols from Herefordshire, Collected by Ella M. Leather', Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 4.1 (no. 14) (1910), 3-51.

The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, Collected from Oral and Printed Sources, Introduction by Edwin Sidney Hartland (Hereford: Jakeman & Carver; London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1912; repr. East Ardsley: SR Publishers, 1970).

Twelve Traditional Carols from Herefordshire, ed. by E. M. Leather and R. V. Williams (London: Stainer & Bell, 1920).

'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in Herefordshire', Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 3rd ser., 4 (1925), 59-64.

'The Timber Houses of Weobley', Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club (1926), 174-78.

'Collectanea notes in Folk-Lore: 23 (1912), 351-52, 357; 24 (1913), 110, 238-39, 240-41; 25 (1914), 372; 27 (1916), 413-17; 37 (1926), 195, 295-98.

Individual songs in Journal of the Folk-Song Society: 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 91-93, 97-98, 102-03, 105-09, 115-22, 125-26, 131-34, 136; 2.4 (no. 9) (1906), 300-04; 4.2 (no. 15) (1910), 110-23, 127-29; 4.4 (no. 17) (1913), 279-90, 303-10, 338-40; 5-1 (no. 18) (1914), 7-16.

Notes

JEFDSS: Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society

JFSS: Journal of the Folk-Song Society

Leather's main publications cited as 'Carols from Herefordshire'; 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies'; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire; Twelve Traditional Carols (see Sources K above)

(1) Charlotte S. Burne, review of The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, by Ella Mary Leather, Folk-Lore, 23 (1912), 383-86 (p. 383).

(2) Gordon Ashman, 'Charlotte Sophia Burne', Talking Folklore, 1 (1986): 6-21; Gordon Ashman and Gillian Bennett, 'Charlotte Sophia Burne: Shropshire Folklorist, First Woman President of the Folklore Society, and First Woman Editor of Folklore. Part 1; A Life and Appreciation', Folklore, 111 (2000), 1-21.

(3) Lavender Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds': The Life and Work of Ella Mary Leather of Weobley, Author of Folklore of Herefordshire ([n.p.]: West Midlands Folk Federation, 1978), pp. 29, 54. General biographical details have been taken from this work, as well as David Whitehead, 'Leather, Ella Mary (1874-1928)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography ([Oxford]: Oxford University Press, 2004) <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/56851>[accessed 9 June 2009], and two short unpublished sources in Weobley and District Local History Society, 1972/383, Ella Mary Leather file: Rosemary Randerson, 'Frank and Ella Leather of Weobley (c.1982), 3 pp. (unpaginated); Richard Birt, '"Wise and fair and good as she": The Forgotten Gatherer of Folk Lore' (1996), 2 pp. (unpaginated).

(4) Richard M. Dorson, The British Folklorists (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968), pp. 316-31.

(5) Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud, A Dictionary of English Folklore (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 210.

(6) Her father was described as a 'gentleman' farmer (Jones, A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 23).

(7) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 59. She dates her 'first experiences in collecting folk-songs from Gypsies' to September 1908, and goes on to speak of joining in the hop-picking at the Homme Farm, near Dilwyn, Herefordshire. This is backed up by EML/2/4/a-i, a manuscript list of titles of songs that 'The gipsies sang at the Homme & Chadnor farms near Weobley', collected in September 1908.

(8) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 63. In a letter to Lavender Jones in 1926, regarding another member of the Lock family, she wrote, 'Polin Lock still comes and plays under our windows', quoted in Lavender Jones, 'The Gentlemen Locks', English Dance &Song, 26.4 (1964), 84-85. Jones mentions that a Lock was found dead in the snow on the Montgomeryshire hills with his fiddle by his side and wonders if this was 'Polin', and also whether 'Polin' was the unnamed brother who played with John Lock when Leather met him in 1908. The Shrewsbury Chronicle, 30 December 1927, p. 3, gives inquest details which confirm Jones's conjectures, naming the deceased as Isaiah Lock (aged sixty-five). Isaiah was known within the family as James 'Pollen Lock (Keith Chandler, telephone interview with David N. Roberts, Kinmel Bay, Clwyd, 28 October 2006; email from John Kirkpatrick to Derek Schofield, 29 October 2006, describing Kirkpatrick's visit to Albert Lock in the mid-1970s). Furthermore, it was John Lock who acted as witness at Isaiah's wedding on 23 January 1893.I am indebted to Keith Chandler for sending me this information on 'Pollen' Lock. It should be noted that Jones mistakenly conflates Leather's meeting with the two Locks at Pembridge Fair in May 1908 with their meeting with Sharp the following year, in that she assumes 'Pollen' was present at the latter meeting as well. 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 63, and transcriptions at EML/l/Ap and in Cambridge, Archive of Clare College, Cecil J. Sharp MSS, ACC1987/25, Folk Tunes, make it clear that only John Lock was present on that occasion.

(9) This was her actual position. She had joined the local branch of the Women's VAD upon its foundation in 1910 (her husband being the area Honorary Secretary) and became its second Commandant in 1912 (Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 25; Randerson, p. [3]; and Weobley and District Local History Society, 2005/02/02, Sarnesfield Court [1916-18] photograph folder. Incidentally, although the majority of the contents of the British Red Cross Society: Voluntary Aid Detachment (Women) Record for Herefordshire concerns the Second World War, the cover inscription, '[County] Herefordshire. [Number] 6. [Address] Drill Hall, Weobley', is unmistakably in Ella Leather's hand (Weobley and District Local History Society, 1996/10/03).

(10) Randerson, p.[1]; Birt, p.[2]; London, British Library Sound Archive, Traditional Music in England Project, Roy Palmer Collection, C1023/111 [1CDR0010594 BD1-7 NSA], interview with Lavender Jones, 25 October 1988. Discussing the fact that Leather had nothing to do with the Herefordshire branch of the Folk Dance Society after its classes were moved from Weobley to Hereford, Jones states, '[I] think you know she wasn't quite normal really after all that trouble she had.' [Palmer:] 'What trouble was that?' [Jones:] 'Well, her son dying, had been killed in the war.'

(11) Mrs James, aged ninety-three in 1996; see Birt, p. [1].

(12) Miss Minnie Davies, the Leathers' cook 1922-28 (Randerson, p. [2]), reminiscing circa September 1972, in an unattributed newspaper article in Weobley and District Local History Society, 1972/383, Ella Mary Leather file, 'Kindly Mrs Leather swopped stories with gipsy visitors'.

(13) Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. xvi (italics in original).

(14) Whitehead, 'Leather, Ella Mary (1874-1928)'.

(15) Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. [xi].

(16) London, Folk-Lore Society, members lists, 1905 onwards.

(17) VWML, Folk-Song Society Minutes, p. 59 (Thursday, 6 April 1905).

(18) Woking, Surrey History Centre, Lucy Broadwood Diaries, 25 January 1905. I am indebted to Professor E. David Gregory for this information.

(19) Folk-Song Society Minutes, p. 54 (Thursday, 23 March 1905).

(20) Lucy Broadwood is listed as a member in Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, n.s. 1 (1907), [1], and contributed twice to the journal's Notes & Queries: English Gypsy Musicians', n.s. 1 (1908), 287; 'Gypsy Legends from Legendes Religieuses Bulgares', n.s. 4 (1910), 71-72. Her English Traditional Songs and Carols received a short review in n.s. 2 (1909), 270, on account of its inclusion of two songs from the Goby family. Another contributor to the journal's Notes & Queries was the Revd Charles Marson, with 'Gypsy Prayers', n.s. 3 (1909), 77, in which he is eulogized as follows: 'The Gypsies have found many a friend among the clergy, but none more devoted than the Rev. Charles L. Marson of Hambridge Parsonage, near Taunton, author of The English Jerusalem, an historical guide to Glastonbury, and an enthusiastic collector of folk-songs.'

(21) His series of 'Welsh Gypsy Folk-Tales' extended to forty articles between 1907 and 1930 (the numbering goes up to 41, but there was no number 13!). For a short biographical sketch, see University of Liverpool, Special Collections and Archives, John Sampson (1862-1931) <http://sca.lib.liv.ac.uk/collections/gypsy/Sampson.htm> [accessed 19 August 2009].

(22) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies' (see n. 7).

(23) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 62. T. W. Thompson was Honorary Secretary of the Gypsy Lore Society from 1922 to 1932; see University of Liverpool, Special Collections and Archives, Gypsy Lore Society Officers <http://sca.lib.liv.ac.uk/collections /gypsy/jglsobits.htm> [accessed 19 August 2009].

(24) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 64.

(25) Frank Howes, 'Gypsy Music', JEFDSS, 1.2 (1933), 113. He does add, "They have, however, an extremely sturdy and distinctive tradition of performance.'

(26) For John's 'Gypsophilia', see Roger Savage, 'Vaughan Williams, the Romany Ryes, and the Cambridge Ritualists', Music & Letters, 83(2002), 383-418 (p. 384).

(27) VWML, Accessions Register, vol. 2, pp. [21r and v].

(28) VWML, accession no. 5857. See Sources A.

(29) Malcolm Taylor, Library Director, VWML, personal communication, 15 September 2009; Tony Foxworthy, telephone conversation, 16 September 2009.

(30) 'The Moon Shines Bright' (EML/l/0/a), 'The Man That Lives' (EML/l/0/c), 'Dives 'and Lazarus' (EML/l/0/d), 'The Dark-Eyed Sailor' (EML/l/0/e).

(31) EML/l/0/b/1, Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 15 September 1922; EML/l/0/b/2, 'As I Passed by a Willow Tree' (printed); EML/l/0/h/3, 'Cold Blows the Wind'.

(32) EML/l/Ap/1-16; 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies'. The dances are: 'Trip to the Cottage' (Lock); 'Morris Dance' (Lock); 'Trip to the Cottage' 'as printed'; 'Flowers of Edinburgh' (Preece); 'Jack off the Green (Preece); 'Speed the Plough' (Lock); 'Staffordshire Hornpipe' (Lock); 'Speed the Plough' 'circa 1800 printed copy'; 'Blue-Eyed Stranger' (Lock); 'Boyne Water' (Lock); 'Mad Moll of the Cheshire Hunts' (Lock); 'Hunting the Squirrel' (Lock); 'Green Sleeves' (Lock); 'Sheepskins' (Lock); 'Hunting the Squirrel' (Preece); 'Flowers of Edinburgh' 'as printed circa 1750'.

(33) The total is uncertain, since I have been unable to ascertain whether or not the Revd Edwin King (EML/l/26/a) is the same collector as Dr King (EML/l/13/c, EML/1/38).

(34) Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds, p. 35. Annie M. Webb is variously credited in JFSS as Annie M. Webb and Annie Webb (2.2 (no. 7) (1905)), and A. M. Webb (2.2 (no. 7) (1905); 4.1 (no. 14) (1910)).

(35) For a short biographical sketch of Jekyll, see Lewis Jones [with information from C. J. Bearman and George E. Frampton], 'Francis Jekyll (1882-1965): Forgotten Hero of the First Folk Song Revival' <http://www.geocities.com/ferretpublications/art07jek.html> [accessed 12 June 2009].

(36) An eleventh song is given in the manuscript with Jekyll's name, but I consider this an associative attribution, see n. 39.

(37) One song, 'North Country Damsel', is dated 1905. However, since the eleven songs collected from William Colcombe replicate those found in the Lucy Broadwood Collection (where they are credited to Thomas Colcombe; see n. 38), which are from 1906 ('A Brisk Young Sailor Courted Me' being more precisely dated to September 1906), this is probably a scribal error (LEB/5/222-225).

(38) Confusingly, he is initially called Thomas Colcombe in the Notebook and in the early volumes of JFSS. He is correctly noted as W. or William at two points in the Notebook (EML/l/17/a, EML/l/34/a) and his name is corrected in JFSS from no. 14 (1910) onwards. The confusion is apparently explained by a photograph of him included in the Sidgwick 'Bitter Withy' folder, where his name is given on the reverse as W T. Colcombe and on the front as 'Stumpy Bill' (his nickname) (FSBW/1/52). It seems probable that he was known as Bill or William to his friends, but by his second name, Thomas, to others. He is recorded in the Weobley Union Workhouse censuses for 1851, 1861, 1871, and 1881, and in the Stoke Prior census for 1891, and in each case his name is given as William. I am indebted to Keith Chandler for this information.

(39) 'There Is an Alehouse (EML/l/40/c), a transcript of a phonograph of [Mr?] Hirons, of Haven, Herefordshire, 1909, is seemingly ascribed to 'Mr Jekyll'Jekyll', but with the additional information, 'Noted/by/R. V. Williams / Mus: Doct: / Phono / E. M. L'. The reference to Francis Jekyll is therefore probably intended simply to indicate that the song is the same as one already collected by Jekyll: 'There Is an Alehouse' / 'A Brisk Young Sailor Courted Me (EML/l/40/a); 'A Brisk Young Sailor' (EML/l/40/b).

(40) The exception is 'Poor Mary of the Silvery Tide', collected by both Webb and Jekyll in 1906 (EML/l/33/a (Jekyll), EML/l/33/b (Webb)). One other case in which one cannot decide on precedence relates to the song that Jekyll collected from Colcombe as 'Billy Taylor' and that Webb collected under the title of' William Taylor & Sarah Gray'. Both are undated, but, based on the Broadwood Collection (LEB/5/222-225), one can assume Jekyll's version to be from September 1906, and so in all probability Webb's version was again earlier.

(41) I have included these in the main catalogue. The three other songs that Jekyll and Butterworth collected together in Herefordshire, but which do not appear in the Notebook, are from a Mr Smith of Stoke Lacy: 'Erin's Lovely Home' (GB/7a/53); 'It's of a Farmer All in This Town (GB/7b/19, GB/6b/16); 'Little Brown Jug' (GB/6b/18, GB/7b/26). For these, plus the five from Colcombe, see London, EFDSS Archives, George Butterworth Collection <http://library.efdss.org/archives/index.html>[accessed 12 October 2009]. Jekyll and Butterworth were to later collect together in Sussex (1908) and Norfolk (1910); see Michael Dawney, 'George Butterworth's Folk Music Manuscripts', Folk Music Journal, 3.2 (1976), 99-113 (p. 100).

(42) RVW/Scrapbook/2/119 [originally p. 84a (a loose page between pp. 84-85)], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 3 November 1908. See Sources D for an explanation of the need for retaining the original numbering.

(43) Jones, A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 35; sometimes credited as 'John Griffiths junior' (EML/1/0/c, EML/l/20/b).

(44) 'Dives and Lazarus' (EML/l/0/d). Their description as Leather's 'friends' is in JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 125.

(45) The Library World, 16.4 (1913), 96-128, noted this bequest from the late Walter Pilley, JP I am indebted to Roy Palmer for informing me of Pilley's donation.

(46) EML/l/43/a, EML/l/43/b.

(47) LEB/5/283, Ella Mary Leather to Lucy Broadwood, 11 May 1905.

(48) Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 34.

(49) EML/1/36/c.

(50) FSBW/1/18, Pattie Leaper to Frank Sidgwick, 22 December 1907.

(51) Popular Ballads of the Olden Time, ed. by Frank Sidgwick, 4 series (London: A. H. Bullen; Sidgwick & Jackson, 1903-12); Frank Sidgwick, The Ballad (London: Martin Seeker, [1915]).

(52) Oxford, Bodleian Library, Papers of Sidgwick and Jackson, Publishers <http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/sidgwick/sidgwick.html> [accessed 21/08/09].

(53) 'Carols from Herefordshire', p. 34. Two stanzas had first appeared in Notes and Queries, 4th ser., 1 (1868), 53, contributed by 'C.F.S.'. Sidgwick then published a complete version of nine stanzas from a letter dated 31 December 1888 from Mr Henry Ellershaw, Jun., of Rotherham, to Mr A. H. Bullen, in Notes and Queries, 10th set., 4 (1905), 84-85. The song was 'taken down verbatim as sung by an old Herefordshire man of about seventy (in 1888), who learnt it from his grandmother'.

(54) FSBW/1/25, Ella Mary Leather to Frank Sidgwick, 23 February 1908.

(55) The three photographs are titled 'The Bitter Withy', 'An Ancient Woman', 'Stumpy Bill' (FSBW/1/51-53).

(56) EML/l/34/a (Jekyll, 1906), EML/l/34/b (Webb, 1905).

(57) Williams noted it from William Jefferies of Longcot, adding 'I have not heard of it elsewhere, except at Shrivenham, hard by', but does not list his other source <http://www.wiltshire.gov.uk/community/getfolk.php?id=7> [accessed 24/08/09].

(58) EML/1/19; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 266; collected by Miss Nellie Smith from an unnamed descendant of the song's author, Richard Matthews, who composed it 'in the reign of George III'.

(59) EML/1/21; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 264-65; from Mr Noah Richards. The Notebook has only four stanzas, whereas 'The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire gives twenty-one.

(60) EML/l/35/a, 'The Honest Weaver', incomplete, noted in fifteen stanzas of roughly four lines apiece, totalling sixty lines, and EML/l/35/b, 'The Weaver', incomplete, in eight uneven stanzas totalling forty-eight lines.

(61) John Godfrey Saxe, Clever Stories of Many Nations Rendered in Rhyme (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1865), pp. 85-93. I am indebted to the late Malcolm Douglas for emailing this information to the <Tradsong@yahoogroups.com> discussion board (30 January 2009) and to Steve Roud for posting the initial enquiry. Saxes verse narrative can be found online at <http://www.archive.org/stream/cleverstories00saxerich#page/n89/mode/2up> [accessed 2 October 2009].

(62) Folk-Song Society Minutes, p. 54 (Thursday, 23 March 1905).

(63) The sources are as follows: Griffiths is noted as the collector of 'Young Banker' from Mr J[ohn] Probert, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 91-93 (EML/l/24/a, EML/1/24/b); Gwilliam as the collector of 'The Two Affectionate Lovers' from Mr. Bebb, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 97-98 (EML/l/25/a, EML/l/25/b); and Webb as the collector of 'Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor' from Mr F. Wheeler, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 105-09 (EML/1/14), 'Young Lambkin', 'The Moon Shines Bright', and 'The Fountain of Christ's Blood' from Mr Thomas [sic] Colcombe, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 111-13 (EML/l/39/c), 131-32 (EML/1/0/a), 133 (EML/2/l/b), and 'Come All Ye Faithful Christians' from Mrs Wheeler, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 115-22 (EML/2/l/c).

(64) The Basket of Eggs' from Mr Thomas [sic] Colcombe, collected by Annie M. Webb, JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 102-03 (EML/1/18), and his version of 'Christmas Now Is Drawing Near at Hand', JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 134 (not extant in the Notebook).

(65) JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 136.

(66) JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905): (no. 12) 'Young Banker'; (no. 16) 'The Two Affectionate Lovers'; (no. 18) 'The Basket of Eggs'; (no. 20) 'Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor'; (no. 23) 'Young Lambkin'; (no. 25) 'Come All Ye Faithful Christians'; (no. 27) 'Dives and Lazarus'; (no. 31) 'The Moon Shines Bright'; (no. 33) 'The Fountain of Christ's Blood'; (no. 34) 'Christmas Now Is Drawing Near at Hand'; (no. 36) 'Oh, Have You Heard and Seen Our Saviour's Love .

(67) JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905): (no. 18) 'The Basket of Eggs'; (no. 27) 'Dives and Lazarus'; (no. 34) 'Christmas Now Is Drawing Near at Hand'; (no. 36) 'Oh, Have You Heard and Seen Our Saviour's Love'. In the case of 'Dives and Lazarus', from Mrs Harris, the clue is that the collectors, E[leanor] Andrews and Dr Quinten Darling, were friends of Mrs Leather's; see EML/1/0/d; JFSS, 2.2 (no. 7) (1905), 125-26.

(68) Her next contribution, the last three stanzas of 'The Sally Twigs' or 'The Bitter Withy', in 'Note on "Our Saviour Tarried Out" or 'The Bitter Withy"', JFSS, 2.4 (no. 9), 300-04, does credit her as collector, but does not list the singer. It can be assumed that it must be from William Colcombe, because she was later to write 'one singer at Weobley, Mr. W. Colcombe, always called it "The Sally Twiggs"' ('Carols from Herefordshire', p. 34).

(69) LEB/5/283, Ella Mary Leather to Lucy Broadwood, 11 May 1905. She is referring to LEB/5/279.

(70) LEB/5/258, Ella Mary Leather to Lucy Broadwood, 12 October 1905 (the letter's accompanying envelope, to which Broadwood has added the titles of the songs contained, is at LEB/5/249).

(71) LEB/5/290, Ella Mary Leather to Lucy Broadwood, [n.d. (the list of songs suggests 1905 as the probable year)].

(72) RVW/Scrapbook/1/46 [originally p. 61 upper], Fragments of Songs & Carols, from Mr. J. Probert, Weobley, Dec 1. 1906; and, for a song recorded in January 1907, 'Carols from Herefordshire, pp. 47-49 ('Dives and Lazarus').

(73) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 59. In this article Leather is talking about her first collecting work with Gypsies in October 1908; but, besides the trial cylinder with J. Probert (n. 72 above), 'Milkmaid's Song'/ 'The Milk Maid's Fair', from Mrs Powell (EML/l/13/a, EML/l/13/b, EML/2/10/n), 'Dives and Lazarus' from Mr J[ohn] Evans ('Carols from Herefordshire, pp. 47-49), and 'The Moon Shines Bright' from Mr G. Vaughan ('Carols from Herefordshire, pp. 10-11) were all recorded in 1907 (the second in January and the last in May).

(74) Percy Grainger, 'Collecting with the Phonograph', JFSS, 3.3 (12) (1908), 147-242.

(75) C. J. Bearman, 'Percy Grainger, the Phonograph and the Folk Song Society', Music & Letters, 84 (2003), 434-55.

(76) Bearman, pp. 440-41.

(77) Grainger, 'Collecting with the Phonograph', p.159. This note was probably by Lucy Broadwood, as the Honorary Secretary of the Society, but it is credited to 'The Editing Committee', which at that time consisted of Lucy Broadwood, Anne Gilchrist, Frank Kidson, J. A. Fuller Maitland, Cecil Sharp, and Ralph Vaughan Williams (JFSS, 3.1 (no. 10) (1907), p. [1]).

(78) The Folk-Song Society's flurry of activity in this direction makes heartening reading when compared with the experiences of other European folk song societies; for example, the trials and tribulations of the Committee for the Collection of Slovenian Folk Songs (Odbora za nabiranje slovenskih narodnih pesmi (OSNP)), which, each year from 1905, applied unsuccessfully to its parent committee in Vienna for funding to buy a phonograph, only for it to be finally granted in February 1914, by which time world events were soon to make the collecting of folk song in the Austro-Hungarian empire a tragically redundant activity. See Drago Kunej, "'We have plenty of words written down; we need melodies!": The Purchase of the First Recording Device for Ethnomusicological Research in Slovenia, Traditiones, 34.1 (2005), 125-40. I am indebted to Dr David Atkinson for acquainting me with this paper.

(79) Bearman, p. 439.

(80) Bearman, p. 439.

(81) Addendum slip pasted to the inner title page of JFSS, 2.4 (no. 9) (1906).

(82) Bearman, pp. 439, 455.

(83) Bearman, pp. 439-40. The London-based Gaelic recordings are to be found at London, British Library Sound Archive, EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1535-1553, C37/1569

(84) 'Folk Music Collected in the British Isles: Some English Manuscript and Recorded Collections Accessible to the Public' JEDSSJEFDSS, 8.3(1958), 160-64 (p. 162).

(85) Cecil J. Sharp, English Folk-Song: Some Conclusions (London: Simpkin; Novello; Taunton: Barnicott & Pearce, 1907), p. 72.

(86) Sharp's recordings are to be found at EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1556, C37/1558, C37/1581, C37/1588-1590, C37/1628, C37/1637.

(87) E. C. Cawte, "The Morris Dance in Herefordshire, Shropshire and Worcestershire', JEFDSS, 9.4 (1963); Roy Dommett, 'The Brimfield Morris Dance', English Dance & Song, 31.3 (1969), 98; Jones, 'The Gentlemen Locks'; Lavender Jones, 'The Shropshire Morris Dance', English Dance & Song, 18.5 (1954), 16-169; Derek Schofield, 'The Fiddle Tunes of John Lock', English Dance & Song, 68.4 (2006), 10-11; Pat Shaw, 'More Figure Eights from Herefordshire', English Dance & Song, 29.3 (1967), 83.

(88) EML/l/Ap/1-16.

(89) VWML, Cecil J. Sharp MSS, Correspondence, Box 2, Ella Mary Leather to Constance Sharp, 24 June 1924.

(90) Sharp MSS, Correspondence, Box 2, Cecil J. Sharp to Ella Mary Leather, 8 December 1909.

(91) Folk-Lore of Herefordshire p. [xvi].

(92) EML/1/Ap/1-2, 6-7, 9-14 (Lock); EML/l/Ap/4-5, 15 (Preece); Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, pp. 2413-2422, 2426 (Lock); Folk Tunes, pp. 2423-2425 (Preece); Folk Words, pp. 2191-2192 (Brimfield); Folk Words, pp. 2194-2196 (Madley); Folk Words, pp. 2193, 2197-2201 (Weobley).

(93) EML/l/Ap/14; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2416.

(94) Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 131.

(95) EML/l/Ap/2; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2426. In the Sharp MSS this tune is titled 'Sheepskins (?)'.

(96) EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1590.

(97) EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1585, Esther Smith, 'There Is a Fountain of Christ's Blood' (the label also lists 'Hancocks', but there is only one track audible on the cylinder); C37/1586, Mrs Ellen Powell, 1. 'Pretty Caroline', 2. ['Thresherman'].

(98) EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1580, C37/1582, C37/1583, C37/1584.

(99) EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1587, unknown singer, 1. ['Americkay'] 2. 'The Bitter Withy'.

(100) Details of the running speeds are taken from the spoken introductions to the most recent dubbings of the EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection made by the British Library Sound Archive [formerly the National Sound Archive of the British Library], 2001-03. See EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1535-1640 (1CDR0015624-1CDR0015631, 2CDR0013124-2CDR0013131), and their (unpublished) accompanying notes, British Library Sound Archive, Will Prentice, C37 dubbing notes, 2001. Earlier (also unpublished) collection lists are British Library Sound Archive, C37 National Sound Archive dubbing notes, 1982; Elaine Bradtke, 'Cardboard Box' Collection Index, 1994 (copy in VWML); British Library Sound Archive, Michael Clayton, C37edit, 1995 (held as a Word document at <G:\World & Trad Music\Collects\Cylinder\C37edit> [last accessed by the author in 2005J). The author is also engaged in compiling his own list of the recordings.

(101) 'The Indian Lass': Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 1548; EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1588, C37/1589, C/1628 (the last is the original, the other two being pantographic copies). 'The Basket of Eggs': Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 1549; EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, C37/1581.

(102) EML/l/Ap/5; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2423.

(103) EML/l/Ap/10. My thanks to Dr Elaine Bradtke for deciphering this sentence.

(104) EML/l/Ap/10; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, pp. 2419-20. The tune on p. 2419 continues on to the following page with two staves of variant refrains written under the earlier version.

(105) His subsequent visits were in July-August 1909, October 1910, September 1912, September 1913, and September 1922. See JFSS, 4.4 (no. 17) (1913), 279-86; Ursula Vaughan Williams, R. V. W: A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. 83; Michael Kennedy, The Works of Ralph Vaughan Williams (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), pp. 672-73, 676, 678-80.

(106) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 69.

(107) RVW/Scrapbook/2/119 [originally p. 84a], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 3 November 1908. The companion list of songs, possibly an insert that went with the cylinders, is to be found at RVW/Scrapbook/2/116 [originally p. 84 upper]; the fact that these two documents were linked would have been evident from their proximity to each other in the original Scrapbook, but is now far less apparent.

(108) RVW/Scrapbook/2/115 [originally p. 84 upper], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 9 November 1908.

(109) John Lloyd, 'Tailor and the Crow' (EML/1/4, EML/2/10/o); Mr He[nry] Beddoe, 'Seasons of the Year' (EML/1/8/ b); Mrs Ellen Powell, 'Milkmaid's Song' (EML/l/13/a, EML/l/13/a, EML/2/10/n; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 205); Charlotte Stephens, 'The Bitter Withy (EML/1/23); Ms Gekley[?], 'The Mantle of Green (EML/1/26/ b); Mr Hirons, 'There is an Alehouse' (EML/l/40/c); Mrs [Caroline] Bridges, 'Sailor Boy (EML/1/47); and Mr Hirons, 'The Trees They Do Grow High' (EML/l/49/a).

(110) Mrs [E.] Goodwin, 'Dilly Dove' (EML 1/12, EML/2/10/a; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 204); Mr W. Hirons, 'Cold Blows the Wind' (EML/l/49/b; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 202-03 (composite text)).

(111) Americkay' (C37/1587, EML/l/6/a, EML/3/a); 'The Bitter Withy (C37/1587, EML/l/6/c, EML/3/c).

(112) 'Morris Dance (EML/1/Ap/2; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2426, where it is titled 'Sheepskins (?)'); 'Sheepskins' (EML/1/Ap/14; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2416); 'Boyne Water' (EML/l/Ap/5; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2423).

(113) Mark Jones, 'Bold Robin Hood' (EML/2/7).

(114) Angelina Whatton, 'Christ Made a Trance' (EML/2/14/a; 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 12-15; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 192); Mrs Goodwin, 'The Holy Well' (EML/2/10/b, 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 26-28; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 186-87).

(115) Angelina Whatton, 'Under the Leaves of Life' (EML/2/4/a; 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 49-51; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 187-88); Mrs Loveridge, 'There Was a Lady in Merry Scotland' (EML/2/4/b; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 198-99).

(116) Mrs Powell, 'Claudy Banks' (LEB/5/259), Mrs Tristram, 'The Jeweller's Wedding' (LEB/5/269); 'God Our Father' (LEB/5/287). The last is probably from Mrs Johnson and Mrs Smith, recorded in September 1912 as noted at EML/2/13/a and in Twelve Traditional Carols, pp. 14-15, but could possibly be from Mr Colcombe, July 1909 (JFSS, 4.4 (no. 17) (1913), 338-40).

(117) John Hancocks, 'The Holy Well' (LEB/5/259); Mrs Tristram, 'Bitter Withy' (LEB/5/269).

(118) FSBW/2/13. The published versions are 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 29-35, (fourth tune); Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 181-86 (fourth tune).

(119) Mr G. Vaughan 'The Moon Shines Bright' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 10-11; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 193); Mr. W. Hancocks, "There Is a Fountain' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 21-22; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire,' pp. 21-22; Folk-Smith, 'There Is a Fountain' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 21-22; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 197); Mr J[ohn] Evans, 'Dives and Lazarus' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 47-49; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 190). The published songs that mention phonographs and are duplicated in the manuscripts are: Angelina Whatton, 'Christ Made a Trance' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 12-15; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 192; EML/2/14/a); Mr J. Hancocks, 'The Holy Well' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 26-28; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 186; LEB/5/259); Mrs E. Goodwin, 'The Holy Well' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 26-28; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 186; EML/2/10/b); Mrs Tristram, "The Bitter Withy' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 29-35; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 182; LEB/5/269); Mr W. Holder, "The Bitter Withy' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 29-35; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 183; EML/2/11; FSBW/2/13); Angelina Whatton, 'Under the Leaves' ('Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 49-51; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 187-88; EML/2/4/a); Mrs Loveridge, 'There Was a Lady in Merry Scotland' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 198; EML/2/4/a); W Hirons, 'Cold Blows the Wind' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 202; EML/l/49/b); Mrs E. Godwin, 'Dilly Dove' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 204; EML/1/12, EML/2/10/a); Mrs Ellen Powell, 'The Milkmaid's Song' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 205; EML/l/13/a, EML/l/13/b, EML/2/10/n); John Lock, 'Morris Dance' (Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, p. 13; EML/l/Ap/2; Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes p. 2426).

(120) The recording of 'Boyne Water' made for Sharp on 26 January 1912 (Sharp MSS, Folk Tunes, p. 2419); Charlotte Stephens, "The Bitter Withy, August 1913 (EML/1/23); and possibly the recording of 'God Our Father' (LEB/5/287), if it is indeed from Mrs Johnson and Mrs Smith, September 1912.

(121) I come to this conclusion based on the phonograph lists in the Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts and Letters. There, sixty-one songs are ascribed to thirty-one cylinders, which means that each song would on average comprise just over half of one cylinder, and thirty songs would occupy 16.2 cylinders; but this is, of course, only a rough estimate based on the extant evidence.

(122) The five lists are: (i) RVW/Scrapbook/1/46 [originally p. 61 upper], dated 1 December 1906; (ii) RVW/Scrapbook/2/119 [originally p. 84a], dated 3 November 1908, with companion list of songs at RVW/Scrapbook/2/116 [originally p. 84 upper]; (iii) RVW/Scrapbook/2/115 [originally p. 84 upper], dated 9 November 1908; (iv) RVW/Scrapbook/2/124 [originally p. 87], dated 11 February 1909; (v) RVW/Scrapbook/2/152 [originally p. 95 upper] and RVW/ Scrapbook/2/153 [originally p. 95 lower], March 1909 or later.

(123) RVW/Scrapbook/2/155 [originally p. 97 reverse]. Vaughan Williams gives only three page numbers for these lists in the index (pp. 84, 87, 95), but this is because the lists for 3 and 9 November were both pasted to the same page (p. 84), and the list on p. 61 gives the contents of just one recording and therefore was not, strictly speaking, a list of multiple cylinders.

(124) RVW/Scrapbook/1/46 [originally p. 61 upper].

(125) RVW/Scrapbook/2/119 [originally p. 84a], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 3 November 1908, with companion list of songs at RVW/Scrapbook/2/116 [originally p. 84 upper].

(126) RVW/Scrapbook/2/115 [originally p. 84 upper], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 9 November 1908.

(127) RVW/Scrapbook/2/124 [originally p. 87], Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 11 February 1909.

(128) RVW/Scrapbook/2/152 [originally p. 95 upper], RVW/Scrapbook/2/153 [originally p. 95 lower].

(129) Noah Richards is previously mentioned at RVW/Scrapbook/2/115 [originally p. 84 upper], and G. Vaughan at RVW/Scrapbook/2/116 [originally p. 84 upper], assuming that this is the same informant ('Vaughan' in the earlier list).

(130) John Lloyd, 'Tailor and the Crow' (EML/1/4, EML/2/l0/o); Mrs [E.] Goodwin, 'Dilly Dove' (EML/1/12, EML/2/10/a; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 204); Mrs Goodwin, 'The Holy Well' (EML/2/10/b, 'Carols from Herefordshire', pp. 26-28; Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, pp. 186-87).

(131) Two from the 3 November 1908 list; all four from that of 11 November 1908; two from the list of March 1909 or later.

(132) Jones, A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 25; Randerson, p. [2].

(133) EML/2/13/e; 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', pp. 62-63.

(134) 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies', p. 63. Vaughan Williams also spoke about this experience on Lavender Burne's [Jones's] radio programme about Ella Leather in 1954. Unfortunately, his section was prerecorded to disc (BBC DBM 10364) and was not included in the transmission script; see Lavender Burne, 'Ella Leather of Weobley', BBC Midland Home Service, 29 August 1954 [transcript]; copy held in Weobley and District Local History Society, 1972/383, Ella Mary Leather file. I have been unsuccessful in locating a copy of the programme; its transmission tape number is BBC DBM.10371.

(135) For the group photographs, see Weobley and District Local History Society, 2005/02/02, Sarnesfield Court 1916-18] photograph folder; the portrait photograph of Ella Leather is mounted separately in the corridor at Weobley and District Local History Society. Intriguingly, Randerson, p. [1], states, 'A photograph exists taken in Manningham, Bradford of young Frank Leather and Ella. Smith presumably as an engaged couple visiting his family', but I have not managed to locate this.

(136) Twelve Traditional Carols, p. [3].

(137) Twelve Traditional Carols, pp. 10-11.

(138) Whitehead, 'Leather, Ella Mary (1874-1928)'; 'The Late Mrs. F. H. Leather', Journal of the English Folk Dance Society, no. 2 (1928), 29-30.

(139) Roy Palmer Collection, C1023/111, interview with Lavender Jones, 25 October 1988.

(140) Jones, 'A Nest of Singing Birds', p. 54.

(141) EML/l/0/b/l, Ella Mary Leather to Ralph Vaughan Williams, 15 September 1922; EML/l/0/b/2, 'As I Passed by a Willow Tree' (printed); EML/1/0/b/3, 'Cold Blows the Wind'.

(142) See EML/2/13/e for 'Cold Blows the Wind' (1912); and EML/2/13/b for the same singer's version of 'The Claudy Banks'.

(143) Of the forty Scottish Gaelic recordings in the EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection, half were made by Lucy Broadwood, and half by Farquhar MacRae. A few of Broadwood's late recordings have not survived, but the vast majority (say, 90 per cent) have; none of her earliest Gaelic recordings have come down to us, but these numbered substantially fewer than the fifteen or so that would have been needed to permit her phonograph collection to exceed that of Leather.

(144) Noyes was librarian 1961-69. See EFDSS Annual Reports 1955-65 (accession no. 5829) and 1965-75 (no accession no.), and Malcolm Taylor, list of 'VWML Librarians since WW2'.

The Ella Mary Leather Collection--Provisional Catalogue

In compiling this catalogue I have worked with the premise of attempting to give as transparent an overview of Ella Mary Leather's collecting work as is currently possible. Due to the dispersed nature of her collection, with the same song appearing in anything up to seven different sources, it seemed neither practicable nor desirable to give an entry by entry description of each manuscript. Consequently, I decided upon a single chronological table that would incorporate entries from all of the collections, because it offers the possibility of presenting related citations contiguously and thus does away with the necessity of cross-referencing separate tables.

This method has provided two further benefits. First, by compiling the information from so many separate sources into single entries, it has been possible to combine pieces of information that, while individually adding little, collectively give a much more complete picture. For example, one entry for a song might provide its title but not its singer, while a companion transcription in a separate manuscript might give the reverse, while a third source might reproduce the first stanza, and a fourth give information about the collector. Slowly it has become possible to put tunes to words, to identify collectors with locations and dates, to assign handwriting to collectors and informants, and to ascribe singers to songs.

The second benefit of this method of cataloguing is that it gave a much more concrete representation of the collection's development, something that the paucity of surviving correspondence could not do. Thus Leather's day-by-day collecting work with Vaughan Williams in July 1909 becomes much more apparent when ones sees the songs in order. Likewise, by adopting the simple expedient of noting phonograph recordings in bold, the series of cylinders that Leather concerned herself with in the latter half of 1908 and early 1909 becomes clearly visible as the adventurous and great work that it was.

Regarding attribution, I have only marked a song as being collected by Leather if we possess either a manuscript in her hand, or in another hand to which she has provided a gloss, or where a source has cited her as providing the material. For example, in the case of envelopes in the Lucy Broadwood collection (such as LEB/5/239), where none of the above criteria pertain, I am still inclined to assume Leather's involvement in some form or other in the collection of the songs, especially if they were among those that she pasted into her Notebook, but I have not taken the liberty of marking them as having been 'collected' by Leather--although, as we have seen, the term 'collected by' is much more flexible in relation to this collection than many others.

In a few instances material that is included in the Leather manuscripts also exists independently of Leather's collection, as is the case with Francis Jekyll's material. Here one would assume that Leather's role was purely an overseeing one (if that), except that the rougher state of the transcriptions in the Notebook, compared with the neat copies in the Broadwood collection, suggests that the former are the primary versions and thus argues Leather's initial involvement, at some level, in their collection. Consequently, I have retained these in the catalogue, but have not credited them to Leather. Another problematic inclusion is that of the four songs that Ralph Vaughan Williams collected in Herefordshire in September 1913, which were published in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 5.1 (no. 18) (1914). I had initially assumed that the dating of Esther Smith's 'Christmas Day', published in Folk-Lore, 37 (1926), to September 1913 was an error for 1912; but the realization that Vaughan Williams's main collecting work for 1913 was indeed carried out in September in Herefordshire now suggests otherwise. More work on the Vaughan Williams manuscript collection will be necessary before conclusions can be drawn on whether these songs were actually the product of a joint collecting tour. For the time being, I have included them in the catalogue but identified as the work of Vaughan Williams alone.

I have not included in the catalogue manuscript copies of previously printed material from other collections, such as the copies of carols from the publications of Sandys, Sylvester, and Bramley and Stainer that make up the entries at EML/3/23-31. I have, however, made an exception where there is either uncertainty as to the published origin of a text, such as Walter Pilley's version of 'Dives and Lazarus' (EML/1/21), or where the printed source is of such obscurity that Leather's copy is one of the few known sources for the text, such as the 'Cyder Tax' ballad found in Memorials of Old Herefordshire.

Of course, a chronological catalogue has its own problems, not least the fact that for the earlier years very few of the songs are dated. For these entries I have had to rely to a large extent on the internal evidence of the manuscripts to provide approximate dates: where a song is placed in relation to related, dated songs; when a collector was known to have been working with Leather; whether the paper is from the same batch as that used for another song; and so on. Inevitably, I have been unable to ascertain specific dates for many entries, and in these cases I have resorted to the expedient of listing the singers alphabetically. With regard to other lacunae--where I have been unable to prove something directly from the texts themselves and have instead had to rely on other manuscripts in the collection to fill in the gaps--I have utilized square brackets to denote editorial interpolations. Nonetheless, gaps do remain, and for this very reason I term this a provisional catalogue. I do not, however, see this as a negative description, but as a very positive one: the last year's research on Ella Leather at the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library has produced more than I would ever have thought possible; there is bound to be more material awaiting us.
Collectors

EML                   Ella Mary Leather

AMW                   Annie M. Webb

CJS                   Cecil J. Sharp

FG                    F. Gwilliam

FJ                    Francis Jekyll

GB                    George Butterworth

JG                    J. Griffiths

RHR                   R. Hughes Rowlands

RVW                   Ralph Vaughan Williams

Sources

C37/                  EFDSS Wax Cylinder Collection

CFMGH                 'Collecting Folk-Melodies from Gypsies in
                      Herefordshire'

EML/1/                Ella Leather Notebook

EML/2/                Ella Leather loose papers

EML/3/                Miscellaneous Herefordshire papers

FLH                   The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire

FSBW/                 Frank Sidgwick, 'Bitter Withy' folder

GB/                   George Butterworth Collection

JFSS                  Journal of the Folk-Song Society (cited by date
                      and page numbers alone)

LEB/                  Lucy Broadwood Manuscript Collection

LIB/COLL/MPS 50(31)/  VWML, Library Collection MPS 50(31)

MOH                   Memorials of Old Herefordshire

RVW/Scrapbook/        Ralph Vaughan Williams Scrapbook of Texts
                      and Letters

TTCH                  Twelve Traditional Carols from Herefordshire

Abbreviations

cm                    composite music

ct                    composite text

m                     music

t                     title only

w                     words

wl                    words, first stanza only
The Ella Mary Leather Collection--Provisional Catalogue

Date           Title           Performer          Place

1904           There Is a      Colcombe,          Weobley
               Fountain of     William
               Christ's
               Blood

F.ML/2/l/b:w

1904           The North       Colcombe,          Weobley
               Country         William
               Damsel

1904           Eggs in her     Colcombe,          Weobley
               Basket /        William
               Basket of
               Eggs

1904           Christmas Now   Colcombe,          Weobley
               Is Drawing      William
               Near at Hand/
               Carol--Xmas
               Now Is
               Drawing

[1904]         The Sally       [Colcombe,         Weobley
               Twigs or The    William]
               Bitter Withy

1904           Lord Thomas     Galleiss [?],      near Weobley
                               Mrs

1904           Come All Ye     Wheeler, Mrs P.    Weobley
               Faithful
               Christians

1904           Lord Thomas     Wheeler, F.        near Weobley
               and Fair
               Eleanor

Dec 1904       Young Edwin in  Bebb, W            Weobley, The
               the Lowlands                       Marsh
               Low

                                   1905

n.d.           Carol           --                 --
               [Shepherds on
               their Flocks
               Attending]

n.d.           The Highway     --                 --
               Robber

n.d.           Bold Dragoon

n.d.           Come All You                       --
               Jolly
               Ploughmen

n.d.           The Widow [?]   --                 --

[c.1905]       Tick            children           Herefordshire

[c.1905]       Tick            children           Herefordshire

n.d.           The Fox         [unnamed           [Herefordshire,
               Hunting Chase   descendant of      Upper Hill]
                               Richard
                               Matthews]

n.d.           The Fox-Hum /   Richards, Mr       Moorhampton
               The             Noah
               Herefordshire
               Fox-Chase

n.d.           Dick Turpin     Richards, Noah     Moorhampton

[1905]         Pride of        Richards, Noah     Moorhampton
               Glcncoe

n.d.           [Dives and      [broadside;]       Barton, Hereford
               Lazarus]

--             A Song,         [broadside]        --
               Written on the
               Repeal of the
               Cyder Tax
               IVelters
               Cornewall]

1905           Two             Bebb, Mr W.        near Weobley
               Affectionate
               Lovers

1905           The King and    Brace, Mrs         Weobley
               the Keeper

1905           Oh, Have You    Bridges, Mrs       Pembridge
               Heard and Seen  Caroline
               Our Saviour's
               Love? Young
               Lambkin

1905                           Colcombe,          Weobley
                               William

1905           The Moon        Colcombe,          Weobley
               Shines Bright   William

1905           William Railey  Colcombe,          Weobley
               /Young Wm.      William
               Reilly

1905           The Mountains   Colcombe,          Weobley
               High            William

1905           Lord Bateman    Colcombe,          Weobley
                               William

1905           The Banks of    Hughes, Nellie     Hardwick
               Sweet Dundee

[1905]         The Faithful    Hughes, Nellie     Hardwick
               Sailor Boy

1905           Young Banker    Probert, Mr John   Weobley

1905           Peggy Ban       Probert, John      Weobley

[1905]         Sailors Grave   Probert, John      Weobley

n.d.           Cedar of        Thomas, Harry      Dilwyn
               Lebanon

n.d.           [King William   --                 --
               and the
               Keeper]

n.d.           I'm Too Proud   Turner, Mrs        Weobley,
               to Beg                             Ledgemoor Common

n.d.           My School       Turner, Mrs        Weobley,
               Master's Sow                       Ledgemoor Common

after 14 June  Dives and       Harris, Mrs        Eardisley
1905           Lazarus/
               Divcrus and
               Lazarus

[Sept 1905]    Rose in June    [Dowden, George]   [Dorset,
                                                  Lackington]

Sept 1905      The New Garden  Morgan, John       Dilwyn
               Field

3 Oct 1905     Brangywell/     Mellor, Mrs        Dilwyn, The
               Brang-y-well                       Vicarage

Oct 1905       The Pretty      Morgan, John       Dilwyn, The
               Ploughboy/ The                     Pitch
               Ploughboy

before 12 Oct  The Man That    Wheeler, Mrs       Weobley, Mile
1905           Lives                              Street

1905           The Three       children           Broxwood School
               Dukes

1905           Sweet William   Hughes-Rowlands,   [Dilwyn, The
                               Mrs                Schools]

1905           I'll Tell You   Hughes-Rowlands,   (Dilwyn, The
               of a Fellow     Mrs                Schools]

18 Oct 1905    The Farmer's    [?]                [Dilwyn, The
               Boy                                Schools]

17 Nov 1905    The Seasons of  Morgan, John       Dilwyn, The
               the Year/Four                      Pitch
               Seasons of the
               Year

Nov 1905       Spencer the     Morgan, John       Dilwyn
               Rover

11 Dec 1905    Carol, Carol,   --                 --
               Gaily

n.d.           Pollie Oliver   --                 --

                                 1906

n.d.           The Dark Eyed   --                 --
               Sailor

n.d.           The Marden      The Bell-Ringers   Marden
               Forfeit Song    at Marden

n.d.           Come All Ye     --                 Marden
               Faithful
               Christians

n.d.           Spencer the     Griffiths, Mrs     Dilwyn
               Rover

1906           The Frog and    'a native of       Weobley
               Mouse           Weobley'

n.d.           The Frog and    'an old Irish      Herefordshire
               the Duck        nurse'

1906           William and     Bebb, W.           Weobley
               Harriet

n.d.           The Black       Woodhall, Mrs      [Herefordshire]
               Decree

March 1906     Xmas Carol      children           Bristol
               [While
               Shepherds
               Watched their
               Flocks by
               Night]

March 1906     Erin's Lovely   Colcombe,          Weobley
               Home            William

May 1906       A Fair Damsel   Preece, Mr         Sollars Dilwyn
               in London Did   Joseph
               Dwell

May 1906       Jolly Fellows   Preece, Mr         Sollars Dilwyn
               that Follow     Joseph
               the Plough

July 1906      Rose in June    Priday, Mr         Weobley
                               Joseph

July 1906      The Seeds of    Priday, Mr         Weobley
               Love            Joseph

Aug  1906      A Fair Damsel   Preece, Mr         Dilwyn Common
               in London Did   Joseph
               Dwell

Aug 1906       The             Price, Mr George   Norton Canon
               Herefordshire
               Farmer

Aug 1906       Here's Joe      Price, Mr George   Norton Canon
               Coon

Aug 1906       The Life of     Taylor, W.         Kings Pyon
               Man

9 Aug 06       Miss Betty      Powell, Mrs        [Kings Pyon]
               Wilster/Miss
               Betsy Wilster

Sept 1906      William Taylor  Colcombe,          Weobley
               and Sarah       William
               Gray

1906           As I Walked     Colcombe,          Weobley
               Out             William

1906           The Sinner's    Colcombe,          Weobley
               Dream           William

1906           Poor Mary of    Colcombe,          Weobley
               the Silvery     William
               Tide / The
               Silvery Tide

Aug 1906       A Young         Colcombe,          Weobley
               Sailor          William

[1906]         The Sally       Colcombe,          Weobley
               Twigs           William            Workhouse

1906           The Mountains   Colcombe,          Weobley
               High            William

1906           (Poor Mary of)  Colcombe,          Weobley
               the Silvery     William
               Tide

Sept 1906      Eggs in her     Colcombe,          Weobley
               Basket          William

Sept 1906      Billy Taylor    Colcombe, William  Weobley

Sept 1906      Lord Bateman    Colcombe,          Weobley
                               William

Sept 1906      In Chapel       Colcombe,          Weobley
               Park            William

1906           Erin's Lovely   Colcombe,          Weobley
               Home            William

[Sept] 1906    William         Colcombe,          Weobley
               Reilly          William

Sept 1906      Banks of Sweet  Colcombe,          Weobley
               Primroses       William

Sept 1906      (There Is an    Colcombe,          Weobley
               Alehouse) A     William
               Brisk Young
               Sailor Courted
               Me

1906           North Country   Colcombe,          Weobley
               Damsel          William

1 Dec 1906     In a Manger     Probert, Mr John   Weobley
               Laid So Lowly

1 Dec 1906     Riches Are But  Probert, Mr John   Weobley
               Vanity

1 Dec 1906     Abroad as I     Probert, Mr John   Weobley
               Was Walking

1 Dec 1906     Down by the     Probert, Mr John   Weobley
               Shining Water,
               There Runs a
               Clear Stream

n.d.           The Honest      Burton, Mr C.      [Dilwyn]
               Weaver

5 Dec 1906     The Angel       Burton, George     Dilwyn
               Gabriel--A
               Carol

                                   1907

Jan 1907       Dives and       Evans, Mr John     Dilwyn
               Lazarus

n.d.           Dives and       --                 Hereford
               Lazarus

March 1907     The Moon        Vaughan, Mr G.     Dilwyn
               Shines Bright,
               and the Stars
               Give their
               Light

[1907]         Cold Blows the  Powell, Mrs        Westhope, Canon
               Wind; or. The                      Pyon
               Unquiet Grave

1907           Milkmaid's      Powell, Mrs        Westhope, Canon
               Song            Ellen              Pyon

Dec 1907       The Bitter      Holder, W.         Withington, Duke
               Withy                              Street

                                   1908

n.d.           The 14th of     --                 [Herefordshire]
               February

n.d.           Hobbs Bobbs     Baynham, Mrs       Hereford, 9 Park
                               Virginia           Street

n.d.           The Milkmaid    [Richards?],       Herefordshire
                               Noah

n.d.           [The Metry      --                 --
               King]

1908           The Sally       Colcombe,          Weobley
               Twigs           William

1908           Three Jolly     Preece, William    Herefordshire
               Black
               Sheep-Skins

Jan 1908       The Bitter      Jones, Mrs Mary    Ledgemoor [near
               Withy                              Weobley]/Kings
                                                  Pyon

8 Jan 1908     The Sally Twig  Layton, James      Kings Pyon,
               / The Bitter                       Weobley
               Withies

n.d.           Mayers' Song    --                 Hertfordshire

19 Feb 1908    The Bitter      Brimfield, Mr G.   Winforton, The
               Withy           T.                 Wydenhams

Sept 1908      There Is an     Jones, Mrs         [Ledgemoor, near
               Alehouse                           Weobley]

Sept 1908      In Carlock      Smith, Mrs Mary    Chadnor, near
               Town            Ann                Weobley

Seprl908       Christ Made a   Smith, Mrs Mary    Chadnor, near
               Trance          Ann                Weobley

Sept 1908      Young Leonard   Smith, Mrs Mary    Chadnor, near
                               Ann                Weobley

Sept 1908      Mollie Vaughan  Smith, Mrs Mary    Chadnor, near
               / Molly         Ann                Weobley
               Vaughan

Sept 1908      As I Was        Whatton, Miss      Dilwyn, The
               a-Walkin'                          Homme

Sept 1908      Christ Made a   Whatton,           Dilwyn, The
               Trance One      Angelina, and Mrs  Homme
               Sunday at       Whatton
               Noon

n.d.           [Christian      [Whatton,          [Weobley, or The
               People]         Angelina or Mrs]   Homme, near
                               [?]                Weobley ]

Sept 1908      There Lived a   Loveridge, Mrs     Dilwyn, at the
               Lady in Merry                      Homme farm
               Scotland

Sept 1908      Cherry Tree     Herbert, Mrs       Thinghill, near
               Carol                              Withington

Oct 1908       There Is a      Hancocks, Mr W     Monnington
               Fountain of
               Christ's
               Blood

Oct 1908       There Is a      Smith, Mrs         Weobley
               Fountain of     [Esther]
               Christ's
               Blood

Oct 1908       The Seven       Whatton,           The Homme farm,
               Virgins; or,    Angelina, and Mrs  near Weobley
               Under the       Whatton
               Leaves

Oct 1908       Rich            Hancocks, John     Monnington
               Merchant's
               Daughter

Oct 1908       Holy Well       Hancocks, Mr       Monnington-on-Wye
                               John

before 3 Nov   Billy Taylor    Mrs Mary Whatton   Herefordshire
1908

before 3 Nov   As I Walked     Mrs Mary Whatton   Herefordshire
1908           Out

before 3 Nov   Basket of       Colcombe,          Weobley
1908           Eggs            [William]          workhouse

Before 3 Nov   As I Walked     Prosser            Herefordshire
1908           Out

before 3 Nov   Rosemary Lane   Vaughan [Mr G.]    Dilwyn
1908

before 3 Nov   One Easter      Vaughan [Mr G.]    Dilwyn
1908

before 3 Nov   As I Walked     Herbert, Mrs       Thinghill, near
1908           Out                                Withington

before 3 Nov   Tiresome Wife   Colcombe,          Weobley
1908                           [William]

before 9 Nov   Claudy Banks    Powell, Mrs        Westhope
1908

before 9 Nov   Pretty          Powell, Mrs        Westhope
1908           Caroline

before 9 Nov   Thresherman     Powell, Mrs        Westhope
1908

before 9 Nov   Diverus and     Harris, Mrs        Eardisley
1908           Lazarus

before 9 Nov   True Lovers     [Richards, Noah]   [Herefordshire]
1908           Downfall

Nov 1908       The Mummers     Powell, William    Ross, Brampton
               Play                               Street

                                    1909

Jan 1909       Bitter Withy    Holder, W.         Withington, [Duke
                                                  Street]

before Feb 11  Bitter Withy    Tristram, Mrs      Withington
1909

before Feb 11  Jeweller's      Tristram, Mrs      Withington
1909           Wedding

before Feb 11  Joys of Mary    Tristram, Mrs      Withington
1909                                              Withington

before Feb 11  Down in the     Tristram, Mrs
1909           Fields of
               Bilberry

1909           The Gypsy       Vaughan [Mr] G.    Dilwyn
               Bride

1909           Apprentice in   Vaughan [Mr] G.    Dilwyn
               Rosemary Lane

1909           The Outlandish  Preece, J          Dilwyn
               Knight

1909           Hunting Song    Preece, J          Dilwyn

1909           Polly Oliver    Vaughan [Mr] G.    Dilwyn

1909           Pretty Betsy    Bridges, Mrs       Pembridge
                               Caroline

1909           In Sheffield    Bridges, Mrs       Pembridge
               Park            Caroline

1909           In a Hospital   Bridges, Mrs       Pembridge
               Garden          Caroline

1909           The Sailor      Bridges, Mrs       Pembridge
               Boy             Caroline

1909           The Deserter    Bridges, Mrs       Pembridge
                               Caroline

n.d.           Claudy Banks    [Bridges, Mrs      [Pembridge]
               Down by the     Caroline] [?]
               Green Bushes

1909                           Goodwin, Mrs       Ledgemoor

1909           As I Walked     Bridges, Mrs       Pembridge
               Out             Caroline

1909           The Prickly     Goodwin, Mrs       Ledgemoor
               Bush

1909           Dilly Dove      Goodwin, Mrs       Ledgemoor

March 1909     The Holy Well   Goodwin, Mrs E.    Ledgemoor / Kings
                                                  Pyon

1909           There Was a     Goodwin, Mrs       Ledgemoor
               Lord in
               Lancashire

1909           Leanthony [?]   Morgan, Mr Thos.   near Broxwood

1909           Skipper and     Morgan, Mr Thos.   near Broxwood
               his Boy

1909           Erin's Lovely   Morgan, Mr Thos.   near Broxwood
               Home

1909           The Irish       Morgan, Mr Thos.   near Broxwood
               Girl

1909           It's of a       Morgan, Mr Thos.   near Broxwood
               Pretty
               Ploughboy

1909           The Tailor and  Lloyd, Mr John     Broxwood
               the Crow

1909           Bunch of        Morgan, Mr T.      Broxwood
               Watercress

1909           The Besom       Morgan, Mr T.      Broxwood
               Maker

1909           Napoleon        Taylor, Mr Thos.   Broxwood

1909           Waterloo        Taylor, Mr Thos.   Broxwood

1909           Undaunted       Morgan, Mr T.      Broxwood
               Female

1909           Hunting Song    Lloyd, Mi John     Broxwood

1909           The Almeley     Lloyd, Mr John     Broxwood
               Census

1909           Little Grey     Lloyd, Mr John     Broxwood
               Horse

1909           The Banks of    Richards, Mr       Moorhampton
               Boyne           Noah

1909           Pride of        Richards, Mr       Moorhampton
               Dundee          Noah

1909           True Lovers'    Richards, Mr       Moorhampton
               Downfall        Noah

1909           Tom Sayers      Richards, Mr       Moorhampton
                               Noah

1909           Seasons of the  Beddoe, Mr H. C.   Hereford
               Year

1909           Binnorie        Beddoe, Mr H. C.   Hereford

1909           The Trees They  Hirons, Mr W.      Haven
               Do Grow High

1909           Cold Blows the  Hirons, Mr W.      Dilwyn, Haven
               Wind

1909           There Is an     Hirons, Mr W.      Haven
               Alehouse

1909           The Mantle of   Geldey, Ms [?]     Dilwyn, The
               Green                              Pitch

n.d.           The Bunch of    Hirons, J.         [Haven]
               Roses

May 1909       Bold Robin I    Jones, Mark        Llanvepw[?]
               Hood

June 1909      The Mantle of   Powell, Mrs        Kings Pyon
               Green

July 1909      Awake, Awake,   Bridges, Mrs       [Herefordshire],
               Sweet England   Caroline           Pembridge

July 1909      God Rest You    Colcombe, Mr       Weobley
               Merry           [William]

July 1909      The Bold        Gough              [Herefordshire]
               Cripple

July 1909      The Man That    Jenkins, Mr W.     Kings Pyon,
               Lives                              Ledgemoor

July 1909      The Truth Sent  Jenkins, Mr W.     Kings Pyon,
               From Above                         Ledgemoor

July 1909      The Man that    Wheeler, Mrs       Weobley
               Lives

27 July 1909   Highway         Colcombe,          Weobley Union
               Robber          William

27 July 1909   Sinner's        Colcombe,          Weobley Union
               Dream           William

27 July 1909   Carnal and the  Hirons, [Mr W]     Dilwyn, Haven
               Crane

1909           The Saviour's   Hirons, Mr         Dilwyn, Haven
               Love

[1909]         Angel Gabriel   Hirons, Mr         Dilwyn, Haven

n.d.           The Angel       [Gallet, Mr] [?]   [Worcestershire,
               Gabriel                            Leigh Sinton]

[July] 1909    Captain Evans   Powell, Mrs        Westhope
                               [Ellen]

[July] 1909    Early Early     Powell, Mrs        Westhope
                               [Ellen]

[July] 1909    Merry Green     Powell, Mrs        Westhope
               Broom fields    [Ellen]

[July] 1909    Cold Blows the  Powell, Mrs        Westhope
               Wind            [Ellen)

July 1909      Dabbling in     Powell, Mrs        Herefordshire,
               the Dew         [Ellen]            near Weobley,

28 July 1909   The Myrtle      Powell, Mrs        Westhope
               Tree            [Ellen]

28 July 1909   The             Powell, Mrs        Westhope
               Blacksmith      [Ellen]

28 July 1909   Blacksmith      Powell, Mrs        Westhope
               [Version II']   [Ellen]

28 July 1909   Stockings and   Powell, Mrs        [Westhope]
               Gown            [Ellen]

1909           The             Powell, Mr         Herefordshire
               Blacksmith

28 July 1909   A Brisk Young   Colcombe,          Weobley Union
               Sailor Courted  William
               Me

29 July 1909   Green Bushes    Powell, Mrs        Westhope
                               [Ellen]

29 July 1909   Billy Taylor    Powell, Mrs        Westhope
                               [Ellen]

29 July 1909   Gloucester      --                 Swan Inn,
               Wassail Song                       Pembridge,
                                                  Leominster

31 July 1909   Apprentice      Smith, Mrs         Swan Inn,
               Boy                                Pembridge

[July 1909]    The Turtle      Lewis, Mr          Hardwick
               Dove

31 July 1909   "The Moon       Lewis, Mr G.       Hardwick
               Shines Bright

31 July 1909   Fountain of     Lewis, Mr G.       [Herefordshire]
               Christ's                           Hardwick
               Blood

31 July 1909   The             Jones, Mrs         Weobley
               Blacksmith      Harriet

31 July 1909   Sheffield       Jones, Mrs         Weobley
               Apprentice      Harriet

31 July 1909   Christ Made a   Jones, Mrs         Weobley
               Trance          Harriet

n.d.           The Seven       Jones, Mrs         Weobley
               Virgins         Harriet Floyd,
                               Mr

Aug 1909       'The Young and  Floyd, Mr          Herefordshire,
               Single Sailor                      near Weobley,

Sept 1909      The Bitter      Fletcher,          Monkland
               Withy           Richard

n.d.           The Angel       --                 [Herefordshire?]
               Gabriel

n.d.           Our Saviour's   --                 [Herefordshire?]
               Love

n.d.           Bacon and       --                 [Herefordshire]
               Green

n.d.           St Patrick's    --                 [Herefordshire]
               Day in the
               Morning

n.d.           [The Dark Eyed  --                 [Herefordshire]
               Sailor]

[1909]         There Is an     --                 [Herefordshire]
               Ale house

[1909]         Hornpipes       Locke, John        [Herefordshire]

27 Dec 1909    Trip to the     Locke, John        Leominster
               Cottage

27 Dec 1909    Morris Dance    Locke, John        Leominster

--             Trip to the     printed            --
               Cottage

29 Dec 1909    Flowers of      Preece, William    Dilwyn
               Edinburgh

29 Dec 1909    Jack off the    Prcece, William    Dilwyn
               Green

27 Dec 1909    Speed the       Locke, John        Leominster
               Plough

n.d.           The Seven       Jones, Mrs         Weobley
               Virgins         Harriet Floyd,
                               Mr

Aug 1909       'The Young and  Floyd, Mr          Herefordshire,
               Single Sailor                      near Weobley,

Sept 1909      The Bitter      Fletcher,          Monkland
               Withy           Richard

n.d.           The Angel       --                 [Herefordshire?]
               Gabriel

n.d.           Our Saviour's   --                 [Herefordshire?]
               Love

n.d.           Bacon and       --                 [Herefordshire]
               Green

n.d.           St Patrick's    --                 [Herefordshire]
               Day in the
               Morning

n.d.           [The Dark Eyed  --                 [Herefordshire]
               Sailor]

[1909]         There Is an     --                 [Herefordshire]
               Ale house

[1909]         Hornpipes       Locke, John        [Herefordshire]

27 Dec 1909    Trip to the     Locke, John        Leominster
               Cottage

27 Dec 1909    Morris Dance    Locke, John        Leominster

--             Trip to the     printed            --
               Cottage

29 Dec 1909    Flowers of      Preece, William    Dilwyn
               Edinburgh

29 Dec 1909    Jack off the    Prcece, William    Dilwyn
               Green

27 Dec 1909    Speed the       Locke, John        Leominster
               Plough

                                    1910

Aug 1910       A Wager, A      Powell, Mrs        near Weobley
               Wager

Aug 1910       'a new Xmas     under-gardener at  Herefordshire,
               Carol' ['Twas   Stoke Edith Park   Stoke Edith Park
               Mary in the
               morning to the
               sepulchre she
               came]

                                    1911

[1911]         Americkay       --                 --

[1911]         Joseph and      --                 --
               Mary

[1911]         Bitter Withy    --                 --

n.d.           The Angel       --                 [Hereford,
               Gabriel                            Ledbury Road,
                                                  Fenton Lodge]

25 Nov 1911    The Angel       --                 Hereford, Ledbury
               Gabriel                            Road, Fenton
                                                  Lodge

[1844]         [Awake, Awake,  --                 either.
               Sweet                              Winterhourne,
               England]                           near Salisbury,
                                                  Wiltshire, or
                                                  Dormington, near
                                                  Hereford

                                  1912

n.d.           The Holy Well   Gypsies            Sutton St
                                                  Nicholas

--             King Pharim     --                 --

26 Jan 1912    Boyne Water     Locke, John        [Herefordshire]

Sept 1912      Cold Blows the  Smith (Whatton),   Kings Pyon, The
               Wind            Mrs Esther         Browns

Sept 1912      I'll Have my    Smith, Mrs         Herefordshire
               Petticoat       Esther

Sept 1912      My Mother Sent  Smith, Mrs         Herefordshire
               Me              Esther

Sept 1912      Sheffield       Smith, Mrs         Herefordshire
               Park            Esther

Sept 1912      Molly Bawn      Smith, Mrs         Herefordshire
                               Esther

13 Sept 1912   Shrewsbury      a gypsy hop        Kings Pyon,
               Gaol            picker'            Chadnor Hill, The
                                                  Browns

Sept 1912      Riding Down to  Smith, Mrs         Herefordshire
               Pochemar        Esther

Sept 1912      On Christmas    Smith, Mrs         Dilwyn, The
               Day             Esther             Homme

[Sept 1912?]   The Barley      Smith, Esther      [Herefordshire]
               Raking

n.d.           [The Bitter     [Smith, Esther]    [Herefordshire]
               Withy]          [?]

[Sept 1912]    Christian       [Smith, Mrs        [Weobley, or The
               People/Oh       Esther]            Homme, near
               Christmas Now                      Weobley ]
               Is Drawing
               Near at Hand

[?]            [Xmas Day Is    [possibly either   [Herefordshire]
               a-Drawing Nigh  Smith, Esther, or
               at Hand]        Johnson, Mrs]

Sept 1912      God Rest You    Smith, Mary Ann,   Dilwyn, The
               Merry,          and Johnson, Mrs   Homme
               Gentlemen

n.d.           God Our         --                 [Herefordshire]
               Father

n.d.           Gypsy Song      --                 Herefordshire

n.d.           The Outlandish  --                 --
               Knight

n.d.           Ballad [The     --                 [Herefordshire]
               Cruel Mother]

11 Sept 1912   The Claudy      Jones, Alfred      Monkland
               Banks           Price

Sept [1912]    Cold Blows the  Jones, Alfred      Monkland
               Wind            Price

                                   1913

Aug 1913       The Bitter      Stephens,          [Herefordshire]
               Withy           Charlotte

Sept 1913      On Christmas    Smith, Mrs         Weobley
               Day             Esther

Sept 1913      Christmas Now   Wildes, Mr         [Poolend, near
               Is Drawing                         Pixley]
               Near at Hand

Sept 1913      Christmas Now   a waggoner         [Poolend, near
               Is Drawing                         Pixley]
               Near at Hand

Sept 1913      The Cherry      Davies, Mr         Aylton [near
               Tree Carol                         Ledbury]

Sept 1913      New Year's      Davies, Mr         Aylton [near
               Carol                              Ledbury]

Sept 1912      God Rest You    Smith, Mary Ann,   Dilwyn, The
               Merry,          and Johnson, Mrs   Homme
               Gentlemen

n.d.           God Our         --                 [Herefordshire]
               Father

n.d.           Gypsy Song      --                 Herefordshire

n.d.           The Outlandish  --                 --
               Knight

n.d.           Ballad [The     --                 [Herefordshire]
               Cruel Mother]

11 Sept 1912   The Claudy      Jones, Alfred      Monkland
               Banks           Price

Sept [1912]    Cold Blows the  Jones, Alfred      Monkland
               Wind            Price

Aug 1913       The Bitter      Stephens,          [Herefordshire]

               Withy           Charlotte

Sept 1913      On Christmas    Smith, Mrs         Weobley
               Day             Esther

Sept 1913      Christmas Now   Wildes, Mr         [Poolend, near
               Is Drawing                         Pixley]
               Near at Hand

Sept 1913      Christmas Now   a waggoner         [Poolend, near
               Is Drawing                         Pixley]
               Near at Hand

Sept 1913      The Cherry      Davies, Mr         Aylton [near
               Tree Carol                         Ledbury]

Sept 1913      New Year's      Davies, Mr         Aylton [near
               Carol                              Ledbury]

                                   1922

8 Sept 1922    Cold Blows the  Jones, Alfred      Monkland
               Wind            Price

8 Sept 1922    The Blacksmith  Jones, Alfred      Monkland
                               Price

8 Sept 1922    The Irish       Jones, Alfred      Monkland
               Stranger        Price

8 Sept 1922    The Low Low-    Jones, Alfred      Monkland
               lands of        Price
               Holland

Date                Title              Collector        Roud no.

                                       1904

1904                There Is a         AMW              663
                    Fountain of
                    Christ's Blood

F.ML/2/l/b:w

1904                The North Country  AMW              2638
                    Damsel

1904                Eggs in her        AMW EML          377
                    Basket / Basket
                    of Eggs

1904                Christmas Now Is   AMW EML          808
                    Drawing Near at
                    Hand / Carol--
                    Xmas Now Is
                    Drawing

[1904]              The Sally Twigs    EML              452
                    or The Birrer
                    Withy

1904                Lord Thomas        AMW EML          4

1904                Come All Ye        AMW              815
                    Faithful
                    Christians

1904                Lord Thomas and    AMW EML          4
                    Fair Eleanor

Dec 1904            Young Edwin in     FG EML           182
                    the Lowlands Low

                                       1905

n.d.                Carol [Shepherds   AMW              9680
                    on their Flocks
                    Attending]

n.d.                The Highway        AMW              289
                    Robber

n.d.                Bold Dragoon       AMW              321 [?]

n.d.                Come All You       AMW              202
                    Jolly Ploughmen

n.d.                The Widow [?]      AMW              [?]

[c.1905]            Tick               EML              19355

[c.1905]            Tick               EML              13610

n.d.                The Fox Hunting    [Miss Nellie     22252
                    Chase              Smith]

n.d.                The Fox-Hum / The  AMW EML          22251
                    Herefordshire
                    Fox-Chase

n.d.                Dick Turpin        AMW              621

[1905]              Pride of Glcncoe   AMW              515

n.d.                [Dives and         Walter Pilley    477
                    Lazarus]

--                  A Song, Written    EML
                    on the Repeal of
                    the Cyder Tax
                    IVelters
                    Cornewall]

1905                Two Affectionate   FG EML           539
                    Lovers

1905                The King and the   Nona Swire EML   853
                    Keeper

1905                Oh, Have You       William T. B.    2116
                    Heard and Seen     Burnett EML
                    Our Saviour's
                    Love? Young
                    Lambkin

1905                                   AMW EMI.         6

1905                The Moon Shines    AMW EML          702
                    Bright

1905                William Railey /   AMW              538
                    Young Wm. Reilly

1905                The Mountains      AMW EML          955
                    High

1905                Lord Bateman       AMW              40

1905                The Banks of       AMW              148
                    Sweet Dundee

[1905]              The Faithful       AMW              376
                    Sailor Boy

1905                Young Banker       JG EML           3321

1905                Peggy Ban          JG               661

[1905]              Sailors Grave      JG               2676

n.d.                Cedar of Lebanon   RHR EML          22553

n.d.                [King William and  RHR              853
                    the Keeper]

n.d.                I'm Too Proud to   AMW              22504
                    Beg

n.d.                My School          AMW              22547
                    Master's Sow

after 14 June 1905  Dives and          Miss Eleanor     477
                    Lazarus/ Divcrus   Andrews and Dr
                    and Lazarus        Quinten Darling
                                       EML

[Sept 1905]         Rose in June       Hammond          1202

Sept 1905           The New Garden     RHR EML          1054
                    Field

3 Oct 1905          Brangywell/        RHR              29
                    Brang-y-well

Oct 1905            The Pretty         RHR EML          186
                    Ploughboy/ The
                    Ploughboy

before 12 Oct 1905  The Man That       JG               2110
                    Lives

1905                The Three Dukes    RHR              703

1905                Sweet William      RHR              273

1905                I'll Tell You of   RHR              442
                    a Fellow

18 Oct 1905         The Farmer's Boy   RHR              408

17 Nov 1905         The Seasons of     RHR              1180
                    the Year/Four
                    Seasons of the
                    Year

Nov 1905            Spencer the        RHR              1115
                    Rover

11 Dec 1905         Carol, Carol,      --               5365
                    Gaily

n.d.                Pollie Oliver      --               367

                                        1906

n.d.                The Dark Eyed      [?] EML          265
                    Sailor

n.d.                The Marden         Revd Custos      2121
                    Forfeit Song       Duncombe

n.d.                Come All Ye        [Rev. Cusros     815
                    Faithful           Duncombe]
                    Christians

n.d.                Spencer the        AMW              1115
                    Rover

1906                The Frog and       EML              16
                    Mouse

n.d.                The Frog and the   EML              23
                    Duck

1906                William and        FG               536
                    Harriet

n.d.                The Black Decree   AMW              2429

March 1906          Xmas Carol [While  R. C. Davis EML  936
                    Shepherds Watched
                    their Flocks by
                    Night]

March 1906          Erin's Lovely      FG EML           1427
                    Home

May 1906            A Fair Damsel in   RHR              289
                    London Did Dwell

May 1906            Jolly Fellows      RHR              346
                    that Follow the
                    Plough

July 1906           Rose in June       FG EML           1202

July 1906           The Seeds of       FG EML           3
                    Love

Aug  1906           A Fair Damsel in   RHR              289
                    London Did Dwell

Aug 1906            The Herefordshire  E. Radmore AMW   2637
                    Farmer             EML

Aug 1906            Here's Joe Coon    AMW              22546

Aug 1906            The Life of Man    AMW EML          848

9 Aug 06            Miss Betty         AMW EML          263
                    Wilster/Miss
                    Betsy Wilster

Sept 1906           William Taylor     AMW EML          158
                    and Sarah Gray

1906                As I Walked Out    AMW              586

1906                The Sinner's       AMW EML          8356
                    Dream

1906                Poor Mary of the   AMW              561
                    Silvery Tide /
                    The Silvery Tide

Aug 1906            A Young Sailor     AMW              60

[1906]              The Sally Twigs    AMW EML          452

1906                The Mountains      FJ               955
                    High

1906                (Poor Mary of)     FJ               561
                    the Silvery Tide

Sept 1906           Eggs in her        FJ GB            377
                    Basket

Sept 1906           Billy Taylor       FJ GB            158

Sept 1906           Lord Bateman       FJ GB            40

Sept 1906           In Chapel Park     FJ               18833

1906                Erin's Lovely      FJ               1427
                    Home

[Sept] 1906         William Reilly     FJ               538

Sept 1906           Banks of Sweet     FJ GB            586
                    Primroses

Sept 1906           (There Is an       FJ GB            60
                    Alehouse) A Brisk
                    Young Sailor
                    Courted Me

1906                North Country      FJ               2638
                    Damsel

1 Dec 1906          In a Manger Laid   EML              22548
                    So Lowly

1 Dec 1906          Riches Are But     EML              22550
                    Vanity

1 Dec 1906          Abroad as I Was    EML              564
                    Walking

1 Dec 1906          Down by the        EML              22549
                    Shining Water,
                    There Runs a
                    Clear Stream

n.d.                The Honest         AMW EML          22255
                    Weaver

5 Dec 1906          The Angel Cabriel  RHR              815
                    --A Carol

                                        1907

Jan 1907            Dives and          EML RVW          477
                    Lazarus

n.d.                Dives and          Dr John Beddoe   477
                    Lazarus

March 1907          The Moon Shines    EML RVW          702
                    Bright, and the
                    Stars Give their
                    Light

[1907]              Cold Blows the     EML RVW          51
                    Wind; or. The
                    Unquiet Grave

1907                Milkmaid's Song    EML RVW          298

Dec 1907            The Bitter Withy   FS               452

                                         1908

n.d.                The 14th of        EML              528
                    February

n.d.                Hobbs Bobbs        RVW[?] EML       114

n.d.                The Milkmaid       Dr King EMI.     290

n.d.                [The Metry King]   Dr King [?]      587

1908                The Sally Twigs    AMW RVW EML      452

1908                Three Jolly Black  Alice J. Ovens   --
                    Sheep-Skins        EML

Jan 1908            The Bitter Withy   King, Revd       452
                                       Edwin

8 Jan 1908          The Sally Twig /   FS               452
                    The Bitter
                    Withies

n.d.                Mayers' Song       [?] [EML;        305

19 Feb 1908         The Bitter Withy   Eleanor Andrews  452
                                       EML

Sept 1908           There Is an        EML              60
                    Alehouse

Sept 1908           In Carlock Town    EML              22280 2112

Seprl908            Christ Made a      EML              2112
                    Trance

Sept 1908           Young Leonard      EML              189

Sept 1908           Mollie Vaughan /   EML              166
                    Molly Vaughan

Sept 1908           As I Was           EML              264
                    a-Walkin'

Sept 1908           Christ Made a      EML RVW          2112
                    Trance One Sunday
                    at Noon

n.d.                [Christian         EML              808
                    People]

Sept 1908           There Lived a      EML RVW          196
                    Lady in Merry
                    Scotland

Sept 1908           Cherry Tree        EML              453
                    Carol

Oct 1908            There Is a         EML RVW          663
                    Fountain of
                    Christ's Blood

Oct 1908            There Is a         EML RVW          663
                    Fountain of
                    Christ's Blood

Oct 1908            The Seven          EML RVW          127
                    Virgins; or,
                    Under the Leaves

Oct 1908            Rich Merchant's    Revd F.Wilmot    552
                    Daughter           EML

Oct 1908            Holy Well          Revd F Wilmot    1697
                                       EML

before 3 Nov 1908   Billy Taylor       EML              158

before 3 Nov 1908   As I Walked Out    EML              1003

before 3 Nov 1908   Basket of Eggs     EML              377

Before 3 Nov 1908   As I Walked Out    EML              1003

before 3 Nov 1908   Rosemary Lane      EML              269

before 3 Nov 1908   One Easter         EML              484

before 3 Nov 1908   As I Walked Out    EML              1003

before 3 Nov 1908   Tiresome Wife      EML              433

before 9 Nov 1908   Claudy Banks       EML              266

before 9 Nov 1908   Pretty Caroline    EMI              1448

before 9 Nov 1908   Thresherman        EML              19

before 9 Nov 1908   Diverus and        EML              477
                    Lazarus

before 9 Nov 1908   True Lovers        EML              [possibly
                    Downfall                            1700 or 182]

Nov 1908            The Mummers Play   EML              --

                                  1909

Jan 1909            Bitter Withy       EML RVW Frank    452
                                       Sidgwick

before Feb 11 1909  Bitter Withy       EML RVW          452

before Feb 11 1909  Jeweller's         EML              567
                    Wedding

before Feb 11 1909  Joys of Mary       EML              278

before Feb 11 1909  Down in the        EML              452
                    Fields of
                    Bilberry

1909                The Gypsy Bride    EML              229

1909                Apprentice in      EML              269
                    Rosemary Lane

1909                The Outlandish     EML              21
                    Knight

1909                Hunting Song       EML              M

1909                Polly Oliver       EML              367

1909                Pretty Betsy       EML              156

1909                In Sheffield       EML              860
                    Park

1909                In a Hospital      EML              22554
                    Garden

1909                The Sailor Boy     EML              264

1909                The Deserter       EML              493

n.d.                Claudy Banks Down  --               266
                    by the Green
                    Bushes

1909                                   EML              1040

1909                As I Walked Out    EML              1003

1909                The Prickly Bush   EML              144

1909                Dilly Dove         EML              29

March 1909          The Holy Well      EML              1697

1909                There Was a Lord   EML              93[?]
                    in Lancashire

1909                Leanthony [?]      EML              193 [?]

1909                Skipper and his    EML              2680
                    Boy

1909                Erin's Lovely      EML              1427
                    Home

1909                The Irish Girl     EML              308

1909                It's of a Pretty   EML              186
                    Ploughboy

1909                The Tailor and     EMI.             891
                    the Crow

1909                Bunch of           EML              1653
                    Watercress

1909                The Besom Maker    EML              910

1909                Napoleon           EML              1626

1909                Waterloo           EML              [?]

1909                Undaunted Female   EML              289

1909                Hunting Song       EML              [?]

1909                The Almeley        EML              22544
                    Census

1909                Little Grey        EML              393
                    Horse

1909                The Banks of       EML              2891
                    Boyne

1909                Pride of Dundee    EML              22552

1909                True Lovers'       EML              [possibly
                    Downfall                            1700 or 182]

1909                Tom Sayers         EML              22545

1909                Seasons of the     EML RVW          1180
                    Year

1909                Binnorie           EML              8

1909                The Trees They Do  EML RVW          31
                    Grow High

1909                Cold Blows the     EML RVW          51
                    Wind

1909                There Is an        EML RVW          60
                    Alehouse

1909                The Mantle of      EML              714
                    Green

n.d.                The Bunch of       EML              664
                    Roses

May 1909            Bold Robin I       EML              71
                    Hood

June 1909           The Mantle of      Revd D. King     714
                    Green

July 1909           Awake, Awake,      EML RVW          2111
                    Sweet England

July 1909           God Rest You       EML RVW          394
                    Merry

July 1909           The Bold Cripple   EML              12763

July 1909           The Man That       RVW EML          2110
                    Lives

July 1909           The Truth Sent     RVW EML          2109
                    From Above

July 1909           The Man that       RVW EML          2110
                    Lives

27 July 1909        Highway Robber     RVW EML          21

27 July 1909        Sinner's Dream     RVW EML          8356

27 July 1909        Carnal and the     RVW EML          306
                    Crane

1909                The Saviour's      RVW EML          2116
                    Love

[1909]              Angel Gabriel      RVW EML          815

n.d.                The Angel          --               815
                    Gabriel

[July] 1909         Captain Evans      RVW EML          533

[July] 1909         Early Early        RVW EML          152

[July] 1909         Merry Green Broom  RVW EML          34
                    fields

[July] 1909         Cold Blows the     RVW EML          51
                    Wind

July 1909           Dabbling in the    EML RVW          298
                    Dew

28 July 1909        The Myrtle Tree    EML RVW          954

28 July 1909        The Blacksmith     RVW EML          816

28 July 1909        Blacksmith         RVW EML          816
                    [Version II']

28 July 1909        Stockings and      RVW EML          22555
                    Gown

1909                The Blacksmith     RVW [EML ?]      816

28 July 1909        A Brisk Young      RVW EML          60
                    Sailor Courted
                    Me

29 July 1909        Green Bushes       RVW EML          1040

29 July 1909        Billy Taylor       RVW EML          158

29 July 1909        Gloucester         RVW EML          209
                    Wassail Song

31 July 1909        Apprentice Boy     RVW EML          [?]

[July 1909]         The Turtle Dove    EML RVW          422

31 July 1909        "The Moon Shines   RVW EML          702
                    Bright

31 July 1909        Fountain of        RVW EML          663
                    Christ's Blood

31 July 1909        The Blacksmith     RVW EML          816

31 July 1909        Sheffield          RVW EML          399
                    Apprentice

31 July 1909        Christ Made a      RVW EML          2112
                    Trance

n.d.                The Seven          EML              127
                    Virgins

Aug 1909            'The Young and     EML RVW          264
                    Single Sailor

Sept 1909           The Bitter Withy   EML              452

n.d.                The Angel          --               815
                    Gabriel

n.d.                Our Saviour's      --               2116
                    Love

n.d.                Bacon and Green    --               --

n.d.                St Patrick's Day   --               --
                    in the Morning

n.d.                [The Dark Eyed     --               265
                    Sailor]

[1909]              There Is an Ale    CJS              377
                    house

[1909]              Hornpipes          CJS              --

27 Dec 1909         Trip to the        CJS              --
                    Cottage

27 Dec 1909         Morris Dance       CJS EML          --

--                  Trip to the        CJS              --
                    Cottage

29 Dec 1909         Flowers of         CJS              --
                    Edinburgh

29 Dec 1909         Jack off the       CJS              13216
                    Green

27 Dec 1909         Speed the Plough   CJS              --

n.d.                The Seven          EML              127
                    Virgins

Aug 1909            'The Young and     EML RVW          264
                    Single Sailor

Sept 1909           The Bitter Withy   EML              452

n.d.                The Angel          --               815
                    Gabriel

n.d.                Our Saviour's      --               2116
                    Love

n.d.                Bacon and Green    --               --

n.d.                St Patrick's Day   --               --
                    in the Morning

n.d.                [The Dark Eyed     -                265
                    Sailor]

[1909]              There Is an Ale    CJS              377
                    house

[1909]              Hornpipes          CJS              --

27 Dec 1909         Trip to the        CJS              --
                    Cottage

27 Dec 1909         Morris Dance       CJS EML          --

--                  Trip to the        CJS              --
                    Cottage

29 Dec 1909         Flowers of         CJS              --
                    Edinburgh

29 Dec 1909         Jack off the       CJS              13216
                    Green

27 Dec 1909         Speed the Plough   CJS              --

                                   1910

Aug 1910            A Wager, A Wager   RVW EML          --

Aug 1910            'a new Xmas        Langton Brown    22551
                    Carol' ['Twas
                    Mary in the
                    morning to the
                    sepulchre she
                    came]

                                   1911

[1911]              Americkay          EML RVW          270

[1911]              Joseph and Mary    EML RVW          453

[1911]              Bitter Withy       EML RVW          452

n.d.                The Angel          Langton Brown    815
                    Gabriel

25 Nov 1911         The Angel          Langton Brown    815
                    Gabriel

[1844]              [Awake, Awake,     Langton Brown    2111
                    Sweet England]

                                         1912

n.d.                The Holy Well      EML RVW

--                  King Pharim        RVW              306

26 Jan 1912         Boyne Water        EML              --

Sept 1912           Cold Blows the     EML              51
                    Wind

Sept 1912           I'll Have my       EML              911
                    Petticoat

Sept 1912           My Mother Sent     EML              506
                    Me

Sept 1912           Sheffield Park     EML              18833 and
                                                        860

Sept 1912           Molly Bawn         [EML]            166

13 Sept 1912        Shrewsbury Gaol    EML              22281

Sept 1912           Riding Down to     EML              1534
                    Pochemar

Sept 1912           On Christmas Day   EML              1078

[Sept 1912?]        The Barley         EML              1024
                    Raking

n.d.                [The Bitter        --               2116
                    Withy]

[Sept 1912]         Christian          EML RVW          808
                    People/Oh
                    Christmas Now Is
                    Drawing Near at
                    Hand

[?]                 [Xmas Day Is       RVW              808
                    a-Drawing Nigh at
                    Hand]

Sept 1912           God Rest You       EML RVW          394
                    Merry, Gentlemen

n.d.                God Our Father     [RVW EML]        394

n.d.                Gypsy Song         EML              1

n.d.                The Outlandish     RVW              21
                    Knight

n.d.                Ballad [The Cruel  EML              9
                    Mother]

11 Sept 1912        The Claudy Banks   EML              266

Sept [1912]         Cold Blows the     EML RVW          51
                    Wind

                                   1913

Aug 1913            The Bitter Withy   EML              452

Sept 1913           On Christmas Day   EML              1078

Sept 1913           Christmas Now Is   RVW              808
                    Drawing Near at
                    Hand

Sept 1913           Christmas Now Is   RVW              808
                    Drawing Near at
                    Hand

Sept 1913           The Cherry Tree    RVW              453
                    Carol

Sept 1913           New Year's Carol   RVW              701

                                   1922

8 Sept 1922         Cold Blows the     EML              51
                    Wind

8 Sept 1922         The Blacksmith     EML              816

8 Sept 1922         The Irish          EML              1629
                    Stranger

8 Sept 1922         The Low Low-
                    lands of Holland   EML              484

Date               Title             Citation           Notes

1904           There Is a      JFSS (1905), 133:
               Fountain of     wm FLH, p.
               Christ's        197-98: wl
               Blood           EML/2/1/b:w

F.ML/2/l/b:w

1904           The North       EML/l/10/b: w m
               Country         LEB/5/290: t
               Damsel

1904           Eggs in her     JFSS (1905),        Aged 77'.
               Basket/         102-03: wm
               Basket of       EML/l/16/a: m
               Eggs            EML/l/l6/b:wm
                               LEB/5/277: t
                               LEB/5/290: t

1904           Christmas Now   JFSS (1905), 134:   TTCH: words Smith/
               Is Drawing      wm LEB/5/290: t     Johnson/Colcombe;
               Near at Hand /  ITCH, 8-9: ct cm    music Smith/Johnson.
               Carol--Xmas
               Now Is
               Drawing

[1904]         The Sally       JFSS (1906),
               Twigs or The    300-04: w
               Birrer Withy    LEB/5/290: t

1904           Lord Thomas     EML/1/14:ct m       words Galleiss [?]
                                                   /Wheeler; music
                                                   Wheeler.

1904           Come All Ye     JFSS(1905),         '(aged about 70)
               Faithful        115-22: wm          Charwoman'.
               Christians      EML/2/l/c: m        LEB/5/290 title:
                               LEB/5/290: t        Come All You Worth
                                                   Xtians.

1904           Lord Thomas     FLH, 200-02: ct m   'Groom'. FLH: words
               and Fair        JFSS(1905),         Wheeler/Rowsell
               Eleanor         10-09: w m          [latter from
                               LEB/5/290: t        Hammond
                               EML/l/l4:ctm        collection]; music
                               CFMGH, 62: t        Wheeler. EML/1/14:
                                                   words Galleiss [?]
                                                   /Wheeler; music
                                                   Wheeler.

Dec 1904       Young Edwin in  EML/l/18:w m
               the Lowlands    LEB/5/245: w
               Low             LEB/5/239: t

                                   1905

n.d.           Carol           EML/3/17:wm
               [Shepherds on   LEB/5/290: t
               their Flocks
               Attending]

n.d.           The Highway     LEB/5/286: wl m
               Robber

n.d.           Bold Dragoon    LEB/5/290: t

n.d.           Come All You    LEB/5/290: t
               Jolly
               Ploughmen

n.d.           The Widow [?]   LEB/5/290: t

[c.1905]       Tick            MOH, 163-64: w

[c.1905]       Tick            MOH, 163-64: w

n.d.           The Fox         EML/l/19:wm FLH,    'composed ... by
               Hunting Chase   265-66: w           Richard Matthews,
                                                   of Upper Hill, in
                                                   the reign of George
                                                   III'.

n.d.           The Fox-Hum /   EML/l/21:wm FLH,    'Blacksmith'.
               The             264-65: w           'Richards calls
               Herefordshire   LEB/5/276: wl m     this "The tune of
               Fox-Chase       LEB/5/239: t        'Six bottles more"".

n.d.           Dick Turpin     LEB/5/276: m
                               LEB/5/239: t

[1905]         Pride of        LEB/5/279: w        'Blacksmith'.
               Glcncoe         [stanza 8]          LEB/5/283: song
                               LEB/5/280: m        mentioned in letter
                               LEB/5/239: t        from EML to LEB, 11
                               LEB/5/283: t        May 1905.

n.d.           [Dives and      EML/1/22: w         'from collection of
               Lazarus]                            Mr. W. Pilley.
                                                   Barton Hereford'.
                                                   Printed on reverse
                                                   'The Barton.
                                                   Hereford'.

--             A Song,         MOH, 165-66: w      'Printed in London,
               Written on the                      1766, reprinted
               Repeal of the                       March, 1818, by T.
               Cyder Tax                           Davies & Son,
               IVelters                            Hereford'.
               Cornewall]

1905           Two             JFSS(1905),         'Roadman'.
               Affectionate    97-98: w m          LEB/5/290 title:
               Lovers          EML/l/25/a:wl m     Young Servant Man.
                               EML/l/25/b:w
                               LEB/5/244: wl m
                               LEB/5/239: t
                               LEB/5/290: t

1905           The King and    EML/l/43/a:m        'aged 68'.
               the Keeper      EML/l/43/b:w m
                               LEB/5/239: t

1905           Oh, Have You    JFSS(1905), 136:    TTCH words Bridges
               Heard and Seen  w m TTCH, 24-25:    /Phillips; music
               Our Saviour's   ct m                Hirons [1909].
               Love? Young
               Lambkin

1905                           JFSS (1905),
                               111-13: wl m FLH,
                               199-200: w m
                               EML/l/39/c: wl m

1905           The Moon        JFSS(1905),
               Shines Bright   131-32: w m FLH,
                               193-94: w m
                               EML/l/0/a: w m
                               LEB/5/270: wl m
                               LEB/5/239: t
                               LEB/5/290: t

1905           William Railey  EML/l/17/a: wl m
               / Young Wm.     LEB/5/290: t
               Reilly

1905           The Mountains   EML/l/34/b:wm
               High            LEB/5/290: t

1905           Lord Bateman    EML/l/39/b: wl m
                               LEB/5/274: wl m
                               LEB/5/239: t

1905           The Banks of    EML/l/36/a: wl m
               Sweet Dundee

[1905]         The Faithful    LEB/5/277: wl m     '[aged] 15'.
               Sailor Boy      LEB/5/239: t        LEB/5/239:
                                                   Broadwood has noted
                                                   '(modern)'.

1905           Young Banker    JFSS (1905),
                               91-93: w1 m
                               EML/l/24/a: w m
                               EML/l/24/b:w m
                               LEB/5/239: t
                               LEB/5/290: t

1905           Peggy Ban       EML/l/20/a; w m     'age about 45
                               EML/l/20/b:w m      miller'.
                               LEB/5/239: t
                               LEB/5/290: t

[1905]         Sailors Grave   LEB/5/243: w1 m     LEB/5/239: Broadwood
                               LEB/5/239: t        has noted '(modern)'.

n.d.           Cedar of        EML/3/l6/a:m        'age about 25'.
               Lebanon

n.d.           [King William   EML/3/16/b: m
               and the
               Keeper]

n.d.           I'm Too Proud   LEB/5/275: w1 m     '[aged] 50'. Fred
               to Beg          LEB/5/239: t        Albert's music hall
                                                   song 'Shabby
                                                   Genteel'. LEB/5/239:
                                                   Broadwood has noted
                                                   '(modern)'.

n.d.           My School       LEB/5/280: m        LEB/5/239: Broadwood
               Master's Sow    LEB/5/239: t        has noted '(modern)'.

after 14 June  Dives and       FLH, 190-91: w m    '[aged] 80'. Second
1905           Lazarus         JFSS (1905),        title from singer.
               /Divcrus and    125-26: w m         TTCH: words
               Lazarus         EML/l/0/d: w m      Harris/Evans; music
                               LEB/5/241-242: w1   Evans.
                               m TTCH, 20-21: ct
                               m LEB/5/239: t
                               LEB/5/290: t

[Sept 1905]    Rose in June    EML/l/36/c: w       copy.

Sept 1905      The New Garden  EML/l/28:w m        'farm labourer, age
               Field           LEB/5/251: w m      80'.
                               LEB/5/239; t
                               LEB/5/249: t.

3 Oct 1905     Brangywell/     FLH, 203-04: w m    wife of the vicar',
               Brang-y-well    EML/1/11:wm         'learnt this from
                               LEB/5/252: w1 m     her mother, who
                               LEB/5/253: w        would if living be
                               LEB/5/239: t        now (1905) 85, &
                               LEB/5/249: t        she learnt it from
                                                   her great aunt'.

Oct 1905       The Pretty      JFSS (1913),        '[aged] 80 farm
               Ploughboy/The   303-10: wm FLH,     labourer'.
               Ploughboy       208-09: w m
                               EML/l/2:w m
                               LEB/5/250: w m
                               LEB/5/239: t
                               LEB/5/249: t

before 12 Oct  The Man That    EML/1/0/c: w m      'age about 75'.
1905           Lives           LEB/5/239: t
                               LEB/5/249: t

1905           The Three       LEB/5/256: w1       'English County
               Dukes                               Songs pp 77'

1905           Sweet William   LEB/5/256: w        'learnt this tune
                               [last stanza] m     30 years ago from a
                                                   man who was over 65
                                                   years old'.

1905           I'll Tell You   LEB/5/256: t        '[English] County
               of a Fellow                         Songs, p. 52'.
                                                   'Leicestershire'
                                                   written after the
                                                   title.

                                                   'Mrs. Hughes
                                                   Rowlands sang this
                                                   son in "Public
                                                   Concerto" (in
                                                   Glamorganshire) 28
                                                   years ago. Words
                                                   M.S.S.--Tune
                                                   learnt from an
                                                   uncle of mine who
                                                   was a very well
                                                   known Welsh
                                                   Musician'.

18 Oct 1905    The Farmer's    LEB/5/256: w1 m     '[English] County
               Boy                                 Songs, p. 120'.

17 Nov 1905    The Seasons of  FLH, 207-08: ct m   FLH: words:
               the Year/Four   EML/1/8/a:wl m      Morgan/Beddoe;
               Seasons of the  EML/l/8/c: w [2nd   music Morgan [but
               Year            and last stanza]    dated Oct 1905].
                               m LEB/5/257: w1     EML/l/8/a: 'learnt
                               m                   50 years ago from a
                                                   travelling thatcher
                                                   from Weobley. Tom
                                                   Gough'. Similar
                                                   note appended to
                                                   LEB/5/257 but
                                                   crossed out and
                                                   'not this' written
                                                   next to it.
                                                   LEB/5/239:
                                                   Broadwood has noted
                                                   '[Model]'.

Nov 1905       Spencer the     EML/1/29: w m       'farm lab. Aged 80'.
               Rover           LEB/5/239: t
                               LEB/5/290: t

11 Dec 1905    Carol, Carol,   EML/l/45/c/2: w
               Gaily

n.d.           Pollie Oliver   EML/l/45/c/l1: w
                               EML/l/45/a: m

                                    1906

n.d.           The Dark Eyed   EML/l/0/e: w m
               Sailor

n.d.           The Marden      EML/1/1: w m FLH,   Harmonized by W. D.
               Forfeit Song    206-07: w m         V. Duncombe.

n.d.           Come All Ye     LEB/5/285:w m       'traditional',
               Faithful                            harmonized by W. D.
               Christians                          V. Duncombe.

n.d.           Spencer the     EML/l/30/a: w1 m
               Rover           EML/l/30/b: w m

1906           The Frog and    FLH, 209-210: w     'tune was not worth
               Mouse           RVW/ Scrapbook/     recording'.
                               1/47 [61]: w

n.d.           The Frog and    FLH, 209-10: w
               the Duck

1906           William and     EML/l/15/b:w m      'roadman. Age about
               Harriet         EML/l/15/a: ct m    50'. 'very common
                               LEB/5/239: t        here'. EML/l/15/a:
                               LEB/5/290: t        words Bebb /
                                                   Priday; music
                                                   Bebb.

n.d.           The Black       LEB/5/282: w1 m     '[aged] 50. Her
               Decree          EML/3/18: w m       father sang it -
                               LEB/5/239: t        Well known years
                               LEB/5/290: t        ago round here'.

March 1906     Xmas Carol      EML/3/22: w m
               [While
               Shepherds
               Watched their
               Flocks by
               Night]

March 1906     Erin's Lovely   EML/l/45/c/l: w
               Home            EML/l/45/a: m

May 1906       A Fair Damsel   EML/1/27: w m
               in London Did   LEB/5/240: t
               Dwell

May 1906       Jolly Fellows   EML/l/0/e:w m       'farm labourer'.
               that Follow     EML/l/31/b: w m     LEB/5/240 title:
               the Plough      LEB/5/240: t        The Jolly
                                                   Ploughboys.

July 1906      Rose in June    EML/l/36/b: w1 m
                               LEB/5/247: w1 m
                               LEB/5/240: t

July 1906      The Seeds of    LEB/5/248: w1 m
               Love            EML/l/37:w1 m
                               LEB/5/240: t

Aug  1906      A Fair Damsel   LEB/5/254: w1 m     subtitle: The Maid
               in London Did   LEB/5/255: w        and die Box. LEB
               Dwell           LEB/5/240: t        has noted 'c "Pride
                                                   of Glencoe" in
                                                   LEB's Irish M.S.S.
                                                   1906'.

Aug 1906       The             LEB/5/273:w1 m      Learned 'from old
               Herefordshire   LEB/5/240: t        "Joe Coon", a
               Farmer          LEB/5/290: t        fiddler'.

Aug 1906       Here's Joe      LEB/5/273: w1       Learned 'from old
               Coon                                "Joe Coon", a
                                                   fiddler.

Aug 1906       The Life of     LEB/5/281: w1 m
               Man             LEB/5/240: t

9 Aug 06       Miss Betty      EML/l/7:w1 m        words not nice &
               Wilster/Miss    LEB/5/278: w1 m     not recorded'.
               Betsy Wilster   LEB/5/240: t

Sept 1906      William Taylor  EML/l/42/b:wl m     LEB/5/240 title:
               and Sarah       LEB/5/273: wl m     Billy Taylor (and
               Gray            LEB/5/240: t        Sarah Gray).

1906           As I Walked     EML/l/32/a:wlm
               Out

1906           The Sinner's    JFSS (1910),        JFSS composite with
               Dream           18-20: w m          RVW, 1909.
                               EML/2/l/a: w        LEB/5/290 title:
                               LEB/5/290: t        Carol. One Night in
                                                   Slumber.

1906           Poor Mary of    EML/l/33/b: w m     LEB/5/290 tide:
               the Silvery     LEB/5/271: wl m     Poor Mary in the
               Tide / The      LEB/5/239: t        Tide.
               Silvery Tide    LEB/5/290: t

Aug 1906       A Young         LEB/5/272: wl m     subtitle: There Is
               Sailor          LEB/5/240: t        an Alehouse.

[1906]         The Sally       EML/2/2: w          'from an old
               Twigs           FSBW/l/24:w         workman. Who has
                               FSBW/2/9: m         lived all his life
                               FSBW/2/10: m        near Weobley. Age
                                                   77'. Text subtly
                                                   different from
                                                   later versions.
                                                   Frank Sidgwick
                                                   copy, dated 11 Jan
                                                   1907.

1906           The Mountains   LEB/5/223: m        '[aged] 77 in
               High            EML/l/34/a: m       Weobley Workhouse'.
                               LEB/5/222: t

1906           (Poor Mary of)  LEB/5/223: m
               the Silvery     EML/l/33/a: m
               Tide            LEB/5/222: t

Sept 1906      Eggs in her     LEB/5/223: m        GB/6a/17 with
               Basket          LEB/5/222: t        Butterworth, title:
                               GB/6a/17: m         Basket of Eggs.

Sept 1906      Billy Taylor    LEB/5/223: m        GB/6a/177 with
                               EML/l/42/a: m       Butterwonh, title:
                               LEB/5/222: t        William Taylor.
                               GB/6a/177: m

Sept 1906      Lord Bateman    LEB/5/223: m        GB/6a/119 with
                               EML/l/39/a: m       Butterworth.
                               LEB/5/222: t
                               GB/6a/119:m

Sept 1906      In Chapel       LEB/5/223: m        '(Sheffield Park
               Park            LEB/5/225: m        properly)'.
                               EML/l/9:wm
                               LEB/5/222: t

1906           Erin's Lovely   LEB/5/223: m
               Home            LEB/5/222: t

[Sept] 1906    William         LEB/5/223: m
               Reilly          EML/l/17/b: w m
                               LEB/5/222: t

Sept 1906      Banks of Sweet  EML/l/32/b: m       GB/6a/160 with
               Primroses       LEB/5/223: m        Butterworth.
                               LEB/5/222: t
                               GB/6a/l60: m

Sept 1906      (There Is an    LEB/5/223: m        GBJ6a/42 with
               Alehouse) A     LEB/5/224: w m      Butterworth.
               Brisk Young     EML/l/40/a: m
               Sailor Courted  EML/l/40/b: m
               Me              LEB/5/222: t
                               GB/6a/42: m

1906           North Country   LEB/5/223: m
               Damsel          EML/l/10/a: t
                               LEB/5/222: t

1 Dec 1906     In a Manger     RVW/ Scrapbook/     'Edison "Home"
               Laid So Lowly   1/46 [61 upper]:    Phonograph record'
                               wl                  'I'.

1 Dec 1906     Riches Are But  RVW/ Scrapbook/     'Edison "Home"
               Vanity          1/46 [61]: wl       Phonograph record'
                                                   '2'.

1 Dec 1906     Abroad as I     RVW/ Scrapbook/     'Edison "Home"
               Was Walking     1/46 [61]: wl       Phonograph record'
                                                   '3'.

1 Dec 1906     Down by the     RVW/ Scrapbook/     'Edison "Home"
               Shining Water,  1/46 [61]: w        Phonograph record'
               There Runs a                        '4'.
               Clear Stream

n.d.           The Honest      EML/l/35/a: w m     'Wheelwright.
               Weaver          EML/l/35/b: w m     Dilwyn. About 45'.
                               LEB/5/239: t

5 Dec 1906     The Angel       EML/3/19: wl m      Postcard.
               Cabriel--A
               Carol

                                   1907

Jan 1907       Dives and       JFSS (1910),        TTCH; words
               Lazarus         47-49: wm FLH,      Sylvester/Harris
                               190-91: w m TTCH,   /Evans; music Evans.
                               20-21: ct m

n.d.           Dives and       JFSS (1910),        sent by the
               Lazarus         47-49: w FLH,       collector's
                               190-91: w           brother, Mr H. C.
                                                   Beddoe.

March 1907     The Moon        JF5S(1910),
               Shines Bright,  10-1l: wm FLH,
               and the Stars   193-94: w m
               Give their      EML/2/10/k t
               Light

[1907]         Cold Blows the  FLH, 202-03: w m    words Powell; music
               Wind; or. The                       Hirons [1909] (from
               Unquiet Grave                       a phonograph).

1907           Milkmaid's      FLH 205: w m        '14 verses/but
               Song            EML/l/13/a: w m     not/nice'.
                               EML/l/13/b: m       EML/2/10/n title:
                               EML/2/10/n: w       The Milk Maid's
                                                   Fair.

Dec 1907       The Bitter      RVW/ Scrapbook/     Both contain copies
               Withy           1/71-72, 72a        of Holder's letter
                               [69]: w [copy]      to Sidgwick
                               EML/2/ll:w[copy]    [received 24
                                                   December 1907]:
                                                   'Sir, Being 62
                                                   years of age, at
                                                   the age of 10 years
                                                   I learnt this Carol
                                                   from my Mother. In
                                                   the parish of
                                                   Yarkhill,
                                                   Herefordshire. W.
                                                   Holder, Duke St.
                                                   Withington, Nr.
                                                   Hereford. The
                                                   bitter withy. I can
                                                   sing the carol in
                                                   the old tune, but
                                                   have never saw the
                                                   music'

                                    1908

n.d.           The 14th of     LIB/COLL/MPS
               February        50(31)/12/94: w

n.d.           Hobbs Bobbs     EML/3/6/a: w
                               EML/3/6/b: w [3rd
                               stanza only]

n.d.           The Milkmaid    EML/3/15: w         Dr King notes: 'You
                               EML/l/13/c: m       will observe
                                                   "pretty", instead
                                                   of "heartrending"
                                                   Noah explained it
                                                   fitted this tune
                                                   better--"& besides
                                                   you alters your
                                                   words to suit the
                                                   company!".'

n.d.           [The Metry      EML/l/38:wl [1
               King]           line]

1908           The Sally       FLH, 181-86: wl m   AMW 1908; RVW 1909.
               Twigs           JFSS (1910),
                               29-35: m

1908           Three Jolly     FLH, 131: m
               Black
               Sheep-Skins

Jan 1908       The Bitter      JFSS (1910),        FSBW/1/25: referred
               Withy           29-35: w m FLH,     to in letter of 23
                               180-86: w m         Feb 1908. Collector
                               EML/2/3/b: w        vicar of Kings
                               FSBW/2/lI:wIm       Pyon.
                               FSBW/1/25

8 Jan 1908     The Sally Twig  FSBW/2/12:m
               / The Bitter    EML/3/12:w m
               Withies

n.d.           Mayers' Song    EML/3/ll: w m       '(Hertfordshire)
                                                   Sung on May 1st till
                                                   a few years ago'.

19 Feb 1908    The Bitter      JFSS(1910),         'Mason'.
               Withy           29-35: w m FLH,
                               180-86: w m
                               EML/2/3/a: w
                               FSBW/2/14:t

Sept 1908      There Is an     EML/2/4/c: t
               Alehouse

Sept 1908      In Carlock      EML/2/5/c: w        'Gipsy'.
               Town            EML/2/4/d: t

Seprl908       Christ Made a   EML/2/4/e: t        LEB/5/291 tide: God
               Trance          LEB/5/291: w [2     and Trance on Sunday.
                               stanzas]

Sept 1908      Young Leonard   EML/2/5/b: w
                               EML/2/4/f: t

Sept 1908      Mollie Vaughan  EML/2/5/a: w        'Learnt from her
               / Molly         EML/2/4/g: t        mother'.
               Vaughan

Sept 1908      As I Was        EML/2/4/i: t        'Is this Mrs.
               a-Walkin'                           Bridge's Sailor Boy
                                                   again?'.

Sept 1908      Christ Made a   JFSS (1910),        RVW/Scrapbook
               Trance One      12-15: wm FLH,      incorrectly titled:
               Sunday at       192: wm             The Moon Shines
               Noon            EML/2/14/a: w       Bright. TTCH: title
                               RVW/ Scrapbook/     New Year's Carol;
                               1/73 [70]: w        words Colcombe/
                               TTCH, 16-17: ct     Sandys/Whattons;
                               m                   music Whattons.

n.d.           [Christian      EML/2/14/e: w
               People]

Sept 1908      There Lived a   FLH, 198-99: w m
               Lady in Merry   RVW/ Scrapbook/
               Scotland        1/74 [70a]: w
                               EML/2/4/b: t

Sept 1908      Cherry Tree     EML/2/6: w RVW/     Cylinder X. 'learnt
               Carol           Scrapbook/ 2/82,    it from her
                               82a [72]: w RVW/    grandmother'.
                               Scrapbook/2/116,
                               119 [84]: t

Oct 1908       There Is a      JFSS(1910),         'Labourer, aged 70'.
               Fountain of     21-22: wm FLH,
               Christ's        197-98: wm
               Blood

Oct 1908       There Is a      JFSS (1910),        Incorrectly named
               Fountain of     21-22: w m FLH,     Eliza. TTCH: title
               Christ's        197-98: w m TTCH,   Joseph and Mary;
               Blood           10-11: ct m EFDSS   words Sandys; music
                               Wax Cylinder        Smith. C37/1585:
                               Collection,         BLSA call no.
                               C37/1585            1CDR0015627BD6NSA.

Oct 1908       The Seven       FLH, 187-88: wm     TTCH. words Whatton
               Virgins; or,    JFSS (1910),        /Loveridge; music
               Under the       49-51: w m          Whatton. RVW/
               Leaves          EML/2/14/c: w       Scrapbook/1/73:
                               EML/2/4/a: t        words Whatton. /
                               [Sept. 1908]        Loveridge.
                               TTCH, 26-27: ct m
                               RVW/ Scrapbook/
                               1/73 [70]: ct

Oct 1908       Rich            RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder III.
               Merchant's      2/115 [84]: t
               Daughter        RVW/ Scrapbook/
                               1/25 [49]: w

Oct 1908       Holy Well       JFSS (1910),        Cylinder V. 'age
                               26-28 FLH,          72'.
                               186-87: wm TTCH,
                               6-7: w m
                               EML/3/13: w
                               LEB/5/259: m RVW/
                               Scrapbook/ 2/115
                               [84]: t

before 3 Nov   Billy Taylor    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder VII a.
1908                           2/116, 119 [84]:    EML/2/4/h: dated
                               t EML/2/4/h: t      Sept 1908.

before 3 Nov   As I Walked     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder VII b. 'b.
1908           Out             2/116, 119 [84]:    is I fear almost
                               t                   same as Mrs
                                                   Bridges'.

before 3 Nov   Basket of       RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder VIII.
1908           Eggs            2/116, 119 [84]:
                               t

Before 3 Nov   As I Walked     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder IX.
1908           Out             2/116,119 [84]:
                               t

before 3 Nov   Rosemary Lane   RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XI a
1908                           2/116, 119 [84]:
                               t EML/l/46/b:m
                               EML/2/10/m: w

before 3 Nov   One Easter      RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XI b.
1908                           2/116, 119 [84]:
                               t

before 3 Nov   As I Walked     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XII a.
1908           Out             2/116, 119 [84]:
                               t

before 3 Nov   Tiresome Wife   RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XII b.
1908                           2/116,119 [84]:
                               t

before 9 Nov   Claudy Banks    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder I.
1908                           2/115 [84]: t
                               LEB/5/259: m
                               EML/l/48/b: m
                               EML/2/10/e: t

before 9 Nov   Pretty          RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder II.
1908           Caroline        2/115 [84]: t       C37/1586:BLSAcall no.
                               RVW/ Scrapbook/     1CDR0015627BD7NSA.
                               1/41 [57]: w
                               EFDSS Wax
                               Cylinder
                               Collection,
                               C37/1586

before 9 Nov   Thresherman     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder II.
1908                           2/115 [84]: t       C37/1586:BLSAcall no.
                               EFDSS Wax           1CDR0015627 BD7 NSA.
                               Cylinder
                               Collection,
                               C37/1586

before 9 Nov   Diverus and     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder IV.
1908           Lazarus         2/115 [84]: t       Cylinder VI.
                               EML/2/10/j: t       EML/2/10/j title:
                                                   Dives.

before 9 Nov   True Lovers     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder IV.
1908           Downfall        2/115 [84]: t
                               EML/2/10/q:wl

Nov 1908       The Mummers     FLH, 141-46: w      Sir Edmund
               Play                                Chambers, The
                                                   English Folk-Play
                                                   (Oxford: Clarendon
                                                   Press, 1933), no. 49.

                                    1909

Jan 1909       Bitter Withy    JFSS (1910),        Cylinder I. '[aged]
                               29-35: wm FLH,      62'. 'learnt it
                               181-86: wm RVW/     from his mother'.
                               Scrapbook/ 2/124
                               [87]: t
                               FSBW/2/13: w
                               [stanzas 1, 5] m

before Feb 11  Bitter Withy    JFSS (1910),        Cylinder II [a].
1909                           29-35: w[l          Cylinder III [b].
                               stanza] m FLH,
                               181-86: w [1
                               stanza] m
                               LEB/5/269: w m
                               RVW/ Scrapbook/
                               2/124 [87]: t
                               LEB/5/269: w m
                               RVW/ Scrapbook/
                               2/124 [87]: t

before Feb 11  Jeweller's      LEB/5/269 w1 m      Cylinder II [b].
1909           Wedding         RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder IV [b
                               2/124 [87]: t:

before Feb 11  Joys of Mary    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder III [a]
1909                           2/124 [87]: t

before Feb 11  Down in the     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder IV [a].
1909           Fields of       2/124 [87]: t
               Bilberry

1909           The Gypsy       RVW/ Scrapbook/2    '[aged] 60'.
               Bride           /152 [95]: t        Cylinder I.

1909           Apprentice in   RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder II a.
               Rosemary Lane   2/152 [95]: t

1909           The Outlandish  RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder II b.
               Knight          2/152 [95]: t       '[aged] 70'.

1909           Hunting Song    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder III a.
                               2/152 [95]: t

1909           Polly Oliver    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder III b.
                               2/152 [95]: t
                               EML/2/10/c:w
                               EML/l/45/b:w

1909           Pretty Betsy    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder
                               2/152 [95]: t       IVa.'v.2[et]c.                               EML/l/44/a: t       Cylinder Vb. 'v.
                               EML/l/44/b: w       1.'.

1909           In Sheffield    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder IV b.
               Park            2/152 [95]: t

1909           In a Hospital   RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder V a.
               Garden          2/152 [95]: t

1909           The Sailor      RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder VI a. 'I
               Boy             2/152 [95]: t       am afraid same
                               EML/l/47:wm         tune'. 'age 80'.

1909           The Deserter    RVW/ Scrapbook/     '[aged] 82'.
                               2/152 [95]: t       Cylinder VI b.
                                                   Cylinder VTI b.
                                                   'last line of. '(See
                                                   Journal No. 5 234)'.

n.d.           Claudy Banks    EML/l/48/a:m
               Down by the
               Green Bushes

1909                           RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder VII a.
                               2/152 [95]: t

1909           As I Walked     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder VII c.
               Out             2/152 [95]: t
                               EML/2/10/p:w
                               EML/l/46/a: m

1909           The Prickly     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder VIII a.
               Bush            2/152 [95]: t       '[aged] 58?'.

1909           Dilly Dove      FLH, 204: w m       Cylinder VIII b.
                               RVW/ Scrapbook/     'version of old
                               2/152 [95]: t       ballad in Child.
                               EML/2/10/a:w        "Sir Lionel"'.
                               EML/l/12:wm

March 1909     The Holy Well   JFSS (1910),        Cylinder VIII c.
                               26-28: m FLH,       '(Carol, v. 1)'.
                               186-87: m           Cylinder IX a. V.
                               EML/2/10/b: w [3    2&3'
                               verses] RVW/
                               Scrapbook/ 2/152
                               [95]: t

1909           There Was a     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder DC b. 'v.
               Lord in         2/152 [95]: t       2 & 3'
               Lancashire

1909           Leanthony [?]   RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder X a.
                               2/152 [95]: t

1909           Skipper and     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder X b.
               his Boy         2/152 [95]: t

1909           Erin's Lovely   RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder Xc.
               Home            2/152 [95]: t       'tune'. Cylinder
                                                   XII a. 'end of.
                                                   '[aged] 56'.

1909           The Irish       EML/l/3/a: m        Cylinder XI a.
               Girl            EML/2/10/fd: t
                               RVW/ Scrapbook/
                               2/152 [95]: t

1909           It's of a       EML/l/3/b: m        Cylinder XI b.
               Pretty          EML/2/10/d: t
               Ploughboy       RVW/ Scrapbook/
                               2/152 [95]: t

1909           The Tailor and  EML/2/10/o: w       '[aged] 60'.
               the Crow        KMI./l/4: wm RVW/   Cylinder XI c.
                               Scrapbook/ 2/152
                               [95]: t

1909           Bunch of        RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XII b.
               Watercress      2/152 [95]: t

1909           The Besom       RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XII c.
               Maker           2/152 [95]: t

1909           Napoleon        RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XII d. v.
                               2/152 [95]: t       1'. Cylinder XIII
                                                   a. 'v. 2 etc.'.
                                                   '[aged] 68'.
                                                   'SeeJournal!'. 'See
                                                   JournalI'.

1909           Waterloo        RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XIII b.
                               2/152 [95]: t

1909           Undaunted       RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XIII c.
               Female          2/152 [95]: t       verse of.

1909           Hunting Song    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XIV a.
                               2/153 [95]: t       '[aged] about 60'.

1909           The Almeley     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XTVb.
               Census          2/153 [95]: t

1909           Little Grey     RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XIV c.
               Horse           2/153 [95]: t

1909           The Banks of    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XTV d.
               Boyne           2/153 [95]: t       '[aged] 65'.
                                                   'blacksmith'.

1909           Pride of        RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XV b.
               Dundee          2/153 [95]: t

1909           True Lovers'    RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XV c.
               Downfall        2/153 [95]: t

1909           Tom Sayers      RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XV d.
                               2/153 [95]: t

1909           Seasons of the  EML/l/8/b: m RVW/   Cylinder XV c.
               Year            Scrapbook/ 2/153    Cylinder XVI a.
                               [95]: t             'age 83 Solicitor.
                               EML/2/10/h: t       Hereford'.

1909           Binnorie        RVW/ Scrapbook/     Cylinder XVI a.
                               2/153 [95]: t

1909           The Trees They  EML/l/49/a: m
               Do Grow High

1909           Cold Blows the  EML/1/49/b: m       FLH: words Powell;
               Wind            FLH, 202-03: w m    music Hirons (from
                               Journal of the      a phonograph).
                               English Folk        JEFDSS: in Ruth
                               Dance and Song      Harvey's article on
                               Society, 4.2        "The Unquiet
                               (1941), 49-66 (p.   Grave'.
                               49): wl m

1909           There Is an     EML/l/40/c:w m
               Alehouse        EML/2/10/i: t

1909           The Mantle of   EML/l/26/b.-wm      'since dead'. 'Same
               Green           EML/2/10/g:t        words as already
                                                   sent with Mrs.
                                                   Powell's tune'.

n.d.           The Bunch of    EML/3/7: w
               Roses

May 1909       Bold Robin I    EML/2/7: w
               Hood

June 1909      The Mantle of   EML/l/26/a: m       'age 74'. Possibly
               Green                               Revd E. King.

July 1909      Awake, Awake,   JFSS (1910),        'Age 82'.
               Sweet England   7-10: w m FLH,
                               194-95: w m

July 1909      God Rest You    JFSS (1913),
               Merry           338-40: m

July 1909      The Bold        EML/2/9/a: w        'from Gough. (blind
               Cripple                             fiddler)'.

July 1909      The Man That    JFSS (1910),
               Lives           5-16: wl m FLH,
                               195-96: wl m
                               LEB/5/267: wl m

July 1909      The Truth Sent  JFSS (1910),
               From Above      17-18: w m FLH,
                               196: w m RVW,
                               Eight Traditional
                               English Carols,
                               22-23: w m
                               LEB/5/267: m

July 1909      The Man that    JFSS (1910),        EML/2/8: 'Jenkins
               Lives           15-16: w m FLH,     sang 1 & 4'.
                               195-96: w m
                               EML/2/8: w
                               EML/l/4l:t

27 July 1909   Highway         JFSS (1906),        subtitle:
               Robber          116-23: wl m        Outlandish Knight.
                               LEB/5/264: wl m

27 July 1909   Sinner's        JFSS(1910),         JFSS: composite
               Dream           18-20: w m          with AMW. 1906.
                               LEB/5/264: m
                               EML/2/9/b: w

27 July 1909   Carnal and the  JFSS(1910),         'Age 60'. TTCH.
               Crane           22-28: w m FLH,     title The
                               188-89: wm TTCH,    Miraculous Harvest;
                               22-23: ct m         words Sandys, Husk,
                               EML/2/10/l:w        and Broadwood
                               LEB/5/261: m        collections.

1909           The Saviour's   TTCH, 24-25: ct     words Bridges, 1905
               Love            m                   /Phillips; music
                                                   Hirons.

[1909]         Angel Gabriel   TTCH, 12-13:ctm     words Gallet/
                                                   Hirons; music
                                                   Hirons.

n.d.           The Angel       EML/3/8: t
               Gabriel

[July] 1909    Captain Evans   RVW/Scrapbook/
                               1/38 [59 lower],
                               1/57 [64 lower]:
                               w

[July] 1909    Early Early     RVW/Scrapbook/
                               1/57 [64 lower],
                               1/63 [65 upper]:
                               w

[July] 1909    Merry Green     RVW/Scrapbook/
               Broom fields    1/63 [65 upper],
                               1/64 [65 lower]:
                               w

[July] 1909    Cold Blows the  RVW/Scrapbook/
               Wind            1164 [65 lower]:
                               w1

July 1909      Dabbling in     JFSS (1913),
               the Dew         282-86: m

28 July 1909   The Myrtle      LEB/5/260: m RVW/   subtitle: Weave:
               Tree            Scrapbook/ 1/358    Came over the Sea.
                               [59]: w [2
                               stanzas]

28 July 1909   The             JFSS (1913),        '(doubtful)'.
               Blacksmith      279-82: m
                               LEB/5/260: m

28 July 1909   Blacksmith      LEB/5/265: m RVW/
               [Version II']   Scrapbook/ 1/38
                               [59]: w1

28 July 1909   Stockings and   LEB/5/265: m
               Gown

1909           The             JFSS (1930),
               Blacksmith      206-09: m

28 July 1909   A Brisk Young   FLH, 205-06: w m
               Sailor Courted  LEB/5/26l:m
               Me

29 July 1909   Green Bushes    LEB/5/262: m

29 July 1909   Billy Taylor    LEB/5/262: m

29 July 1909   Gloucester      LEB/5/266: m
               Wassail Song

31 July 1909   Apprentice      LEB/5/268: t
               Boy

[July 1909]    The Turtle      JFSS (1913),
               Dove            286-90: m

31 July 1909   "The Moon       JFSS(1910),         'Labourer'.
               Shines Bright   10-11: m FLH,
                               193-94: m
                               LEB/5/263: m

31 July 1909   Fountain of     JFSS (1910),
               Christ's        21-22: wl m
               Blood           FLH,l97-98: wl m
                               LEB/5/263: m

31 July 1909   The             JFSS(1913),         'Gipsy'.
               Blacksmith      279-82: m
                               LEB/5/267: m
                               CFMGH.6I: t

31 July 1909   Sheffield       LEB/5/268: m
               Apprentice      CFMGH, 61: t

31 July 1909   Christ Made a   LEB/5/268: m        CFMGH title: New
               Trance          CFMGH, 61-62: w     Year Carol

n.d.           The Seven       CFMGH, p.61: t
               Virgins

Aug 1909       'The Young and  JFSS (1910),
               Single Sailor   127-29: m

Sept 1909      The Bitter      EML/3/3: w          'Labourer. 80'.
               Withy

n.d.           The Angel       EML/3/9/a: w
               Gabriel

n.d.           Our Saviour's   EML/3/9/b: w
               Love

n.d.           Bacon and       LEB/5/288: m        Marked 'con
               Green                               spirito'.

n.d.           St Patrick's    LEB/5/288: m
               Day in the
               Morning

n.d.           [The Dark Eyed  LEB/5/289: m
               Sailor]

[1909]         There Is an     EFDSS Wax           C37/1590: BLSA call
               Ale house       Cylinder            no. 1CDR0015627 B12
                               Collection,         NSA.
                               C37/1590

[1909]         Hornpipes       EFDSS Wax           C37/1590: BLSA call
                               Cylinder            no. 1CDR0015627 B12
                               Collection,         NSA.
                               C37/1590

27 Dec 1909    Trip to the     EML/1/Ap/1: m CJS
               Cottage         MSS, Folk Tunes,
                               p. 2422: m

27 Dec 1909    Morris Dance    FLH, 131: m
                               EML/l/Ap/2: m CJS
                               MSS, Folk Tunes,
                               p. 2426: m

--             Trip to the     EML/l/Ap/3: m
               Cottage

29 Dec 1909    Flowers of      EML/l/Ap/4: m
               Edinburgh

29 Dec 1909    Jack off the    EML/l/Ap/5: wl m    '[aged] 62'.
               Green           CJS MSS, Folk
                               Tunes, p. 2423:
                               m

27 Dec 1909    Speed the       EML/l/Ap/6: m CJS
               Plough          MSS, Folk Tunes,
                               p. 2417: m

27 Dec 1909    Staffordshire   EML/1/Ap/7: m
               Hornpipe        CJS MSS, Folk
                               Tunes,
                               p. 2418: m

--             Speed the       EML/1/Ap/8: m
               Plough

27 Dec 1909    Blue Eyed       EML/1/Ap/9: m
               Stranger        CJS MSS, Folk
                               Tunes,
                               p. 2419: m

27 Dec 1909    Boyne Water     EML/1/Ap/10: m
                               CJS MSS, Folk
                               Tunes,
                               p. 2420: m

27 Dec 1909    Mad Moll of     EML/1/Ap/11: m      'Gipsy fiddler (38)'.
               the Cheshire    CJS MSS, Folk
               Hunts           Tunes, p. 2413:
                               m

27 Dec 1909    Hunting the     EML/1/Ap/12: m
               Squirrel        CJS MSS, Folk
                               Tunes, p. 2414:
                               m

27 Dec 1909    Green Sleeves   EML/1/Ap/EML/1/13:
                               FLH, 137: t
                               CJS MSS, Folk
                               Tunes, p. 2415

27 Dec 1909    Sheepskins      EML/1/Ap/14:m
                               CJS MSS, Folk
                               Tunes, p. 2416:
                               m

27 Dec 1909    Hunting the     EML/1/Ap/15: m
               Squirrel        CJS MSS, Folk
                               Tunes, p. 2424:
                               m

--             Flowers of     EML/1/Ap/16: m
               Edinburgh

                                   1910

Aug 1910       A Wager, A      JFSS(1910),
               Wager           110-16: w m

Aug 1910       'a new Xmas     LEB/5/284: w        Reputedly composed
               Carol' ['Twas                       c.1885 by an
               Mary in the                         under-gardener at
               morning to the                      Stoke Edith Park.
               sepulchre she
               came]

                                   1911

[1911]         Americkay       EML/1/6/a: w        EML/l/6/a: written
                               EML/3/2/a: w        in pencil on
                               EFDSS Wax           reverse of
                               Cylinder            programme for the
                               Collection,         Weobley Pierrots,
                               C37/1587            dated 11 April
                                                   1911. C37/1587:
                                                   BLSA call no.
                                                   1CDR0015627 BD8
                                                   NSA.

[1911]         Joseph and      EML/1/6/b: w        EML/1/6/b: written
               Mary            EML/3/2/b: w        in pencil on
                                                   reverse of
                                                   programme for the
                                                   Weobley Pierrots,
                                                   dated 11 April
                                                   1911.

[1911]         Bitter Withy    EML/l/6/c. w        EML/l/6/c: written
                               EML/3/2/c EFDSS     in pencil on
                               Wax Cylinder        reverse of
                               Collection,         programme for the
                               C37/1587            Weobley Pierrots,
                                                   dated 11 April
                                                   1911. C37/1587:
                                                   BLSA call no.
                                                   1CDR0015627 BD8 NSA.

n.d.           The Angel       EML/3/20: m         Two arrangements.
               Gabriel

25 Nov 1911    The Angel       EML/3/21/a: m       Langton Brown
               Gabriel                             writes: 'I give the
                                                   tune from frequent
                                                   hearing: not from
                                                   having ever seen a
                                                   written copy. The
                                                   time is always
                                                   enigmatic so is the
                                                   tune (& time) of
                                                   the third line, in
                                                   which A is not A#.
                                                   Carol & tune broke
                                                   out in Hereford
                                                   perhaps 12 or 13
                                                   years ago: I never
                                                   heard it in the
                                                   country.'

[1844]         [Awake, Awake,  EML/3/21/b          Noted by Langton
               Sweet                               Brown's father in
               England]                            1844.

                                     1912

n.d.           The Holy Well   TTCH, 4-5: w m

--             King Pharim     RVW/Scrapbook/      Possibly not
                               2/100 [78]: w       Herefordshire.

26 Jan 1912    Boyne Water     CJS MSS, Folk
                               Tunes, p. 2419:
                               m

Sept 1912      Cold Blows the  EML/2/12/a: w
               Wind            LEB/5/292: w1

Sept 1912      I'll Have my    EML/2/12/b:w
               Petticoat

Sept 1912      My Mother Sent  EML/2/12/c: w
               Me

Sept 1912      Sheffield       EML/2/12/d:w
               Park

Sept 1912      Molly Bawn      EML/2/12/e: w

13 Sept 1912   Shrewsbury      EML/2/12/f: w
               Gaol

Sept 1912      Riding Down to  EML/2/12/g: w
               Pochemar

Sept 1912      On Christmas    EML/2/12/h: w       TTCH heavily
               Day             EML/3/10/a: w       amended.
                               CFMGH, 60: w
                               TTCH, 18-19: wm

[Sept 1912?]   The Barley      EML/3/1: w          "There is more: not
               Raking                              very nice'.

n.d.           [The Bitter     EML/3/10/b: w
               Withy]

[Sept 1912]    Christian       EML/2/12/i: w       TTCH: words:
               People/Oh       TTCH, 8-9: ct m     Smith/Johnson/
               Christmas Now                       Colcombe; music:
               Is Drawing                          Smith/Johnson.
               Near at Hand

[?]            [Xmas Day Is    RVW/ Scrapbook/
               a-Drawing Nigh  1/6 [9]: w
               at Hand]

Sept 1912      God Rest You    EML/2/13/a: w
               Merry,          EML/2/14/f:wl
               Gentlemen       TTCH, 14-15: w m

n.d.           God Our         LEB/5/287: m
               Father

n.d.           Gypsy Song      EML/2/14/b:wl
                               EML/2/13/d: w

n.d.           The Outlandish  EML/3/4: w
               Knight

n.d.           Ballad [The     EML/2/13/c: w
               Cruel Mother]   EML/2/14/d: w1

11 Sept 1912   The Claudy      EML/2/13/b: w       'Gypsy'.
               Banks

Sept [1912]    Cold Blows the  EML/2/13/e:w [and   'Gypsy'. JFSS
               Wind            possibly]           (1928): printed
                               EML/3/5: wl JFSS    with EML's obituary.
                               (1928), 102: m

                                   1913

Aug 1913       The Bitter      EML/l/23: w
               Withy

Sept 1913      On Christmas    Folk-lore (1926),
               Day             297: w [and
                               possibly]
                               EML/3/14: w

Sept 1913      Christmas Now   JFSS (1914),        Of Tipton,
               Is Drawing      7-11: m             Staffordshire
               Near at Hand                        'Hop-picking'.
                                                   Location given as
                                                   'Pool-End, near
                                                   Herefordshire'.

Sept 1913      Christmas Now   JFSS (1914),        'name unknown'.
               Is Drawing      7-11: m             Location given as
               Near at Hand                        'Pool-End, near
                                                   Herefordshire'.

Sept 1913      The Cherry      JFSS(1914),         Of Stourport,
               Tree Carol      11-14: wm           Worcestershire,
                                                   'Hop-picking'.
                                                   Location given as
                                                   'Aylton, near
                                                   Herefordshire'.

Sept 1913      New Year's      JFSS(1914),         Of Stourport,
               Carol           14-16: m            Worcestershire,
                                                   'Hop-picking',
                                                   location given as
                                                   Aylton, near
                                                   Herefordshire'.

                            1922

8 Sept 1922    Cold Blows the  EML/1/0/b/3: w

8 Sept 1922    The Blacksmith  MPS 50(31)/12/
                               96-97: w

                               MPS50(31)/12/
                               98-100, 106: w

8 Sept 1922    The Irish       MPS 50(31)/12/
               Stranger        101-102

                               MPS 50(31)/12/
                               103-107: w

8 Sept 1922    The Low Low-    MPS 50(31)/12/
               lands of        108-109: w
               Holland

                               MPS 50(31)/12/
                               110: w


Appendix: Surviving phonograph recordings from Herefordshire
Appendix: Surviving phonograph recordings from Herefordshire

Collection             Cylinder     Cylinder  Performer      Titles
number               description     speed

C37/1585          Brown wax. Plain  140 rpm   Smith,     1. There Is a
[originally       card box, with              Esther     Fountain of
C37/51] other     blue top and                           Christ's
numbers: 22; [in  bottom.                                Blood
cylinder] 7

C37/1586          Brown wax. Plain  140 rpm   Powell,    1. Pretty
[originally       card box, with              Mrs Ellen  Caroline 2.
C37/52] other     blue top and                           [Thresherman]
numbers: 64; [in  bottom.
cylinder] 6

C37/1587          Brown wax. Blue   140 rpm   --[male]   1. [Americkay]
[originally       Edison Bell                            2. The Bitter
C37/1587] other   'Cold Moulded'                         Withy
numbers: 23;      box.
cylinder  25

C37/1590          Black wax.        160 rpm   --[male]   1. There Is an
[originally]                                  Lock,      Ale House 2.
C37/56 orther                                 John       Hornpipes
number: 8; [in
cylinder] 27

Collection number       Inscriptions on       Date       Place
                         cylinder box

C37/1585 [originally    lid: Fountain / of  Oct 1908  Weobley
C37/51] other numbers:  Christ's blood /
22; [in cylinder] 7     Smith / Hancocks /
                        22 box label: poor
                        / Fountain of
                        Christ's blood /
                        Herefordshire box
                        label vertical:
                        Badly mildewed.

C37/1586 [originally    lid: Powell, e. /   before 9  Weschope
C37/52] other numbers:  64 box label:       Nov 1908
64; [in cylinder] 6     Woman / Pretty
                        Caroline 64 / &
                        one other /
                        Herefordshire / 2

C37/1587 [originally    lid: 23 box label:  1911      Herefordshire
C37/1587] other         Good [space] 23 /
numbers: 23; cylinder   Bitter Withy / and
25                      another / box
                        label vertical:
                        mildewed base:
                        H--ny [?] / John
                        Riley/The Bitter/
                        Withy base batch
                        stamp: N

C37/1590 [originally]   lid: [black] box    1909      Herefordshire
C37/56 orther number:   lable; good for /
8; [in cylinder] 27     30 secs [space] 8
                        [c] / There Is an
                        Ale house / Dance
                        Tunes / played by
                        Locke box label
                        vertical: Cracked
                        base: There is /
                        an ale house /
                        Gipsy / Locke /
                        [begin
                        strikethrough]
                        Sh--pskins /
                        [end
                        strikethrough]
                        Hornpipes

Collection number         Collector  Dubbing / References / Notes

C37/1585 [originally      EML        C37/1585:BLSA call no.
C37/51] other numbers:               ICDR0015627 BD6 NSA. JFSS (1910),
22; [in cylinder] 7                  21-22: wm FLH, 197-98: wm TTCH,
                                     10-11: ct m [titled: Joseph and
                                     Mary] Hancocks version not on
                                     cylinder

C37/1586 [originally      EML        C37/1586:BLSA call no.
C37/52] other numbers:               1CDR0015627 BD7 NSA RVW/
64; [in cylinder] 6                  Scrapbook/ 2/115 [84]: t
                                     'Cylinder II RVW/ Scrapbook/ 1/41
                                     [57]: w

C37/1587 [originally      EML        C37/1587, BLSA call no:
C37/1587] other numbers:             1CDR0015627 BD8 NSA EML/l/6/a: w
23; cylinder 25                      EML/3/2/a: w

C37/1590 [originally]     CJS        C37 / 1590: BLSA call no.
C37/56 other number: 8;              1CDR0015627 B12 NSA
[in cylinder] 27
COPYRIGHT 2010 English Folk Dance and Song Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2010 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:King, Andrew
Publication:Folk Music Journal
Article Type:Critical essay
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jan 1, 2010
Words:30733
Previous Article:Cannibal ballads: not just a question of taste ...
Next Article:The North Skelton Sword Dance.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters